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Seamanship
lntematSonal
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ShipStabitityfor MateslMasters
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fartn A" Rhod6 (BSc.Hon3)
L Lecturer,ShipStability,
GlasgowCollegeof NauticalStudies
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t_ First published 2003 by Seamanship Intsmalional Ltd,


Willow Hous€, St€thclyd,e Business Park,
Lanartshare,ML4 3PB, United Kingdom.
Telephone: +,14(0) 1698 464 333
L- E-mail:info@seamanship.com

O Seamanship IntemationalLtd, 2003


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All rigns reserved. No part ol this publication may be rcpmduced, stored in a relrieval system, or transmitted
in any fom or by any means, electronic, mechanical. photo€opying,recording or olhstwise, without the pdor
p€rmission ot the puuishels.

t- Alhoughgreatc€rehas beentakenwaththe wrilingand prcduclionof this publication,neilherS€amanship


IntemationalLld nor ihe aulhor c€n accept any responsibilityfor any enors, omassbnsor their
conseouences.

This publicarion has been p€pared to d€al with the subject of Ship stabiliiy. This should not however, t€
laken lo mean that lnas pubticalion deals comprehensively with all of the issues that will need to be
L address€d or even, where a particular issue is addressed, that this publicalion sels out the only detinitive
viewfor all situations.

L The opinions express€d are lhose of the author only and a€ not necessarily to be laken as lhe polaciesor
viem of any orgEnisationwith which he has any connection.

L Pnnbd in Scottan.!by The Hottp,ttdl< Diary Csvany Ltd., Diary tlouse, Unit 32, Annieslandaus,ness Pa*,
Nethellon Road, Anniesland,Glasgov G131EU

L ISBN 0453,(t79-3.{l

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I
FOREWORD

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It has b€en my pdvileg€ over recenl years !o be engaged in a wide variely of training activilies lor the
dev€lopmenl and enhancemenl of the professioml skills of s€afare6. The industry rarely whesses such
L* dramatc shifrs in a cultural awareness. as we have seen in recent years, in r€cognition of seafarers
professional sldls. These skills arc not only a foundaton in a dimcun induslry, bul must also b€ maintain€d
throughout a seafareE working life.
L Seamanship Inlemational h.s d€voloped a s€nes of professional €ducalional products that m the needs ror
lhis conlinual development. Inde€d,lhos€ of us who have leahl lhe had school of ship stability by traditional
and well lesl€d methods, will be rsfrsshed by lhis lraining material wnich encompasses both tradilional and
L basic concepts wilh a blend of cunent and relevant issues for the presont day Deck Oflicer.

Thasship stabihly book, I b€li€ve, will become a desk companion to many a ships omcer and will be a musl-
L have for any ships library- | commend Seamanship Inlemational in their approach, to thal Yvhichis wilhout
doubt, one of lhe most hazardousand commerciallycrilical subjecls in the madtime business.

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Capt Simon Kemb.ry. ASc.(Hons).FNl.
I Gtoup T.ainn g & Planning Managel
t- v.Shios

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L- COI{TENTS

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lntroducfion........ 3

S€ciion1 BasrcPdnciples 9
L S€ction2 FormCoefficients 15

section 3 TonnesPerCenlimelrelmmersion(TPC) 21
L I iande s . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
S,ectlonilLo
Soction5 cernreof Gravity{G) andCenaeof Buoyancy(B) . . . . . . . . 39

S€c,tion6Inlroduction!o TransveBeSlalicglstability. 47

Scction 7 Conditionsof Stability


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Section 8 Intal TEnsverse Metacentre . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

L Ssction 9 FreeSurfaceEffest.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -... 69

S€ction 10 Curves of Stalic€l Sbbilily (GZ CuNes) 83

s € c t i o nI t L i s t . . . . . . . . . - 89
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s e c { o n1 2 l n l r c d u c l i o n t o T r i m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
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L-- Scctlon '13suspended Weighis. . . . . . . . . . 121

Soction I /t Assessing Comdiance of a Ship s Loaded Condition wilh IMO Criteria 131

L_ Section 15 CuNes of stalk=l Stability for varying Conditi 153

S € c { o n1 6W a l l s i d eFdo m u l -a. - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161

section 17 Faclors Afl€c1inglhe Shape of lhe curve of Stalical Stabilitv. . . . - 171

GrainCode(lMO). . . . . .
Sectlon lS The Inlemational 185
L- Section 19 Indining Exp€rimed . . . . . . . 215

Sec'tion20 Tnm UsingHydrostaticOata. . . --... 223


L s € c r i o o2 l D r y - D o c r r n g . . . . . 253

Scction 22 Bilging 265

S€ction 23 Angle of Heel VvhenTuming . . . . 291

Scction 2a wind Heeling, lce Accretion and Rolling . . 297

Saction 25 Slability Problsms Associat€d wilh Spscific Ship Types. - . . . 317

S€cuon 26 Calculationand Assignment of Freeboard. . 345

Section 27 Shear Forces and Bending Mom€nts in Ships- 371

Scction 28 Praclic€l Ship Loadng Problems 383

Bibliography.......... 401
L- INTRODUCTION

This book of the CD-ROM sofrware of the s€me name is aimed at students studying lor
professionaf merchant navy deck offrcer certifcates ol competency. Ship Stability for
MatevMaste/s covers lhe sylfabus requirementsfor the curent Scoftish QualiticationsAuthorily
ISQA) examinalions (conductedon behalf of the Maitine and Coastguarc!Agency (MCA)) rp to
i STcw Chief Mate/Master Reg. lU2 (Unlimited) stiandard.lt also covers ihe content of H/vD Shrp
Stability Units being currently offered by UK colleges as parl of the underpinning knowledge
requiredtor certiication to Officer of the Watch (OOW) and Chief Mate levels (STCW 95). Because
this ten is likely lo be usod by students not serving on UK registered ships, or who might be
L attendjng non-ljK college courses, IMO regulalion requirementsare also quoted where appropriale
in addilionto the MCA requirements.

