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1/24th scale HURRICANE Mk

Dur np rhe Secord Wo''d War the
powered D/
HawlEr n|-r
Hurr aa[te.
cane. IX)weIe0 by da
-I ,.o,t r\oyce'r€r.r1 e1p,ne,
I prou"o ro De one o''rtr^e io.gnesr ano
I most rel'able igrrer a.rcra.rlr ,e"v c e
Now you can build it wrth a great
new'1 i 24th scale Airilx kit.

The wortd's biggest range of construction

Armaments Enginc: Itolls Ro1'ce llerlin XX 1260HP
I 20mm Hispano
Spccd 329 \IPH at 18.000fi.
or Ocrlikon guns

l-72nd SCALE KIT

Newfrom mnrcIfEOX;
Super-fine detailed aero models
This "MATCHIIOI(" kit contains a choit'e'of ti,vo cle'cals thost'of
R.A.F. No. 87 (Njght Fightcr') Sqttadlorr rvhicl.r spccialised in night
fighter intruder operations tgainst slrch air'ficlds as Claen in
ocrcupied France and No. 3 (ltigliter') Scltt:rclrot.r Fi.A.l".
If vou're looking fol true atrthenti<'itv ir-r clt'sign
detail here it is. This kit er-rjol's thc vt'n' attetrtiou tt.r
detail that has made "NIATCI{BOX" die c'ast nrotlel c:trs
so famous. Each part is nurnbered fbl erisf identification
and two sets of markings huve beern inclr.rded.
Particular care has been tnken in rnoulding to
ensure each part is a true replicll :rnrl a c'olour plan hirs
been included as a guide.
The Hawker Hurricane i-s one of'a whole range of
finelv dctailed aero models from "\IA'ICHBOX": Hawkei'
Furv, Spitfire \{k.1X, Boeing P-I2. Zero Alphn Jet. Lvsander.
Gladiator, Huev-Cobra. Strikcmaster. l'ockc-Wulf 190A-3.
Northrop F5-A, Mustang P51-D, Corsair F4U-.1. Folland (lnat.

Make modelsto be proud of!

''MA I'CHIIOX" is the registered Trade Ntark of Lesney Products & Co. Ltd., London , F,9 ; PA Associate Nlember 1.P.M.S
OCTOBER 1973 Vol 6 No 10 389 Ncws I Views
Janrcs D. Ou 394 L berator introduction to war
4OO The versat Le Sk
Kenneth Mcchan 402 Nelr ZcaJand agr cultural Tigcr Moths
404 The hardi,r,are revolutlon
Alan J. Wr ght 407 BrLtish Civil Aircraft Fegister
photo feature 40B Flying colours
Jarres Goulding 4i 0 N/odellrng World
Managing Editor: B. L Cornwell 4i 2 Arrcsted at Bedford
4 tr f re Bdr L'rrt-r Sl'.rk
Editor: PhiliP J. R' MoYes RooertJackson 4i6 Sho@
Graphics: Jonathan A. Bingham i a p.gz/z
David J. Kingston
Peter R. Vlarch 424 Airview
Adaertisement Manager: P. ]. Tallack 428 Books

The Sopwith sequence-an outline AIRCRAFT ILLUSTRATED is sponsoring a photographic
history of the famous Kingston-on-
Thames based aircraft constructor and competition for amateur photographers. The simple
its line of thoroughbreds, conditions of entry are given below. There is no entrance
The sublect is the powered aeroplane (including the
helicopter) in action or static, and clearly the more variety
of subject. scene. approach, viewpoint 3nd treatment. the
better. This should not be diff icult-on the contrary . it
should prove a challenge, for if you are to get the greatest
pleasure and satisfaction from aircraft photography. you
need to explore it to the full. Only photographs actually
taken by competitors are acceptable and there is no limit
on the number of entries. There are two groups-Colour
transparencies, and Black and White.
The following prizes wrll be awarded:
Cover: The McDonnell Douglas A-4N
Skvhawk ll single-seat light attack Averall (tvto tri each (cne tn each
bomber. Dr\,, llll for lwo p.r:ons Section) Sectlon)
Frontispiece: Two Hunter F.6s and a to tir. f rril,.,'r A r Si'o'w lan Al ar bcok lan Allan book
Hunter T,7 of 3 Sqn. 4 FTS, on a recent n Aprr 1!)7+ (rt r; iropecl token wortlr f 1 5 token worth f 7.50
sortie from RAF Valley, Anglesey. by Tr Star) OH tire ecqu va ert
Air Visual va ue Lr Llr A aI boo( tokc,ts.

S x annuai subslr plrors to A RCUAFT ltLUSl FATED wrll a so

lre an,arciecl for ir glr1i, conrTrL'ntlcd prclures

Annual subscription rates including post-

a ge.
AIRCRAFT ILLUSTRATED: Home f2.40. I C osrrrr; date Octolrer 5, I973 This is 4 Tne wrrnrng cntr c: may be pLrb rshed
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Overseas (excluding North America) ci ihc ( Orr rg c1 :p ;y selson. Lnciiltl ng
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America) f 1.40. ii!.r tn:,r i0 x B on ! ossy p.lpcr afd
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0 Eftle:10 be address-"d to "Photo
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encloscd for thc r!t!'rr oi unsrccessfui AIRCRAfT lL LUSTRAIED cannot be
cftres he d re:por.slb e for loss or damage.
Go-ahead for HS146
The Government is to invest f46m in
the Hawker Siddeley HS146 short
haul airliner project which is due to f ly
in January 1976 and enter service in
1977. Hawker Siddeley will invest
f40m of its own money in the project
and the Government has written into
the contract the safeguard that should
the development cost of the aircraft
escalate Hawker Siddeley will have to
pay the difference. Making the an-
nouncement, the Aerospace Minister,
Mr Michael l-,leseltine. said he was
satisfied that HSA had the financial
resources to undertake the project on
these terms. The HS146 will be
powered by four American-built
AVCO-Lycoming 502 turbofans and
the standard model will seat 71 pas-
sengers. while a six-abreast version
willaccommodate BB. There are also
plans to increase its capacity to 102.

Tanzania buys H5748

The Government of the United Repub-
lic of Tanzania has bought a Hawker
Siddeley 748 tor executive and VIP
transport. The aircraft wiU be supplied
in a 36 executive seat configuration
which can be changed quickly to in-
corporate a VIP comPartment and an
1B executive layout. The aircraft was
chosen after an exhaustive evaluation
of comparable aircraft bY the Tan-
zanian Government, which included a
week's demonstration by the 748 in
Tanzania-flying from airfields which
normally are not used by aircraft of
this size.
Tanzania becomes the seventh Afri-

Top to bottom: Vulcans are now being

titted with a new radar warning
oquipment, the presence of which is
revealed by an oblong antenna at the top
of the tailplane.
Prototype Jaguar S.07 carrying a
practice bomb carrier on the rear station
of the under-fuselage pylon. A colour
photo of this machine appears on page

The Harrier aerodynamic test aircraft

XY277 is currently being flown with a
representative Sea Harrier radome,
which replaces the normal camera nose
installation. Protrusion on leading edge of
fin is believed to house passive radar
warning equipment similar to that
installed in the tactical strike Jaguar and
First Advanced 727 with maximum gross
weight of 208 0001b made its first
flightin August f rom Boeing Field, Seattle,
in the red and white colours of
Donmark's Sterling Airways which
h.s ordered three of the trijets.

390 AircraJt Illustrated

can operator of the HS 748 of which navalised Harrier existedwith the grammes to study Spey noise reduc-
275 have been sold and are in service USMC in the AV-8. The demonstration tio n.
with 57 operators in countries around by a Hawker Siddeley test pilot of a A complete Spey hushkit consists of
the world. British Harrier on Delado last Novem- noise-absorbent linings in the engine
ber clinched the Spanish decision. intake. in the bypass duct and in the
Third 8.7478 for TAP jetpipe as well as a silencing nozzle al
Transportes Aereos Portugueses (TAP), It's the Hawk the rear of the engine. Kits are designed
the Portuguese national airline, has The "Hawk" has been selected as the to quieten Spey engines at minimum
placed an order for its third Boeing name for Hawker Siddeley Aviation's weight penalty and effect on costs and
7478. Delivery is scheduled for June new HS 1182 two-seat jet training engine performance.
197 4. aircraft. The Hawk is expected to make
its f irst f light next spring and is sched- Gompass Cope RPV crashes
uled to enter RAF service towards the The USAF's largest remotely piloted
Saudia buys B.707s end of 1976. The new aircraft will vehicle (RPV). the Boeing-built Com-
Saudia, Saudi Arabian Airlines, has initially replace the Gnats of RAF pass Cope prototype, crashed whilst
bought two Boeing 707-320Cs from Training Command flying in the landing at Edwards AFB, California,
World Airways. The aircraft were
advanced training role, and will even- on August 4. The aircraft hbd made a
scheduled for delivery in August. The iually undertake additional jet flying successful fiist flight on July 2B when
deliveries will bring Saudia's 8.707 training commitments including the it flew for one hour and attained an
fleet up to four. The remainder of the weapon training role in which the air- altitude of 1O 000ft. The Compass Cope
company's leet comprises two
craft will replace the Hunters presently RPV differs from earlier RPVs in that
8.720Bs. f ive 8.737s. six Convair 340s it is designed to be landed rather than
and six DC-3s. Two B.73ls are The Hawk is powered by a single recovered by parachute. The aircraft is
scheduled for delivery in MaY and Rolls-Royce (1 971 )/Turbomeca Ltd 40ft long and 13ft high at the HE J97
June 1 974. un-reheated (RT 1 72-06) Adour turbo- turbojet engine which is pod-mounted
fan powerplant. Surveys carried out by on top of the fuselage.
Singapore Airlines orders third Hawker Siddeley indicate that there is Boeing was awarded a contract in
8.747 a market for several thousand aircraft July 1971 to develop two prototypes.
Singapore Airlines has ordered a third to replace existing basic and advanced The state of advancement of the
8.147-2OOB which will go into service trainers. and also provide a ground second prototype is not yet known.
in October 1974. SIA's first two 8.747s attack or close-support capability. The Teledyne Ryan also has a contract
were due to arrive in September and Hawk is expected to caplure a sig- for the construction of two Compass
will enter service on October 1. nif icant share of the market. Cope prototypes. The first f light of the
It will be available for overseas mar- No 1 vehicle is not expected to take
Two more 7478s lor Oantas kets following initial deliveries to the place before next year.
Oantas has received Australian Another Hrinter squadron formed
Government approval to purchase two
more Boeing 7478s. The two aircraft
Spey engine hushkits To provide future Jaguar pilots with
Rolls-Royce is now working with experience of high-speed ground attack
will go into service in March and May four airframe companies to quieten all techniques, a second Hunter squadron
1974 bringing the airline's superjet types of Spey-powered commercial has been formed at Wittering. No 58
fleet to eight. They will be identical to
aircraft-the BAC One-Eleven, Fokker Squadron formed there on August 1
those in the airline's present fleet F.2B Fellowship and Hawker Siddeley as a result of the splitting of 45 Squad-
except for higher-power engines. auto-
matic braking system and a thrrd galley
Trident airliners and the Grumman ron.
Gulfstream 2 executive aircraft. These Both squadrons will concentrate on
unit to improve cabin service to programmes cover the development operational training and will also take
economy passengers. will not be
The Oantas order brings the num- of Spey engine hushkits for flight test- part in exercises. They
ing to evaluate their effectiveness. The assigned to NATO or given any formal
ber of 747s ordered by 35 airlines and
hushkits are intended to reduce the war role, although they may be of
the US Air Force lo 237. of which 21 5 operational value in certain circum-
noise of nearly every version oI these
have been delivered.
aircraftto levels which meet the sta n ces.
expected noise regulations for existing
Harriers for Spain aircraft in the late 1970s and early "Blue Angels" setback
The US Government has extended its '1
980s. The Fokker F.2B Fellowship Following the loss of two F-4J Phan-
AV-B Harrier contract with Hawker already meets the FAR 36 requirement tom lls of the US Navy's B/ue Angels
Siddeley to include eight additional air- of the US Federal Aviation Administra- precision flight demonstratior team in a
frames for supply to Spain for use on tion without the use of a hushkit, but mid-air collision while practising for
the carrier Delado. There may be further Rolls-Royce and Fokker are engaged an air show in the USA on July 28. the
contracts at a later date bringing total in a continuing programme directed at remainder of this year's appearances
orders from Spain to 24. The basic further quietening of the aircraft. by the team were cancelled. This latest
airframes will be buih by HSA and A Fokker F.2B Fellowship with SPey crash, in which two pilots and
shipped with engines to the USA hushkits was flight tested recently. one enlisted aircrewman were killed,
where electronics. radio/nav attack Hushkit testing on a Grumman Gulf- brought the total of Blue Angels
systems and weapons will be fitted stream 2 will begin later this year and machines lost this year to six.
before supply to Spain. Crews will be flight tests on a BAC One-Eleven and
trained in the US. Spain went to the Hawker Siddeley Trident are scheduled Advanced B.727 first flight
US partly due to political problems for early 1 974. These tests are a logical The first Boeing Advanced 727 with
vrith Britain and also because a extension of earlier Rolls-Royce pro- maximum gross weight of 208 0001b

October 1973 391

atrt N

over by its owner, Lord Lilford. to RAF

Scampton. Lincs. where, after refur-
bishment. it will stand outside the
base's main gate, replacing "O-
Oueenie" now in the RAF Museum at
Hendon. NX61 1 is now beyond active
flying but it will be restored and re-
painted in "authentic" RAF WWll

700th DC-9 produced . . .

The 700th DC-9 twin-jet transport to
roll off the assembly line at the Douglas
Aircraft Company division of McDon-
nell Douglas Corporation was delivered
on J uly 21 . The aircraft is a C-9 B
military version of the commercial trans-
port, built for the US Navy. The pro-
duction milestone was reached in less
than eight years after the first DC-9
delivery in September 1965. A total of
76'1 DC-9s has been ordered to date.

. . . and 100th DC-10 delivered

Top : The task of changing the name on flew {or the first time on July 26. The Western Air Lines accepted a McDon-
the fuselage of BEA aircraft to British aircraft,destined for Denmark's Sterling nell Douglas DC-'1 0 on July 25. mark-
Airways is now well under way, this Airways. landed at Boeing Field after a ing the delivery of rhe 100rh DC-'1 0
Trident Three, seen early in August, being two hour. four minute flight. Sterling. powered by General Electric CF6
one of the first to be repainted. The iob
of changing liveries will begin in world's largest charter operator, ordered turbofan engines. McDonnell Douglas
November, three of the modern tri.lets in February has delivered three versions of G E-
1912, and holds options on two more. powered tri-lets:the Series'1 0 pow-
Above: The BLEU's Andover XS606 and
H5748 XW750 are now engaged in
First delivery will be in November ered by the CF6-6 rated at 400001bt;
a Government-funded R/STOL research following flight test programme and the Series 30 powered by the CF6-50
programme. The programme is providing FAA certification. lncreased weight, rated at 49 000 to 51 000lbt; and the
usef ul aerodynamic and operational including additional fuel, will give Series 30 convertible freighter. also
information for use as guidelines in the Sterling improved payload/range capa- using the CF6-50. CF6 engines have
design of lutute afuqafl. RAE accumulated more than 700 000 engine
bility such as non-stop Scandinavia-
Canary lslands, more than 2 500nm flight hours.
with i Bg passengers.
ABC helicopter flies
Another Lancaster for Scampton two Sikorsky S-69 Advanc-
The first of
Lancaster NX61 1 which has from some ing Blade Concept (ABC) test heli-
years languished atSouires Gate, copters made its maiden flight on July
Blackpool, has been formally handed 26. The 5-69, which has been given
392 Aicraft Illustrated
35 200 metres. 5 000 metres more dend rate coupled with the benef its of a
than the ceiling of Fedotov's 1 967 broader product line in the aerospace.
record. All three results are higher than cryogenics. and general avtation fields.
the official world records. Fedotov ln addition Grumman now has develop-
developed a speed of 3 300km per ing interests in such activities as pol-
hour in preliminary flights. but the lution control, health systems, leisure
registered speed was 3 100km per time products and data processing.
X-24B lifting body air-launched
First European sale of MU-2J The X-248 with John A. Manke. pro-
The first European sale of the Mitsu- ject pilot for NASA's Flight Research
4..a*.*. bishi MU-2J has been made to Mr Centre at the controls. was air launched
Dennis de Ferranti for delivery in March for the f irst time on August 1. from a
1974. fhe sale was made by the UK B-52 flying at 40 00Oft, and glided to a
and Southern lreland distributor. Ex- landing on the dry lakebed at Edwards
press Aviation Services. Ltd, working AFB. California. four minutes later. The
in conjunction with Dismore Aviation. X-24B is the latest in a serics of wing-
Ltd. The aircraft will be registered in less lifting bodies to demonstrate the
lre la n d. ability to manoeuvre and safely land a
The MU-2J is the latest long model vehicle with a shape primarily designed
of the Mitsubishi twin tu rbo prop for space flight. lts configuration is
executive aircraft series. More than also representative of advanced air-
250 MU-2s of all models have been craft of the future which would be
sold to date. capable of sustained cruise flight at
the US Army designation XH-59A, hypersonic 3 500mph speeds.
uses a new rotor system requiring no 400th Orion delivered
tail rotor. The first flight, which con- The 40Oth P-3 Orion anti submarinc Farnborough lnternational'74
sisted of low altitude hovering. lasted warfare (ASW) patrol aircraft to come The Society of British Aerospace Com-
about 30 minuts during which an off Lockheed's production line at panies, which earlier this year an-
altitude of between 25 and 30ft was Burbank was delivered to the U S nounced the Industry's decision to open
attained. The f irst prototype is powered Navy on July 30. According to Rear the 1 974 Farnborough Exhibition and
by a UACL PTOT-3 Turbo "Twin Pac", Aiimiral Herbert S. Ainsworth. Com- Flyjng Display (September 2-B) to the
but the second machine. now nearing mander, Patrol Wings. Pacific. who world's aerospace companies, has now
completion at
Stratford, Conn, is accepted the aircraft, the P-3 will revealed plans for the main public days,
tentatively scheduled to have two probably remain in production until together with admission charges. Farn-
additional PAW J 60 turbojets f or the 1 980s. ln addrtion to the US Navy. borough International '74, as the show
auxiliary thrust for high speed flight of the P-3 is in service with four other is to be kn6wn. will also break new
up to 3O0kt. countries of the free world. Ainsworth. ground in introducing public admission
who commands the 1.1 P-3 patrol on the last of the Trade Days, Thurs-
squadrons assigned to the Pacific, said day. September 5. This will be the first
Cook lslands Airways formed he considers the C model of the Orion tirne that the genera{ public has had
Plans to establish the first domestic series to be the finest ASW system in the opportunity to see the Farnborough
airline in the Cook lslands were an- the world. Since 1959. Lockheed has Air Show operating commercially as a
nounced on August 6, by Air New delivered 157 P-3As. i44 P-3Bs. 9B trade shop window for aerosDace
Zealand and the Cook lslands Govern- P-3Cs including the aircraft delivered manufacturers. with the emphasis that
ment. The first aircraft of Cook lslands on July 30 and one RP-3D. the Pro- day on the normal afternoon trade
Airways will be a nine-r.lassenger lect Magnet aircraft used by the U S flying programme.
Britten- Norman lslander and service Navy to map the earth's magnetjc f ield. Admission charges on the Trade and
will begin in November between Public Day. which are similar for both
Rarotonga, the main island of the Beech and Grumman discussing seclo's. will be as follows:
Cooks group, and Aitutaki. about 160 possible merger Thursday. September 5. Adult or
miles to the north. Aitutaki eventually The Grumman Corporation and Beech Child-f 1.75. Cars 11 .50. Coaches f 2.
will be developed as a resort island. Air Aircraft Corporation. have begun Motor Cycles 50p and Grandstand f 1.
New Zealand will inaugurate DC-B negotiations looking toward a possible Friday, September 6. will be the
service to the Cook lslands in Decem- merger. The two aerospace com- Public Premiere when an expanded
ber. a month after Cook lslands Air- panies complement each other. His- flying programme will be introduced.
ways begins operation. torically and today theGrumman incorporating special items o{ public
organisation is overwhelmingly a de- appeal. Admission charges will be:
MiG-25 sets three world records signer and builder of military aircraft- Adults f 2, Chrld 70p. Cars f 1 .50
Three new world air records have been primarily for the US Navy. Beech Air- additional, Coaches 12, Motor Cycles
set by test pilot Hero of the Soviet craft Corporation, on the other hand. is 50p, and Grandstand €1.
Union Alexander Fedotov. FlYjng a primarily a designer and builder of As in previous years. ad.nission rates
MiG-25 (Foxbat) single-seat fighter propellcr-driven aircraft. sold chiefly are reduced for the Main Public Days,
he climbed to an altitude of 36 240 for business and private use. Saturday and Sunday, September 7
metres. an absolute world record for Mrs Olive Beech. chairman of Beech and B. These will be as follows: Adults
altitude. Two other records were regts- Aircraft Corporation, said that the f 1, Child 6Op. Cars f 1 additional,
tered by the instruments when the merger under consideration could give Coaches f2, Motor Cycles 50p, and
MiG-25 climbed to an altitude of Beech stockholders an increased divi- Grandstand 11.

