Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 5

Available online

Available online at
at www.sciencedirect.com
www.sciencedirect.com

ScienceDirect
Availableonline
Available onlineatatwww.sciencedirect.com
www.sciencedirect.com
Energy
Energy Procedia
Procedia 00 (2017) 000–000
00 (2017) 000–000
www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia
ScienceDirect
ScienceDirect
www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia

Energy
EnergyProcedia
Procedia141 (2017) 000–000
00 (2017) 507–511
www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia

4th
4th International
International Conference
Conference on
on Power
Power and
and Energy
Energy Systems
Systems Engineering,
Engineering, CPESE
CPESE 2017,
2017, 25
25--29
29
September 2017, Berlin, Germany
September 2017, Berlin, Germany

The Analysis of Lightning


The 15th Strikes toonMEA
International Symposium District’’sHeating
Distribution
and CoolingLines on
Different Impact Positions
Assessing the feasibility of using the heat demand-outdoor
aa a
temperature function P.
P. Sestasombut ,, A.
for a long-term
Sestasombut A. Ngaopitakkul
districta**heat demand forecast
Ngaopitakkul
a
a Faculty
Faculty of
of Engineering, King
King Mongkut’s
Engineering,a,b,c Mongkut’s Institute
a
Institute of
of Technology
a Ladkrabang,
Technology Ladkrabang, Chalongkrung
b
Chalongkrung Road,
Road, Ladkrabang,
c Bangkok,
Ladkrabang, Bangkok, 10520,
10520, Thailand
c
Thailand
I. Andrić *, A. Pina , P. Ferrão , J. Fournier ., B. Lacarrière , O. Le Corre
a
IN+ Center for Innovation, Technology and Policy Research - Instituto Superior Técnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon, Portugal
b
Abstract Veolia Recherche & Innovation, 291 Avenue Dreyfous Daniel, 78520 Limay, France
Abstract c
Département Systèmes Énergétiques et Environnement - IMT Atlantique, 4 rue Alfred Kastler, 44300 Nantes, France
This
This paper
paper focuses
focuses on on behaviour
behaviour of of voltage
voltage across
across insulator
insulator when
when the the lightning
lightning strikes
strikes onon different
different impact
impact positions
positions ofof
Metropolitan
Metropolitan Electricity Authority (MEA) 24 kV distribution lines in Thailand. The simulations and analysis are performed using
Electricity Authority (MEA) 24 kV distribution lines in Thailand. The simulations and analysis are performed using
Alternative
Alternative Transients
Transients Program/Electromagnetic
Program/Electromagnetic Transients Transients Program
Program (ATP/EMTP)
(ATP/EMTP) to to investigate
investigate the
the voltage
voltage across
across insulator.
insulator.
Abstract
The
The results indicate that when the lightning strikes to phase conductor or shielding failure occurs, the voltage across
results indicate that when the lightning strikes to phase conductor or shielding failure occurs, the voltage across insulator
insulator
where the
where the terminal
terminal point
point isis more
more than
than the
the middle
middle point
point isis about
about 1.5
1.5 times.
times. This
This case,
case, the
the ground
ground resistance
resistance andand grounding
grounding distance
distance
ofDistrict
of overhead
overheadheating
ground
ground networks
wire
wire (OHGW)are commonly
(OHGW) is
is not addressed on
not influential
influential in the
on literatureacross
the voltage
voltage as one
across of the most
insulator.
insulator. effective
However,
However, in
in casesolutions
case the for decreasing
the lightning
lightning strikes
strikes tothe
to
greenhouse
OHGW,
OHGW, the gas emissions
the voltage
voltage across from the building
across insulator
insulator where the
where thesector. These
terminal
terminal systems
