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Quezon City Academy Foundation Inc.

1144 E. Delos Santos Avenue


Quezon City, Philippines

GREEN MUSSEL SHELLS (​Perna viridis)

AS AN ADDITIVE TO CEMENT BRICKS

Researchers:

Dela Cruz, Ezekiel Paolo

Fortus, Rhea Clariz

Genares, Naomi Gabrielle H.

Ronquillo, Arvin Howelle

Salvo, Isabella

Tenorio, Beatrize Sophia A.

Tuazon, Bea

Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of Requirements

in Investigatory Project

At

Quezon City Academy Foundation Inc.

Presented to:

Mr. Jerby Salazar


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Acknowledgement………………………………………………………………………..3

Abstract…………………………………………………………………………………...5

CHAPTER I: The Problem and its Background

Introduction……………………………………………………………………………….5

Background………………….……………………………………………………………5

Statement of the Problem…………………………………………………………………6

Hypotheses……………………………..…………………………………………………7

Significance of the Study…………………………………………………………………7

Scope and Limitation………………………………..……………………………………8

CHAPTER II: Review of Related Literature and Studies

Related Literature and Studies……..…………………………….……………………….9

CHAPTER III​: ​Research Methodology

Materials………………………………………………………………………………….11

Methodology……………………...………………………………………………………13

CHAPTER IV: Presentation, Interpretation and Analysis of Data

Results……………………………………………………………….……………………17

Data………………………………………………………………………….……………17

CHAPTER V: ​Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

Summary………………………………………………………………….………………19

Conclusion………………………………………………………………………..………19

Recommendation……………………………………………………….…………………19

References…………………………………………………………...……………………20
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We, the researchers, would like to extend our deepest gratitude and appreciation to the

following people who helped and contributed for the completion of this study. We are grateful

for your help and effort which made this research a success.

To our ​Investigatory Project teacher, Mr. Jerby Salazar​, for his continuous support,

encouragement and for helping us improve our paper, proponent and research paper. In addition,

for teaching and guiding us in the fundamentals of an Investigatory Project and for being very

considerate to each and everyone of us.

To our ​friends and classmates on 12-STEM, for being considerate and helpful towards

our experiment and for being the source of our laughter which makes everything lighter. We

would like to commend the generous help of the following students:

Mikkaela Guzman and Aaron Arevalo,​ for extending their help at any given time, may it

be pounding of the shells, in making the proponent, etc.

Aingeal Ocampo​, for helping us in editing the research paper and for contributing in

powderizing the green mussel shells (​Perna viridis)​ .

Ghenrae Dela Cruz, Paul Vincent Borabon, A-z Closkey Lopez, Rocel Alonso and Angelo

Arsolon,​ for being enthusiastic in helping powderize the green mussel shells (​Perna viridis​) even

if it took time and strength.


Harquel Navarrete​, for offering to help in the proponent when it is very needed; for

volunteering to provide green mussel shells (​Perna viridis).

To our ​Physics teacher, Mrs. Ruby Pineda​, for letting us borrow the apparatuses in the

Chemistry Laboratory.

To our ​Adviser, Mr. Andrew Guarin,​ for encouraging, supporting and inspiring us to

continue and to pursue our research.

To our ​parents and family,​ for the love and for being very supportive in our research,

especially in buying the green mussel shells (​Perna viridis​).

Most importantly, praises to God, the Almighty Father, for His abundant showers of

courage, knowledge, patience, strength and wisdom. Without His guidance, this research would

not be complete and successful.

Lastly, to each and everyone who took part in making this research possible.
ABSTRACT

Perna Viridis​, commonly known as “Asian Green Mussel” or “Tahong” is mainly

composed of three layers; the inner iridescent layer made of calcium carbonate (CaCO3 )