October 1973 393 *

n FTER Adolf Hitler had become
A Chancellor of Germgny in 1933,
British and French rearmament policies
in air power-were ad-
justed in direct relationship to his
sabre-rattling gestures and. of course,
his efforts to reinforce and expand the
German state
March 1935 brought the first direct James D. Oughton
reaction from the Britrsh-Hitler
denounced the limitations of the
Versailles Treaty and proclaimed
conscription for a target peacetime
army of 36 divisions; the formation of
the new Luftwaffe was announced
with the statement that it was already
as strong as the Royal Air Force. ln the
previous year the British Air Ministry
had called up two high performance
intercepter fighters-later to achieve
fame as the Hurricane and Spitfire;
now the retaliatory power of the RAF
was to be strengthened and work on
Specification B 1i 35 (demanding a
heavier and more potent bomber than
had hitherto been contemplated)-
already circulated to the industry before P.1 3/36-the frrst of which called for tracts with Avro and Handley Page.
Hitler's speech-was intensified, the the heaviest bomber yet envisaged for The initial phases of design irrvestiga-
contract going to Vickers the RAF. four-engined and with a tion demonstrated the great improve-
But hardly had the British and French radius of action of more than 1 000 ment of the 1936 aircraft over the
air re-armament plans begun to creak miles. The second specifjcation set out B.'1 /35 (Warwick) and in consequence
into action when Hitler staged his first requirements for another new class of the latter fell from favour and the pro-
overt military manoeuvre and occupied "medium-heavy" bomber with two gramme was allowed to slow down.
the demilitarised zone of the Rhrneland engines in the 2 000 horsepower But Hitler showed no signs o{
in March 1936 As a direct result of class. The big bomber prototype slowing down-he concluded the
this action, the Air Ministry formulated contracts were placed with Shorts and Axis pact with lvlussolinj in October
two new requirements-B 12/36 and Supermarine. and the P.1 3/36 con- 1936, signed the Antr-Comintern pact
394 Aircraft Illustrated
Below left: AM259, the first Liberator Guy La Chambre-brought some fresh The French requirement was in-
to roach England, flown by David impetus to air re-a.rmament. but by vestigated by lsaac M. Laddon, Vice-
Waghorn and Maurice Summers from President and Chief Engineer, as a
Montreal via Gander to Squires Gate. March i 938 total French production
The aircraft is seen after landing at was only some 40 aircraft per month. development of the then-new
Squires Gate on March 14, 1941, with compared with about 250 by Germany. XPB2Y-1 four-engined flying boat
the twg pilots standing in front of the And then the cold-or Iukewarm- (Consolidated Model 29) and a new
war began to heat up. The Anschluss Model number was allocated, with a
Below: The first LB.30A in May 1941 results were announced on April 10 prefix that underlined the breakaway
with its original serial number (AM259) and Austria became part of the Third from f lying boats and which can best
supplanted by the civil registration
G-AGCD. Tests for a C of A fgranted on Feich; harcily had the dust settled be seen in the list of designs current in
May 15) were carried out by Captain when an even greater crisis arose over 1938:
J. H. Orrell, BOAG, and it was during
the course of these tests that the
the Sudeten German question. and it Model Military JName
aircraft was found to be unsuitable for seemed that Hitler was about to No Designation
the Scandinavian service of the Ministry invade Czechoslovakia. 28 P BY Cata lin a
of Economic Warfare, for which purpose Real relationships between France 29 PB2Y Coronado
it had been registerod.
and Great Britain at this time-April/ * 18.30
31 P4Y Corregidor
*"L8" denoting "Land Bombardment"
tltis again recognised that the names
quoted were not in fact adopted until
Iater Vears.
The L8.30 as first studied was a
shoulder-wing four-engined mono-
plane. similar in general layout to the
Model 29 flying-boat in that it had
twin fins and four Pratt & Whitney
Twin Wasp engines. But. almost as soon
as the Model 30 was schemed, a new
and vitally important factor entered the
design thinking.
A young aerodynamicist, David R.
wrth Japan the next month and in May. 1938-were not nearly so close Davis. approached Major Reuben H.
January 1 937 made a speech rn as many imagined, and as the Sudeten/ Fleet. President of Consolidated. with a
which he repudjated all the limitations Czech crisis grew worse France proposal for a new aerofoil section, one
of the Versailles Treaty. lt was in this suddenly found herself alone. The of several patented in 1934. with very
year-1 9 37-which had started off British Government. in May, told the low profile drag coefficients. Laddon
with the scarcely-veiled threats from French, rn as many words, that the became interested and the new wing
Nazi Germany. that the first real British would not support them in a based on the Davis patents was first
problems arose in the new bomber loint military action to preserve Czech- applied to the def initive L8.30 in J une
programme for the RAF. The engine oslovakia if the Germans invaded. This 1938, emerging as a high aspect ratio
inherent in the P.13/36 requirements- blow was followed by an even stronger two-spar structure into which Laddon
the Rolls-Royce Vulture-was indicat- one from Poland. whose Government designed main integral fuel tanks at
ing severe developmerrt troubles and not only made a similar statement but the centre section. But the tenuous
Rolls-Royce was already warning the emphasized that, should the French nature of the French strategic bomber
Air Ministry that rt wor,ld be a better call on her other major ally-Russia- requirement led to the L8.30 design
solution to go to a four-Merlin power- thel the Poles would resist passage being temporarily shelved in favour of
plant. There were some difficulties also across their territory by force. the interest shown by the US NavY in
with the 8.12136 engines (Bristol The French air f orce had f ew. if anY. the Davis wing applied to a f lying boat;
Hercules) but in the event they came realistic ideas for strategic bombers- the promise of a contra.ct for this new
out broadly on programme. The engine the Allied plans had been based boat seemed more firm and in con-
problem was eventually resolved in the largely on the new heavY bombers sequence Consolidated began design
summer of 1937 by allowing the coming from Britain. Bul La Chambre and construction of the Model 31
Avro P.1 3/1 6-the lvlanchester-to go had. in secret. taken out some insurance twin-engined flying boat with author-
ahead on a calculated risk basis re- in the United States and in this crucial isation dating from July 11.1938.
taining the two Vultures, while the month of May 1938 the first French The wing was essentiallY that en-
Handley Page design-the Halifax- heavy bomber requirement was in- visaged for the Model 30, a 11O-feet
went ahead with four Merlirrs. (lt is vestigated at San Diego, California. span two-spar structure containing
real ised that th e na mes for th ese desig ns Initial a.pproaches had been made to Fowler f laps; it differed from the
were not current at the time but they Boeing. whose XB-17 bomber had Model 30 in having mountings for two
have been used for the sake of sim- flown in July 1935, but its design and engines and also underwing floats
plicity) . productron facilities were under too which retracted to Iie f lat against the
ln France during these sensitive great a pressure for extra work to be underside of the outer wing sections.
years. the armed forces were-on undertaken. The Consolidated Aircraft By the use of then-advanced lofting
paper-much to be 'reckoned with, Corporation. on the other hand. had and other techniques, the lVodel 31
but in fact were deplorably equipped set a pattern of remarkably successful was built in record time and began
for a "modern" war. especially in the long range ffying boats a.nd welcomed engine runs on April 29, 1939, going
air. The arrrval, rn January 1938, of a the opportunity to study a large Iand- on to make its f irst f light on May 5 that
young and energetic Air Minister- plane design. year.
October 197-] 395
But, retLjrning 10 May 1938: the By nowthe existence ofthe hitherto- Jhis was a panic measure which
British had sent an Air Mrnistry mission secret involvement of the French could obviously have brought little in
to the USA and Canada, and although Government wjth the US lndustry in terms of immediate useful results. but
its first task was to make special May 1938 was at least known in it is significant that the close links then
purchases of reconnaissance (Lock- M Daladier-the
political circies. for obtaining between the Air Ministry and
heed Hudson) and training (North French Premier. announced in Sept- the USAAC brought mention of the
American Harvard) aircraft in the ember 1 938 that he had been warned latter's interest in Consolidated's new
USA, there was a major proposal by the US Government that its bomber.
contained within its terms of reference Netrality Act would. even if war broke ln January 1 939 this interest harden-
to examine the war potential- nomi- out, prevent delivery of the aircraft ed up into a request for a design study
nally in Canada-ot ar aviation in- ordered by the French the previous to an Air Corps Specification under the
dustry which could produce heavy May bombardment sequence number B-24;
bombers. This was followed by a By this time the political problems Consolidated's design team applied
second mission in July 1938 wherein were acute-the heat had, to an extent. the same drive and abilrty as they had
the heavy bomber requirement was gone out of the Czech crisis by May 23 shown with the Model 31 and within
more clearly spelled out-200 bombers when H itler (af ter the Czechs had three months had built a. mock-up of
per year on a peacetime footing and started mobilisino) announced that he the new bomber developed from the
500 in the first year of war-with had no aggressive intentions towards LB.30 and now styled Model 32-the
deliveries across the Atlantic by air. Czechoslovakia. But on September 1 2 mock-up conference approved basic
The British bomber requirement he made an inflammatory speech at design and performance estimates and
centred on British designs being Nuremburg and the second. and a contract was placed-on March 30-
produced under Iicence and a contract maJor, Munich crisis followed as for a prototype. the XB-24. This was
was approved between the UK Govern- Neville Chamberlain. the British Prime followed up the next month by the
ment and the Canadian Associated Minister, {lew to Berchtesgade n (Sept- formal placing-on April 26-of a
Aircraft Co inNovember 1938 for a ember 1 5). Godesberg (September 22) conl"acl lor a tolal o' sever se vrce lesr
pilot programme of Hampdens to be and finally Munich (September 29) in aircraft. designatcd YB 24. At the end
followed by the mainstream production attempts to appease the German of this month the I\,4odel 31 flyino-boat
of Stirlings. which were to reach a d ictator. beqan enqine runs. and made its first
production rate of 2O per month by the But the agreernent drawn up at the flight on N/ay 5. At this tjme the first
spring of 1 942. end of the month ceded the Sudeten- British heavy bomber, the Stirling.
ln the meantime a special French Air land to German and the German Artny made its first flight (on May 14) but
Mission, led by M. Jean Monnet, visited marched into Czechosiovakia on Oct- this was an inauspicious occasion for
the USA in the winter of 1938-1939 ober 1, 1 938. thc arrcraft crashed on landing and wa.s
and placed many orders. among them These political manoeuvres had written off. This rn no way altered the
a tentative requirement for 100 Con- precipitated a telegram from the Air Air Ministry's faith in the design, for rt
solidated LB.30s. which type was Ministry to the Air Attache in Washing- was to press for the liccncc building of
being re-evaluated in the Iight of an ton calling for an urgent estirrate of Stirlings both in Canada and the USA-
impending requirement for a long types and numbers of aircraft which in the latter case specifically at one
range bomber by the US Army Air could be bought in the USA for time supplanting the production oi
Corps. delivery in the UK within one month. B 24s-f or somc time to come.

396 AircraJt Illtrrrated

American aircra.ft to a total of 2 065
which rncluded confirmatron of their
arrangements with Consolidated for a
total of 139 LB.30s. British require-
ments were for Stirlings to be built
under licence-and this was still being
insrsted upon as late as July 1940. with
the Air Ministry openly declaring that
the B-24 was inferior to the Stirling.
However. by October 1940 it had
changed its tune and stated that if a
British bomber was to be produced in
the USA then it must now be the
Halifax, which had shown itself to be
"immensely superior" to the Stirling.
To say at this late date that the chances
of the Americans building a.ny British
heavy bombbr were slight is overstating
the case-the B-17 was in full pro-
duction and the XB-24 had made rts
first f light, successfully, on December
29. 1 939.
Top €t above: Two views of AM910, the This month-December 1939-had
first LB.30B (B-24A1 Liberator Mk l, at marked a disastrous bombing raid by
the A & AEE, Boscombe Down, in July
1941. The aircraft has been fitted with RAF Wellingtons in which more than
ASV Mk ll radar and under the forward 54 per cent of the aircraft attacking
bomb-bay, which has been sealed off, is were shot down, with others badly
a "pack" of four 20mm Hispano cannon,
The modif ications were carried out at damaged. The need for armour, self-
Heston by a team of Handley Page and sealing tanks and better turrets had
Heston Aircraft engineers and after the never been made more tragically
Boscombe trials were completed the
aircraft was delivered to No. 120 obvious and was to hold back pro-
Squadron at Nutts Corner. curement and operational use of
American aircraft which had been built
Left: LB,30A No AM262 about to leave without such operational necessities
Gander for Ayr with the Canadian Prime afforded the priorities they needed.
Minister, Mr W. L. Mackenzie-King, on ln October 1939 British and French
board on August 1 9, 1 941 .
Purchasing Commissions had been set
up in Washington and with the repeal
By now the outbreak of war in of the US arms embargo in November,
Europe was generally regarded as supplies of armaments began to flow
inevitable. British bomber strength across the Atlantic. To some extent
received a badly-needed shot in the there was mutual agreement between
frfl:ml**-'-*-'.-- " arm with the f light of the new "medium- the Allies but it appears that the L8.30
heavy". the Avro Manchester, in July contract remained officially French
1 939, but this very f irst f light showed until the German break-through at
trouble with the engines and the need Sedan and the ensuing collapse of
for a malor wing re-design. France led to the formal takrng-over of
As war broke out in September, the French contracts in the USA by the
French increased their orders for British.
October 197-] 397
:' {4c'{
,e".* ;,{ :: }s" :

-,,,-.. '_ 'i' -


LB.30B No. AM917 in June 1941 at Roosevelt in which he stated that the The first six aircraft off the line at
Prestwick, having been delivered there British needed the Iatest types of air- Lindbergh Field, San Diego, had been
the preceding month. This aircraft was craf r of which tne Amertcan services ordered as YB-24s. this designation
latei modified by Scottish Aviation and, being applied to "service test" aircraft
equipped with ASV radar and four 20mm were then taking delivery-he went
cCnnon, was delivered to No. 1 20 on ". . these can be repaid by those they were in fact passed over to
souadron in December 1 941 ' lt flew on -but
the British as B-24s. the
now being constructed in the USA for seventh
oierations until 1944 and was then aircraft retaining its YB-24
fLwn to No 51 MU at Lichfield, where it us." Prophetic words. which were nomen-
was eventually sold for scrap value in gladly taken literally by the Americans clature and going to the US Army Arr
March 1947, after the Japanese attack on Pearl Corps. This initial batch was taken off
Harbour, resulting in the reter.ttion of USAAC Contract No A-5OOB and paid
many of the original L8.30 aircraft. for in cash : the next batch of 20
The situation for Great Britain was But Roosevelt. who believed that the aircraft were the f irst off the line of
indeed grave. and while Fighter Munich Agreement had been forced B-24As, and this contract-again paid
Command and the defensive radar upon the Allies because of their in- for in cash-was carried on Contract
networks were well-equiPPed and feriority in the air. received the Britrsh F-677. the origina.l French order for
ready. retaliatory f orces were lean. The requests with sympathy and in oct- LB.30s. The final batch of nine aircraft
Stirling-al'eady susoect-went into ober 1940 ratified an agreement to making up the promised total of thirty-
initial squadron service in August 1940 release twenty B-'1 7s and thirty-f ive five (under US Requisition No 65) was
and the limping Manchester had still B-24s to the British off direct Air Corps in fact never passed on, the aircraft
not received Service clearance; Hali- contracts. concerned going to the USAAC as its
f axes would not loin Bomber Command The B-'1 7s were production models. frrst delivery of B-24As. The British
until the end of the Year. but the B-24s comprised almost all the Ministry of Aircraft Production now
On August B. onlY a month after the original order for USAAC service test allocated seria.l numbers and at first it
Air Ministry had described the B-24 as aircraft (YB-24) and most of the first was intended that they should follow
"inferior" to the Stirling. the British production batch (B-24A). lt was those allocated for the LB.3O contract
accepted by C. R. (latcr Sir Richard) ('1 39 aircraft, scrial numbers AL503-
Ambassador in Washington Passed a
list to the U S a.uthorities showing items Fairey, of the British Purchasing 641 ) bringing the serial batch up to and
regarded as the U K's most lmmedia.te Commission. that the American bomb- including AL667. But the marked
and important requirements-in this ers would be accepted by the British difference in the two basic tYPes-
short Iist the second item was "' ' . 50 as originally ordered for the USAAC, 18.30 and B-24/B'244-led Io a

Consolidated bombers This ie without British equipment as had by change in official polrcy and the ex-
"" first
followed Winston Churchill's now been specified for the direct- USAAC arrcraftwere allocated new and
message as Prime Minister to President pu:chase LB.30s. separate serial blocks. This is perhaps

Contract USAAC USAAC British Brltish Notes

No Model Serials Model Serials
A-5068 B-24 40-696/40-701 LB.3OA Atv25B/AM263 6 aircraft. USAAC serials
re-allocated to B-24Ds.
F-6lt 8-244 40-2349/40-2368 LB 3OB Arv910/AM929 20 aircrafr. USAAC serials
re-allocated to B-24Ds.
Req 65 8-244 40-2369/40-2371 LB 30B 9 aircraft. Not released.
Delivered to USAAC.