L. It has been my expedence thal many students, resulling from thek lack of mathematical ability,
offen meet the subject of St ip Slab,7irywith apprehension.This is the main reason for lhe downfall
of many students studying this subject. This book version of the CDROM sofrware is designed to
I address this problem by covenngthe subject content in the simplest way I believe possible and at
an assumed malhematical level that is approp.iate for a leamer studying independently.Solutions
to wo*ed examples are brcken down into sequental logical steps, each step being explained in as
simple a format I think possible.The solutionsgiven set an examplefor lhe extentand type ot
presentationthat should be adopted for examinationpurposes.

All examples used are designed to be of a type and standard that are likely to be encounteredin
real SQA examinations.lt is this approachwhich gives this woft an added advantageover some of
the dlnently available and somewhat dated text books on the subject of Ship Sfabi'tt, where a
high level of malhematical ability is offen assumed. lt has ofren been the expedence of many
l students to encounter worked examples in text books that are not sufficiently broken down to
L_ enforce proper understanding. Relevant formulae are derived wherc appropriate to enhance
understanding.

Suggeste<tepproaches to sfrtdylng this suqect


Students ofren complain to me that the subiect Ship Slatr,Tiy is one of the most difficult
examination subjects in which to succeed, this is certainly my experience evidenced by student
l results in terms of both intemal college assessments and extemal SQA examinations. lf the
syllabuses are considered, I feel that it is the sheer volumo of topics thal need to be learned, and
not lhe mathematicalcomplexityof any single topic area lhat presents the problems. In light of this
lwillmake the followingsuggestions to helpyou succeed.
L_
Apwaches to stutly
1. Study starts on day one of lhe college course you are attending. At the end of each day
rcad overthe notesfo.lhe topicscover€dduringthat day, do not try to ,eam them, simply
read them through and verit that you understand what is being said. Leaming comes
nalwally afrer reaclingand undercAnding.ll there are areas that are unclear, make a note
of them and ask for clarifcation at lhe earliesl opportunity. Referenceto this text book might
ofier an alternative, more unde6tandable explanationof any topic area that you are having
difficulty with.

2. Always attempt questions provided on tutorial sheets as soon as possible afrer the relevanl
topic(s) have been taught. For calculation gpe questions always indacateeach step and
show all working for the questions; your answers will provide excellent reference rnatedal
for revision purposes later on. Past SQA examination papers are an invaluable soorce of
revisionmaterial,

Many queslions require you to recall facts, particulady when it comes to questioning
knowledgeof cunentlegislation.For examplea queslionmightask:

CIASS Zl SIABILIfi Intoducton


State the stabilityinfomation that must be Wvided to the mastet under the culent Load
Line egulations.

My approachto this wouldbe to read Schedule6 in MSN 1752(M)(wherelhis is stated)a


number of times. Each time that you do lhis, do ,ol try to leam it, quite simply the more
times that you read it the more of lhe infomation will be retained in your memory. lts like
watchinq a flm five or more times, eventuallyyou will rememberthe whole story!

4. In class, if the lecturcr says something lhat you do not underslandthen ask! Don't ever teel
embanassed or stupid, if you don't understand what the lecfurcr is ttalkingabout, you can
guaranteethat perhaps half the others in lhe dass don't understandeither!

5. Try not to study on your own all the time. lt helps if you find a suitable study partne/ so that
you both benefit from the improved understandingof difrerenttopic areas that each of you
v.]ll have. A poblem sharcd is a problem halved!

6. Don't over do it! Aim to study at no more lhan half+our inlervals at a time and find an
activrt that you can do for 15-30 minutes in between sfudy periods (tor example, plan to
watch a few favorite TV programs to ensure suitable shon study breaks in the evenings.)
Failingthis. you will end up makingc€relessmistakesin calculations,getlingmore and
more fruslrated and making progressivelyslower progress.

7. lf you are studying in the evening, do not go straight to bed afrerwards. Your mind will siill
be 'going round and round' - thinkirE too much about your studies and probl€ms. Do
something else, maybe take a walk or get exercis€. Choose something that will rolax you,
and makeyou lhink of otherthings.Evengo to lhe pub for a pintto unwind(ore pintthat is,
not one dozen!)

8- Stay healthy:gel enoughsleepand eat sensibly.Take rcgularexercjse;you need exercise


to wolk well.
g. Ah^/ays thinkpositive,don'tthinkaboutth€ futureand the possibilityoffailing.lhave always
believed that exams are there to be failed by some, if everybody were to pass them; there
would be no point in having them! | have failed exams myself in the pasl, so what! | simply
took lhem againand passedwith higherma*.s than I wouldhave everanticipaledpassing
with firsl time around - problem solved

10. Simplydo your best;you cannotdo morcthanthat! --

Apprcachesto passing exams


As long as you have done suffcient study preparation,you should be feeling confident; so now it is
simply a case of going for it!

1. The nightbeforerelaxationis the key.No lastminutecramming.Sort out the thingslhat you


need to take with you to the exam, Sort out lhe cloth€s you are going lo wear. Don t forget
yourwalch.Double-check the time andthe venue.Tryto havean earlynighl.

2- Eat breakfasulunch, even thoughfood mightbe lhe last lhing on your mind on the moming
of the examinalion. Food feeds the brain' and inseases mental awareness-

3. Allow er4ratime for lraveling.Unexp€ctedthings can happenso allor an extra t5-30


minulesor so iusl in case.