, the prismatic layer made of chalky white crystals of calcium carbonate in a protein

matrix and the periostracum, the outer layer which resembles a skin based from its

pigment. This study is about using green mussel shells (​Perna viridis)​ as an additive in

making more durable and sustainable cement bricks since it is often thrown away and

regarded as wastes. According to a study of Gil-Lim et. al., (2002), The experimental

results demonstrates that oyster-shells can be used as a pure resources of calcareous

material and effective on replacement of sand, also indicating promising reusable

construction material; which proves that shells can be an effective additive to making

bricks and can be a replacement to sand, which is often added in the mixture in making

bricks. The study only focuses on adding the powderized, burned and coarse-grained

green mussel shells (​Perna viridis​) in to pure cement mixture and conduct a drop test

from 20 inches (50.8 centimeters) to 169 inches (429.26 centimeters) height to compare

the durability of each mixtures. It came up with a positive result that the adding of green

mussel shells (​Perna viridis​) is indeed a great help in consolidating a brick. This could

cause a radical change in the production of bricks since the discovery could make better

improvement to the architecture of every infrastructure and establishments that every city

have.
CHAPTER I: THE STUDY AND ITS BACKGROUND

I. Introduction

Green Mussels or “Tahong” as we know is a delicious Filipino food that can be served in

our dining table. After we finished eating, we just throw the shells away not knowing what it can

do and what can be the better purpose of those shells. We think of a way that this garbage will

lessen and those shell will be beneficial to us. We conducted a project in which the waste of our

so called “Tahong” shells will be used as an additive to cement brick to make it even stronger.

We conducted this project to help reduce the green mussel shells (​Perna viridis)​ waste that can

be found almost everywhere.

A. Background

Perna Viridis,​ commonly known as “Asian Green Mussel” or “Tahong”, belongs

to the family ​Mytilidae which consists of small to large saltwater mussels and marine

bivalve mollusks in the order ​Mytiloida.​ These can be found worldwide but it is usually

abundant in colder parts of the seas in the Asian-Pacific region. The shell is mainly

composed of three layers; the inner iridescent layer made of calcium carbonate (CaCO3 )

, the prismatic layer made of chalky white crystals of calcium carbonate in a protein

matrix and the periostracum, the outer layer which resembles a skin based from its

pigment.
On the other hand, brick is a type of building material that is commonly used in

making walls, pavements and also used in architectural projects and designs. It is more of

an old material that was commonly used back then. Bricks are made of clay, but other

elements can be used as well, such as⎼sand, lime or concrete materials. Calcium

carbonate ( CaCO3 ) is a chemical compound that is found in rocks just like in Calcite,

Aragonite and most importantly, Limestone. Since bricks need a little amount of

finely-powdered limestone, it enables silica (of a required portion) which makes the

particles of the brick stick together resulting in a strong and durable brick that can now be

used as an effective building material. (Singh, 1996)

B. Statement of the Problem

The foundation of the infrastructures around us should be stable and sturdy. The

physique of every house should be the primary concern since weak foundations could be

a danger for the people inside and around. The green mussel shells (​Perna viridis)​ or

commonly known as 'Tahong’ are often disposed and regarded as wastes. We have come

up to an idea to recycle the shells and innovate more durable cement bricks. Moreover,

this study aims to find the answers to the following questions:

1. What are the effects when green mussel shells (​Perna viridis​) are added to

cement?

2. Which mixture of brick is more durable?


3. What are the significant changes when burned/heated green mussel shells (​Perna

viridis​) are added to the cement mixture?

4. What is the difference between powdered and burned/heated green mussel shells

(​Perna viridis​)?

5. What height will the brick made of green mussel shells (​Perna viridis)​ and pure

cement bricks, break?

C. Hypotheses

The alternative hypothesis is the g​ reen mussel shell (Perna Viridis) is found to be

an effective compound in making more durable and sustainable cement bricks; green

mussel shells, when powderized and mixed with the cement mixture create a strong and

compact brick.

The null hypothesis would be the green mussel shell ​(Perna Viridis) is found to be a less

effective and less efficient additive compound in making cement bricks. The green

mussel shells did not mix well with the mixture which resulted into an unsteady and weak

cement brick. This made the rupturing of the brick easier compared to pure cement

bricks.

D. Significance of the Study

This would contribute to more effective, durable and cost efficient product. The

rise of demand in concrete bricks or hollow blocks because of government projects, mall
expansions, and other commercialized buildings justifies the need of budget-friendly and

at the same time, sustainable materials.

This study aims to provide help and contribute to the following:

1. Students - by giving awareness about the physical and chemical

composition of an object can lead to greater discoveries and sustainable

materials and not only recycle them as an ornament.

