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At the Mills College Children’s School, Oakland, CA

Instructor: Akihiko Takahashi

Students will understand the meaning and the representations of fractions in simple

cases and appropriately use them.

• To understand that fractions are used to express an amount obtained as a result

of equal partitioning and are used to express quantities less than 1

• To understand that a fraction can be considered as a collection of unit fractions

• To understand fraction notation

• To become aware that a fraction can also be put on a number line like whole

numbers

• To become aware that addition and subtraction can also be applied to fractions

• Students understand the concepts of whole numbers that includes how to represent them

and how to put them on a number line, and developed the ability to use numbers.

• Students become aware that fractions represent one portion of an equally divided object

or a fractional part of some quantity from their everyday life.

• Students understand the concepts of length and capacity, and to measure them in simple

cases.

o Students know about the units to be used in measuring length (millimeter (mm),

centimeter (cm), meter (m), and customary units such as mile).

o Students know about the units to be used in measuring capacity (milliliter (ml),

and liter (l).

• To understand the meaning of division and to use it.

•

This Unit

• Students will deepen their understanding of the meaning of fractions and be able

compute fractions in simple cases.

• Students will deepen their understanding of the representation of fractions and their

meanings. Furthermore, in simple cases to pay attention to the fact that there are

equivalent fractions.

• Students will be able to add and subtract fractions with a common denominator.

d. Unit Plan

Day 1 Introduction to the unit Displaying the dates

Students will deepen their understanding of decimal

notation through solving a problem related to children’s

everyday life.

Day 2 How can we express Students will become aware that fractions can be seen in

fractional parts (1) students’ everyday life.

Mathematics for Students will understand that fractions are used to

elementary school 3B express an amount obtained as a result of equal

(Hironaka H. et al., 2006) partitioning and are used to express quantities less than 1

pp.57-58. (only unit fractions).

Day 3 How can we express Students will understand that a fraction can be considered

fractional parts (2) as a collection of unit fractions.

Mathematics for Students will know fraction notation.

elementary school 3B

(Hironaka H. et al., 2006)

pp.58-59.

Day 4 The size of fraction Student will become aware that a fraction can be put on a

Mathematics for number line.

elementary school 3B

(Hironaka H. et al., 2006)

pp.60

Fraction is an important topic in the elementary grades. At the same time, it is one of the

most challenging topics for students to understand (U.S. Department of Education, 2008).

Although many students have seen fractions in everyday life, e.g. a half mile on the

highway road signs and a quarter pound in a fast-food-chain menu, these students may

not be able to see fractions as numbers and use them comfortably like whole numbers.

Researchers argue that the concept of fractions may be well introduced in second grade

with manipulatives but they need to go through a gradual process moving from the

concrete, the semi-concrete, and the abstract in order for them to see fractions as numbers

(Gunderson & Gunderson, 1957).

According to the Japanese Course of Study Teaching Guide (Takahashi, Watanabe, &

Yoshida, 2004), fractions should be introduced to represent one portion of an equally

divided object, or to represent a fractional part of some quantity. After this kind of

2 1

introduction, the idea that represents a collection of two units should be taught, as if

3 3

1

is thought of as a unit (Thompson & Saldanha, 2003). Researchers also argue that

3

students who work with fractions well use words in the beginning rather than the symbol,

€ 2 €

i.e., writing “2 thirds” rather than so that students can see “one third” as a unit just like

3

€ measurement unit like miles (Gunderson & Gunderson, 1957). This shows that a fraction

is the number that represents some portion of equally divided 1; that is, a fraction has the

a

meaning of = 1÷ b × a€ .

b

€

2

It is also important for students to understand that fractions, just like whole numbers and

decimal numbers, are used to represent not only size of numbers and quantities but also

proportion of numbers and quantities. The Singapore National Curriculum (Ministry of

Education, 2006) emphasizes that fractions are introduced as part of a whole

interpretation in the primary 2 and the fraction of a set of objects, which is to represent

proportion of numbers and quantities, should not be introduced until primary 4. Japanese

Course of Study also mentions that part of a whole interpretation should be introduced at

the beginning while using fractions to represent proportion of numbers and quantities

should not be introduced until grade 5 (Takahashi, Watanabe, & Yoshida, 2008).