4. Get your mind in focus. Once in the exam rcom organizeyour pens and pencilsand get
yourself comfortable. Take some .eally deep broaths and stay calm. Look at the others
around yout it helps you to remember that everybody else in the room with you is anthe
same boatl

CTASS 2/l STABILITY ' rnl'.&clion


L-
5. Keep your energy levels high. The SQA examination lasb for three houG lake short
br€aks. Pul your pen down and fex your hand a few times to avoid getting cramp of pain
I while r|/riting. FeeclWur brain - mental activity requires yotr brain to have a sufficient
supply ol glucose - this is why it is very imporlant to eat before the exam. Take s\f,eetsin
that you c€n suck guiefly-
L- It is very important to manage your time effeclively during the exam. By using your time
correctly you can increase your chances of achieving high marl's, Spending too much tirne
on one question means that marks available from other questions maybe reduced or lost
L totally. Place your watch on the table so lhal you are always aware ol what time is slill
remaining.Allocalea cerlainamountof lime to a particularquestion.Avoid continuingon
for anything in excess of five minutes more lhan the allocatedtime because you will start to
eat into the time available to answer the other questions. lf a question is not completed,
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leave it, progress on to the other questions and retum to lhis answer when you have lime
remainingat lhe end or as you recall olher relevanl detail.

L 7. The SOA examinatioo invofues a th@e hour paper wth six queslions, usually three
calculationtype questions and three descriptiveor theory typo questions. lf you have done
sufficient revision you will have plenty of time to answer all the questions, quite oflen a
L queslion can be answ€red fully in lwenly minutes, leaving a sparc ten minutes per question
for checking over your work at the end.
'You may begin' STOP! Oo not charge straight into answering
L 8. When you hear the words
the questions, read each question carefully and make brief notes on how to approachthe
questions on scrap paper provided (or in the last page of lhe examination booklet, you can
cross these oul at the end). Choose an easy queslion to starl with, it will boosl your
L confidence at the beginning of the exam, the time when you will be most nervous and this
willhelp put you at ease.

L_ 9. Many students concentrate on obtaining full marks for the calculationsand lhen hope that
they scrape enough marks together from the descriptive qLrestions.You musl answer arl
qlrestiors and in some examinations it is a requkement thal you achieve a minimum
I p€rcentageof ma*s for each guestton (say 30%). In such cases, you could stillfail despite
having achievedthe overall pass markl

Always show all working and intemedaatesteps in calculations. Even though you might gel
L 10
the answer wrong, if the method is correct you will be awarded marks, in the event of a
clerical enor you watlprobably only lose a few marks. You will always get marks for parts of
the question you have done conectly, this is why it is vital that all \No*ing b€ clearly sholvn.
i_ 11. When doing calculation questions fold lhe exam paper so that you can only see the
questionyou are ddng, I have seen so manyassessmontpapersthat havefailedbecause
the student took data from lhe wrong questionl

ll is really important that you thoroughly read the question beforc you start to write your
answer. Read it through a couple of times and underline key words so that you are totally
L clearof what is beingasked.

l 13. Answerthe questioncorectty,You will be waslingvaiuableexaminationtime if you include


irrelevantinfomation,whichwouldbe betterspenton otherquestionsll is much betterto
aim for quality rather than quantity, You will nol automaticallyget extra marks becauseyou
have witten a ten-page essay rather than a five-page one. lf the queslion is ambiguous
I make sure that you include a note as to how you have intemreted the meaning of the
que$on.

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CLASS 2/r STABTLTTy- lnlodurin
14. Use short sentences. A good length of sentence is between 10-20 words. Clariry each of
your main points.Avoidthe use ot fancy wordsor jargon.In generalopt for plain English.
However,do us€ lhe standard terminologyused for the subject-

15. Legibility and neatness. Provided that yo{rr handwritingis reasonably neat. it is unlikely that
handwritingwill be a problemand that you will lose mafts becauseyourwritingis undear.
Whilst you cannot totally ignore legibility and neatness, it is the content ol what you arc
writing that is much more important than the way it looks. You must pay attention to the -
layoul of your answers.Always use a ruler for diagramsand plenty of colours lo make them
more understandable.However, if your wdting is untdy you mlst make effo.ts to improve it
well before the exam date; if the mafter cannot rcad your scdpt you will get no marks!

16. Al\f,ays start a new question on a new page and cleady indicale your fnal answe6 to all
calculations.

17. lt is quite normal to occasionally have diffrdity in remembering one or lwo pieces of
infoamation.In such cases leave plenty of page space at the end of your answer, move on
to anolher question and add to the question you are having difficulty with as the infomation
comeslo mind laleron in the exam

18- Never leave the examinationroorn before the allocatedtime; use any additional time at lhe
end to rcadthroughyouransw€rsand especially.to recheckc€lculations.

19. You must use a non+rcgrammable falculator in the examination; it is usual praciice for
calculatorsto be checkedbefore lho examinalion.

20. Always assume that the matker knows nothing about the subjecTlYow answersshould be
wdtlen in such a way that anybody can reasonably understand what you arc saying.
NEyER rse the words etc. or 'and so on? this is evidence of lalness and you will be
penalisedif you do not stalealllhe detajlrequired.

21. Post-exam review. There is no pdnt in cnticising yourself for things that you might have
done wrong, You can review your performancewith a view to coming up with constructive
ideas that will help you to improve your performanceif you have to resit the examinationat
a later date. You never know, you might have done b€tter than you think!

I hopethesepointswillhelp vou.

Tdl us whal Wu think!


you, the reader of this book are our mosl important critic, I value any opinion or criticisms you
might have on the presentation and content of this book, You may contact me lia Seamanship
lntemalonal LH, to offer any opinions or suggestions for improvement; they will be gratefully
received- Although great care has been taken in the writing and production of this publication,
neither myself, nor Seamanship lntemational ltd can accept responsibility for any erors,
omissionsor consequences whichmightresult,