2. Future researchers - this study could help future researchers in

improving this product and can hopefully give others an idea to innovate

recyclable and sustainable materials which could help improve life.

3. Community ​- in communities where opportunities and resources are

limited, this study could help them in creating an idea to further improve

the product which they could use for building houses, architectures, etc.

for a cheap but sustainable price.

4. Teachers - for them to give awareness to their students, children and

family that recycling wastes is essential and beneficial to the world. They

could teach their students and inspire them to innovate more products that

could be of a great help in the future.

E. Scope and Delimitation

This study mainly focuses on the effects of adding different types of green mussel

shells (​Perna Viridis)​ ; namely coarse-grained, burned and powderized in a pure cement

mixture in attempting to make the cement bricks stronger. The data that will be collected
will come from testing and comparing the durability of the brick with the added green

mussel shells (​Perna viridis​) against ordinary (pure cement) bricks by conducting a drop

test. The results would determine if the null hypothesis should be accepted.

CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

A. Related Literature and Studies

Study on Shell Wastes Utilization

Arroyo et al. (2005), conducted a study on the feasibility of mollusk shell based

adhesive as a substitute to mortar. The mollusk shell-based adhesive was a mixture of

powdered mollusk shell, and tackifier in an elastomer and toluene mixture. (DOST

Report, on Bicutan, 2005).

In Southern coast of Korea, oyster shell had been illegally disposed on the oyster

farm near the sea shore. To seek for the possibility of the wastes to recycled, the

mechanical and chemical property of the crushed oyster shell had been investigated. The

experimental results demonstrates that oyster-shells can be used as a pure resources of

calcareous material and effective on replacement of sand, also indicating promising

reusable construction materials. (Gil-Lim et. al., 2002)

Teo et al (2006) stated that presented the experimental results of an on-going

research project to produce structural lightweight concrete using solid waste, namely the

oil palm shell, as a coarse aggregate. Reported in this paper are the compressive strength,

bond strength, modulus of elasticity and flexural behavior of oil palm shell concrete. It

was found that although oil palm shell concrete has a low modulus of elasticity, full-scale

beam tests revealed that.


Dr. Noel Binag (2016) stated that results show that aquatic animal shells (oyster,

mussel, and mollusk) when transformed into powder can be utilized as partial substitute

for Portland cement in masonry cement mortar as evidenced by its similar physical,

chemical and mechanical properties, especially its workability, specific gravity, and

compressive strength.

Characterization of calcium carbonate obtained from oyster and mussel shells and

incorporation in polypropylene

Hamester, Rosa, Balzer, Santos, & Becker (2012) explains in their study that

oyster shells and mussels-where green mussel shells (​Perna viridis)​ classify, contains

high content of calcium carbonate (CaCO3 ) . With this compound, the shells could be

used in formulating medicine, as filler in polymer materials and most importantly, in

making construction materials. Their main objective in this study was to obtain or extract

calcium carbonate (CaCO3 ) from oyster and mussel shells which they will use as filler

in polypropylene or plastic and compare to incorporated ones.


CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY

MATERIALS

Beaker Measuring Cups

Strainer Stirring Rod


​Mould​ ​Green Mussel Shells (​Perna viridis)​

​Mortar and Pestle​ ​Cement


This study focuses on the effectivity of green mussel shells (​Perna Viridis​) as an

additive to cement bricks. The approach used on this study is experimental. The null

hypothesis of this study would be accepted if the results from the test shows that the brick

made from both cement and green mussel shells (​Perna Viridis)​ is more prone to

breakage than the brick made of pure cement only.

The green mussel shells (​Perna Viridis)​ used in this study weighed one and

one-half (1½) kilograms and were bought and collected in Bagong Pagasa Wet Market,

Road 1 32, 1008 Ramon Magsaysay, Quezon City.

The cement powder used weighed two (2) kilograms and was bought from R.C

Talucod Hardware located at 149, 1105 Ilocos Sur, Bago Bantay, Quezon City.

Distilled water was used for the mixture of:

1. Pure cement,

2. Cement with crushed green mussel shells (​Perna Viridis​)​,

3. Cement with coarse-grained green mussel shells (​Perna Viridis)​ ,

4. Cement with burned and crushed green mussel shells (​Perna Viridis)​ .

The green mussel shells (​Perna Viridis)​ were pounded using mortar and pestle.