398 Aircraft Illustated

in 1 937) and Lt Colonel H. Burchall (a the British Liberators were held until
senior off icial in
BOAC). arrived in the situation was eventually resolved
Canada to arrange flight delivery of all with the release of the Sperry O-1
the American aircraft capable of f lying bombsight and also the decision of the
the North Atlantic. the work to be MAP to accept the LB.30As in the
carried out under the auspices of the stripped condition referred to pre-
Ministry of Aircraft Production in vio u sly.
collaboration with Canadian Pacific In January 1941 the organisation at
Railways. An Air Service Department Montreal was changed-Mr C. H.
was set up within CPR and Col Dickens of Canadian Airways was put
Burchall became general marrager with in charge of the CPR Air Service
Captain Wilcockson in charge of Department and Col Burchall went to
operations. Shortly a{terwards some of the British Air Commission in Wash-
the star BOAC captains arrived in ington ; Captain Wilcockson became
Nlontreal-among them Captains R. H. Training Superintendent and Captain
Page, l. C. Ross. and the incomparable Bennett remained Flight Superinten-
D. C. T. Bennett, who became Flight dent. The scene was now set for the
Superintendent in charge of flying and delivery of the Liberators.
training. An extremely valuable addition But staff complications made them-
to the team was Captain G. J. Powell selves apparent at this juncture, for
js4;l:,r-'.' ."'". r'' who was. as Bennett later put it. found Squadron Leader David Waghorn and
' :rt;gi)t..,i;:3f
.'q ' teaching navigation as a squadron Flight Lieutena.nt Maurice Summers
leader in the RCAF; Captain Powell arrived. charged with the task of test-
was of course, a highly experienced ex flying the first LB.3OA and delivering it
lmperial Airways caplain. The base of to the UK. only to find that Colonel
better explained in the table. operations was to be the Montreal Burchall had placed the same task on
As will be seen. the decision had also airfield at St Hubert. used until the Captain S. T. B. Cripps of BOAC ;

been taken on nomenclature-the first newer and much larger airfield at Summers and Waghorn arrived at San
batch of six aircraft were designated Dorval was completed. Dtego on January 1 5, 1 941. and the
LB.30A (logically. in a. sense. following Captains Bennett and Page were first LB.3OA (AN/258) was rolled out
the first contract which called up the first given the task o{ ferryrng arrange- two days later. An arrangement was
L8.30) and subsequent aircraft of a ments for the pre-war contract Lock- then reached between Summers, Wag-
diiferent pattern again were designated heed Hudsons, and they brought back horn and Cripps. whereby the latter
LB.30B. The situation became a little to Montrea.l the first two of these air- took over this a.ircraft after an initial
more confusing when the LB.30s craftfortraining ; among the many other flight had been made by Consolidated's
entered service and were designated problems was the organisation of test pilot. Captain Cripps-one of
"Liberator M k ll"-the appa.rently later ground support services both at BOAC's m6st experienced pilots-
designation r-8.308 then had become Montreal and at Gander (prevrously carried out fuel consumption and cold
the "Liberator Mk 1". The generic "Hattie's Camp"). But Bennett worked weather performance trials on AM258.
name, "Liberator". had been formally hard and well. and in November '1 940 and then Summers and Waghorn took
adopted by the British in November led the first delivery flight of seven over the second aircraft (AM259) and
1941 and was later used by the United H udsons across the Atlantic f rom evaluated handling characteristics and
States' and other forces. To clear up Montrea.l. via Gander, to Aldergrove in general performance parameters.
the overall picture of early deliveries. it Northern lreland. By the end of February '1 941 AN/259
should be noted that the US Army Air As the CPR Air Service Department was at lMontreal/St Hubert, where it
Corps only received one YB-24. serial got under way. it was suggested-in had been delivered on February 23.
No 40-702. Constructor's numbers for September i 940-that BOAC should AM25B remaining on test at San
AiV258-263 ran from 1 to 6. and for take the frrst batch of Liberators Diego. The third to sixth aircraft were
AM9'l 0-929 began a new series from (LB.30As) to start a transatlantic expected to be delivered at the rate of
1 ro 20. service in view of the excellent range one per week from mld-March 1941
Arrangements were nOW Set in train characteristics demonstrated by the onward although the feeling a.t Mon-
to effect delivery of the American prototype xB-24-this was eventually treal vras that Consolidated was being
bombers by air to the U K; at this point agreed in basic principles and by "Very off-hand and . . . refused to do
the story must concentrate on the November 25, 1940, the British Air anything but push the first six out of
Liberator picture. for the Boeing B-1 7s Commission was signalling the MAP the hangar . . ." Summers and Waghorn
released by the USAAC were simply tha.t the first LB.30A was being pre- had experienced something of this
delivered-the Liberator, with its high pared f or f light delivery to the U K. and a.ttitude.for the company ha.d taken a
capacity fuselage and longer range. that the next five aircraft would be strong line about the initial delivery
assurned a much greater significance "stripped for transatlantic work" for flight to Canada from the West Coast
from the outset. For the record. the delivery by the end of the year- and insisted that its own pilots {lew
first B-17C-RAF name Fortress Mk I Consoiidated had forecast the first AM259 to Montreal. Although there
-flew to the UK from Gander on delivery date as December 5. 1 940. was some truth in Ihe siruation as
April 14, 1941. This first LB.30A was then destined described a.t San Diego at this time.
On the f irst day of August 1940. for "turret work" in the UK, but some the pressures on the company were
Captain A. S. Wilcockson (who had delays were encountered when the US severe and certainly there were few
captained the flying boal Caledonia authorities refused to release the then causes for complaint in later dealings.
on the first tra.nsatlantic survey flights highly-secret Norden bomb-sight, and To be conttnued

October 1973 399

the J52-P-40BA. generating 11 2001b Above: The A-AC, f irst flown on August
THE versatile Skvhawk military atr- 21, 195a.
I craft is in production al the Douglas of thrust for take-off. The additional
t Company division of the
Aircraf power increases the SkYhawk's man- Right: An A-4C leaves the flight deck of
USS Enterprise, world's first nuclear-
McDonnell Douglas Corporation for oeuvrability, rate of climb and acceler- powered attack carrier, during US Sixth
use as an attack bomber. strike fighter ation. enhancing its already impressive Fleet exercises in the Aegean in 1 964.
or advanced jet trainer. Seven di{ferent record of combat survivability. Sp.eed
of the A-4M is in the high subsonic Bottom left: Striking head-on study of
versions of the small but powerful A-4. an A-4K as supplied to the RNZAF.
effective either as a bomber or quick- range-about 700mPh. Another A-4M
response strike fighter. and the TA-4, feature, a ribbon-tYPe drag chute. Bottom right: Two-seat TA-AF Skyhawk,
combines with wing-lift spoilers and first of whichbegan to reach the US
a two-seat trainer. have been delivered
Navy in May 1966.
to the United States Navy for carrier lhe more powerful engine to irrprove
operations and operationdl training and the Skyhawk short-field landing perfor-
for Marine Corps use as a tactical air- mance, making it the f irst of th,', series to the US Navy on November 3, 1 970.
craft. ln addition. with the authorisation with combat operational capability Newest and most sophisticated in-
of the US Government, SkYhawks in from 4 000-{oot landing fields. ternational version of the Skyhawk is
several versions have been exported Other A-4M changes include a great- the A-4N Skyhawk ll, which contains
overseas ior operation by the lsraeli er ammunition caPacitY for the two several advanc-os over its predecessors.
Air Force. Royal Australian Navy, Royal internally mounted 20mm or 30mm These improvements include a naviga-
New Zealand Air Force and the Argen- guns, a more Powerful generator, a tion and weapons delivery system
tina Navy and Air Force. self-contained enqine starter and a described as equal to or better than
More than 700 SkYhawks have
2 larger windscreen and pilot canopy, any operational system today, two 30-
been built. One of onlY a handful of providing greater head room and visi- millimeter cannon. a redesigned a.nd
US military aircraft to reach that level bility. Also incorporated in the A-4M simplified cockpit layout and a new
of production since World War ll. the are basic Skyhawk design features of Sundstrand constant speed drive. Ma-
Skyhawk is manufactured at the Doug- earlier models, such as nose-wheel o'tne navigation-weapons
Jor elements
las Aircraft CompanY division of steering. in-flight refueling capability system are a Lea.r-Siegler digital
McDonnell Douglas in Long Beach. and the McDonnell Douglas ESCAPAC computer. Kearfott inertial platform
Torrance and Palmdale. California. 1 -C-3 zero-altitude. zero-speed emer- and an Elliott head-up displaV.
One of the latest of the tactical gency eiection system. A-4|\/l features incorporated into the
Skyhawks in US military service is the Weighing only 1O 600lb emPtY, the A-4N include the Pratt I WhitneY
A-4M Skyhawk ll, the most powerful of A-4M can take off f ully loaded at a J52-P-4084 engine, as well as the
the family of rugged. bantamweight air- gross weight of 24 5001b. including self-starter, landing drag chute, wing-
craft. Built for operation by the Marine B 2001b of all types of modern tactical lift spoilers and larger windscreen and
Corps, the A-4M is Produced under armament. lt is 40.3 feet long. 1 5 f eet pilot canopy. Maiden flight of the A-
contract to the Naval Air SYstems high and has a wing sPan of onlY 21 .5 4N took place on June 12, 1972, and
Command. feet. As with other SkYhawks, thrs this model is in production for the [-rS
The multi-mission armament of the small wing span permits it to be housed Navy ano tl-e lsraeli Ai'Fo'ce.
A-4M includes air-to-air missiles and comfortably in carriers without folding Another version of the Skyhawk in
guns for fighter assignments or bombs the wings. production at Douglas is the TA-4J
and guns for close air suPPort of Flight characteristics of the A-4M, let trainer. lt is built without combal
ground forces from forward airfields or particularlV its high-speed stability and equipment, resulting in a lighter aircrafl
from carriers. lncorporated in the A- its excellent controllabilrty. make it an and simplifying mairtenance require-
4M are a number of improvements over effective platform for the sophisticated ments. Flown by NavY oPerational
its predecessor Skyhawks. Chief a- weapons oelivery systc'tt i1 calies. training squadrons. the TA-4J has a
mong the advances is a new and more The A-4M made its maiden flight on maximum ranqe of about 2 000 miles
powerful Pratt E WhitneY engine- April 1 0. 1 970. and was f irst delivered when equipped with external fuel
400 Aircroft Illustrated
tanks and an endurance of more than Since the initial deliverl, of the first
four hours, nearly double the flight Skyhawk in 1956, the durable 1et air-
trainrg i.rre ol elrlre' ,et t'atnrrs. craft has logged more than 3! million
Othcr TA-4 versions of the Skyhawk flight hours in all versions. ln the
possess the perforrnance and arrna- Vietnam conflict it was used by the
ment capab lities of the tactical Sky- US Navy and Marrne Corps on more
hawk. in addition to their training combat missions than any other opera-
function. Designed to operate from tional aircraft. This high utilisation
carriers or {rom forward landing strips stems {rom its f lying simplicity. its low
these two-place models can carrY maintenance requirements. its multi-
bombs. rockets, missiles anci guns. missron capability and the agility.
pp5ig- ot tnn Skyhawk trainer is es- small size and ruggedness which pro-
sentially the samc as that of the basic ducc its superior survivability record.
Skyhawk. with the exception ot a 28- Basic Skyhawk versions and the
inch extensjon of the fusclage to ac- year each became operational :

commodate the second seat and a dual A-4A in 1956, A-48 in 1957, A-4C
set of controls- in 1 959. A-4E in 1962. TA-4F in 1966.
A-4F in 1967, TA-4J in 1969. A-4M
Left: Maiden f light of the A-4M skyhawk Skyhawk ll in 1970 and A-4N Skyhawk
I I was made from Palmdale (California)
Airport on April 10, 1970. ll in 1 972.

. --...d,.._,i'i;s,,

. ,-. d.,,':t$'

- *-*Mi
i .,,.,- @
.-1.,'*. .;,::.

Ouober 1973 401

N I EW Zealand a.gricultural products are well known for
|\ their quality, but to achieve this standard. large tonnages
of trace elements. ie superphosphate, must be added to the
soil. As much of the country is hilly and mountainous, there
are only two methods of application of the superphosphate-
by hand and from the air.
During 1949. commercial operators began top-dressing
with aircraft. f ollowing a short period of trials by government
aqencies. The only aircraft available in numbers was the de
H-avilland B2A Tiger'Moth. This was not an entirely suitable
choice but. with a unique breed of pilots, later to be referred
to as the "supermen", the industry soon became established
as an integral part of the {arming scene.
Five operators began trials early in 1949 : Airw'ork (NZ)
Kenneth Meehan
Ltd, Aircraft Service (NZ) Ltd, James Aviation Ltd. Rural
Aviation Ltd, and Gisborne Aerial Topdressing Co Ltd'
They were quickly followed by others until. by the peak
period in 1 957, there were more than 60 operators.
The Tiger Moth was the most prolif rc NZ-registered aircraft
and top-dressing operators obtained their equipment from
a number of sources. A small number of Tiger Moths were
delivered to aero clubs pre-war anC the survivors were
impressed into the R NZAF when hostilities began' Three
hundred and thirty five aircraft were delivered during the
war. some new from RAF orders. the London Aeroplane
Club's fleet, some built at Hatfield to RNZAF orders, some
Harfield-built but New Zealand-assembled, and some built
by DH New Zealand and DH Australia' After the war a large
number of Tiger Moths were overhauled and released to
aero clubs and private owners. Although the RNZAF con-
tinued to retire the trainers, the mounting top-dressing boom
with its high attritron rate,made it obvious that other sources
would need to be found.
ln 1950 the British and Australian imports began to arrive'
However with the appearance of more modern agricultural
aircraft such as the Super Cub. Cessna 180. Fletcher FU-24'
and Pawnees, the Moth quickly faded from the farming *" f'"'flr':- d1i
-- nr!

scene. A small number were retained for spraying operations, bs P* X"al h f 3*

at Ieast two still being used for this work during 1970' As
well as top-dressing and spraying. Tigers were used for
dropping poisoned rabbit bait and f or seed sowing.
ffiffiffi# tud&F d

l was-an engineer with Aircraft Service from the time it

commenced ag work until the introduction of the FU-24, and
the history of this operator is typical of this period' lt was
obvious from the start that the Tiger was far from ideal'
its availability being its main attraction. Superphosphate is
an extremely fine powder and it entered any openings in the
aircraft structure. Corrosion of the metal, rotting of the
fabric and deterioration of the glued ioints resulted. and it
was a constant battle to keep the ingress of dust to a mini-
With the problems of the hopper installation overcome.
further modiiications then followed. A fabric fillet was f itted
to the lower wing. a metal cover fitted over the rudder bars,
a chamois leather bag sealed the bottom of the control
column. where it came through the f loor. and the lacing
under the rear fuselage was taped over. The bottom wings
still had to be opened up regularly however, and one
operator f itted a plywood panel between the.bottom wings'
Loading the aircraft was accomplished by the loader
jumping on the wing walk, undoing the hopper lid, guiding
ifre loaaing hopper, pulling a handle to release the dust'
securing the lid. and jumping off the wing as the Tiger
moved away, in about the time it takes to tell. The wing
structure under the walkway quickly deteriorated but a
heavy plywood panel covering the platform ribs proved a
satisfactory remedY.
Many landing strips were on the side of a hill. landings
Airoaft Illustrated
being made upwards, take-offs downwards. The under-
carriage took a pounding it was never designed for and
broken springs and bent bolts were a constant worry. The
aluminium fork ends were replaced by steel ones, the
compression leg fairings were removed and a safety chain
was fitted between.the leg and the axle.
The tailskid had an old file blade welded vertically to it
to give better steering. but then the lower rudder ribs and
fin post had to be strengthened. The top wing trailing edge
was cut back at the root to give more clearance to the
loading hopper. All flying wires were encased in plastic.
The main modif ication. of course, was the f itting of the
hopper. The front seat and control box was removed, and
the decking from the rear centre section struts back to the
rear cockpit was replaced with an aluminium one fitted as
part of the hopper. Various outlets were tried, a. shallow
full width one being most widely used. Enlarged windshields
of various shapes were fitted and, later. headrests too.
Manager of Aircraft Service was D. A. Grieg, a wartime
frghter pilot and a brilliant flier wilh exceptional engineering
ability. Some of his ideas included in the Tiger Moth experi-
mental modif ications were: tail wheel oleos for
main undercarriage legs. Corsair rudder pedals. adjustable
seat, torch battery-operated stall warning device and wind-
driven agitator. The fitting of brakes was also considered
but was considered too expensive. The standard exhaust
manifold gave a lot of trouble and individual stacks were
f itted. Fairey- Reed metal propellers were used on a f ew
aircraft, although care wa.s needed to prevent overspeeding.
Owing to the rugged nature of the landing strips and
numerous accidents a large number of spare components
were held in stock. Even though lworked there lsoon lost
track of the true identity of some of the 13 Tigers we had.
These aircraft came from aero clubs and private owners.
spare components being obtained in England and Australia.
Twelve sets of parts were obtained from Sydney. most still
in RAAF colours. with one that had been used as an ambu-
lance by the RAN.
The configuration of the Tiger did not change greatly.
although McGregor Aviation planned a project that featured
the litting of a Auster wing in parasol position.
The ag Tiger's hopper carried between 500 and 6001b of
material. Loading. which was initially by hand. quickly
progressed from Heath Robinson-like structures fitted to a
variety of trucks and tractors, to sophisticated. self-contained
units. Pilots and drivers lived in caravans and the loading
trucks also carried a ref uelling unit. with tools and spares.
Agricultural Tiger Moths continue to survive. the
Museum of Transport and Technology has several awaiting
restoration for static display and James Aviation kept its
firsr aircraft. ZK-AJO. which flew 6 914 hours between
1949 and 1959.
Facing page, top left, centre left and top right: Valiations in
hopper styles. James Aviation (ZK-ARB), McGregor,
Aircraft Services (NZ) Ltd (ZK-BDG).
Facing page, bottom: Another of James Aviation's Tigers,
ZK-AKO ex N21419, with seed outlets fitted to the hopper.
This page top to bottom: ZK-BDG ex A17-105 used by Aircraft
Service (NZ) Ltd 1953-1961. Colour scheme was silver and red.
ZK-ALP ex N2654 of Aerial Farming (NZ) Ltd,1950-1959. Hills
in background are typical of the country top-dressed,
First topdressing trials in South lsland were made by
ZK-ASO ex N2688 in 1949'
This silver and green, spray-equipped Tiger, ZK-AUT ex
vH-BEO, was used by Weedair Ltd between 1956 and 1960 and
incorporated parts from the fuselages of three other Tigers.