Good luck wilh your studies,

CLT"SS2/1 STABUTV ' htodudo


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CLASS 2/1 STABTLITY- Inl'lducrion
CLrSS 211 SIABiLTIY lr'lr.dftlion
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L SECTION 1 - BASIC PRII{OPLES

titTRoDucnoN
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This sectionintroduc€sthe lawsgovemingflotalionandwill helpin the undersbndingof whyships
necessaryto completethis leamingprogram.
foat. lt will lormtl€ basiclevelof understanding
j Leeming Ob.jecTivea
Oncomplelionof thissectionthe leamerwll acfiievethe tollowing:
1. Understandthe lerms Densilt, Mass and Volumeand be able to completesimple
relatinglo thes€tems.
calc-ulatjons
l ' > Understand the lawsgovemingiotation.
3. Underslandthe changein draughvheeboard that will ocolr when a box-shapedvessel
movesbetweenwaterof differentd€nsrties.
4. Applaes(2) and (3) to calqjalions bas€d on the ffotalion of box-shaped vessels.
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CTASS Z1 STABIITY- SECiO I BFE rhtEtll€
,t.'t ANOVOLU E
DENS|W,IttASS

1,1.1 Dqsity
Thedensdyof anygivensubslanceis ils massper r]ril vorume.
This can be expressedas: = @
DENSITY
VOLUME

Forshipstabilitypurpos€sthe un s commonlyusedare:
mass: tonnes(l)
lolurne: cubb meldes(m3)
d€nsdy: tonnespercubicmete (t/m3)
Reananging the above formula gives: = @
VOLUTTE
DENSITY

ano TASS = VOLUTTIEx


DENSfi

Example1
0.1m x 2.2m ' 6.0m and hasa densryot 7.80tlm'. Calculateits mass.
A pece of stee!measures

Solution Mass = Volumg x Density


Mass= (0.1x 2.2r 60) ' 7.80
Mass= 10.N6 lonnes

Example2
A Uock of alumkiumrneasurcs0.8m x 0.6m x 0.3 m and hasa massof 0.389tonnes.Cdculate
the densityofthe aluminium.

Solution
Mass=VolumexDensity

Therefore: Dersity= Mass


Volume
Density= 0.349 = 0.389 = 2.701t/m3
(0.8x0.6x0.3) 0.144

Example 3
A rcctangulat ballast tank is 12 m long, I m wide ald has a depth of 4 m. Cabulate the mass of
sanwater ballast,densily 1.025 t/m", that can be loaded into the tank.

Sohttion Mass=VolumexDensily
Mass=(12r8x41x1.025
Mass = 393.6 tornes

Example 4
A fuel oiltank haslength 4.2 m, bteadth 3.4 m and a depth of 6.0 m. ff 50 tonnes of fuel oil (density
0.U Um") is loaded hhat wi be ke sounding(level) o, oil in the tank?

Solrtion Mass=VolumexDensily
50 = (4.2 x 3 4 x sounding) x 0.84

sounding= $ = 1.168m
4.2x3.4x0.84

cLtss 2]1 STAB|IIIY sEcTloN 1 Bsicftiftiplos 10


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L 1.1.2 Rdalive Dqrs/ly (RD)
Quiteofientne Re/atve Dersly fRD)of a substanceis quotedinsleadof De''s{y This is simplya
rafioof the densityof the substancein questionio lhal oI FreshWater.
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Thedensityot figsh wateris 1.oootm3.
In the previousexampl€the densilyof the oil was 0.84 Um'.The Ear-ve de,siy of lhe oil was
L 0.84;in otherword6,the densityof the oil is 0.84timeslhat of freshwater!

1.1.3 Densityof vaw in which a shlp Wc.rry ,loab


L A shipis presumedlo alwaysffoatin waterthat liesin ihe tollowingdensttyrange:

Freshwater(Fw): 1.0@t/m3 (RD1.Nq b


Saftw?let(SW): 1.(25 t/n' (RD 1.025)
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Waterthat fiesbetweenthes€two exfemes is lermedOockWater(DW
L lf a questonsiateslhat a shipis foating in saltwater(SW)lh€n it can be alwaysassumedthat the
waterdensrgis 1.025Um3.

L Similarly.il in tr6shwater(FW)thena densityof 1.000Vm3canbe assumed.

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Clr,SS 2/1 STABImY SECTION1 B€sicPtin lgLEs '11

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1.2 THELAWSOF FLOTATION

1.2.1 Archinedes' prtnclde


a bdy is wlD y ot pa'lidly itnfirersd in a lhuid, it experienEs an udhrust
This statesthat #yvfp|e.r
(apparcntlossof mass- t6n1edBuoyancyforce(q), equalto the massol lhuid displaced-

Considera blockof steel rneasuring2 m x2 m x2 m that has a


densityof 7.84Um3.
Exampb5 b)
ff the blockwereto be suspendedby a ship'scranethal has a vety
aciuate load gauge,what masswDuldrcgisteron the gaugeit the
blockwercsusoanded overthe shiD'ssidein am

So[Jtion(a)
Theblockis suspendedin aid
Sircei =
Mass VolumeI Density:
Massof theUock = (2m | 2m x 2d t 7.84t/n' = 62.72t

Th€6ane ddvernowb/verstl|e bbck so tlEt it beconEsl,arf


in thedockwabr thalhasa densityot 1.020l/m'.
subr?erced

Example5 (bl I
Whatmasswit thegaugenowindicate?
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Sohnionh)
Theblockis nowdisplacinga volumeof water
where:Volumoot waterdisplaced = (2mx 2m : 1m) = 4m3 Fig 1.2

.. Massof water displaced = Volume t Densityofthe dock watet


= 4 m3 x 1.020t/m3
= 4.08 t which reorese s the uothtust due to

b@yancy force (&) createdby the displacedwater.

62.72t
dueto Bt
Upthrust 4.08t
Gaueereadiw 58.U t

FA.1.3
Example5 bl
Whatmasswi thegaugeindicateif the cnne drivernow
lowets the blockso that it b conpletely submeryodin

Solutionb)
TI!€uoc* is nott displacinga vdumo of watorwl@e:

Voluneof waEr displaced= (2n x Zn | 2n)= 8m3

cfrss 2/1 STABIITY- sEcIoN 1 B6E RrEipres 12


= VolumeI Densityoftl e d(rt water;
Massof watetdisplace<l
'
= amj ' 1.020t1n3
=8.16twhichre ese, sthewthtustof thebuoyancy
lorce(80
qeated by the displacedwater.