The shells were categorized into three (3): powderized, burned and coarse-grained. The

powderized green mussel shells (​Perna Viridis)​ were extracted using the strainer to

prevent coarse-grained green mussel shells (​Perna Viridis)​ from getting mixed.
Figure A. Pounding of green mussel shells (Perna viridis) using mortar and pestle

Figure B. Pouring small portions (10mL) of distilled water from beaker to beaker

Figure C. Putting fixed amounts of cement and green mussel shells (Perna viridis) on the

mould
There are four (4) moulds for each mixture. The moulds have a dimension of 6

cm x 10 cm x 3.4 cm. The first mould was used for the mixture of pure cement. It

consists of five (5) - ⅛ cups or 30 mL of cement powder and 60 mL of distilled water.

The second mould was used for the mixture of cement and powderized green

mussel shells (​Perna Viridis​). It consists of four (4) - ⅛ cups or 30 mL of cement powder,

two (2) - ⅛ cups or 30 mL of powderized green mussel shells (​Perna Viridis)​ and 60 mL

of distilled water.

The third mould was used for the mixture of cement and burned green mussel

shells (​Perna Viridis)​ . It consists of two (2) - ⅛ cups or 30 mL of cement powder, two (2)

- ⅛ cups or 30 mL of burned green mussel shells (​Perna Viridis)​ and 50 mL of distilled

water.

Lastly, the fourth mould was used for the mixture of cement powder and

coarse-grained green mussel shells (​Perna Viridis​). The mixture is made up of two (2) -

⅛ cups or 30 mL of cement powder, two (2) - ⅛ cups or 30 mL of coarse-grained green

mussel shells (​Perna Viridis​) and 50 mL of distilled water.

The ingredients were mixed using a stirring rod.

Figure D. Ingredients combined together

using stirring rod


The moulded cement bricks were left to dry at room temperature for twenty-four

(24) to forty-eight (48) hours.

Figure E and Figure F. The final products; mixture of cement with coarse-grained, crushed and burned

green mussel shells (Perna viridis) and pure cement

Figure G, Figure H, and Figure I. Burned, Coarse-grained and Powderized green mussel shells (Perna

viridis)
CHAPTER IV: Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data

Results

Given the data below, pure cement (4:4) shows no fragments or shattered pieces between

the given height of 40 in up to 60 in. While in the height of 20 in. there were only one shattered

fragments. Slightly crushed (1:1) shows no shattered fragments in the given height of 20 in. but

in the given height of 40 in. and 50 in. shows few shattered pieces and were recorded, while in

the given height of 60 in. there were visible cracks that were found. Slightly crushed (1:2) shows

no shattered pieces or fragments within the given height of 20 in. to 60 in. Slightly crushed (1:4)

with the given height of 20 in. shows no shattered pieces or fragments. While with the given

height of 40 in. to 60 in. shows that there were shattered pieces or fragments recorded during the

drop test. Powderized (1:1) shows no shattered pieces or fragments were recorded during the

drop test. Powderized (1:4) only the 20 in height shows no shattered pieces were recorded during

the drop test, while in the given height of 40 in. too 60 in, there were shattered pieces or

fragments were recorded during the drop test.

Based on the video documentation of the second drop test and its results, the mixture of

powdered green mussel shells (​Perna viridis​) and cement showed great results which made this

mixture rank 1st or the most durable. The mixture of pure cement brick ranked 2nd most durable

in the four (4) mixtures. Due to the fact that the fragments or pieces of the broken cement brick

still remained compact and there was no powder shown. The 3rd was the slightly crushed green

mussel shells (​Perna viridis​) mixed with cement, which showed traces of powder from the

fragments of the brick; and lastly, the burned green mussel shells (​Perna viridis)​ which

performed poorly among the other mixtures.


Data

Types and Ratio 20 in. 40 in. 50 in. 60 in.