point
point is more
is morerequire
than high
than investments
the middle
the middle which
point is
point is aboutare1.2
about returned
1.2 times and
times through
and the heat
the ground
the ground
sales. Due
resistance
resistance as to the
as well
well as changed
as groundingclimate
grounding distance
distance conditions
of
of OHGW
OHGW and
plays
playsbuilding
an renovation
an important
important role policies,
role for
for the heat demand
the voltage
voltage in the future
across insulator.
across insulator. The could decrease,
The analysis
analysis shows
shows
that when
prolonging the lightning
the investment strikes to
return the terminal
period. line are considerably more severe than the middle
that when the lightning strikes to the terminal line are considerably more severe than the middle line. Therefore, the lightning line. Therefore, the lightning
protection should
The mainshould
protection scope of be this
be specially considered
paper considered
specially is to assess at at the
thethe terminalof
feasibility
terminal point. The
usingThe
point. peak
thepeak current magnitude
heat demand
current magnitude and the
the front
– outdoor temperature
and frontfunction
time lightning
time lightning current
for heatcurrent
demand
waveform
forecast. are
waveform The essential
are district of
essential parameters
Alvalade,when
parameters located
when observing
in Lisbon
observing the voltage
voltage across
the (Portugal), was insulator.
across used as a However,
insulator. case study.
However, the tail
theThe time
time is
tail district isisnot an
an important
consisted
not of 665
important
parameter
parameter with
buildingswith regard
thatregard
vary in to both
to the voltage
the voltage across period
construction
across insulator.
insulator.and typology. Three weather scenarios (low, medium, high) and three district
©renovation
© 2017 The
2017 The Authors.
Authors.
scenariosPublished
Published by
by Elsevier
were developed Elsevier Ltd.
Ltd. intermediate, deep). To estimate the error, obtained heat demand values were
(shallow,
© 2017 The
Peer-review
compared with Authors.
under Published
responsibility by
of Elsevier
the heatLtd.
scientific committee ofpreviously
the 4th
4th International
International Conference onbyPower and Energy
Energy Systems
Systems
Peer-review underresults from a dynamic
responsibility of the scientific demand model,of
committee the developed and validatedon
Conference the authors.
Power and
Peer-review
Engineering. under responsibility of the scientific committee of the 4th International Conference
The results showed that when only weather change is considered, the margin of error could be acceptable for some applicationson Power and Energy
Engineering.
Systems Engineering.
(the error in annual demand was lower than 20% for all weather scenarios considered). However, after introducing renovation
scenarios,
Keywords:
Keywords: the errorvoltage
ATP/EMTP;
ATP/EMTP; value increased
voltage across up to lightning
across insulator;
insulator; 59.5% (depending
lightning strikes; on terminal
strikes; middle;
middle; the weather and renovation scenarios combination considered).
terminal
The value of slope coefficient increased on average within the range of 3.8% up to 8% per decade, that corresponds to the
decrease in the number of heating hours of 22-139h during the heating season (depending on the combination of weather and
renovation scenarios considered). On the other hand, function intercept increased for 7.8-12.7% per decade (depending on the
coupled scenarios). The values suggested could be used to modify the function parameters for the scenarios considered, and
improve the accuracy of heat demand estimations.