.. Massof block 62.72t


UpthrudduetoBf 8.16t
GalraeBading 51.56 t

Fig.1.5
1.2.2 Law off,oaaton
This statesthat everyto atingbody displa@sit'sown massot the lhuid in whhhit floats

The dispracerrerlof a ship (or any floalingobject)is definedas fh€ ,rmber of tonnesof waterit
disp/aces.lt is usualto considera ship disptacingsaltwaterof density1.025Um', ho\/€ver,fresh
i__ walervaluesof displacemenl (1-000Um3)are oflenquotedin ship'shyd.ostalicdata
i.e the volurneberowthe
is lhe udetulater volumeof a shipano€nl
llpp volune of displacement
waterline,
(W)of a shipthe followingneedslo be knoun:
To calculatethe displacement
I Thevolumeof displacement (V)
The densityof the waterin whidr it foats (p)
Since: L,lASS= VOLUI,IEx DENSIW

t_ of a shipis calculatedby:
the mass,or disp/acemenl,
=VOLUMEOFDISPLACETIIENTX
OISPLACEMENT WATERDE}{SITY
I
i.e.

l 1.2.3 Dnughl arrdFrceboant


Considerthe shipshoum.

Fio.1.6
Draughfis the distancefrom the keelto the watedine(WL),asheasurod at tll€ foovardand aft
endsof the ship.(Morepreciselythe draughtreadingsaretakenas thosereadallhe FoNaKl and
Aft Peryendiculars- these tems are definedin Sedion 12). lt is expressedin metres-lf the
draughtsforwardand afl arethe samethenthe shipis saidto be on an evenkeel(as shown).
L-
Freeboardis the distanceb€tweenthe waleriine(WL) and the top of the uppermost@nlinuous
and is measuredamidstlios.
deck-lt is usuallyexpressedin mil/,imetres
iL-
HullOepth = Draught+ FEeboard

1.2.1 RsarYe Buoyancy


L_ This is the vorumeot fh€ enclosedqpacesabovethe watedie. Bec€usereservebuoyancyis a
very impoatant minrinrmfreeboardsare assignedto a
factorin detemininga ship'sseaworthiness

t_ shiDto ensurethat thereis adequatereservebuoyancyal alltimes.

CLTdSS2/l STABImY - SECTION 1 Basc Rinoples '13

I
1.3 SII{PLE BOXSHAPEDVESSELCALCULATIONS

1.3.1 To ca/cuta'6the dbprrce'''gr( of r box.srrspedrcse,


Considerlhevesselshown
ASS. VOLU E x DENSITY

i.e. DISPLACEI|ENT= VOLUIE OF DISPLACETIENTX


WATERDENSITY
= I"€IGTH x BREADIHx DRAUGHT
where:VOLU E OF DISPLACEMENT

(V=LxBxd)

Thercfore:
= (Lx Bx d)xp
DtsPl.sor

-'
Fi9.1.7
Example6 (a)
Calatlatetll€ displeemonfofa box-shapedvesse/thd has lgtr.g/th
80 m, &eadth 16m and floats
at a dhrgltt of 1.2m in saftwaler(denslty1.025Un).
Sohnionh)
=Gx B\d) tP
DISPL.sox
.. asPLsu = e'o x 16x 1.2)x 1.025
.. = 5510.1t
DlSPL.Box

Considerwhathappensto the box-shaped vesselin the previousexamde,if it is no$/to/ed into


waterof a lesserd€nsity,say 1.006Um'-
lf lhe fomula: DISPLACEXET{T= VOLUIE OF OISPLACEIEI{T x IYAIER DEISITY

is considered,thewalerdensiv hasdecreased.Sincethe disdacementhasrot d|anged,th€nthe


vofune of displacenentmustrincrease remainsconstant.
in orderthat the displacement
vesselu/ills,itka litte i.e.tlle drd{.49h1,hctsasos.
Therefo.e,the box-shaped
Example6 bl
What will the dhught of he box-shaped
wssal be now if it is floating in water of
density1.006t/n3?

Solution(b)
D t s P L . s o (xx=B x d ) x p
55104=(80x16xd)x1.06
ffi10.4= 1287.68 d
.. 5510.1=d = 1279m
1287.68
Fig. 1.8
Notethatthe increasein ddught is:
4.279m -
4.Zn m
6frgi 1t.s./nsor t9 nn1
1-3-2 Summary
lf a shiprnovesintowaterof /6sserdens,ity,
the draughtwill rlacrease.
ff a shiprnovesintowaletof greaterdensily,Ihedraughtwill declsase.
CtaSS 21 STAaIIIY- SECTION1 B* Piinople
L_ 2 . FORMCOEFFICIENTS
SECTION

I TRODUCTION
I Fom coeffcienlsare raliosthat numericallycomparethe ship'sunderwaterformio that of regular
shapeshavingthesamemajordimensions as lheship.

, They are prirnarily used at the design stag€, pdor io construction, to p@dic1facticrs such as
!- resistance lo foMard molion that the ship will experience during operalion. Such informalion is
then us€d to estimate the ship's po'Jv€rrequirementsfor the desired service speed.

-.. Ello* coefficient is a rato that is considered in the calcllaton and assignmont of a ship's
lreeboard.

, Le',rring Objecfves
On completionof this section the leamer will achEve the bllowing:
1. Undersiand the tetm Coefficientof fine,ess of the water*lane arca (Cu).
2. Understand thetem Btrockcoefficient (CB).
L- 3. Understand the tenrl Midships
coefficbnt (Ci.
4. Understandthe tetmLongitudinal Vismatc coefficient(C).
5. Cornpletesimplecalculationson ( 1) to (4) above.
L
l
l

t_
L_
I
L-

L
L
L
L
l_ CIaASS21 STABLn SECTION2 Fom Co€trEienE 15
2.'I OFFINENE$S
COEFFICIENT AREA(CA)
OFTHEWATERPLANE

fs dofned as the raiio of the ship'swater-planearea (WPA)to the arca of a rechnglehavingthe


sa1'r6lenglh(L) andbrcadth(B)dthe shipat the watedinein queslkm.

t
I
Fig.2.1
l-c*- wPA :
I LxB I

Since the ship's WPA is less in area than the reclangle fofined around it, the value of Ct must
alwaysbe lessthan1-00.