Based on the above discussion, the present research lesson unit, which consists of four

lessons in four days, is designed for students to deepen their understanding of fractions in

order for them to see that fractions are numbers. This unit is designed based on the

English translation of the Japanese mathematics textbook series for the elementary

grades, the most widely used public school mathematics textbook in Japan (Hironaka &

Sugiyama, 2006). This series of research lessons support the following key ideas from the

textbook:

• Fractions are introduced as part of whole interpretation, which is to express an

amount obtained as a result of equal partitioning.

• Fractions are used to express quantities less than 1 in measurement contexts.

• Diagrams such as tape diagrams and area diagrams are used for students to

understand that a fraction can be considered as a collection of unit fractions.

• Tape diagrams and number lines are used for students to see fractions are

numbers just like whole numbers.

Since the Japanese textbooks are originally written in Japanese and designed for Japanese

children who live in Japan, the followings are added to the contents of the Japanese

textbook in order to maximize the benefits of learning for the English speaking children

who live in the US.

• Some examples of fractions from students’ everyday life will be shown in order to

encourage students to see that fractions are often used in American society.

• Students will be given opportunities to write fractions using not only the symbol

2

but also the word, i.e., writing “2 thirds” in addition to so that students can see

3

“one third” as a unit.

3

f. Plan of the Lessons

Day 1 – March 3, 2009

Goal of the lesson:

• Students will deepen their understanding of decimal notation through solving a

problem related to children’s everyday life

Teacher’s Questions and Expected Student Reactions Evaluation

1. Introduction

Encourage students to see the benefit of displaying dates Help student awareness that you If all the students

on the wall in each classroom. can save your effort if you understand that we

Rather than writing the date everyday, it might be a good prepare cards to display dates. do not need only

idea to prepare some cards to display dates so that you can Help student awareness that you 31 cards to display

use all the time. do not need too many cards to dates because the

display dates. largest dates in a

Assemble groups of students month is 31.

from different grades; maybe one

3rd grader, one 4th grader, and one

5th grader. Ask older students to

help younger students

understand.

Think about how many cards we need to display dates on Help student awareness that we Do students recall

the wall in your classroom. might not need 31 cards if we what they learned

3. Anticipated Student Responses put a digit on each card and use previously?

20 cards them for ones and tens.

13 cards Provide students actual cards if

12 cards students request.

11 cards

Begin discussion with the group Does each student

a. 20 cards with the larger number of cards. understand other

Cards for ones: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 0 Encourage students to share with students’ ideas?

Cards for tens: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 0 other groups not only how many

cards but also what kind of cards

b. 13 cards they want to prepare.

Cards for ones: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 0 Help other groups to understand

Cards for tens: 1, 2, 3 how the group came up the idea

and see if the method works for

c. 13 cards all the dates.

Cards for ones: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 0

Cards for tens: 0, 1, 2 For the fewest number of the Does each student

cards, let each student make the understand that

d. 12 cards cards and try one by one to make only 11 cards with

Cards for ones: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 0 sure all the dates of a month can a digit in each card

Cards for tens: 1, 2 be displayed with 11 cards. (If a are necessary to

student does not want to use 6 to display all the

e. 12 cards display 9, he/she can use 12 dates of each

Cards for ones: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 0 cards). month?

Cards for tens: 1, 2, 3

4

f. 11 cards

Cards for ones: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 0

Cards for tens: 1, 2

How many cards do we need to display all the dates if Provide students enough cards so Does each student

you can use both sides of each card? that students can actually try to find a way to

5. Anticipated Student Responses find how their ideas work. display all the

6 cards Help students become aware dates of a month by

• Front 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 there will be multiple correct using both sides of

• Back 0, 1, 2, 7, 8, 9 solutions to this problem. six cards?

6 cards

• Any combination would work if the following

pair of digits are not put on the same cards

1 & 1, 2 & 2, 3 & 0

6. Summing up

• Let each student writes what he/she learned Encourage students to use the

today. board writing as an example in

order to summarize what they

learned.

Evaluation:

• Do students see that a digit can be used for not only ones but also tens place, i.e.,

3 can be used not only for displaying 23rd but also 31st?

• Do students recall their understanding of decimal notation?

• Do students understand the nature of the problem solving approach?

5

Day 2 – March 4, 2009

Goal of the lesson:

• Students become aware that fractions can be seen in students’ everyday life.

• Students will understand that fractions are used to express an amount obtained as

a result of equal partitioning and are used to express quantities less than 1 (only

unit fractions).