October 1973 403

Right: A Jaguar releases a 1 0001b
retarded bomb during weapon delivery
trials made f rom West Freugh, Scotland.

Ihe llardtuare fleuolution Below: Phantom FGR2 of 6 Squadron

carrying two groups of SNEB rocket
pods, three Sparrow air-to-air missiles'
a strike camera in one of the forward
missile bays, auxiliary tuel tanks and a
centre-line cannon Pod.

n T rhe outoreak of tne 1914/18 War

A Lne f li'nsy military ae'oplares o{ the
Royal Flying CorPs and RoYal Naval
Air Service. predecessors of the Royai
Air Force. were exPerimenting with
new aerial mines and grenades 1o use
against enemY airshiPs and ground
forces. lt was thought thal up to 40lb
of explosives could be dropped from
a height of 350ft without damage to
the carrier aircraft. To launch smaller
weapons the pilot or observer leaned
over the side of the cockpit and dropped
the Iethal devices f rom his grasP !

Today, less than sixtY Years later,

one RAF strike fighter can deposit a
bo.nb loao of I 6 0001b on lo a movinq
target with pin-point accuracy. Such
is the "hardware revolution" that has
changed the tactics of warfare waY
beyond the dreams of yesteryear's
science f iction writers.
When the Buccaneer low Ievel strike
aircraft first entered service in the early
sixties it could carry a maximum weap-
Aircraft Illustrated


t. ,..,.19Eq,.t:r.*._


ons loai of B 0001b. \A/irir progre ssivr: tering servrce oo not numericilly rc- largcly foi-',rvcigirt reasons. it uscd io be
c^vt'iopn ' nt ,nd L: L -ciori on c' n',,v Dlace ihe tyoes or:inq retireo, iiroy unihirrkirille to coi',sicicr any bomDcr
\ /capoirs pylons, thc iaie st vr:i-sions of more tiran nrakc up ior-this by tircir lacr<ing a bonrb bay. bui ihe siri:pe ot
the Buccaneer can now lift coubie cxrra narci hitting capabriitres. Onrr the bay was very restricting on tire
this loacl. SimilarLy tlrc Phanionrs, squaciron of Bticcanccrs can carry typ,: of oronance cerriori, crzcn though
Harricrs ancl Jaguars that havc suc- twice as rnucir weaponry as a Canircrra i' tnln,'i ' , ri .g, oo' > cr,i cuw: e :t ur..l
ceedoi thc Fiunrer and Canberra in souaciron. A Phantom sou".ciron has a ano marginally rncrease specci. aci-
['or, li-.' s. vic, o' JrL ruoJt ru gr.rarer puncn thar five l-lunter squaci- ried conrpiicatiorr ancl wcight oi an
entcr scrvice, can carfy wcapons loads rons I inLcrnal bornb bay is not lustif iabic on a
many iiincs grcatcr tiran iirc oLclcr This morc :'ccent \,!calpons rcvc;lution smali attack aircraft ilrougir ii i:ccomes
rrachincs. has cornc aboui l.:rgcly as a rcsult of morc viabie on largcr bornircis such
Wrth tire cost,rf new aircraft rncreas- two clcvcloomcnts. I'he firsr is the as ihe lJuccanccr. Vulcan. anci Vicior.
ing in ciirect proportion io tho increaso c)(tra tlrrust io weigirt raiios now avail- i\4uliiple weapons cariage an
in sophrstication domancicci, it is ob- lol! [ron' 'rnu' n. , 'ii, ,' a: -uL t:qi , s. obv,uus oLvp.clrlr'' nL is suon li In
vious that oach roplaccment rnachine The liarrier's Pcgasus iuibo{an pro- creaseC power gave grcater load cai'ry-
nrusi bc very cost effective anrt abic to cluccs cnough pcw.r to ver-iic.:liy iift i,r3 crr,b,liiy. Insi.-.d oi ( r rV' r! o'|:iy
"carry the nrcsiest". A gocd cxarlplc its own rveigirt plus that of the aircrait. singlc bombs or wcapon pods on eilcil
of this is thc llarricr. Dcsoite its ciirnrnu- plus a heavy rnrar load. l\ fcw ycars ago cf the airci'aft pylons, ihe laiicr are now
tivc size it c:rries a vci'y gooci w€ri:rpons such a feat was tecnnrcaliy irnpractical {iitecl with multiplc carricrs. whicl't pcr-
cielivcry system ard can cairy 5 0C0lb for an operational nrachine. mit tlre ioading ol morc llran one
cf orcinance. T hi-q is aoout doublr ihc Tirc secorrd devoiopment is the \,veapon on caoit pvion. t he tilr'oc iypes
loac.i of rhe iluntor \^/ircn rt r-cpii:ccc1 iir evolut jon of rluitiplc carriage \,/eapons of cariicr nov.r in FAF usc can (rarry
sorvico, and rs likcly to be irncrovcd pylonr. 'rt prur,.ie uf c(,n. ill l.l LWu VVn..DUnS i.t t,:rO, m. i\VO riCru Oy-
Upofl uS u;llJt' ci lr,,:ri s, r'l^: i rvicL. oifcnsive siorcs v.ritirin an intcgral side cr three in a ciovcr leai grouP,
Aithcugir nurnbers of net"nr aiicra{i en- bcmb bay iras go'rc oui of fashion clepenciinq on thcir dosign and ihe
Ottober 197-i 405
aircraft to which they are f itted. The
weapon release units are of the stan-
dard NATO pattern and so virtually any
type o{ weapon can be carried All of
oui'front line ground attack aircraft. the
Harrier, Phantom and Buccaneer. are
equipped with multiple weapons car-
riers and so will be the Jaguar and
It is not just the ordnance lift capa-
bility of modern RAF aircraft that has
improved. The firepower itself has been
developed dramatically over the last
decade. Heavy. but inaccurate, ground-
attack rockets, dating back to World
War ll, continued in use until compara-
tively recenlly but have now beetl
totally replaced by podded rockets of
very compact externaJ dimensions.
These armour piercing rockets are of
the high velocity type and are ftited
with hollow charge warheads which
will penetrate with ease the armour of
any modern tank or warship. Over 2OO
such rockets can be carried bY one
aircraft and they can be fired either in a
battleship-lrke salvo, or rippled off a
pod at a time. dePending on the tYPe sclves. fhe new attack systems are Above: Some of the modern ordnance
of target being attacked. based on inertral navigation principles which can be carried by a Phantom (top)
and Jaguar.
New bomblng techniques have re- using space gytos; they are indepcnd-
sulted from the introduction of retarded cnt of grourrd stations and are therefore Below: Harrier armed with two radar-
bombs. These weaPons are slowcd homing versions of the Anglo-French
secure and can be used worldwid-". Martel air-to-surface missile.
down in flrght bY smali Parachutes Using built in computers they provide
which deploy immediately after release' very accuratc navlgation information, Finder and Marked Target Receiver
Tlrey can be dropped safely f rom vcty which eases the task of fincling the (LF|\ITE) which Performs two func-
low altitudes and this minim ses the target and thus permitting the ctcw First it provrdes the pilot with
aircraft s vulnerability to encmy de- to concentrate on tactics. Once the extrermely accul'ate range f inding which
fences and still ensures accurate l:'g.1 ,r rot oloo. rr' ll\AS Lliv s DI L l'e has previously been the one thing
de livery. weapon ainring rnformation makrng all 11-" ground attack pilot has lacked;
Another new weaPon ParticularlY the necessary calculations such as air- this innovation will therefore greatly
effective against enemy armour is the craft speed, firing range and surface increase w,:apon delivery accuracy. lts
Cluster bomb. This ls similar in size wind. wlrich previously had to be as- second functiot-t is to enable targets
and shape to the standard 1 0001b sessecl and allo',ryed for by thc pilot. ,,vhich arc designa.ted on the ground
bomb but shortlY after release its So sophisticated is this equiprncnt that by a Forward Air Controiler to be
casing peels away, reieasing a Iarge it can even release weaPons auto- located and identified by the pilot;
number of armour piercing bomblcts matically. The Harrier and Phantom this will greatly enhance the speed and
which fall in a highdensitY cioud. areittcd with a f irst gerreration INAS
f efficiency of close air support opera-
saturating the target area. Dropped in which is an analogue system, the tions.
sticks along an advancing column o{ Jaguar and MRCA are bcing equiPPed With al these new weapons and the
enemy armour these cluster \/eapons with second gcneIation digital systems. increase in lifting capabilities of the
would create havoc. Although de- which wi I have even greal-'r capability. latest combat aircra{t it can be seen
signed primarily as anti-armour weap- The Harrier and Jaguar urtll soon be that the RAF's conventional teeth are
ons. the bomblets are also exception- fitted \/rth the Ferranti Laser Range sharper thalr ever !

ally effective against personnel.

The Hawker SiddeleY N,4artel air to
ground missile will shortly become a
highly effective addition to the RAF's
armoury. The missrle will serve in the
TV guided version as a stand off
weapon agalnst land or ship targets
and in the automatically homing ver-
sions as an anti-radar weapon blinding
enemy corltrol stations and making lif e
easier for other attacking aircraft
The RAF's abilitY to navigate accu-
rately to its targets and release its
weapons with precision has been im-
provcd in step with the weapons them-
Aircraft Illustrated
n SUPERSONIC Concorde, a couple of subsonic Luton
A Minorc and in between mainly Pipers. Cessnas and
BBIIISF] CIVIL lslanders comprise the allocations this month. The c/n of
G-BBCY looks highly suspect and no doubt in the passage
of time will be amended. The Viscount B0B was delivered
new to Aer Lingus in 1958 and was later converted to a
AIBCBAFI- BEGISTER freighter by Scottish Aviation. The Swiss airline SATA
acquired it in 1969 and later was expected to join the now
Compiled by A. J. Wright defunct British company Air lnternational. Arislng from the
ashes, Nor-Air, a new airline at Southend, is now believed
to be the future operator of G-BBDK. Finally it is to be
hoped that the Fan Jet Falcon stays a little longer than
the f irst one. F-BAOA.
Registration Type C/n Owner or Operator
'10857 Mindacre Ltd (N21865) Cln
G-BBCV Cessna A.1 888 Registrction Type Owner or Operator
C, B BCW PA E23 Aztec 250 7 - 4800 Scotcourt Executrve Air
Lrd (N14251) G-BBEI PA 31 Navalo -1 20 Cannon Electronics I
131 Auiomation Ltd
G BBCX Airship (Hot Air)
Radio ControLled E.A. Wills I G. W. Moger G-BBEJ PA-31 Navalo 350 17305058 Webster Aviation Ltd
G. BBCY Lrton LA-44 Mrnor A-4A C. H. Difford G.BBEK Fan Jet Falcon 186 Trader Airways Ltd
G- BBCZ AA 5 Trave er 382 Generai Aviaiion Sales Ltd G,BBEL PA 2BR cheroke-. l3OB77 Mann Aviation Ltd
G BBDA AA-5 Trave er Jd J General Aviation Sales Ltd Arrow 180 I

G BBDB PA-28 Cherokee 305361 Spooner Avration Ltd G-BBEN4 Beechcra{t B 55 lfC.t Ot O Eagle Aircraft Services
180 Lrd
G- BBDC PA 28 Cherokee 325437 Spooner Aviation Ltd G-BBEN Bcttanca 7GC ec l+go zs Airways Aero
140 I
Association Ltd
G BBDD PA-28 Cherokec 325444 Spooner Avration Ltd G-BBEO Cessna FRA l50L 10205 Lonmet (Aviation) Ltd
140 G,BBEP Not yet dllacated I

G-BBDE PA-28R Cherokee 335250 Spooncr Aviation Ltd G BBER 47G-5A

Bell 1251 31 CSE Aviation Ltd
Arrow 200 2 G BBES Beil2068Jer
_t ltto+ CSE Aviation Ltd
G_BBDF PA 288 Cherokec 7335255 Spooner Aviation Ltd Hanqel I

Arrow 200-2 G. B BET Ber2068Jet 11102 Ben Turner I Son

G.BBDG Concorde 1 00 002 BAC Ltd Commercial Ranger I
(Helicopters) Ltd
A rcraft Divrsion G,BBEU Bell 2068.J-"t 11121 B-.n Turner I Son
G BBDH Cessna F.1 72 M Leicestershire Aero Ranq.r I
(He icopters) Ltd
Club Ltd G-BBEV PA 28 Cherol'ee 17125340 J. E. Fricker (LN-l\4TM)
G-BBDI PA-18 Super Cub 1 I 5336 J. E. Honrewood
150 G BBEW lX9r. o,,"" zso lz:osozs Ellerman Lines Lld
G BBDJ Thunder balloon S. W. D. Ashby I G BBEX cessna B5A lO+ct
1 Shackleton Aviation Ltd
AX6 56 H. B. Ashby G-BBEY PA,F23 ATtec 250 173051 60 CSE Avration Ltd
G-BBDK V scount B08C l. McCle land I G-BBEZ Skvvan srs 3 lSH.1 9l 8 Short Bros I
Partners Ltd variant 2OO I Harland Ltd
(HB,lLR/Er-AJK) G-BBFA Stvvan srs 3 lSH.191 9 Short Bros I
G.BBDL AA- 5 Traveler Genera Avration Sales vailant 4OO I Harland Ltd
Ltd G-BBFB BeL 2008Jer lttzg CSE Aviatlon Ltd
G BBD]\4 AA 5 Traveler 407 Genera Aviation Sales Ranqer I

Ltd G BBFC AA-18 Trarner 10245 General Aviation Sales

G-BBDN Taylor Monoplane A.1437 D. A. Nrce Ltd
G BBDO PA E23 Aztec 250 3051 20 Seai-.d Motor G-BBFD PA 28R cherokee lrrrrrO, Truman Av ation Ltd
Constructron Co Ltd Arrow 2OA-2 I

(N40361 ) G BBFE Bell 2064 Jel IZS Astra Arrcraft Ltd

G-BBDP Robin DR.400/1 00 53 Avons Robin (UK) Ltd Bdnqer I

G BBDR PA 31 Navaio 1 -0056 Mann Aviatron Ltd G-BBFF PA 34 Seneca 200 Amercan Airspeed
(LN,NPG) 17250076 lncorporated Ltd
G,BBDS PA 3'1 Navalo 3009 56 Belanr Bulk Buying Ltd I (N1 077U)
(N75651) G-BBFG BN 2,A 6 ls ander l7O1 Britten-Norman
G BBDT Cessna 1 50H 8839 Eastern Avrat on Ltd (Bembridge) Ltd
(N2321 2) G, BBFH BN 2A-6 t.t"no", lTOz Brtt-.n-Norman
G- BBDU PA-31 Navajo 1 537 Efl-. Electronics Ltd (Bembridge) Ltd
(N67901) G.BBFI BN-24 6 t.t"nl", lzOE Britten- Norman
G BBDV SIPA S.903 B. Pr cc (F-BEYJ) (Bembridge) Ltd
G BBD\^/ BN-2A 9 lslander +2 Br tten Norrnan G-BBFJ BN 24-6 t, lz0+ Br tt-.n Norman
( B,"rnbridge) Ltd "na", (Bembridge) Ltd
G.BBDX BN 24 I ls ander 43 BrittcfNorman G-BBFK BN-2A o trtuno", lzos Britten-Norman
(BemDr dgc) Ltd I
(Bembridge) Ltd
BN-2A'2 ls ander x4 Brittcn-Norlran G BBFL Nat yet allacated I

(BembrLdgc) Ltd G. tsBF[,4 RN-.rA.6 lsland-"r 1706 Britten-Norman

G BBDZ BN-24 I ls arrdr:r Britten Nornran (Bembridge) Ltd
(Bembridg.") LtC G BBFN BN 24 6", lzoz Br tten Norman
G-BBEA Luton LA-4A AK 1 S. A Knight (Bembrldge) Ltd
G BBEB PA 28R Cherokee 7 335292 Northern Exocutrve G-BBFO BN-24 6", llog Britten Norman
Arrow 200 2 Aviatrof Ltd (Bembricige) Ltd
G-BBEC PA 28 Cherokee /305478 Spooner Av atron Ltd G BBFP BN 2A,6 t.L"no", lzog Britten-Norman
180 (Bembr dge) Ltd
G BBED MS.B94B Rallye 12.091 Air Tourng Servrces Ltd G-BtsFR BN-24 6 trtunou, lu to B ritten'N o rma n

l\4inerva (Bembridge) Ltd

G BBEE Learlet 258 25 135 CSE Aviat on Ltd G-BBFS Free b:ttoon ltu A. J. F. Sm th
G-BBEF PA-28 Cherokec 7325527 CSE Avrat on Ltd G BBFi Cessna A 188BlOtZlOr Lonmet (Aviation) Ltd
144 G BBFU PA E23 Aztec 250 173A'J124 Not knawn (N40364)
G BBEG Be I 206,4 Jct 442 Alan Mann He icopters G-BBFV PA-32 Cherokee lgz llg Spooner Avration Ltd
Bafger Lrd Six 260 I

G BBEH PA 28R Cherokee 7 335297 Spooner Aviat on Ltd G BBFW PA E23 Aztec 25o 121 219 Not known (5Y-KRB)
Anow 200-2 G BBFX PA-34 Seneca 200 17250109 Nat known (sY-APJ)

October 1973 407

Above: One of the Hunter FGA9S which
lllo 45 Squadron at RAF Wittering,
Hunts, is using for training pilots for the
RAF's new Jaguar tactical strike fightot

photographcd last Decembor. Winged
camet badge commemoratss tho fact that
No 45 flew the famous Sopwith Gamel
fighter in the Filst World War.
John Tweddell, HSA (Kingston Divn)
Above rightr A Halrier of ltlo I Squ.dron
from Wittering in tompotary "snow
camouflage" during Exetcise "Sky Mist"
which was hetd in northern Scotland
last winter.
John Tweddell. HSA (Kingston Divn)
Right: Fly-by-wirs Hunter: the Royal
Ai?craft Establishment's unique green
Hunter T12, seen here during a sortie
last April, has now embarked on a tost
programms in which it makes complete
ilights usin-g quadruplex olsctrically- '
signalled flight-contlol equipment which
is boing developed bY the RAE.
Peter Hudson, RAE Bedford