Example1
A ship has a bvth afu bredth at the watodir|oof 40.1 m and 8.6 m respeclively.ff be water
of finonessof the water+lanearea(Cw).
dane aea is 2ffi m' calculatethe c<)efrcient
Sohnion
c:w=weL = 280 = 0.812
LxB 4O.1 ' 8 . 2
Nde that the ansver hasno units:it is simplya compaisonof one areato anothet!

CLASS21 STAB|LrY - SECTION2 Fm Ccftdenls 16


2.2 (q}
BLOCK COEFFICIENT

The Uock coeffcienf (CB)of a ship is the ralp of l,l,eundetwater wlume of a ship to tlle-vdune of
the circumscribingblod<-

L- Fig.2.2

i_

Therefore:

Since the ship's volume of displacement is less than the volume of displacement of the
$nounding block, the value of CBmust always be l'?ssthan 1.00.

Example 2
A ship floats al a dntEht of 3.20 m atfu has a watedine IeNtrh and bredth of 46.3 m and 15.5 m
i rcspeclively- Cabulate the block coefflcient (Cs)it its vdune of displacenent is 1800 m'.
L-

Solution
I Ca= Vdune of displacenent = lgn
LxBxd 46.3x15.5xs.2

Cs = 0-7U

Exanple 3
A ship has length 200 m and brcadth 18 m at the watetline. lf lhe ship floats at an even keel
draught of 7.56 m in water RD 1.012 and the block coetricientis 0.824 cabulate the displacement

Solution
Displacement = Vdume of displacementx De$ily
Displa@nent = (Lengthx Breadthx dnught xCd x Density
Asdacenptt = (200x 18 x7.56 x 0.824)x 1.012 =2 95t

L_

CTASS 21 STABILITY SECIIOTI 2 Fm C@ffxisls '17


2.3 (Cr)
IDSHIPSAREA COEFFICIENT

The midships coefficient (CM)of a ship d any draught is the ratio of the underwater lransverse
area of the midships seclion to the product of lhe breadth and draught (the surounding r6ctangle).

nd!F.-
Bfxdfl
Fig.2.3

cr=@
Breadthx Draughl

l.FE--l
Bxd
I I
Similady,the value ol CB mustalwaysbe lessthan 1.00.

Thiscoefficientrnaybe usedto doteminethe prsmaticc@frcient(Cp).


Example4
A ship floats at a *atght of 1.40 tn and has a wateditEbeadth ol 12.70n. Calculatethe
undewdertransvet* areaof the midshipssectionif CMis 0.922.
So/u[b't
c"= 4L
Bto

0.922= M
12.70' 4.40
0.922 = Am
55.88
0.922' 55.88= Am = 51.521m'

CI}.SS 2/1 STAa[rrY- SECTION2 Fm Ccftuienc 18


2.1 LONGITUDIi'IALPRISMAT|CGOEFFIC|ENT(C.)

The longiludinafprismaliccoefficient(Cp)of a ship at any draughtis the ralio of the undewater


volune of the shipto the wlune of the $ism fomed by the Poducl of the tlansversearead the
nklshipssedionandthe watelinelength.

c" = \19!cm9_ol-g@g9nt_9!-$!S
Volumeof Dtism
Cr= Volume of dkDlacoment of 6hiD
Waterlinelength)<Area of midship s€ctlon(Am)
FA.2.4

Thiscoelficientgivesan indicalionof hcw muchthe ships formchangesal lhe €nds.Similady,lhe


valuaof Cpmustalwaysbg /esstlta, t.00-

Example5
A shiphasthefo owingdetails:
Draught3.63m:
Watedinobngth 48.38m;
Watetinebreadth9-42m;
'r* Cm0.946:
Cp 0.778.
Calculatethe vdumeof displacement.

Sorr.//btr

i cn= M Cp = Volumeof displacement


B'd LXA'n

Stanhgwih:
I
cn= @. 0.946= Am
Bxd 9.42x 3.63
An = 0.u6 t 9.42x3 63 32.348m' and;

Cp = Vd. of disolacenent 0.77I =yd.g_djsplecco9t


48.38x 32.348

Vot.of disptac€ntent= 0.778 ' 48.38 x 32.348 = 1217.6m1

lt shoufd be noted that for mosl @urses only knowledgeof the Co€iticrbrt of finenessof the water'
plane area (Cw) and he Blor.kcoeffcient fcd is required.
L_

l
clrss 21 STABILITY-S€CnOr{ 2 Fom CGfi.i€nG 19
t_
I

IL-
@
t]{rRoDucflot{
TPC is the frst of the ship's hydrostaiic data that is supplied to a ship thal will be considered in
L detail. lt allows a means of calculating the change in draughl that will occur when loading or
discharging,.csighls.

Letning Ohjecttve6
On completion of this sealion the leamer will achi€vethe tolkt ving:
'1. Understandthe tetm Tonnesper canhmetreimmersbn.
L_ z_ uenve ne lormuElor tru.
3. lJnderstandthe faclors that affect th€ value ofTPC.
4. Use Displacemenland Trc values from tabulated hydro6taticparlict-rlarslo perfom simple
I
calculalions involvingdraught cfianges when cargo is loaded or discharged.

I
lt-

I
L_

I
L-

I
L-

I
L-

I
L-
Cr-ass 2/1 STABILITY-sEcTloN 3 To@s Pd Cs{im€te lmtll€lg

L
3.1 TONNESPERCEi'lTlilETREIMIIERSION(IPC)

The fPC for any givendraughl ,:slhe weightthat must be loadodor dischargedb changethe
ship'sm6andftught by one centjnetrc.
Considerthe ship shownfoaling in sah water (RD 1.025)with a water-planearea (WPA)at the
waterlineas shown.