© 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.


*
Peer-review under responsibility
Corresponding
of the Scientific Committee of The 15th International Symposium on District Heating and
Corresponding author.
*Cooling. author. Tel.:
Tel.: 66817324318
66817324318
E-mail address: atthapol.ng@kmitl.ac.th
E-mail address: atthapol.ng@kmitl.ac.th
Keywords: Heat demand; Forecast; Climate change
1876-6102
1876-6102 ©© 2017
2017 The
The Authors.
Authors. Published
Published by
by Elsevier
Elsevier Ltd.
Ltd.
Peer-review under
Peer-review under responsibility
responsibility of
of the
the scientific
scientific committee
committee of
of the
the 4th
4th International
International Conference
Conference on
on Power
Power and
and Energy
Energy Systems
Systems Engineering.
Engineering.

1876-6102 © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Peer-review under responsibility of the Scientific Committee of The 15th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling.
1876-6102 © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of the 4th International Conference on Power and Energy
Systems Engineering.
10.1016/j.egypro.2017.11.067
508 P. Sestasombut et al. / Energy Procedia 141 (2017) 507–511
P.Sestasombut et al. / Energy Procedia 00 (2017) 000–000

1. Introduction

Thailand is in the tropical country with a high number of the thunderstorm days. For this reason, the distribution
line of Metropolitan Electricity Authority (MEA) can be affected by the lightning phenomenon. The statistics
recorded by MEA indicates a high unknown outage rate that may come from the direct lightning strike to the
distribution line which later results in power outage. The calculation shows that a high number of lightning strike to
Overhead Ground Wire (OHGW) of 2,722 times/year [1-3]. Lightning strikes on distribution line are classified into
two group; the direct strikes and induced strikes. When lightning strike to the phase or OHGW of distribution line,
the magnitude will be very high and may inject currents up to about 100 kA into the distribution line after that the
voltage is built up across the line insulators. If this voltage exceeds the critical flashover of insulators (CFO),
flashover will occur. The voltage across insulator depends on many factors such as the impact point of lightning
strikes, the wave-shapes of lightning current, grounding distance of OHGW and ground resistance.
In the literature of lightning current performance, several distribution models have been developed to be
simulated in order to analyze overvoltage when lightning current occur with different lightning protection method.
In [4], In Japan, surge arresters have been installed to protect equipment on 6.6 kV distribution lines against
lightning. However, the large amount of energy which exceeds withstand capability that still occurs due to lightning,
two methods are considered to effective to reduce the incidence of damage to surge arresters are to installation of an
overhead ground wire and increase in withstand capability of surge arrester. In [5], presents the experiences of the
Indonesian electric company. Which improve the lightning performance by using OHGW that installed both above
and below the phase conductor to protect the direct lightning and indirect lightning stroke. In [6], focuses on
behavior of over-voltage across the cross arm and back-flashover on insulator with different front times of lightning
wave shape, the result indicate that the front time of lightning wave shape plays an important role for back-flashover
voltage across insulator as well as the tower footing resistance. In [7], concluded that induce stroke is not a major
problem in the distribution line if we design the critical flashover of insulator (CFO) is not more than 300 kV.

2. Data and model for analysis

2.1. Data of 24 kV distribution line configuration [8]


The arrangement is based on the Thailand’s distribution line of Metropolitan Electricity Authority (MEA) 24 kV
distribution line. Fig.1(a), horizontal arranged for analysis of the lightning strikes to the terminal of the phase
conductor or OHGW. Fig.1(b), triangular arranged for analysis of the lightning strikes to the middle of the phase
conductor or OHGW. The arrangement consists of the three-phase conductor 185 mm2 all-aluminum space aerial
cable (ASC) per phase and 1 x 50 mm2 overhead ground wire (OHGW). The pole is 12 m high and the ground rod is
16 mm in diameter and 2.4 m long.

Fig. 1. (a) Terminal of the line; (b) Middle of the line

2.2. Model of lightning current


Negative lightning was assumed to stroke at the phase conductor or OHGW. The CIGRE lightning return stroke
current wave shape was adopted using a CIGRE type15 current source, so as to consider the upwardly concave wave
P. Sestasombut et al. / Energy Procedia 141 (2017) 507–511 509
P.Sestasombut et al. / Energy Procedia 00 (2017) 000–000

front observed in measured lightning current wave shapes [9]. The impedance of the return-stroke channel was
represented by a 400 Ω resistor connected in parallel to the current source [10], [11]. For the lightning current wave
shape parameters median values were utilized [9].

3. Simulation and result of analysis

3.1. Simulations
The Alternative Transient program-Electromagnetic Transient Program(ATP-EMTP) is employed as the main
tool for system modelling and simulation to determine the impact of lightning current occurring in the MEA
distribution line system as shown in Fig. 2. The simulation systems consist of lightning supply (surge source) of 24
kV single circuit and single conductor; it can be seen that the number of simulated distribution concrete pole is 6
poles along the route to study the effect of lightning striking voltage. Distribution line with frequency dependent
parameter can be calculated by supporting routine Line Cable Constants (LCC) in ATP-EMTP.
The supply lightning strike simulation model is characterized by CIGRE type15 (CIGRE concave wave shape).
The model of insulator instead of capacitor has a capacitance approximately 100 pF. The criteria are that when the
lightning strikes to phase conductor or OHGW, voltage is built up across the pin-post insulator .If this voltage from
simulation exceeds the critical impulse flashover of insulator after that flashover will occur resulting in the power
outage later.
Model of distribution line Model of insulator

Model of ground resistance Model of external ground wire


Model of lightning current (Cigre concave wave shape)
Fig. 2. Component of simulation model implemented in ATP Draw

