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# Chapter 2

## Motion in two and three

dimensions
Position
The position of a particle can be described by
a position vector, with respect to a reference
origin.

𝒓 = 𝒙𝒊 + 𝒚𝒋 + 𝒛𝒌
𝒓 = −𝟑𝒊 + 𝟐𝒋 + 𝟓𝒌
Displacement
The displacement of a particle is the change of
the position vector during a certain time.

∆𝒓 = 𝒙𝟐 𝒊 + 𝒚𝟐 𝒋 + 𝒛𝟐 𝒌 − (𝒙𝟏 𝒊 + 𝒚𝟏 𝒋 + 𝒛𝟏 𝒌)

∆𝒓 = 𝒙𝟐 − 𝒙𝟏 )𝒊 + (𝒚𝟐 − 𝒚𝟏 )𝒋 + (𝒛𝟐 − 𝒛𝟏 𝒌

∆𝒓 = ∆𝒙 𝒊 + ∆𝒚 𝒋 + ∆𝒛 𝒌
Example 1
A rabbit run across the parking lot on which a set of
coordinate axes has, strangely enough, been drawn. The
co-ordinates (meters) of the rabbit’s position as functions
of time t (seconds) are given by
𝑥 = −0.31𝑡 2 + 7.2𝑡 + 28
𝑦 = 0.22𝑡 2 − 9.1𝑡 + 30
(a) At t = 15 s, what is the rabbit’s position vector 𝑟 in unit
vector in magnitude-angle notation?
Example 1
We can write position vector 𝑟 as
𝑟 𝑡 = 𝑥 𝑡 𝑖 + 𝑦(𝑡)𝑗
Example 1
Average velocity an instantaneous velocity

r dr
v a vg  v
t dt

## Average velocity Instantaneous velocity

v
d ˆ ˆ
dt

xi  yj  zkˆ 
dx ˆ dy ˆ dz ˆ
 i j k
dt dt dt

vx vy vz
Example 2
(b) For the rabbit in the example 1, find the velocity 𝑣 at
time t= 15 s.
Example 2
Example 2
Average acceleration an instantaneous acceleration

v2  v1 v
a a vg  
t t
a
d ˆ
dt

vxi  v y ˆj  vz kˆ 
Average acceleration
dvx ˆ dv y ˆ dvz ˆ
 i j k
dt dt dt
dv ax ay az
a
dt
Instantaneous acceleration
Example 3
(c) For the rabbit in example1, find the acceleration 𝑎 at
time t = 15 s
𝑑𝑣𝑥 𝑑𝑣𝑦
𝑎𝑥 = 𝑎𝑦 =
𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡
Example 3
𝑎= 𝑎𝑥2 + 𝑎𝑦2
Projectile motion

## - Move in vertical plane but acceleration is downward (g)

- Such a particle is called a projectile
- It’s motion is projectile motion

## The initial velocity of the projectile is:

Here,
Projectile motion

Vy=0
y vxconst

vy
vxconst vxconst

vy
vy
vxconst vxconst
x
vy
Vertical
Horizontal Motion;
Motion: no acceleration
acceleration =g

1 2
𝑦 − 𝑦0 = 𝑣0𝑦 𝑡 − 𝑔𝑡
𝑥 − 𝑥0 = 𝑣0𝑥 𝑡 2 1 2
𝑦 − 𝑦0 = (𝑣0 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃0 )𝑡 − 𝑔𝑡
2
𝑣𝑦 = 𝑣0 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃0 − 𝑔𝑡
𝑥 − 𝑥0 = (𝑣0 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃0 )𝑡
𝑣𝑦2 = (𝑣0 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃0 )2 − 2𝑔(𝑦 − 𝑦0 )
The horizontal range

## The horizontal range of a projectile is the horizontal

distance when it returns to its launching height

## The distance equations in the x- and y- directions

respectively:

Eliminating t:
Sample problem
In figure below a rescue plane files at 198 km/h and
constant height h= 500 m toward a point directly over a
victim, where a rescue capsule is to land.
a) What should be the angle φ of the pilot’s line of sight
to the victim when the capsule release is made?
b) As the capsule reaches the water, what is its velocity in
unit-vector notation and in magnitude-angle notation?
X0 = 0 m
V0 = 55 m/s
0 = 0, x = ?
t=?
b) As the capsule reaches the water, what is its velocity in
unit-vector notation and in magnitude-angle notation?
During a hard sneeze, your eyes might shut for 0.50 s. If
you are driving a car at 90 km/h during such a sneeze,
how far does the car move during that time?
The position of an object moving along an x axis is given
by x = 3t - 4t2 + t3, where x is in meters and t in
seconds. Find the position of the object at the following
values of t: (a) 1 s, (b) 2 s, (c) 3 s, and (d) 4 s. (e) What
is the object's displacement between t = 0 and t = 4 s? (f)
What is its average velocity for the time interval from t =
2 s to t = 4 s? (g) Graph x versus t for 0 ≤ t ≤ 4 s and
indicate how the answer for (h) velocity can be found on
the graph.

a) t = 1 S

b) t = 2 S
c) t = 3 S

d) t = 4 S
The position vector for an electron is
𝑟 = 5.0 𝑚 𝑖 − 3.0 𝑚 𝑗 + (2.0 𝑚)𝑘
(a) Find the magnitude of𝑟.
(b) Sketch the vector on a right-handed coordinate
system.
An electron's position is given by
𝑟 = 3.00𝑡𝑖 − 4.00𝑡 2 𝑗 + 2.00𝑘
with t in seconds and 𝑟 in meters. (a) In unit-vector
notation, what is the electron's velocity 𝑣 (t)? At t = 2.00 s
, what is (b) in unit-vector notation and as (c) a magnitude
and (d) an angle relative to the positive direction of the x
axis?
A small ball rolls horizontally off the edge of a tabletop
that is 1.50 m high. It strikes the floor at a point 1.52 m
horizontally from the table edge. (a) How long is the ball in
the air? (b) What is its speed at the instant it leaves the
table?
V0y= 0 m/s y=0m Y0 = 1.50 m

1.5 m

1.52 m