408 AirtaJt Illustrated

-t-"t **h

r.4' :. {

F+f' a


t. ,{
{* r" {,
ii19,1 &rt
li.'f .' 3".s

i.':l r*'!*&fr :':"t. ;-J;:]r

'@ t+-.- 3e-

such a massive piece of machinery com- ln addition to the underwtng stores,
pa,ed wrth the rvpical pistor'-engtned this model has the underfuselage gun
packs included as optional items.
MODELLING {rohter of World War ll.
Revell's Harrte'kit makes uP into a All panel and skin lines on this model are
oenerally good mode' bf tmpress ve s ze engraved as raised lines to cut costs, but
WOBLD but it is not without items that requlre
attention to bring it up to the latest stan-
personally I would have preferred to see
at least some of the panels indented
dard. Tl'e gply m3.o' irem requlr,ng rather than raised-although I appreciate
James Goulding modification is in the appearance of the that thjs is more costly. ln a modeL of thls
f orward jet outlet fairing, which in the kit size indented panels do add realism.
is shown in the form used on the Pre- The transfer sheet provides markings for
Frog's Hellcat production Harrlers This fairlng originally two versions, a Harrier GRIA of '1 Squad-
continued from last month ron, Royal Air Force, and a US Marine
aDoea eo as a separdle slreamlined bulge
The whole of the engine cowling is Corps AV-BA. The transfers are of good
removableto permit the engine to be .nrred.ately dIt ol the enqr-e l11a\es, bJt
earlv tn lLe O'odr, lion ' fe of tne Harrte' quality, but early kits have a fault on the
viewed. the propeller only being a push-f t red and blue fin flash for the RAF version,
on the propeller shaft to make this possible'
it was smool*ed 'nto l1e sur oJndlng
fuselage structure and has remained in this which is being corrected. I found difficu ty
Seoaraie windscreens are prov ded for in laying the fuselage RAF roundel down
{orm e'ver since. Modifrcatlon of the Revell
eirher the F6t-3 or F6F-5 versrons' .I]ooc' ts edsy. Jcllg body o.ltty or slmtlar flat on the double curvature of the area
A ventral drop tank installation adds around the engine tntakes. Eventually it
interest to the model if required, and six f ller to smooth out the bulged f arring into
the fuselage. was found easier to match paints to the
underwing rockets are included for the colours in the decals and paint the roun-
FOF-b va'rant. lf these lattet ite-ns are Unfortunately, Revell has merely en-
oraved the two main nose undercarriage dels bV hand, using ink bow compasses
installed, holes in the wings have to be filled with the respective colour paint to
opened uP. ioors instead of supplying them as separ-
The wheels and tyres on this model are iG it"tt. This is. lfeel. making life diffrcult describe the circles. The upper and lower
for the modeller. On early productlon wing roundels on the transfer sheet were
fine mould ngs and add additional realism Harriers these doors remained closed when used wtthout trouble, hence the need to
to what is a very beautiful model Com- was either re- match the patnt co ours accurately The
oa.trq thrs rrooe' w th Feve't s So'tf"e, the nose undercarriage
i-tutt,iun" a'd Typroon. one rea ses .us1 tracted or in the "down" position' .only fault in the fin flash, which perm ts only
ooent-q oJilnf th^ letra'lion or exle'ltion one side to be used. necessitated painting
what a hefty piece of machtnery was the .o^"o^io Pnolooraol's Taken i1 rer ent this item by hand.
Hellcal-but functionally shapely too snoiw rnar ltsPSe door a'e Incidentally, in the rnstruction sheet it is
Transfers in the kit permit the selection of "".'t "t-ulfv
'e{t oper ',ril^i e rhe ai'( ra't ls standtrg on suggested that the exhaust nozzles should
one of two alternatlves One is an FOF-3 be painted "flat metallic grey". ln fact.
Hellcat I of BO0 Squadron, Fleet Air Arm. the ground. This may be for servicing
reusons, but it may also be that the retrac- the forward nozzles, which only exhaust
in Temperate Sea scheme, based on HMS
Emperorin '1 944. The other is an FOF-5 of 1 tion system has been modified Either coLd arr, are painted dark green. The rear
FIotille, Aeronavale, tn French Indo-China way it would have been an advantage to exhaust nozzles should be burnt metal
have these doors as separate items in order Price of Revell's 1 /32 Harrier is t1 70
during 1945. This was finished in overall
oloss-Sea Blue. I am delighted these davs that the modeller could have the option of
iuitf, Frog's British aircraft markings, fltting the doors in either manner' Per- Matchbox's Strikemaster and
sonally, I Prefer to see them oPen Bell AH-1 G HueYCobra
which are now extremely accurate In
Two further Matchbox kits in T /12 scale
colour. lwould respectfully suggest that Irr my opinion the Harrier is one of the
most difftcult and tedtous models to make, not previously reviewed are of the BAC
other manufacturers could well refer to 67 Strrkemaster and the Bell AH-1G
them for colour guidance in any scale. Because of the side Jet 'l

exnaU.l .O17 ?< anO exr PSs ve wlng HueyCobra attack hellcoPter.
The cost of the Frog/Hasegawa Hellcat The BAC StrLkemaster is a very welcome
kit is t2.50 and the Bf1 09E is f 1 '54 anhedraL, painting after w ng assembly is
very diffrcult. lt is therefore advisable to model and it js surprising that this aircraft
comp ete and paint the fuselage before- has not been prodlced in a kit before now
A big Harrier it would be equally surpris no
Beino a lntq.e aeroplane l1 ma.tV vvays hand. leaving wing assemb Y and the -although
it wJs inev'tanle that lne Haw'er Fat ter addrtion of the let nozzles untll later' Be- if one of the rnore established manu{ac-
GR Mk1 would become afavourite subiect cause the camouflage of the upper surface turers does not release another Strike-
extends around the wino leading edge master kit before long.
for the kit manufacturer' So far w'e have An excelient choice of sublect. lvlatch-
had 1112 scale models from Frog and onto the under surface and because the
anhedral makes it difflcult to paint into the box's kit is accurate, well-moulded and has
Airfix. with a thrrd from Matchbox to an excel ent fit of parts. The cockp t hood
come. We have had a 1/48 scale Harr er wrng roots on the under srde. lt is advisable
to Complete the wing before assembly' mouldtng is a beautiful p ece of work'
from Tamiya. The biggest of all will be Thc external and cockpit detail is limited.
Airfix's massive 1124 scale kit, which is The underwing serial transfers must also
due later this vear' be addeo before the underwing stores and because the hood is so largc and
are cemented into posit on These stores, clear Ithink this is a case where a little
Biggest Harrier to be released at the tlme
which rn Revell's krt lnclude rocket pods more detail on such items as the ejector
of going to press is Revell's i/32 scale seats and the nstrument panel ',^;ould
GR'l A single-seater. This model makes an and drop tan ks. must be painted separately
before cemer'rtinq Ln place bcr:ause they nave been o'. raole Del;tlis ^ol ro 16'6'-
interesting- comparison with other 1/32
are so close together or.r the short-span sary w,here it is largeLy hidden. Thc nose
scale models-notably Revell's H awker
landing 1lght is also very prominetrt on the
Typhoon and Hurricane. lt is interesting ,.r,ing. The tarlplane and main under-
currLge unlt are aLso better completed full size sublect. and thLS is aqain an ltem
to note how the proportions of fighter a r- that shou d have been detalLed, wLth a
cra'l have e\anged over llae vca15. espe( i- and patnted Defore assemblY.
of Revell's model has ,epdrdTe lra'1. pd art , OVet.
ally with the advent of the iet engtne and The fuselage a

removable enQlne bay door through which The under',r, ng stores on this model are
the swept or deita wing. D mensronally the confjned to the multi-t er single ro',v of
Harrier is lltt e bigger than the Typhoon, the detailed engine may be vlewed The
engine is a good representat on of the rockets under each w ng A feature of the
but whereas frghters tn earlier years had a is that it has four strong-
wing span conslderably greater than their Pegasus 6, nsLde of which s a linktng Strikemaster
reihrn'st which enables all the let points on the wing for the carriage of
overall Length, the modern let flghter has bombs. rocket pods, multi-tier rockets or
an overall length greater than lts wir-lg exhaust nozzlcs to rotate together' This
mc, l-anr .n ts .r 11 e'nerk ot r^.tl rl oro drop tanks. I feel that a combination of
span. But it is in the respectlve fuselage loads shouLd have been supplicd with this
lengths that the greatest contrast exlsts. duct orr Revell kits and I ur)derstarrd that it
is being strengthcned. kl1. but their omission is not serious be-
and which makes the modern iet f ighter
AircraJt Illustrated
cause such weapon loads can easlly be
taken from. say, the Airfix Jaguar or
Harrier kits and adapted for use on this
model. Four well-filled pylons added to
this model make t look in character.
Adaption of this model to produce a Jet
Provost Mk5 should be simple enough,
by cutting off the wlng tip tanks and
addrng ordinary wing t1ps, and by adding
the strokes around the nose. There are
several exciting colour schemes for Jet
Provost L4k 5 aerobatrc teams.
Transfers in the krt are for a Slrikemaster
Mk B0 of the Royal Saudi Arabran Air
Force and a Mk 88 of the Foyal Nevv **--*%Eabi

Zealand Air Force.

The New Zealand Strikernasters are
painted in three-tone canrouflage stmtlar
to that used by the USAF, r,r,hereas those
in Saudr Arab an service are either camou-
flaged in dark earth and lght stone or'r the
upper surfaces or are alunr niunr overa
The transfers show var ance f|orn ohoto-
"ol's o'rne5o a'r'"it a-d i, . e ."'y
to check the sty e and posrt on of nrar,<-
rngs on actual aircraft before appLying
those supp ied. One notrceable alteratlon
requrred is that the words "Royal Saudi
Arr Force" should be on a 'rvh,a r".16ngLe
on carnouflaged a rcraft and thts'rui lhave *---'--.i*.*

to be added to the mode before applicat on

of the decal. As it is the decal is correct
for an alum nium-paiftcd a rcraft.
N,latchbox's Bel AH-1G HueyCobra is
another useful sublect for those vvisiring to
depict a Vietnamese scene, and one that
ivi I probably appeal to the schoolboy
ma rket.
Tl- ' rode i' g"reratly a!.v'o o I I oU -
lrne and nicely nroulded, but the tndented
skrn lines are rather on the heavy side.
The tail rotor surpr singly appears to be
mounted on the wrong s de of the {in.
photographs clear y sho'.ving this to be
usually fitted to port. This can fair y easily
be corrected.
Gun pods and rocket launchers are pro-
v ded for Tnount ng on the stub wings and
the gun barbette under the nose rotates.
Cockpit Cetail is adequate and the g azed
canopy is a beautiful p ece of moulding.
The rotor head is rather simplif ed. but the
blade hubs are n ce y detai ed.
'rdn)re's arP prov deo'o'lwo v€lr.o1s
One s from the US Marine Corps and the
other from No 235 Attack Helicopter
Flrght, US Army.
Each of these models costs 23p.

Above right: Four brand new Bell AH-1G

HueyGobras on test prior to delivery to
Fort Stewart, Georgia, for use in pilot
transition training.
Right: Snow Harrier, A Harrier of No 1
Squadron in snow camouflage during
Exercise "Sky Mist", See also centre-

Otrober 1973


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October 1973
EVELOPED as a private-venture
prototype, the Blackburn B-6
Shark prototype two/three seat
torpedo - spotter- recon naissa nce
(TSR) aircraft first flew in August
1933. and following successful
Service evaluation trials '1 6
production aircraft, designated Shark
l. were ordered for the Fleet Air Arm.
The Shark I officially entered service
in May 1935 with B2O Squadron
aboard HMS Courageous replacing
the squadron's Fairey Seals. This mark
was followed by 126 lVk lls and 95
Mk llls in turn, the latter featuring a
glazed canopy over the cockptts. By
1938, however. the Shark was already
obsolete and was relegated to other
duties such as target towing, f or
which purpose many aircraft were
equipped with a winch and wind-
" *lre \
driven re-wlnding gear on the port
side of the rear cockpit controlling a
cable drum.
Six Shark seaplanes, designated
llA, were sold to the Portuguese Navy
in '1 935. three of them being f itted
with a huge 160-gallon long range
ventral fuel tank. The RCAF also
adopted the Shark and. after
purchasing seven Mk lls from
Blackburn, Canada arranged for 1 7
M k llls to be built under ltcence in
Canada by a subsidiary of the
American firm of Boeing known as
Boeing Aircraft of Canada.
Brief Specif ication (Shark l)
Power plant; One 700hp Armstrong
Siddeley Tiger lV; Span (upper) : 46ft.
(lower). 36ft Oin. (foLded) 15ft 0rn;
Wing area:489sq ft; All-up weight
(torpedo landplane) : 8 05Olb: Speed at
sea level (torpedo landplane) : 533mph;
Armament: One fixed forward-
firing Vickers machine gun and one
Vickers- Berthier machipe g'rn in rear
cockpit. One 1 500-lb torpedo on
crutches beneath fuselage or an
equivalent weight of bombs on racks
beneath wings.

Top to bottom: The prototype Blackburn

B-6 armed with a torpedo.
Third production Shark I in the markings
of 810 Squadron. A Zippatone drawing of
this particular machine, plus a head-on
view to complement the drawings
opposite, will appear in next month's

The Shark lll prototype.

First Shark for the Portuguese Navy at
Brough in March 1936, Third aircraft,
seen in the background, is fitted with a
160-gauon long-range ventral fuel tank.
414 Airctaft Illustated



largely as the result of personal initiative
on the part of certain commanders. A
good example of this was the decision
taken by General Hoyt S. Vandenberg,
rhe usAF's chief of staff . ro authorise
the immediate move of hryo medium
bombardment groups-the 22nd and
92nd-to the Far East from their bases
in the United States. Both these B-29
Groups belonged to the Strategic Air
Command's Fifteenth Air Force, and al-
though their transf er meant that SAC's
striking capability would be tempora-
rily depleted, General Vandenberg be-
lieved that he was justified in taking
the risk. On July B the two groups-
together with the 1gth Bombardment
Group and the 31st Stralegic Recon-
naissance Squadron-were formed in-
to a Far East Air Forces Bomber Com-
mand at Yokota under the command of
Major-General Emmett O'Donnell. Jr.
The lack of co-ordination was par-
ticularly apparent in the time it took
to get messages from the ADCOM in
Korea to the Advance Headquarters of
the Fifth Air Force at ltazuke. Fequests

sHOOTTNG STAR for air support of any kind had to fol-

low a tortuous route through GHO

The f lrst jet aircraft accepftd for opera-

lighter. twin-engined C-46s and C-
in Tokyo and FEAF bef ore they f inally
reached ltazuke; and delays of up to
{our hours, even involving
messages, were normal.