Fig.3.1

A weighl of 30 tonnes is loaded on deck so that the mean draught increases by 1 cm.

Fig. 3.2

Since the ship's dispfacementis equal to the mass of water d;splaced (Law of Flotalion) itfoll ts
'slice' of displaced water is equal to the added weight of 30 tonnes.
lhaltbe mass of the additbnal

fn this instance, 30 tonnes represents the value of [ne Tonnespet Centimete Immersion (TPC) tor
the ship al lhe inffal draught before the weight was loaded.

CLASSZ1 SIAA|L|TY- S€CTION3 Trc PerCdtmre lmre'g 22


3.2 IPC FOR ULA

Considertheprevioussituation.
i
Since: Mass= VolumexDensit

then:
:_ Massof additionalsliceof water= Volumeof the additionalsliceof waterx Density.
lf lhe WPAis assumsdto notsignificantychang€betweenthe lwo watBrlines, lhen:
Volunleof the slice= WPA{mz)x 1 cm;
i

Fiq.3.3

Wecannotmultiplym' by cms,lherefore:
Volumeof slice= WPA(m')r 1 (m);
100

Added displacement(l) = wPA (m?)x 1 (m)x density(t/m3);


'100

Th€refore,the brmula for TPCis: rPc =!!EAr p


100
Exarnole 1
Catcutatetne fpC nr a snip wih a water+lane arca of 1500m' when it is floaling in:

(a) hesh wale,


(b) d@kwater o'RD 1.005;
(c) s6ll water.

Sollnim

rPc =WA. p
100

ta) TPC= LW' 1.000= 15.0@


100
(b) = 15-075
TPC= L@, 1.OO5
100

L (c) TPC= l&nr 1.m5= 15.375


100

L-

L_

l
CTASS 2:/I STABILfIY SECTION 3 Trc Pe Cerljmde l,ffi 23
I
3.3 FACTORSAFFECI]NG TPC

ofthe TPC formula:


Consideration TPC = WqA' p
100
showsthat:
' TPC inueases with WPA and for a normal ship-shapethe WPA willincrease wth draught.
' TPC incrcases with density.

Two values of TPC are ofren quot€d in ship's hydrostatic data, TPC$ and TPCFW.However,
hydrostaticdata for M. V. Almar is given for saltwateronly.

Considerthe hydroslatc paflia.llats for M.V. Almar oo page t2 of the stability data book.
'1.025)the displacementof the
lf the ship were foating at a draught of 5.00 m in salt l4afet (RD
ship would be 15120tonnes-To sink lhe ship by exac{y 1 crn, 31.96tonneswould have to b€
loaded.

Considerthe sifualon if the ship were to ffoat at the same draught of 5.00 m but in fresh water (RD
1.000).

Would the displacenent and TPC values be the same as they were in sdt water?

Consider the following diagrams showing the ship foating al lhe same dnught httl in different

ttrlrtbli, !.0S

=VoL,,. oJI,J",*",".*T x WATER


DISPLACEMENT DENsIry
Forbothsituationsthe volr./me
of drsp/acemerfis the same!

It followsthat the displacemenlof the ship when at a draughtof 5.00 m in sa/t wabr must be
g/eaterthanthe displacement of lhe shipwhenat lhe sane dnught in frcshlvafet(sincesaltwater
is denserthanfreshvrater!).

considernow the TPCvaluefor bothsfaafions.

frrb.tt!.Ul,f

Fig.3.5
- s€cIloN 3 Toffi
cLAss ?]1 STABTUTY P6 cqlitrE e lmnsskr
By similarreasoninga 1 cn sticcot sattwalerv{ll havea grcatermasslhan a 1 dn slic€of ftesh
water.Therefore,for the samedraughtof 5.00m the Trc in sakwatetwil be greaterthanthe Trc

andTPCfor freshwateris very


of the equivalenlfteshwalervaluesof displacement
Determinalion
smpe.

Thehydrostaticdatagivesthe followingsaltwatervaluesfor a draughtof 5.00m:

TPc: 31.96tormes

Wlacenent in f'e'shwatet(RD 1.00O)= 15120x L@= 14751tonnes.


1.025
' TPCin frcshwater(RD1.0N)= 31. xLQ99=31.18tonnes.
1.025

Example2
lJsingthe hydroslatbpaftiMaE detetminethe displacementand TPCvaluesfor the shipwhen
floathgat a draughtof 6.30m n:
(a) saftwater(RD 1.025);
(b) fteshwatet(RD1.M0);
(c) d@kwater(RD1.012).

So/tli2n
(a) The f'dtustatic clatagivestlE fttlowingsant /atervaluesfor e d.aughtof 5 00 m:

L-'-- Disdacanent: 19310b res


TPC: 3iL16bnnes
(b) Displacenentin heshwater(RD 1.N0)
= 19310x 1!W= 18839tonne.
1.U5

TPc in lrcshwater(RD 1.N0)


= 32.46x Ll@= 31.67ronnes.
1.025

t_ G) Disdacement in dock water (RO 1 012)


= 19310
x L912= 19065
bnnas.
1.025
L-
TPc in dock water (RD 1 012)
= 32.46 x 1.012= 32.(E tonnes.
1n%

L_ Note
ft is usuatto wotkto thesamenumberof decimalplacesas the vahEsgivenin the tables.

CLASS Zl STABILITY- SECIION 3 TsE Pd C€nlitrEte InFs(m 25

L-
3.4 LOAD/DISCHARGEPROBLEi'S

lf givena Trc vafuefor a parlisiar draught,thenthe changein draughlthat will occuras a result
of loadingor dischargingweights,termedeithers/rkageor r,se as appropriate.maybe calcriated
usino:
Sinkage/Rise (cms) = w
TPC

where rv represents the tolal weighl that is loaded or discharged. Having c€lculated the
sinkage/riseof the ship, this is then applied 1olhe inital draught.