3.2 Results of voltage across insulator at various distance of overhead ground wire (OHGW).
In case the lightning strikes to the middle and the terminal of the phase conductor resulting in the voltage across
insulator is approximately 4,000-6000 kV that exceeds the critical impulse flashover of insulator which later
flashover of insulator. This case, the voltage across insulator at the terminal is more than the middle about 1.5 times,
the change of grounding distance of OHGW and ground resistance does not have any influence on the voltage across
insulator as shown in Fig. 3.
5,000  6,000 
Voltage Across Insulator (kV)
Voltage Across Insulator (kV)

5,000 
4,000 
40m 40m
4,000 
80m 80m
3,000 
120m 120m
3,000 
160m 160m
2,000 
2,000  200m
200m

1,000  1,000 



0 10 20 30 40 50
0 10 20 30 40 50
Ground Resistance (ohms)
Ground Resistance (ohms)
Fig. 3. Lightning stroke to (a) Middle of the phase conductor; (b) Terminal of the phase conductor
(lightning current = 40 kA , Lightning current waveform =4.12/77.5 μs)
510 P. Sestasombut et al. / Energy Procedia 141 (2017) 507–511
P.Sestasombut et al. / Energy Procedia 00 (2017) 000–000

However, in case the lightning strikes to the OHGW lead to the voltage across insulator are less stressed and
depended on ground resistance and grounding distance of OHGW as shown in Figs. 4. The voltage across insulator
increases with increasing grounding distance of OHGW and ground resistance. The lightning stroke to terminal of
OHGW resulting in voltage across insulator are more stressed than at the middle of OHGW is about 1.2 times.
1,200  1,200 

Voltage Across Insulator (kV)
Voltage Across Insulator (kV)

1,000  1,000 
40m 40m
800  800 
80m 80m
120m 120m
600  600 
160m 160m
400  200m 400  200m

200  200 

‐ ‐
0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50

Ground Resistance (ohms) Ground Resistance (ohms)

Fig. 4. Lightning stroke to (a) Middle of the OHGW; (b) Terminal of the OHGW
(lightning current = 40 kA , Lightning current waveform =4.12/77.5 μs)

3.3 Results of voltage across insulator at various peak current magnitude.


Fig. 5. show the effect of stroke peak current magnitude on insulator. The voltage across insulator increase with
increasing peak current magnitude, and this is obtained for all cases of impact point.
8000 500
Voltage Across Insulator 
Voltage Across Insulator 

7000
400
6000
5000 lightning to phase,  300 lightning to 
4000 Mid OHGW, Mid
(kV)
(kV)

3000 200
lightning to phase,  lightning to 
2000 100 OHGW, End
End
1000
0 0
30 40 50 30 40 50

Lightning Current (kA) Lightning Current(kA)

Fig. 5. Lightning stroke to (a) Phase conductor; (b) OHGW


(Ground resistance = 10 ohms , Lightning current waveform =4.12/77.5 μs, Grounding distance of OHGW =200 meters )

3.4 Results of voltage across insulator at various front time and tail time of lightning current waveform.
The effect of front time lightning wave form on different lightning impact positions as shown in Fig. 6. In the case
of lightning strikes to the middle and the terminal of the phase conductor, the change of front time lightning current
waveform has significant influence on the voltage across insulator that increase with decreasing front time of the
lightning impulse. However, the change of front time lightning current waveform has a slight impact on the voltage
across insulator when lightning hits the OHGW.
8000 500
Voltage Across Insulator 
Voltage Across Insulator 

7000 400
6000
5000 lightning to phase,  300 lightning to 
OHGW, Mid
(kV)

4000 Mid
(kV)

200
3000 lightning to phase,  lightning to 
2000 End 100 OHGW, End
1000 0
0
0 2 4 6 8
0 2 4 6 8
Front Time (us)
Front Time (us)

Fig. 6. Lightning stroke to (a) Phase conductor; (b) OHGW


(Tail time = 77.5 μs, Ground resistance =10 ohms , Grounding distance of OHGW =200 meters)
P. Sestasombut et al. / Energy Procedia 141 (2017) 507–511 511
P.Sestasombut et al. / Energy Procedia 00 (2017) 000–000