tional service by the USAAF, the 47s. The runway held, and by nightfall On July 4. in a determined effort
Lockh eed F - B0 (oi gi na I I y P- B0) S h oot- on July 4 the Wing had flown in the to overcome this ridiculous situation.
ing Star was lust too late to see servlce two battalions of the 24th Division. as General MacArthur ordered the estab-
in World War /l but was on hand when well as the Divisional Headquarters lishment of a new ground command,
in 7 950 and
the Korean conflict began and a Regimental Combat Team of the United States Army Forces in Korea
was then gtven the opportunity to go 21st lnfantry Division. (USAFIK), under the command of
into action for the ftrst trme. Thrs All told, the airlift had proceeded Major-General William F. Dean. The
account of some of rts early operattons with remarkably few hitches. ln fact, latter was ordered to by-pass the
is drawn from Robert Jackson's new il was one of the very few ope'atiors tusual circuitous channels a.nd com-
book Ai War Over Korea. to be pub- that did unfold with any reasonable municate directly with the Commanders
lished this month by lan Allan Ltd. degree of efficiency during this initial of FEAF and Naval Forces Far East
phase of the Ame.ican commitment; whenever he needed air and naval
LTHOUGH the 3741h l ransport support. The next essential step was
An Wing', tlept of C-46s. C-47s ano C-
activities during the {irst week of July
revealed a regrettable lack of co- the creat{on of a loint operations
54s was standing by at ltazuke from ordination at most Ievels, and it was centre; this opened on July 5 in
dawn on July 1, 1950, plans for the to be some days-in some cases. Tae.on, and consisted oI two opera-
rapid airlift of the 24th Division to weeks-before the machine began to tions sections, one run by the Air
Korea were initia.lly hampered by bad function more or less smoothly. Force and the other by the Army. Their
weather. Six C-54s managed to get Nowhere was this deficiency more function was to collate and co-
through to Pusan with their loads of apparent than in relations between the ordinate all available intelliqence;
troops during the afternoon. but then Army and Air Force. The vital import- actual conrrol of tactical air power was
the weather deteriorated to such an ance of tull ground-air co-operation. a to be exercised by a tactical air control
extent that the malor part of the opera- lesson learned the hard way during centre, operating in close conlunction
tion had to be postponed until the the grim days of World War ll. appeared with the Joint Operations Centre. ln
following morning. 1o have been forgotten in the space of these early stages, however. the JOC
Then another problem arose; Pusan's five short years. Military and air com- was run almost entirely by Air Force
primitive runway took such a pounding manders quickly realised to their dismay personnel-some 45 in all, under the
from the heavily-laden C-54s during that no firm plans existed either for the command of Lieutenant-Colonel John
the morning of July 2 that by now it deployment of troops to Korea by air, R. Murphy-and there was little in the
was virtually unusuable. Major-General or for the support of those troops by nature of a joint enterprise about it. The
Edward J. Timberlake, Acting Com- tactical aircraft once they entered situation at the battlef ront was so con-
mander of the Fifth Air Force in the combat; a formula for eff ective air- fused that it was almost impossible
temporary absence of General Part- ground co-operation had to be thrashed to draw an accurate intelligence pictu'e.
ridge, accordingly ordered the 374th out from scratch and in the meantime and, because Lhe communicaiions
Wing {o continue the operation with the American effort was sustained problem was still far from solved, such
416 Aircraft Illusttated
information as was available was more primary armament of eight 0.5 machine the most advanced combat aircraft the
often than not out of date by the time guns. The Fifth Air Force pilots were Fifth Air Force was capable of handling.
it filtered through to Fifth Air Force unanimous in their praise of the F-80 A request for an additional 1 64 F-
Advance Headquarters at ltazuke. as a ground attack aircraft; the high 80Cs. in {act, headed the list of urgent
By the end of the f irst week of July. speed gave it the all-important element aircraft requirements sent to Washing-
it was apparent that the plan to stiff'en of surprise. and because there was no ton by General Stratemeyer on June 30.
the resistance of the ROK forces with propeller torque to cope with it was a The list also included an additronal 64
the aid of the 24th lnfantry Division far better gun platform than any con- F-51 Mustangs and 21 F-82s. both
had failed. Lightly armed American ventional propeller driven machine. of which types were eminently suitable
infantry, outnumbered by ten to one. The F-BOC could also carry a pair f or long range ground attack work. The
lacking supporting artillery and armour, of 1 0O0lb bombs in place of its 165 Mustangs were to be used to build up
were no match for the North Koreans' gallon tip tanks, but this reduced its a new fighter-bomber group, which
T-34 tanks. On July 6 the American radius of action to approximately 100 was to be based at lwakuni; mean-
forces. dazed and bewildered by the miles. Normally, with a full fuel load while General Stratemeyer ordered the
battering they had received. were in full and sixteen rockets the radius of action Thirteenth Air Force to form an F-51
retreat towards Chonan. This position was 225 miles; in this configuration Squadron at Johnson Air Base with
also had to be evacuated less than the aircraft had a loiter time over the the aid of thirty Mustangs pulled out
twenty-four hours later; the situation target of something like f ifteen minutes. of storage. All the other aircraft on
was now ,extremely critical, and Gen- It was not enough, and General Stratemeyer's iist were needed for
eral MacArthur expressed his fear to Partridge-conscious of the fact that a existing FEAF units. some of which
the joint Chiefs of Staff that unless few more minutes in the target area were seriously under strength; a
more American combat units could be would double the F-BOs success rate- second requirements message. dated
rushed to Korea with the least possible gave the 49th Fighter-Bomber Wing July 1. requested the immediate des-
delay the Allies might not be capable the task of working out some kind of patch to Korea of one Medium Bom-
of holding the Pusan perimeter. Tacti- so lutio n. bardment Wing. two Mustang Wings.
cal air power was now the only trump It was not Iong before the 4gth's two F-82 all-weather Squadrons. a
card the Americans had left, and they engineer officers came up with an B-26 Wing and finally two B-26
were prevented f rom using even this to answer. They found that the two centre Squadrons to reinforce the 3rd Bom-
the fullest advantage by the ever sections of a Fletcher fuel tank could bardment Wing. A few days later the
present problem of range. be f irted into the middle of the standard requirement was extended to include
It was an unfortunate handicap, for Lockheed tank carried by the Shooting an FF-51 Reconnaissance Squadron,
the North Korean People's Army- Stars, creating a longer tank capable an RB-26 Night Photographic Recon-
strung out as it was in long convoys of holding 265 gallons of fuel. Tests naissance Squadron and a Tactical
along the country's roads in its head- showed that the F-BO was quite Air Control Squadron.
long drive southwards-was extremely capable of carrying the modified tanks. Meeting these requirements. how-
vulnerable to hostile air attack. The and although there were fears that the ever, presented a maJor problem. For a
North Koreans appeared to be com- heavier load would overstress the air- start, [-B0C Shooting Stars were in
pletely unaware of the havoc that craft's wing tips, Far East Air Force shorr supply. and although there were
could be wrought by ground attack ordered manufacture of one pair of more than 300 F-BOAs and F-BOBs
aircraft or else they chose to ignore it; tanks for every Shooting Star in the Far that could be brought up to C standard
more often than not. when American East Command to go ahead. About by Lockheeds. this could only be done
fighter-bombers appeared. the enemy twenty-five per cent of the Japan- at a rate of 27 a month. Also the USAF
infantry-instead of diving for cover- based F-80 units had received the was totally unable to meet the requ ire-
stood up in their trucks and fired back modified tanks by the end of July, ments for additional F-82 Twin Mus-
wilh every available weapon. American and pilots now found that they were tangs. there were only 168 of these
pilots seldom returned from a mission able to spend up to forty-f ive minutes aircraft in USAF service, and this fact-
without reporting some success against in the combat area. together with a critical shortage of
enemy ground forces. Among the most The problem of range and endurance spares-prevented any hope of making
successful of all were the crews of the would have been overcome far more good combat attritlon suffered by the
3rd Bombardment Wing, whose B-26s satisfactorily had the Fifth Air Force's Fifth Air Force's F-B2s in combat over
carried suffrcient fuel to permit a I BO g'6Lrpt been able to re-equip Korea. As far as the F-51 Mustangs
leisurely reconnaissance of enemy ter- with the more modern Republic F-B4E were concerned, the posiiion was a
ritory and selection of the most likely- Thunderjet. a type which-in 1950- little rosier . 164 of these aircraft were
looking targets. equipped a large proportion of the in service with Air National Guard units.
A good seventy per cent of all USAF's fighter-bomber units. Wjth ils and a Iurthe' 794 were in storage.
combat missions over Korea during the ability to carry up to 32 HVAR rockets. Upon receipt of Stratemeyer's require-
f irst two weeks of July, however. were coupled wrth a combat radius of B5O ments list 145 F-51s were recalled
flown by the Fifth Air Force's F-BO miles. the F-84 E would have more tha.n from the Air National Guard, and made
Shooting Stars. Although they had next adequately f ulf illed the Fifth Air Force's ready for shipment to Korea aboard
to no experience in ground attack ground attack requirements in Korea; the aircraft-carrier USS Boxer Togelher
techniques the F-80 pilots quickly the only thing that prevented its opera- with their pilots and ground crews.
built up a high degree of prof iciency tional deployment in Japan was the in- The plan was to deploy a proportion
in their unaccustomed fighter-bomber adequacy of the Japanese airfields of these aircraft on the South Korean
role, particularly in the use of the 5in themselves. only four of which had airfields as soon as possible after their
high velocity aircraft rocket (HVAR) the 7 000-foot runways necessary for arrival in the Far East.
against the enemy armour. Each the safe opera.tion of aircraft of this Before this deployment could take
Shooting Star could carry up to sixteen type. For the time being, the Shooting place. however. steps would have to be
of these projectiles in addition to its Star-with all its inadequacles -was taken to remedy the deplorable con-
Octobet 1973 417
dition of the South Korean airf ields still and for all. The importance of such a claimed as destroyed ha.d in fact been
held by the Allies. ln July 1950 the step was underlined on July 10 when dummies deployed by the Communists
only South Korean airfield suitable for four Yak-9s attacked elements of the on their airfields; nevertheless the ab-
operations even by piston-engined United Sta.tes 19th Regiment near sence of the North Korean Air Force in
combat aircraft was Taegu, and even Chongju and inflicted some casualties. combat during the f irst week of August
that had little to o{fer; the IUnway The following day. more Yaks attacked indicated that the enemy had, to all
was a bumpy pilot's nightmare of a flight of F-80 Shooting Stars engaged intents and purposes, been knocked
packed earth and gravel. and amenities in strafing ground targets in the same out of the fight. Communist aircraft did
consisted of a few ramshackle build- area. and the American pilots-short of in fact continue to put in an occasional
ings. Since June 30 Taegu-known fuel-barely managed to escape un- appearance-on August '1 5, for exam-
also under the military designation of harmed. This incident was repeated the ple. a solitary La-7 attacked a B-29
K-2-had been the home of the ten following day, near Chochiwan; once of the 307th Bombardment Group
worn-out Mustangs supplied to the again the American pilots were able to without inflicting any damage-but
Republic of Korea on the request of get away. but a B-29 of the 1 9th such incidents were few and far
President Rhee. This unit. manned by Group. engaged in bombing railway between.
a mixed bunch of South Korean and targets near Seoul. was not so lucky. The elimination of the NKAF meant
American pilots under the command of It was trapped by three Yaks, and after that the FEAF's medium bomber groups
Major Dean Hess. was in action al- a brief one-sided encounter was shot could now ranqe freely over the whole
most continually during the early days down in f lames. A small L-4 liaison air- of North Korea without fear of inter-
of July. although its effectiveness was craft was also destroyed by a pair of ference from hostile aircraft. The first
hampered by the fact that many of the Yaks towards the end of the day. On strategic mission of the newly consti-
South Korean pilots lacked sufficient July 5 two more Yaks came up to
tuted Far East Air Forces Bomber
experience to handle the F-51 and also intercept a fliqht of four B-26s over Command had been f lown on July 13.
by the lack of a suitable tactical air Seoul; they harried the bombers for when B-29s of the 22nd and 92nd
control system. ten minutes with a series of determined Bombardment Groups bombed the
Meanwhile, there were indications attacks. severely damaging one of them. marshalling yards and oil re{inery at
that the Communists were at last be- American lntelligence indlcated that Wonsan. through cloud with the aid of
ginning to f eel the effect of the growing seven or erght Yaks were operating radar. The number of strategic missions
weight of air power that was being out of Kimpo. and in the afternoon of of this kind was stepped up during the
directed against them. This was ap- the 1 sth. on the orders of General remainder of July, as the increasing
parent in the fact that they were forced Partridge, this was attacked by a f light successes of the Fifth Air Force's
to rest and regroup after the capture of F-80s. Later in the day Kimpo was fighter-bombers against the advancing
of Chonan on July B; had they been also bombed by three B-29s. The Communists enabled more medium
able to push on immediately. they majority of the Communist aircraft. bombers to be diverted from the tactical
might well have succeeded in rolling however, were reported to be concen- support role, a task for which they
up the remnants of the 24lh Division trated on the airfrelds of
Pyongyang were totally unsuited.
and annihilating them. Since July 2, and Yonpo, and on July 1 B and 1 9 these Although the Japan-based fighter-
the Fifth Air Force's fighter-bombers were the targets of the carrier aircraft bombers of the Fifth Air Force were
had been joined by naval aircraft of Task Force JJ. ln two days of already inflictrng great devastarion on
from the carriers USS Valley Forge and operations. the naval pilots claimed a the North Korean columns by the end
HMS Triumph on station in the Yellow destruction of 32 enemy aircraft on the of the second week in July-on July
Sea. The Valley Forge and her escorts ground, together with thirteen dam- 10, for example, a convoy of 150
formed a fast carrier striking force, aged. Also on the 1 9th. seven F-BOs enemy vehicles was wiped out near
known as Task Force 77. the offensive of the Bth Fighter- Bomber Group Pyongtaek in a massive air strike by
power of which had virtually been la.unched a concentrated strike on the B-26s, F-B2s and F-BOs-the real
doubled with the arrival of H MS satellite airfjeld near Pyongyang, des- turning point in the air-ground offen-
Triumph from Hong Kong on June 30. troying fifteen aircraft in one whirlwind sive came in mid-July, wilh the
together with two cruisers, two des- firing pass. The next day, fourteen B- establishment of the Mustang-equip-
troyers and three frigates. 29s followed up these strikes by ped 51st Fighter Squadron at Taegu.
The carrier aircraft-Corsairs and bombing the runways of the Communist This squadron. which also absorbed
Skyraiders from the Valley Forge airfields clustered around Pyongyang. the battle-weary surviving aircraft of
together with Fireflres and Seafires During this same period-between July Major Dean Hess's composite South
f rom Triumph-launched their f irst 17 and 20-F-80 pilots of the Bth Korean/Amerlcan Unit, flew its first
strikes of the war on July 3. For two Croup also destroyed six enemy ground attack mission on July 1 5.
days they pounded the Communist fighters in the air to air combats over Meanwhile Air Force engineers had
airfields at Pyongyang and Onlong-ni. the front line. been working f lat out to extend the
and in addition to the damage inflicted By July 21. although the NKAF runway facilities of an old wartime
on ground installations. naval pilots- had still not been totally destroyed. it Japanese airfield near the town of
Lieutenant J. H. Plog and Ensign had become almost completely in- Pohang, on the east coast of Korea.
E.W. Brown, flying F9F Panthers of effective as a f ighting force. Wherever Their work was completed by July 14.
VF-51-shot down two Yak-9s and reconnaissance located enemy aircraft, and two days later the IVlustangs of the
damaged ten other Communist aircraft they were immediately neutralised by 40th Fighter-Squadron flew in from
on the ground. air strikes. By August 10 allied pilots Ashiya. This squadron was the first
The naval air strikes against the had claimed the destruction of 1 10 Fifth Air Force U nit to exchange its
Communist airfields early in July Communist aircraft in the air and on the F-80 ,1ets for piston-engined F-51s.
heralded the start of a determined ground. There was some doubt as to and the pilots had completed their
effort by the United Nations to elimi- the validity of this figure, for jt was conversion to the older type in record
nate North Korea's small air force once known that some of the enemy aircraft time.
418 Aircraft Illustared
TlreBoulton Paul P92 &P92lZ

VIATION. li<e vrnrculture. i^as both vintage and depression. The gunner was to have an unimpeded view
nn non -vintage years depending upon the degree of of the upper hemisphere for effective search and gun
success achieved by aircraft manufacturers and operators. firing, and his field of view was to exceed that of the field
The year 1 937 can be regarded as vintage. particularly for of fire. His seat was to be coupied to the turret and
the variety and rnterest of the specifications of that year. rotate with it and to have at least four inches vertical
Judgement on its success would have varied, however. adlustment. ln addition to the four-cannon turret the
depending upon whether one viewed it from the aircraft had to carry internally a 2 5001b bomb load to
standpoint of General Aircraft whose GAL3B Fleet brpak up nostile bomber 'ornations.
Shadower to Air Ministry Specrfication 5.23/31 was one The pilot was to have an adJustable seat and rudder bar.
of the "all time greats" in the ugliness stakes; or Gloster full night flying equipment n,as required and electric
Aircraft busy planning twin-engined fighters to F.9/37; or starting was specif ied for the englnes. The cockpit was to
Blackburn Aircraft (whose elderly Shark torpedo bomber have easy emergency escape facilities, a good f ield of
was produced to Specif ication 31 /37 in Canada by Boeing) vision for night flying and be fitted with a blind flying
who was busy putting a four-gun turret in a Skua to hood. Good manoeuvrability and low speed handling
Spec 0.1 5/37 to produce the Roc naval fighter. and then characteristics were mandatory plus the ability to be a
f itting it with f loat alighting gear to meet Spec 20137. steady gun-f iring platform. A maximum speed of 370mph
For Boulton Paul Aircraft at Wolverhampton. however, at 35 0O0ft was required. together with a 320mph
1 937 was a vintage year for several reasons. The cruising speed at this height and the ability to maintain
prototype Def iant turret-armed f ighter f irst f lew on 15 000ft altitude on one engine. The design was to be
August 11 and the Defiant Mk I was ordered into
production later in the year to Specification F.5/37 (and
who could foresee the events of June and July 1 940 ?).
Of particular interest to this company was the issue, on
May 26, of Specification F.11137 to cover the requirement
for a two-seat day and night f ighter for home def ence
and to operate with a f{eld force.
While the Defiant was the malor preoccupation of the
Lompany's productron and [{,ght test deoartmenrs.
John D. North, Boulton Paul's General Manager and Chief
Engineer, was concerned with preparing a submission
to meet this challenging specification.
He was not alone; f ive other companies were similarly
preparing F.11 137 projects. They were Hawker. Top: The Boulton Paul P.9212 half scale flying version of the
projected P.92 turret-armed fighter. Noteworthy in this
Supermarine, Armstrong Whitworth with a twin "pusher" view are the leading edge slots and the small clear view panel
Merlin-powered design. Bristol and Shorts. in the fuselage sides to assist downward and sideways vision'
lntended as a counter to fast hostile bombers. the
emphasis of this requirement was on a very high top speed Above: This view of t.he P.9212 clearly shows the large
and heavy armament. Four 20mm Hispano cannon in a diameter turret mounted in the centre section. The
power-operated turret, to provide protection f or the foul cannon atmament was not simulated in the
gunner, were specified with the cannon being capable wooden turret.
of being fired through 360 degrees of azimuth-including
straight ahead-and with large angles of elevation and
October 1973
such that the airframe could be produced rapidly on a
dispersed basis and engine changes could be
accomplished within two hours.
The Big Turret
Boulton Paul's submission to Specif icalion F.11/37
was dated August i 937 and the project vvas designated
P.92 in the company's design senes. Drawing No.
X1576/f (unfortunately not clear enough for
reproduction-ED) shows what, at f irst. appears to be a f airly
conventional shoulder-wing monoplane of clean design
with a very slim fuselage, a single fin and rudder and
powered by two '1 760hp Rolls- Royce Vulture engines
driving three-blade propellers. Further examination,
however. reveals that the centre section "has been
thickened and so developed that a portion of the top
surface forms a. solid of revolution and is used to form the
turret main cupola. A secondary small transparent cupola
is f itted . . . for general observation and sighting
purposes '.
The 13ft diameter low drag iurret was intended to be
fitted between the wing spars which enabled this turret.
necessarily large to accommodate ihe four big cannon, to
be housed internally without the need f or a large f uselage.
cupola or retracting mechanism. Being located near to the
aircraft's centre of gravity. it was in the best possible
position for dealing with the imposed loads. With the
cannon depressed near to the wing surface the large
diameter turret would have almost completely covered the
barrels and thus reduced the induced drag, while shutters,
operated by the cannon elevating gear, covered the slots
in the turret itself to present a clean surface to the
s lipstrea m.
Boulton Paul carried out,model tests in its own 4ft
windtunnel on a 1/20th scale model and found that the
drag of the centre section and turret was well within
acceptable limits.
lvletal skin construction with interchangeable units
adapted for machine riveting and spot welding, was
envisaged. The 52ft 3in long fuselage was of monocoque
construction and was to have been built in f ive bolted-
together portions. the front fuselage and cockpit, the
centre f uselage, the rea.r f uselage built in two lateral
halves. the complete tail unit and the tailfa.iring. The
62ft 6in span wing was simply a centre section and two
outer panels carrying split-type flaps and Frise ailerons
with trim tabs. A heavy gauge rrng stiffener was provided
in the centre section between the spars to form a rigid
base for the turret. Lockheed hydraulically-operated
landing gear, with all three units being retractable. was
specifi ed.
Two 1 710hp Rolls-Royce Vulture S 24-cylinder X
liquid cooled engines were chosen initially for the P.92 Top: Although the two Gipsy Major engines obscured
"because they enable the desired performance to be more of the pilot's view sideways than would have the
achieved and a clean installation possible". Fitted vultures in the full-sized aeroplane, there is no doubt that
the P.92 pilot's vision would have been restlicted.
with "rams horn" type elector exhausts, the Vultures were
to have driven 13ft diameter three blade de Havilland Centre: The very slim fuselage and swollen centre section
Hamilton Standard (sic) variable pitch propellers. are very apparent in this head-on view of the P.92l2 on the
compass swinging bed at Boulton Paul's
Crew Comfort Wolverhampton factory.
The general layout provided for "the comfortable
Above: Mockup of the P.92's centre section and turret in
accommodation of both crew members . . . for efficient Boulton Paul's Experimental Department. Note the small
operation and minjmum fatigue". The design embodied cross sectional area of the fuselage, the silhouette of
an enclosed and sound-proofed pilot's cockpit wtth the starboard Vulture engine and the four cannon shown at
sliding canopy, which was located ahead of the propeller maximum elevation.
discs in the front fuselage to give a good all-round view,
particularly forward and downward. Full cockptt
instrumentation was provided for, rncluding a blind flying
panel. a.lthough a detailed panel layout was not
420 AictaJt Illustrated
p!'oduced. Hot air from behind the radiators was to have Turret Design
been pumped into the cockpit and turret using The ounner was seated comfortably in the centre of
electrically-driven fans. An adlustable seat. wjth arm rests, the turret under a small transparent cupola. The four 2Omm
and an adjustable rudder bar were specified. ln an Hispano cannon were mounted side-by-side and were
emergency thc pilot would have baled out of the P.92 designed to be attached to a shock absorbing mechanism
either in the orthodox manner, after jettisoning the canopy fixed to a large diameter crankshaft carrted in bearings
or by tilting his seat backwards through 110 degrees and on the main mounting plate. Boulton Paul earlier had
siiciing headfrrst on his back through an emcrgency hatch built a turret for one 20mm cannon using this shock
in the fuselage. Operation of the catches to allow the seat absorbing system. which had been fired and found
to tilt in this manner also opened the hatch doors. satisfactory by the Hispano company.
Boulton Paul's test pilots recornmendeci this latter method The design made provision for 120 rounds per cannon
of making an emergency exit in view of the proximity of (four drums of 20 rounds each) to be carried. Spare
the propellcrs to the cockpit. lt rs reported that J. D. drums were carried on rails in the turret roof and could be
North, in his zeal to try this means of escape. tilted the slid into position on the breech end of the cannon. This
seat in the mock up and was uncerenroniously dumped relieved the gunner of the problems of lifting the heavy
head first through the hatch onto sonre sacks on the floor drums from storage racks.
beneath the fuselage I The main turret was designed to be built up f rom
General equipment detailed in this submission inclucied braced ribs covered with a light alloy skin. lt would
an oxygen supply for the pilot and gunner. a TBX.14 have been power operated by an electro-hydraulic system
radio set, niglrt flying equipment incluoing v,.,rng-mounted already proven in earlier Boulton Paulturrets but modified
Larrding lights and tubcs for launching flares, a Graviner to cope with the heavier loads involved. A rotating
fire extinguishing system in each engine nacclle, anti icing brush gear was to have been provided at the turret base
and turret ventilation to clear fumes after the cannon had for taking electrical power. and other electrical services,
been fired. into the turret. The whole structure was designed to be
Most of these design featurcs \,,vere to have been attached to a main turret ring and to a secondary outer
expected in a high performancc acropiane of that period; rrnq to deal with slight structural deflections.
it was. however. the hcavy armamcnt anci the turret which Cannon firing was by the standard pneumatic method.
made the Boulton Paul P.92 uniquc. and special electrically-operated valves through an
interrupter device prevented the propellers and fin being
Below: The P.92/2 airbosne. Note that the roundels on shot away.
the wings and fuselage and the fin flash have been altered to The smaller upper cupola was a Perspex moulding
conform to the camouflage and markings of the period attached to a rotating ring by simple clamps which could
and that the tuselage carries the yellow prototype letter. be released quickly for emergency lettisoning. The gun
landing gear a.nd for a number of access panels and
It fairings at the tail including that over the anti-spin
parachute. Like the f ull sized design the P.92/2 Iearured
i1 the large low drag turret in its centre section. Built of
* wood. it lay almost f lush with the upper surface of the
ln wing but the f our cannon armament-even in half size-
was omitted. Normal all-up weight of the aeroplane was
,**fl 2116tb.
Design work was stabilised in mid-1939 and
construction of two P.92 prototypes began a.t
Wolverhampton while construction of the P.92l2 got
under way at Heston. Work at both factories proceeded
well but during March 1940 the Air Staff decided to
rationalise the aircraft industry's design and development
work and concentrate its f acilities on fewer types. Thus.
on May 26. even while some detail design of the half
scale version was still in progress. the F.11l37 project was
cancelled with about 5 per cent of the two prototypes'
Abovs: Wooden mockup of the P.92 turret belore the plywood structure already completed. lt was decided. however. to
covering was attached. Spaie rmmunition drums can proceed with the ?.92/2 and during the spring of 1941
bo 3o6n botween the woodgn framgs at thc left of the this aeroplane was readied for its first flight from Heston
picturo and one drum is being moved along its mounting rail piloted by FIt Lt E. Feather. Boulton Paul's chief test
toward the cannon breech. pilot.
One problem inherent in scaled down aircraft is that
of accommodating full scale piiots and thus little more
sight rrvas mounted on the same ring. Azimuth correction than a back rest was provided in the P.9212 for the pilot
was applied by rotating the smaller cupola relative to the who sat on his fighter type parachute pack. The canopy,
main turret. The whole turret was a self-contained unit too, could not be of the sliding variety but had to be
requiring only the removal of the main holding down fitted and removed by the ground crew before and after
bolts and disconnection of the electrical brushes for rapid flight.
removal from the aircraft. Following some preliminary and satisfactory initial
Boulton Paul's submission ultimately was chosen from handling and familiarisation f lights Ihe P.92/2, serialled
among the six F.1 1 /37 contenders and a contract for V3142, was flown to Boulton Paul's Wolverhampton
three prototypes was plac6d in March 1938. The fjrst of factory where the upper centre section and the turret were
these prototypes was to have been powered by 1 760hp tufted and pressure pick-off'tubes were installed. With
Rolls- Royce Vulture ll 24-cylinder X liquid cooled this equipmentV3l42 undertook a programme of f lying
engines. the second by 2 055hp Napier Sabre I 24-cylinder to deterrnine the effect of the large turret on performance
horizontally opposed I liquid-cooled engines and the third. and other aerodynamic qualities. In June 1943 Lhe P.9212
which was intended for armatnent and turret moved to the Aircraft and Arrnament Experimental
development trials. was to have had Vultures. At an all-up Establishment at Boscombe Down where. during the
weight of 17 6971b the Vulture-powered P.92 variant was followinq month, it underwent f light trials. Report 812.
expected to have had a top speed of 371 mph at 1 5 000ft issued on August 25, confirms the discomfort of the
and a cruise speed of 320mph at this height, at which cockpit oI Y3142 which was described as "long, narrow
also, the maximum rate olclimb oI 3220ft per min 'rvas and cramped". lt could be entered only with the engines
achieved. Service ceiling was calculated to be 3B 00Oft stopped and then only with the aid of steps. However,
with a 23 O00ft single-engined ceiling. Take-off run with once in the air, the handling characteristics were
30 degrees of flap was 260 yards at a speed of 79mph, considered to be pleasant but both the ailerons and flaps
landing distance over the 5Oft screen was 1 9O yards at a came in f or some criticism. Lateral control was
landing speed of B2mph. With 270 gallons of fuel the inadequa.te and additional area was called for on the
duration would have been around 1] hours allowing for three-section trailing edge flaps to steepen the very flat
1 5 minutes f ull power at sea level. glide angle. The view forward a.nd upward to the rear
These. then. were the plans and dreams for an unusual was considered to be good but sideways and downwa.rd
and exciting aeroplane. Reality, initially, was far less the engines obscured the view almost completely. ln the
exciting even though the concept was sound enough. In full sized aircra.ft this latter point would not have been so
order to establish and assess the aerodynamic apparent although the view would not have been very
characteristics of the projected P.92 fighter the design of a good. The noise from the comparatively small Gipsy
half-scale flying version was prepared. Because Boulton engines was not unduly obtrusive but Boscombe Down
Paul's factory was almost whoLly concerned with pilots were of the opinion that in the P.92 the proximity
production of Defiants the manufacture of this aeroplane of the two 2 00Ohp engines and their exhausts would have
was passed to Heston Aircraft. presented some noise and fatigue problems. This is
The Wooden Mini understandable as the inboard exhausts of the Vulture
Designated P.92/2 il was of all wood construction would have been only a little more than Sft from the
with a plywood monocoque f uselage and ply-covered pilot's ears