Teacher’s Questions and Expected Student Reactions Evaluation

1. Introduction

Showing road signs with fractions to help students If some of the students seem not Is each student

become aware that fractions can be found in everyday life. familiar with the term fraction, comfortable using

Ask students what they know about fractions avoid using the term until the term “fraction”?

• What does each number on the road sign class informally defines the term. Does each student

represent? see what the

Students will discuss about what the fractions on the road Encourage students to help each fractions on the

sign represent by using their prior knowledge regarding other to share their prior road sign

whole numbers, measurements of distance, and fractions. knowledge. represent?

Each student will work with a Does each

The length of the tape strip represents the length around partner. understand that the

trunk of a tree on the campus. The length of the tape strip Each pair of students will use the fractional part can

is a bit longer than 1 m. How can we express the length of actual length of the tape strips, be expressed by

the fractional part of this tape strip using 1 m tape strip as 1 using 1 m as a

a reference. one is 1 m and another is 1 m. reference?

3

The actual tape strips are similar

3. Anticipated Student Responses

to the diagrams on the textbook

• About a half meter

page.

• About a quarter meter

• The length the fractional part is the same as the €

length of a portion that obtained by dividing 1 m

into three equal parts.

Encourage students to use 1 m as

• One of the third of 1 m

a reference to create their own

1 unit in order to express the

•

3 length of the fractional part.

• Some students might want to use their personal

references such as the length of their hands or

belongings. Some others may want to use yard or

€ feet.

• To understand each approach to express the encourage students to see that

fractional part of the tape strip using a formal unit, such as

• To understand that a fraction can be used to meter, as a reference is a good

express the length of a fractional part of the tape idea to express quantities.

strip Encourage students to write the Does each student

length of the fractional part in understand that the

the words, “1 third of 1 meter” or fractional part can

“1 third meter”. be expressed using

third meter as a

unit

6

5. Apply the learning to the similar situation

How to express the following parts of 1 m using the Provide students actual length of

similar approach that you learned from the previous tape strips.

problem? Encourage students to work with

their partners.

• Find the length of a tape strip (1 half meter) Once they find the length of each Does each student

• Find the length of a tape strip (1 fifth meter) tape strip, let students write understand how to

down the length in the words. express the length

and write it in the

Let’s make 1 quarter-meter tape strip from 1 meter Provide 1 meter tape strip for words?

tape strip. each student so that each of them

• Ask a couple of younger grade students to can make own 1 quarter meter. Does each student

explain how he/she made the tape strip make a 1 quarter-

• Ask other students to verify if the tape strips meter length tape

are 1 quarter-meter length. strip?

6. Summing up

• Let each student write what he/she learned today. Encourage students to use the

board writing as an example in

order to summarize what they

learned.

Evaluation:

• Do students understand that an amount obtained as a result of equal partitioning

can be used to express quantities less than 1?

• Do students understand how to express the length of fractional parts by using

words such as 1 third?

7

Day 3 – March 5, 2009

Goal of the lesson:

• Students will understand that a fraction can be considered as a collection of unit

fractions.

• Students will know fraction notation.

Teacher’s Questions and Expected Student Reactions Evaluation

1. Introduction

Ask some students to share what they wrote in their

notebook the day before.

Each student will work with a Does each

The length of the tape strip is a bit shorter than 1 m. How partner. understand that the

can we express the length of this tape strip using 1 m tape Each pair of students will use the fractional part can

strip as a reference. actual length of the tape strips, be expressed by

2 using 1 m as a

one is 1 m and another is m.

3. Anticipated Student Responses 3 reference?

• A bit longer than a half meter The actual tape strips are similar

• Twice as long as 1 third meter to the diagrams in the textbook

• Two of the third of 1 m page but do not have dots line to

•

2 show 1 third. €

3

• 2 thirds meter. Encourage students to use the

tape strips from the day before

lesson as reference.

€

4. Comparing and Discussing

• To understand that the length of the fractional Encourage students to write the Does each student

part is twice as long as the 1 third meter tape length of the fractional part in understand that the

strip. the words, “2 thirds of 1 meter” fractional part can

• To understand that the fractional part can be or “2 thirds meter”. be expressed using

expressed as a collection of third. third meter as a

• To understand the fractional part can be express unit?

by using the words, 2 thirds meter.