On the other hand, the change in tail time lightning current waveform does not have any influence on the voltage
across insulator for both lightning strikes the phase conductor and OHGW as shown in Figs. 7.
6000 500
Voltage Across Insulator 

Voltage Across Insulator 
5000
400
4000
lightning to phase,  300 lightning to 
3000 Mid
(kV)

OHGW, Mid

(kV)
200
2000
lightning to phase,  lightning to 
1000 End 100 OHGW, End
0 0
0 25 50 75 100 0 25 50 75 100

Tail Time (us) Tail Time (us)

Fig. 7. Lightning stroke to (a) Phase conductor; (b) OHGW


(Front time = 4.12 μs, Ground resistance =10 ohms , Grounding distance of OHGW =200 meters)

4. Conclusion
This paper proposed the results of the direct lightning strikes to MEA’s 24 kV distribution line in Thailand which
affect the voltage across insulator. The lightning strikes on different impact positions is investigated with the change
of grounding distance of OHGW, lightning current magnitude, ground resistance and lightning waveform.
From analysis, researcher found that the lightning striking to the terminal of the phase conductor or OHGW are
considerably more severe than the middle line. Therefore, the lightning protection should be specially considered at
the terminal point such as installed surge arrester at the terminal point. The lower ground resistance is an important
parameter to reduce the outage rate when the lightning strikes to the OHGW. In some areas that do not keep the
ground resistance within acceptable value, increasing the CFO will be required.
The peak current magnitude and the front time wave form are important parameters with regard to the voltage
across insulator. However, the tail time is not an important parameter with regard to the voltage across insulator. All
the results in this paper can be served as a guideline for grounding system design and modification of grounding
standard in MEA’s 24 kV distribution lines in the future.

References

[1] IEEE Sts. 1410-1997 “ IEEE guide for improving the lightning performance of electric power overhead distribution line”.1997.
[2] Smitthileela, B. and S.Bhumiwat. 1999. Some Experience Of Lightning in Thailand International conference on Lightning Protection (ICLP)
23 rd
[3] Thai meteorological department, the number of thunderstorm days (Td) in Thailand during the 1952-2008, national engineering 2010, during
18-20 February 2010, Conference and Exhibition Center, BITEC Bangna Thailand.
[4] K.Nakada T.Yokota S.Yokoyama A.Asakawa, M.Wakamura H.Taniguchi A.Hashinoto,“Energy Absorption of Surge Arrester on Power
Distribution Line due to Direct Lightning Strokes -effect of an overhead ground wire and installation position of surge arrester” ,IEEE
Transaction on Power Delivery, Vol.12 No.4, October 1997.
[5] Hadi Suhana, Benny Efendi, Widodo, PLN Distribution West Java & Banten Area,“CASE STUDY: LIGHTNING PERFORMANCE
IMPROVEMENT OF MEDIUM VOLTAGE OVERHEAD LINES BY INSTALLING GROUND WIRE”, CIGRE C4 Colloquium on
Lightning and Power System, Kuala Lumpur, 16 – 19 May, 2010.
[6] S.Bunjongjit, A.Ngaopitakkul, “Relation of Influential Parameters to Back-Flashover on the Insulators in Transmission Tower”, International
Review of Electrical Engineering (I.R.E.E), Vol.10, N.2 March-April 2015.
[7] T.E. McDermott, Senior Member, IEEE, T.A. Short, Member, IEEE, J.G. Anderson, Fellow, IEEE, “Lightning Protection of Distribution
Lines” IEEE Transaction on Power Delivery, Vol 9, No.1, January 1994
[8] Power System Planning Department, Standard Section, Metropolitan Electricity Authority (MEA), Thailand “MEA Overhead Distribution
Construction Standards ”
[9] CIGRE Working Group 33.01. “Guide to procedures for estimating the lightning performance of transmission lines.” (Technical Brochure
63, 1991)
[10] A. Ametani, T. Kawamura. “A method of a lightning surge analysis recommended in Japan using EMTP.” (IEEE Transactions on Power
Delivery, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 867-875, 2005)
[11] L. V. Bewley. “Traveling Waves on Transmission Systems.” (Dover Publications, 2nd Edition, New York, 1963)