wings. The rudder was fabric covered but all other control The earlier cancellation of the F.1 1/37 ended the need
surfaces were of wood. Metal was used for cowling the for further flight trials oI the P.g2l2.lts ultimate fate is
two 1 30hp de Havilland Gipsy Malor ll six-cylinder in-line uncertain but it is reported that it was flown back to
air-cooled engines-which drove two blade fixed pitch Boulton Paul and there broken up in the latter months of
propellers-f or the nose cone, the fairings of the f ixed the war.
122 AircraJt Illustrated
Above: An Avro Tutor at A & AEE,
Martlesham Heath, for trials.
Left: Fairey lllC G-EARS ex N9256 at
Hamble following its return from Canada
where it was registered G-CYCF.
Below: First American iet bomber to
fly (on March 17,1947, from Muroc)-
the North American XB-45 Tornado
prototype, 45-59479. Behind the tail can
be seen the f irst Production Twin
Mustang, P-828 44-65160, buzz number

O:tober 1973
will be recruited each year from the heritage. The NAPS grew around a 1928
Royal Military Academy Sandhurst. Both Avro Avian, which was "adopted" in
groundcrew and aircrew employments 1962 as a wreck woithy of {estoration.
will be open to soldiers. The former Since then a number of 3ircraft have
includes driving, radio operating and been acquired, together with engines
A monthly look at the clerical duties. whilst aircrew f ly as and other ancillaries. Work continues to
home aviation scene observers. air gunners in anti-tank rebuild these to exhibition condition,
helicopters and pilots. Opportunities also and to secure additional items. lt is
exist for groundcrew to become aircrew. hoped one day to see a regional
Peter R. March Within the next few Years ArmY Air aviation museum built, but until such
Corps officers and soldiers will be filling time, aircraft are placed in other suitable
Away from it all ? all non-technical groundcrew posts and museums on extended loan. ln thls way
At last a couple of weeks to break away two-thirds of the aircrew posts. REM E the work of the society will be seen by
from the busy summer round of air will continue to be responsible for and will benef it a large number of people.
displays, briefings and visits to Service aircraft servicing and repairs. This more NAPS is anxious to welcome new
establishments. As usual mid-August is a permanent structure wrll allow the Army members who will undertake part of the
quiet time and rightly peoples' attention Air Corps to develop and retain a far work of restoration. Enthusiasts without
has turned to holidays. Surprisingly the greater level of expertise than hitherto. skills in that direction are also needed to
weather is hot and sunny and even the Middle Wallop, the first true home of organise "background" activtties such as
cool water of the English Channel is Army Aviation, is appropriately placed on display planning. photography.
inviting after an hour-on the bakeb sand Salisbury Plain, where so much of the maintenance of records, storage of
of the Dorset coast. A skyward glance as pidneering of British Army f lying was equipment and magazines, model-making,
a familiar drone rises above the growl of done. Even as an FAF statlon it was etc. Especially wanted are people willing
power boats and there, winging dow'n long associated with army f lying, being to accept the responsibility of
irom the sun like a quartet of SESAs the home of the Light Aircraft School administration of an organisation which is
over the battlefields of France. the for nearly ten years, and before that in becoming increasingly complex. Gifts
unmistakable Pitts S2As of the Rothmans 1 942 being used bY the 67 Tactical of aircraft parts. photographs. log-books,
team. For the followlng quarter of an Reconnaissance Group of the 9th Air literature are always received with
hour they entertain the unsuspecting Force. USAAF. gratitude. ltems on loan are equallV
public with their fantastic manoeuvres, The centre includes Headquarters welcome. Conversely, the society IS
all the more spectacular as the white Army Air Corps, the FlYlng Wing and prepared to make material available on a
smoke trails contrast against the blue 7O Field Workshop (Aircraft) REME. temporary basis to interested groups or
sky. Manx KellY and his team have Headquarters Army Air Corps. commanded indivrduals; requests to exhibit at local
reached a peak quite unsurpassed by by Brigadier M. W. Sutcliffe. OBE. is the displays are met wherever possible.
anv other civrlian aerobatrc team, aided focal point for the ArmY Air CorPs Weekly meetings are held to discuss
of course by the splendid lrttle Prtts S2A, worldwrde and is responsible for the current work and f uture plans.
big brother of the Pitts SPecial. maintenance of flying standards and for Reconstruction takes place either at
ih"roughout the summer mohths they are the technical supervision and direction members' homes, in the society's lrlam
not only givtng performances at alr of aircraft servicing wherever there are and Eccles premises, or wherever else
displays up and down the country but, Army Air Corps units. Flying Wing is may be convenient to a group of
like the Red Arronls, at many seaside responstble for the training of all Army helpers. A number of air displays and
resorts around the coast. pilots. The Aircraft Engineering Training other events are attended as fund-raising
Along certain stretches of the south Wing is responsible for the training of and publicity exercises.
coast. o{ which Dorset ls no exception, REME servicing personnel. 70 Field The society was responsible, in 1967,
there is a good deal of interesting Workshop (Aircraft) provide second line for forming the British Aircraft
aviation activity. On one afternoon no and third line servicing facilities for the Preservation Council, and is affiltated to
less than seven dif{erent tYPes of Centre and UK. the Transport Trust and the Popular Flying
helicopter were seen at low level over Under Headquarters ArmY Air CorPs Association. For those interested in
the west of the county-Sea King, Wasp there rs the Demonstration and Trials membership the annual subscription is
and Wessex 1, all from Portland; Squadron which r-arries out evaluation 13, or f2 for members under 1 8. This
Enstrom, Jet Ranger and Sioux/Bell 479 trials of new aircraft and ancillary entrtles you to receive the magaztne
proDably all civil ; and a Lynx irom Yeovtl equipment. The Army's new Gazelle, is Control Column with NAPS supplement
using Lyme Bay for 'rovertng trials The undergoing intensive flying trials in this each month, and to take part in all
low-level route which comes inland squadron before entering service with society aclivrties. Membership enquirtes
near Swanage produced a miscellany of the Army Air CorPs in 1974 should be addressed to Mrs Olive M.
military types, ranging from Vulcan and Early in 1970 the Drrectorate of Army Robinson, 25 Cromwell Grove.
Buccaneer to Hercules and Andover. Aviation moved to Middle Wallop from Manchester M19 3OD and offers of
while the aPPearance offshore of the Ministry of Defence. The present material and general correspondence to
Canberras, Sea Vixens and Hunters Director is Major General T. A. the hon chairman. l\4r Peter Schofield,
showed that the FRADTU at Yeovilton Richardson, M BE. and his headquarters 8 Greenfield Avenue, Urmston,
was active. lt seems you never really can is sited in the old officers'mess Manchester, M31 1XN.
get right awaY from it all ! northwest of the 4343.
New equipment. Gazelle and LYnx. Service news
Army Air Corps developments and a new status within the Army, will The production/conversion line of
At present the ArmV Air Corps con-sists assist the raptd expansion of the Air Corps
Victor K2s is now well under way at
of a small number of officer and NCO in the second half of the 70s to meet the Hawker Siddeley's Woodford factory. ln
pilots. Most pilots and all non-technical addition to the prototype. XL231,
steadily increasing tasks allotted to it,
ground crew sPend onlY three Years already flying. there are XLl Bg (2).
with army aviation before returning to N orthern Aircraft Preservation xL1 91 (3), xL1 92 (4). XL1 63 (5).
their own units, whilst REME officers Society xL1 90 (6), X1513 (7), XM715 (8).
and soldiers are responsible for the So rapid has been the development of x1511 (9).X1l60 (10).X1188 (11),
servicing and repair of army aircraft. aviation that material is frequently XL51 2 (1 2), XL1 5B (1 3). Ultimately the
From October 1 this year soldiers are destroyed before its historical significance remaining Victors will be wrthdrawn
able to join the Army Air Corps' 0ither as has been appreciated. Yet relics a mere from SR duties, their role being taken
recruits from civilian life or by transferring 60 years old are already near-priceless. over by modified Vulcans. Work on the
from other regiments and corps of the Only in the last decade has the realisation latter will take place at HSA's Bitteswell
army; a small number of officer pilots spread of the need to preserve this works.