How to express the following parts of 1 liter using the Provide students a picture of the Does each student

similar approach that you learned from the previous liter cup for each problem. understand how to

problem? Encourage students to work with express the amount

their partners. and write it in the

• Find the amount of the water in the picture Once they find the amount of the words?

(2 fifths liter) water, let students write down

• Find the amount of the water in the picture the amount in the words.

(1 fourth liter or 1 quarter liter)

• Find the amount of the water in the picture

(4 sixth liter)

7. Summing up

• Introduce fraction notation by replacing the

words to express fractional parts.

4

4 sixth liter can be written as liter.

6

8 €

4

Numbers like are called fractions.

6

6 is called denominator to express the unit,

sixth.

4 is called numerator to express how many of Is each student able

€

the unit. to express the

• Let students to use fraction notation to express Encourage students to use the quantities of the

the fractional part that they expressed in the board writing as an example in fractional parts by

words during the prior activities. order to summarize what they using fraction

• Do the exercises 2 & 3 on the textbook p.59. learned. notation?

• Let each student write what he/she learned today.

Evaluation:

• Do students understand that a fraction can be considered as a collection of unit

fractions?

• Are students able to write fractions by using fraction notation?

9

Day 4 – March 6, 2009

Goal of the lesson:

• Student will aware that a fraction can be put on a number line.

Teacher’s Questions and Expected Student Reactions Evaluation

1. Introduction

Ask some students to share what they wrote in their

notebook the day before.

2. Posing the Problem

Each student will work with a Does each

By using the tape strips we have had so far, lets create partner. understand that the

various length of the tape strips. Each pair of students will use the fractional part can

tape strips from the previous be expressed by

Students can use the following unit fractions to express days as a unit fraction in order to using 1 m as a

variety of fractions. make several different lengths of reference?

Half (meter) tape strip.

Third (meter) Each group will have a cash

Quarter/fourth (meter) register paper role to make tape

Fifth (meter) strips.

Sixth (liter/meter)

• 2 halves meter

• 2 thirds meter, 3 thirds meter

• 2 fourths meter, 3 fourths meter, 4 fourths meter,

2 quarters meter, 3 quarters meter, 4 quarters

meters

• 2 fifths meters, 3 fifths meters, 4 fifths meters, 5

fifths meters

• 2 sixths meters, 3 sixths meters, 4 sixths meters,

5 sixths meters, 6 sixths meters

2 2 3 2 3 4 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 6

• , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

2 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6

• Through sharing the fractions, students will have Encourage students to write the Does each student

€ opportunities to express, interpret, validate the length of the fractional part in understand that the

fractions in the word and the fraction notation. the words, “2 thirds of 1 meter” fractional part can

• Organize fractions according to the size of the or “2 thirds meter” and by the be expressed both

unit fraction, put the fractions with the same fraction notation. in the words and

denominator on the same number line. fraction notation?

• Compare the size of fractions with the same

denominators.

8. Summing up

• Do the exercise in the textbook p.60. Encourage students to use the

• Let each student write what he/she learned today. board writing as an example in

order to summarize what they

learned.

Evaluation:

• Are students able to put fractions on number lines?

10

References:

Gunderson, A., & Gunderson, E. (1957). Fraction Concepts Held by Young Children.

Arithmetic Teacher, 4 (October 1957), 168 - 173.

Hironaka, H., & Sugiyama, Y. (Eds.). (2006). Mathematics for Elementary School.

Tokyo, Japan: Tokyo Shoseki Co., Ltd.

Ministry of Education, S. (2006). Mathematics Syllabus Primary.

Takahashi, A., Watanabe, T., & Yoshida, M. (2004). Elementary School Teaching Guide

for the Japanese Course of Study: Arithmetic (Grade 1-6). Madison, NJ: , Global

Education Resources.

Takahashi, A., Watanabe, T., & Yoshida, M. (2008). English Translation of the Japanese

Mathematics Curricula in the Course of Study, March, 2008,

Grades 1-9. Madison, NJ: Global Education Resources.

Thompson, P. W., & Saldanha, L. i. A. (2003). Fractions and Multiplicative Reasoning.

In J. Kilpatrick, W. G. Martin & D. Schifter (Eds.), A Research Companion to

Principles and Standards for School Mathematics (pp. 95-111): National Council

of Teachers of Mathematics.

U.S. Department of Education (2008). Foundations for Success: The Final Report of the

National Mathematics Advisory Panel. Washington, DC.

11

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