Pure Cement one (1) x* x* x*


(4:4) shattered
fragment

Slightly Crushed
Green Mussel Shells x few shattered pieces few shattered pieces some shattered
(1:1) pieces; visible cracks
found

Slightly Crushed
Green Mussel Shells x x x x
(1:2)

Slightly Crushed
Green Mussel Shells x few shattered pieces some shattered few shattered pieces
(1:4) pieces; visible cracks
found

Powderized Green
Mussel Shells (1:1) x x x x

Powderized Green
Mussel Shells (1:2) x x x little to no amount of
shattered pieces

Powderized Green
Mussel Shells (1:4) x few shattered pieces few shattered pieces few shattered pieces

Table 1. Drop test from 20 inches to 60 inches height.


Types and Ratio 70 in. 80 in. 169 in.

Pure Cement some shattered pieces; few broken pieces completely


(4:4) visible cracks found broken/damaged

Slightly Crushed Green some shattered pieces; huge cleavage formed; completely
Mussel Shells (1:1) visible cracks found susceptible to breakage broken/damaged

Slightly Crushed Green very little amount of very little amount of few shattered pieces
Mussel Shells (1:2) shattered pieces shattered pieces

Slightly Crushed Green few shattered pieces x powder was visible; no


Mussel Shells (1:4) shattered pieces

Powdered Green Mussel little to no amount of little to no amount of x


Shells (1:1) shattered pieces shattered pieces

Powderized Green Mussel few shattered pieces few shattered pieces few shattered pieces
Shells (1:2)

Powdered Green Mussel some shattered pieces; huge cleavage formed; few shattered pieces
Shells (1:4) visible cracks found susceptible to breakage

*x - there were n​ o​ fragments or shattered pieces.

Table 2. Drop test from 70 inches to 169 inches height.

Types and Ratio 169 in.

Pure Cement Broken in small compact chunks or fragments

Slightly Crushed Green Mussel Shells Broken in fragments varying to small and large;
some powder are visible

Powdered Green Mussel Shells Most parts still compact; broken in half; could be
because of the fracture formed in the middle

Burned Green Mussel Shells Broken; in powder form; few small chunks of
cement are visible

Table 3. Second drop test from 169 inches height.


CHAPTER V: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

Summary

The first drop test, which consists of green mussel shells (​Perna viridis)​ in different types

and ratios mixed with cement showed a variety of results. The mixture made of green mussel

shells (​Perna viridis​) and cement (1:1) performed well in a drop test with a height starting from

50.8 cm (20 in) to 429.26 cm (169 in) showing little to no fragments compared to pure cement

brick (4:4). This only proves that even the pure cement brick, originally made of more cement (4

spoonfuls) is expected to perform better than the mixture of powdered green mussel shells

(​Perna viridis​) [1 spoonful cement:1 spoonful green mussel shells (​Perna viridis)​ ]

On the second drop test, with rectangular bricks being tested, the powdered green mussel

shells (​Perna viridis​) still showed a remarkable performance among other bricks due to its

durability on a 429.26-centimeter (169-inch) height.

Conclusions

Based on the results gathered from the data of the two (2) drop tests, the brick made of

powdered green mussel shell (​Perna viridis)​ and cement is found to be more durable than pure

cement brick and other mixtures.

Recommendations

For future studies and for improvements, the researchers would suggest to find a better

way of powderizing the green mussel shell (​Perna viridis​) since it is time-consuming; Moreover,

find a way to eliminate the odor of the bricks made of cement and green mussel shells (​Perna
viridis​); Test the durability of the green mussel shells (​Perna viridis​) in other ways such as in

wet areas; prolonged exposure to sun; its capability to withhold pressure and/or mass; and make

larger bricks made of green mussel shells (​Perna viridis​) to further test its durability.
References

1. https​://www.ijert.org/research/powdered-shell-wastes-as-partial-substitute-for-masonry-c

ement-mortar-in-binder-tiles-and-bricks-production-IJERTV5IS070063.pdf

2. https://ejournals.ph/article.php?id=9170

3. https​://www.science.gov/topicpages/g/green+shell+mussel

4. http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/23015/7/07_chapter2.pdf

5. Hamester, Michele Regina Rosa, Balzer, Palova Santos, & Becker, Daniela. (2012).

Characterization of calcium carbonate obtained from oyster and mussel shells and

incorporation in polypropylene. Materials Research, 15(2), 204-208. Epub February 14,

2012.https://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1516-14392012005000014

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