424 Airctaft lllustrated

'.4 K

, .,' f
Bulldog T1 s now in service with 2FTS Shackleton T4 VP293. Canberra BO interesting range of competitors. the
at Church Fenton have been coded in WT?12. Hastings C2 WD480. Devon C2 stars of which were the four teams f rom
sequence from (1 ) XX5 1 9. including XG496. Scout AH1 XP1 66. Gazelle Russia. On the milrtary slde there were
xx522 (4).lt is reported that the cFS XW276. Wessex HASl X1728. entnes from our own navy with a Wessex
will operate its Jetstreams from Shawbury Buccaneer S1 XN926 (from West HASl from Portland, the RAF with a
when the f irst aircraft are delivered in the Freugn) and BAC One-Eleven XX105 Whirlwind HAR10 from Ternhill and the
autumn, and 5FTS, the advanced pilot from Bedford. Other aircra{t present on Army with an Alouette and two Sioux
iraining unit, will move from Oakington the airfield, some in a distinctly non- AHl s from Middle Wallop; the Austrian
to Finningley with the new tYPe. airworthy conciition, were Meteor T7 Air Force with three Alouette llls from
Leconfield, currently the operating base WL405. Provost T1 XF844, Scout AH1 1 Wing. 2 Sqn, 1 Regt (photo 1); the
f or the Binbrook Lightning wing while XP1 65, COmet 4 XV144, Comet 2 German Air Force with an Agusta-Bell
the runways are reconstructed at the XN453. Shackleton M F3 WR972. 47G Ill from FFS-S at Fassberg; and the
Lincolnshire base. has been host to the Hastings C2 WJ327 , Scimitar F1 XD219. German Army with an Alouette ll from
Lightning F6s of 56 Sqn f rom Akrotiri. Sea Vixen FAW2s XJ580. XN649. Bucheburg. On the civil side allthe
Cyprus. ln addition to ten F6s, including XN052 and XS524. competitors f lew British- registered
XS928 (E) and XS919 (R). the Finally, some brief items for the record. helicopters which included Jet Fangers.
sq.adro'r also operated target Canberra The Waddington Vulcan wing has Brantly B2B. Hughes 300 and 500. Bell
B2 WJ681 I Irnrshed In tne latest matt temporariLy moved to Fairford, Glos, 47G, Enstrom F-28A and Skeeter.
camouf lage, red/blue roundels, with a while runways are re-surfaced. The The competition, which was designed
mini red and yellow phoenix on the f in. iormer FN Aircraft Yard at Sydenham to test the skill of the crews in f light
Also moved in to Leconfield is the was formally handed over to the RAF at planning, navigation, precision
Target Facilities Flight with Lightning the beginning of July. The prototype manoeuvres and exercises to demonstrate
FlAs XM173, XM1B1 and XM183. Phantoms. YF-4Ks XT595 and XT596 therr expertrse rn harrdli'rg their
Leconfield is the home of 60MU which and YF-4M XTB53, are currently at helicopter in all phases of rts flight
overhauls Lightnings for the RAF's HSA's Holme-on-Spalding Moor capabilitres, was decisively won by the
squadrons in the UK and GermanY. airfield, where all malor work on this Russian team of Chekalov and Kapralov.
Tne Open Day neld at the RAE type is carried out. Flying one of the three Mil Mi-1s
Farnboro.lgh rn June gave an opportunity (photo 2) brought over for the contest.
io see some of the aircraft in use at this On display they scored 847 points, with the runners
zirfield and other RAE establlshments The Second World Helicopter up being the FAF's CFS team with 828
:ncluding Comet 4C (modified. with Championships were held at Middle pornts and the Austflan Air Force team
'iimrod-type fin) XV814. Meteor T7 Wallop, Hants, during the last week in with 822.
XF274. Hunter T7 X1563, Lightning T4 July. Sponsored by the Helicopter Club Following the championships the Army
XM967. Sea Vixen FAW2 XS577. of Great Bntain, they attracted an Air Corps presented its bi-annual Air
t')-taber 1973 425
Davs (27-28 July). As well as flypasts (CAF) and our own Nimrod. The star
from the competitors an international appearance came for the third year
element was maintained by the Blue running f rom the R Danish AF. ln 1971
Eeer the Belgian Army helicopter
display team from the 1 7th LA Squadron
the St Mawgan Battle of Britain display
featured A-35 Drakens of 725 Sqn, in
based at Werl in West Germany, flying 1972the first S-35 Drakens of 729 Sqn Yva -'!r
Alouette lls. Newcomers were presented (the FR version) and this Vear a two-seat
in the form of Gazelle AHl s from the Sk-35 Draken trainer, also from 729 Sqn
IHTU and a Lynx from Westland at The CAF CF-104 Starfighters in the
Yeovil. Needless to say the Army was f lying display were the f irst to appear in
represented 6y the Blue Eagles and the the uK wilh the new style national
ubiquitous Skeeter. Sadly on this Army insignia and bilingual titling either side of
occasion main support for the programme the roundel. A well balanced programme
came from the RAF and good as it was included the welcome appearance of
from a spectator point of view it does CanQerra B2s and a TT1 B from the
not measure up to the superb set-piece resident 7 Sqn. lt's a pity that Strike
battle displays put on by the Air Corps Command has not permitted an
Centre in the past. We look forward to aerobatic routine to be worked up by one
the Army really f lying at its own display of the Canberra unrts; the memories of
in 1975. 23i OCU's aircraft being manoeuvred
The RAFA display at Gaydon on through a full sequence without leaving
July 28 was a very disappointing event. the airf ield boundaries. still live on. The
No effort was made by the organisers to Red Arrows again gave a sparkling
give the large Midlands crowd attending performance as did the Belgian S/lvers
more than the minimum entertainment F-104s and were well supported by the
either on the ground or in the air. The RAF's vintage aircraft, and a good range
only aircraft parked near to the public of front-line types. Returning to the
enclosure was the Falcons' Hercules, static display, the organisers are to be
while the flying display. marred by bad commended in bringing down to the
weather and a farlure of the air traffic south-west such a variety of types-
control system, had only routine items, Hastings, Argosy, Buccaneer, Sioux,
the only exceptions being a splendid Beaver, Puma. Vulcan and Hunter
Harrier display (from 233 OCU) and the included, and as a final tribute to
Rothmans team with their Pitts S2As. Chivenor giving the f inal display slot to a
The air races and display held at f lypast by 12 Hunters from 229 OCU
Shobdon. Herefordshire, on July 22 were and an aerobatic display by a Hunter F6
again a well planned and intBresting from this unit.
event. The Formula One races with six Another RAF display was held at
laps of a very close circuit attracted the Valley. Anglesey, on August 1 1. Home
usual Cassutts, Betas and Cosmic Wind, of 4 FTS (Gnats and Hunters) it
wlth the addition of a third Cosmic Wind naturally featured the resident aircraft.
to the scene. R. S. Voice's G-BAER Surprise items came f rom RAF Germany in
(photo 3). The pylon turns by the the shape of a Harrier GR'1 A from 3 Sqn
skilled race pilots produced an exciting and a Lightning F2A oI 92 Sqn. The
spectacle for the large crowd. The main USAF Open Day at Lakenheath on
event, the strongbow Trophy air race, August 18 was also well supported by
over a conventronal long distance circult, RAF Lightnings with F3s from 11'1 Sqn
brought in some 30 co.npetltors, rangrng (XR713-A), 5 Sqn (XR749-O) and
from Turbulents through to Ron Paine in 226 OCU (XP737). Overseas participation
the Hawk Speed six G-ADGP and a came from the Patrouille de France, lhe
couple of "hot" Cessna 31 0s. ln an Belgian Air Force's Diables Rouges,
exciting finish the Bonanza G-ARZN 421 Sqn Canadian Armed Forces, the
pulled through to first place by default German Air Force (G-91s and F-104Gs)
of two earlier f inishers who had turned and for the second time in a month a
on the wrong aerodrome pylon, right in SR-35XD Draken (AF-153) from 729
front of the judges. The flying display Sqn, RDAF. American servtce aircraft
was well supported by the RAF and present included C-141 . F-4D, O-2A,
visiting light aircraft produced some P-3A. C-1A. UH-1 H and C-i 30.
colour to the occasion, not least
Messenger RG333 (G-AIEK) painted as October diary
Lord Montgomery's wartime field Wrth the drsplay season now coming
aircraft (photo 4). to an end there are just two autumn
The latter machine also appeared in the events notified at present, open to the
static park at the lnternational Air Display public-on October 14 the lmperial War
held at St Mawgan on August 8. Taking Museum is holding a Vintage Air Display
over from the highly successful Chivenor at Duxford, Cambs, and on October 28
show. this Cornish display lived up to its the Shuttleworth Trust will have its "end
forerunner with partrcipation by the of season" f lying day at Old Warden.
French Navy, Canadian Armed Forces, Beds.
Belgian and Danish Air Force in the A non-public event is the ROC displaV S. G. Richards, E. A. Shackleton,
f lying programme a.nd additional aircraft being held at Ternhill. Salop, on D. Spurgeon, A. J. Wright and R. Wright.
from the Dutch Navy. USN and German October 7. Also the pubhcations "Air-strip",
For some of this month's contributions "Anglia Aeronews", "Blackbush
Air Force in a large static park. Of
particular interest was the maritime we are indebted to Messrs. P. J. Bish, Aviation Review", "Circuit 73". "Flypast",
D. Conway, P. Cuniffe, A. J. Cunningham, "Hawkeye", "Scottish Air News",
aircraft group which comprised an "Skyward", "South East Arr Review'",
Orion (USN). Neptune (R Neth NavY), J. Guthrie. G. D. Herbert. R. Levy,
N. P. Macknight. G. M. Nason. "Tristar" and "Ulster Air Mail".
Atlantic (R Neth Navy). CL28 Argus
426 AircraJt Illustated

Edited by John W. R. l'aylor and Kennetll
By Gordon Swanborouglt Munson
Ian Allan Ltd, Terminal House, Shep- Neu Englislt Librarj,, .Barnards Inn,
pertott, TW17 8AS Holborn, Lottdort ECIN 2JR
price f,2.75 price d10.50 (UK otillt)
Everyone likes the P-51 Mustang- For those who can afford to lay out
Bu Edward Horton or so it seems from the number of books f, 10.50 lor a :inglc book. this \umptuous
Sldgwick {t Jackson Ltd, 1 T'attistoch on the type that continue to appear- tome is very good value, lor it provides
Chambers, Bloomsbury lYay, London but perhaps this highly commendable the pick of the material from the original,
WC1 book by Gordon Swanborough will much longer (72 part) Ilistory of Aoiation
price f"2.95 result in many other North American and, what's more, presents it on really
Most people consider the airship to planes gaining a share of admirers, too. good glossy paper which givcs the illus-
be a curious relic from the past-a Principally a producer of military air- trations a sparkle they previously lacked.
strange mode of transport that was craft during its past 40 years, North Every aspcct ofhuman flight is recorded
flawed in conception and doomed to American's output has covered every- in 500 pages of highly-factual narrativc
failure. Even if this is true, and the thing from primary trainers to super- and pictures (mostly in colour) con-
colossal "liners ofthe
sky" ncver appear sonic fighters and, maintaining a lead tributed by a multitude of international
again, the age of the airship still forms in advanced technology, it has gonc on rvriters, photographers, and artists-
a fascinating chapter in aviation history, to exotic research air-craft like the X-15 many of thcm pilots, aircraft designers
and in this book Edward Horton has
and the B-70 and is today building the and technicians. All told there are 113
produced the most readable and enter- free world's most advanccd strategic separate featurc articles in this book
iaining account of the airship's life and bomber, the swing-wing B-1. The rvhole and there is certainly somcthing for
times yet to appear. He describes in range of types produced by NA is cov- everybody. whatcver their tastes in
hilarious detail the trials and tribula- ered in this 128-page book and, to get aviation litcrature. Thc beautifully-
tions of the carly pioncers of the airship, back to thc Mustang, there are no less reproduced pictures alone are well
including those of Santos Dumont, and than 30 pictures of this particular type, worth d10.50 in thesc days when
chronicles the extraordinary exploits of including some rare shots of evaluation original 8in by 6in prints cost 30p or
Zeppelin and Eckcner. Therc are chap- trials aircraft on test from A and AEE, more each and this book can be un-
ters on airships in the First World War, Boscombe Down. Rounding off the reservcdly rccommcndcd to anyone
on the marathon trips over the oceans work is a type and production list pro- seeking a really good insight into avia-
and the poles in the twenties and thir- viding information on North American tion both past and present.-P.J.R.M.
ties, and on the hideous disastcrs which Charge fType] Numbers ailocated from
put paid to the great age of the airship. 1935 to 1967 and a few more recent
The photographs are outstandingly good numbers available for publication.-
and some of them are nothing less than P.J.R.M.
remarkable; full marks to Mr Horton's
picture researcher Annie Watt. A splen- Edited bl,John IY/. R. T-a;'lor and Kenrtetlt
aid book for airship buffs and fully .LIttnson
deserving a place on the shelves of Neu: English Librar-1,, Barnards Inn,
public libraries.-P.J.R.M. Holborn, Londort EClN 2JR
price {,3.95 (UI{ ortl1,)
By Christopher F'. Shores This rvork, designed as a ready-
Ian Allan Ltd, Tennhnl House, Shep- reference gr-ride to signifrcant aircraft
By Peter lV. Brooks perton, TlYl7 8AS old and nerv. from the I'Iontgolfier hot-
Hugh Eztelyn Ltd, 9 F'itzroy Sqtnre, price {,3.00 (p{ep 30p VAT irtclusioe) air balloon of 1783 to the Grumman
Londort lY/1P sAH This work covers the period from Toncat and McDonnell Douglas F--15
price d5.00 just before the assault on Pantellaria and Eaglc, covers 270 types of all nationali-
Coffee table-style book of large for- Lampedusa in June Jg43 to the end of ties. Each typc is briefl-v described and
mat and, although seemingll, thin, jam- the war and is basicall-v an account of illustrated by one photograph, or, in a
packed with facts and figures on every the exercise of air porver in support of ferv cases, a drarving, plus multi-vierv
type of historic airship one could wish armies on the ground rvith an air super- silhouettes and the book is fully
for. This book analyses the evolution ioritl' already rvon, and of the mainten- indexed.-P.J.R..Nl.
particularly of the rigid airship and dis- ance and impror"'ement of this support
cusses the reasons for its failure and for despite a dccline in strenqth ofthe forces
its final cclipse by the aeroplane. 'fhe availeble as thc call: ol orhcr, more im-
narrative has all the signs of being as portant arcas took their toll. Somcthing B.t, Juntcs J. Hallc;
thoroughly rescarched as anyonc could of a sideshorv to thc main course of thc H.yltort LacSt Publislters, Cobn'g House,
hope for-the bibliography, in fact runs can-rpaign rvas the RAF's own "private SlLeet Street, lY/itdsor, Berks.
to well over a page of titles-and there war" over thc Aegear-r fought by Eastcrn price {,3.25
are highly dctailed appendices providing Air Command, and the advcnture of Second ofthe author's books on RAF
such material as operlting stalistics) these operations is told in some dctail, squadrons in this landscapc-format
designations, and manufacturing data- opening up a fascinating but little known series, this rvork deals rvith Nos 22,2Q1,
even down to development time, chief aspcct of thc air war. The birth and 202, 204 and 206 Squadrons and in-
designer's name s, direct design and grolvth of the Balkan Air Force is also cludes historical narratives, lists of
construction man hours, cost rvhen built traced. The narrative is complemented bases, aircraft and COs, half-tone illus-
and at 1972 values, etc. Complementing by a 96-pagc photo section containing trations and colour plates of urrit
al1 this are sixtccn beautifully repro- many hitherto unpubiishe d pictures badges, StanJard. and rcfrescnldtivc
duced full-colour profiles of represen- from the files of the Imperial War aircraft, the lattcr in proIile. Researched
tative types, from the Giffard stcam Museum and elservhere, including a from Squadron Operations Rccorcl
dirigible of 1852 to the Zeppelin LZI29 high proportion of SAAF subjects. Thc Books (RAF Forn-rs 540 and 5-11) and
Hindenburg of 1936. This book also con- captions are mines of information in other prime sources, tl-rese histories
tains many exccllent half-tonc illustra- themselves and Nlr Shores deserves the make fascinating reading and rvill bc of
tions and line drawings and can be thanks of all enthusiasts for producing gleat interest to ex-squadron mcmbers,
regarded as a truly definitive rvork.- rvhat is altcgether a most absorbing enthusiasts and modcllcrs alike .-
P.J.R.M. book.-P.J.R.M. P.J.R.Nl.

428 AirctaJr Illusrruttl

-l-he scene: New York' MaY 1969' Up date your collection with Revell's
I Th" The DailY Mail Trans' suoei detailed l/32nd scale Harrier.
atlantic Air Race. hevell's choice of 1/32nd scale gives
A small, stub'winged jet fighter swoops suoerb reproduction of authentic detail
in from the sea and heads for Manhattan' in&de and outside the aircraft, a model
As it nears the cluster of Skyscraper leneth of l?1" and a wingsPan of 9t".
down . . . slower Th; kit includes extra decals, to enable
bitcks it begins
hardly moving at a1l' RAF or US Marine CorPs variant to be
It hanss. incrediblY, waY above the built; two missile pods, two cannon
oods'and two droD tlnks. A removable
s.o,r.rd; engines whining' dwarfed by ianel reveals the intricate detail of the
Etn-"*ii buii"dings. Then, io the astonish' it.g.rot engine and the unique swivel
t-""t watching Americans, it slo,wly
"f to tf,e ground. Hawker'
d"ii""d" iet- nozzles. Other features include
Siaalt"u'r Harrier -- first operational movable wheels, a wealth of cockPit
VfOL .o*b"t aircraft in the world - has altitude! A further four prototypes were detail including instrumentation and
arrived. made for the Ministry of Supply and on - in flying kit.
The Harrier kit, priced at €1.70' is
The oilot, Squadron Leader LeckY' Seotember 12th 1961, the P.1127 demon' from
Thomoson IIAF, *on first prize for the "tr'"i.J ttt" swivel'nozzle transition terrific value for money and is the latest
fastest^ overall London to New York addition to the Revell range of nearly
time . . . just 6 hours 11 minutes 57 250 models, in which manY famous
seconds !
aircraft, past and present' are featured.
The startinc point was London's GPO To find out more about the range send
Tower - so-Lecky'ThomPson hoPPed 20p to Revell for their full colour
into his Harrier in a disused coalyard at caialogue. For immediate action, take
nearbv St. Pancras station. The finish was off for your local stockist and get the
at the Empire State Building in New.York Harrier into service with your squadron.
from the
awaY rr9lrl
minute away
- lust one mlnute prsr urr
llrc Pier on
*iri.h h" landed! 50 years after Alcock
and Brown's first Tiansatlantic flight,
Lecky-Thompson made history with a
' JBT""ufl'.i"
middle fifties, Harrier, then
desisnated the P'l 127, was a private deve'
loprient by the Hawker'Siddeley- and
Bristol Ensine comDanies. And, in
common iith many other highlY
resarded aircraft produced in Britain
siice the war, spent its formative
years being jeered at by politicians and
Air Staff. Eventually, two ptototypes
were ordered, and on October lst 1961'
the first 'hovering' flight was made - at a
tightly tethired ft inches off the ground of action!
Revell (GB) Ltd., Cranborne
Potters Bar, Herts. Tel: 5826 I

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f -1 .05 Vol 2 1 /72 Aerosubaru 30P
LAAS 1 /20 Cessna 1 72 f8.50
: 90p1973 Scandinavran Register 60p 1 /36 Cessna 1 72 fl 85
75pBiltish lndependent A rline Ttansfets send for list.
.: 75p Arrlines srnce 1 946 f .10 AERO-MlNl melal
'1 a II ncr models
DC-3 Prod List I to 6 each 38P with retractablc undercatrlages
9op DC-3 Product on List 7 30P 1 /23gth scale in var ous iiveties
90p DC6/7 Froduct on List 50P 747 is 1 /290 scale.
he .coiii,
L, U5 . -g Proouclron L st 25P DCB-61 Eastern f3 50
i-::r: :/New Zealand Req. 50P Boeing 747 Eastern f4.85

Bonbersl!ir 1- ;
Fighters 1 91 4-1 91 a o\ C,i6 Frod. list Part 1 I 2 each 40P Boeing 727 Easlern f22O
Elrctra Prod. List 2OP DCg TWA, Ozark, Eastern ea f1.95
Bombers 1939''1945 -::".1.:cj
Fighters 1 939-1 945 fi.i5 Ctr-.:. r 240-990 Prod. List 90P Boeing 707 TWA. PAA,
Pioneer A icrait '-:-41 i€g:ster 90P Northwest, American ea f2 20
Fighters 1 91 9-1 939 f 1.00 :. . -- - J t,"y 1912-72 75p Boe no 727 TWA, A'l N,PPon,
f1 .00 : i'95 - :::'. o: A'.'atron B.l Vol. f10.50 Amei,can Brdniil Recl.eaclt Blu^ PAA,
Bombers 191-q 1939
Flying Bc::: e SErplanes f1 .15 '3::-SACrlReg. Eastern t2.2O
Air rer: 9'9-33
1 f1 .25 i2 75 :': Cc: ) app. f15.00 Super VC 1 0 BOAC f3.50

PANCRATIC TELESCOPE 25-40 '. 40 f72-65 - 25p P &


SUPPLIES Siluated on the main A4 road to Lc:l:r-rtxl to tl"e Master Robert Mocel and opPosite Ace of SPades
Service Station-on final approach ro Runw:y 28 right at London AirPort.
ffr ll[ar lluEr lhrua*racks.n

power on a massive scale as East and \West hurled their latest military aircraft into the arena; a war that found
American Sabres and Soviet MiGs locked in a deadly thrust of combat close to the speed of sound six miles
above the Yalu River, while elderly piston-engined Mustangs braved the nightmare meshes of enemy flak to
fly in continual support of United Nations ground forces.
It is a story of individuality-of cold, ruthless skill skill that turned fighter pilots in their thirties into jer aces
twice over.
The illustration above taken from the book show United States 5th Air Force F86 Sabreiets ofthe
4th Fighter Interceptor Wing preparing for sorties in 'MiG Alley'.
9" x6" l28pp approx (plus 24pp illustrations) p.s5
Pictorial History of the

Fleet Air Arm Aircraft rg14

Edited by lohn W. R. Taylor
John D. R. Rawlings The industry of the twentieth century is aviation.
The story of a force that has had to fight for survival as As aeronautical research becomes more extensive
much with government and its sister services as with and sophisticated and space. exploration more far-
the King's enemies. This review covers the glories, the reaching, the aerospace field extends even more
traumatic birth of naval flying, the successes during significantly into and influences the destiny of the
!7orld rtrilar 2, the victory at Matapan, the sinking of twenty-first century and beyond. The innovations
the Bismarck, and the attacks on Japanese naval and in equipment and technology are vast, and Aircraft
shore installations in the Far East. The sordid problems
1974 keeps pace with the important developments
of budget restrictions, vacillation in high places and occurring in the international arena.
jealousy are also recorded in detail to produce a book
that is essential reference for both the naval and air 9!" x 7" 128pp (fully illustrated plus
historian, .rmateur and professional. 8pp colour) 12.25
9" x 6" 80pp (plus 128pp illustrations) {3.00
Noth American-an aircraft album
November Gordon Swanborough
Bombers of the West The Sky Pirates
Mosquito at War James A. Arey
Battle Over the Reich Military Aircraft of the World
Air Defence of Great Britain I. !f. R. Taylor & G. Swanborough
The Day the Red Baron Died
See'Book News' Next Month Dale M. Titler
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