Use of the above fomula may be also used lo delermine the weight to load or discharge to
achieve a requireddraught wtEre:

w=Slnkage/RlserTPC

Example 3
M.v. Almar has an inifial nean dnught of 4.40 m in sdt water and b required to completeloading
wilh a dmwht of 6.70 m. Using the hydrodatic parliculars calculate the amou of cargo that must

Two methodsmay be used as follows:

Method 1
1. Read otr the DISPLW values for both the initial and r€quired final draught.
2. Subt?clthe smallerfton the larger.
3. Resuftequals the amount to load.

Method 2
1. Read otr the TPcswvalues fot both the initial and required final draughE.
2. Cabulate the mean Trcswvalue.
3. Calcukte the rcquied change in draught; in ihis case Snkage.
4- Use the fomula: Sinkage/Rise (cms) = ut tofind'w', the anounl to loa.l.
TPC

Sohrtion

Mehod 1
Initialdnught 4.40 m DISPLS/ 13200 t
Requheddraught 6.70 n DISPLsvv20610t
Cargoto load 7110 t

Method 2
Inilialdaught4.44n TPCsw31.78t
Requied dnught 6.70 n TPCsw32.66t

Mean TPCsw=3L78 42SO =32.22t


2
Sinkage(c''s)=6.70m-4.40m= zm m= 230cms

Sinkage (cms) = w
TpCsw

Caryoto load(w) = sinkagex MeanTPcsw


= 230, 32.22=7110.6t
- SECiON 3ioM6 Per c€nrm.tE rmm4ion
CLASS 2/1 STABTLTTY 26
Theanswersdifferslightlyfor lwo reasons:
'1. In usingthe meanvalueof TPCit is assumedthal the TPCvaluechanges/,'laeady between
lhe rangeof draughtsconcemed.This is not so, as the undeMaterform of a shipdoesnot
(usually)changeunifomlywithdraught.

2. Displacement valuestakenfromthe hydrostaiicdala in usingmethodt will b€ roundedto


lhe nearestwholetonne.

lf the changein draughtis onlysmallit is usualto usethe Trc vabe for the inilialwatedineinstead
of the meanTPC value as shownin the examples-Obviouslythe greaterthe arounl of cargo
loadedor discharged;lhe greaterwill be the enor!

Example4
M.V.Almar hasan initialmeandnught of 5.80m in sakwatet and lcads113(n t of caryo Usitv
parlhularscaldiate the finaldisplacement
the hydtostatic andmeand6ught.

Solution

Method 1
lnitialdlaught 5.80 m DlSPLsw 17690 t
Caeabaded 11300t
F|NALD|SPL. 28990t
.
Enterdata with final displacenent gives a final mean aught of L200 m.

Method 2
Initiel daught 5.80 m DlSPLsw 17690t TPCtu 32.26 t
Caryo loaded 11300t
FINALDISPL. 28990t TPCsw34.43t

Mean TPCsw=32.26+ 34.4 =33.345t


2

Sinkage (cms) = u!
TPCSW MN

(cms) = 1l@
Sinkage = 338.9c'r,s =3.389'/'
33.345

lnitialdraught 5.8m m
Sinkage 3.389n
FTNAL DRAUGHT 499-n
ft shoufdbe evidenttrom Example4 that directuseof lhe Dispkcenent and IPC valuesgivenin
(Mettod 't). Usingthe formulamethodleads
the hydroslaticdataresullsin a moreaccu€te answer
lo unnecessary wo*ing and resultsin a lessaccuraleanswer.

Exanple 5
M.V.Almaraiives in potl witha meandraughtof 5.30n in dockwaterRD 1.016.Hownuch ctgo
mayba loadedto ensurethat themaximumdnught on completionis 5.70m in the dockwater?

crrss zl STAaILFY- sEcIloN 3 Tores Perc.i$mtB lmtMion


Sohniotl
Mehod 1

lnitid &arght 5.30n DISPLswlffi8ot

DISPLD4= 16080x1.O16=15939t
1.025

Finaldrdrght5.7On DlSPLe 17370t

DISPLy = 17370
x1n16 =17217t
1.025

lniqalDISPLM 1ffi8o t
FinalDISPLD? 17217t
Cargotoload 1278t
Melhod2

lnitialdnught 5.30n TPCw32.07t

TPcw = 32.07x 1!p19 = s1.79t


1.025

Finaldtaught5.70m TPCsw32.22t

TPC\* = 32 22 x1.016 = 3194t


1.O25

MeanTrcM= !LEL3L94 = 31.865t


2

Sinkage(cms)= 5.70n - 5.30m = 0.40m = 40 cms


Sinkage(cms) = Y
MeanTPCbw

Caryoto load(w) = Sinkagpt MeanTPCW


= 40 ' 31 865= 12f1.6t

It shouldbe evidentfromthe previousexamplethat:


' for theconectdensitymustbe usedin the calculation.
Thedisplacement
" The TPC lot the densilyof watet in whichthe ship is loadingin shouldbe used in the

It is usualio cafculatethe amountto load on the basisof the required saft water daughtsinc€
seasonalloadlinesassignedto lhe shipapplyto the shipat seain sa/twaler.

clAss 2/l STABILITY SECTIoi{3loffi Porcrrtn€ts litrEu 2a


- LOADLINES
SECTION,I

tNTRODUCT|OI'l
a minimum
llost shipswilfbeassigned freeboadanda conesponding setof loadlines.Thesewill
be permanentlyrnarkedon eachside of the ship (certainclassesof ship are exemptftom these
reouiremenls).
Loadlinesassignedto a ship corespondlo oceanarcasor 2ones'.Oceansarcundlhe worldare
dividedinto these zones in tems of both geographicallocaton and time of year (season).By
ensudngthat the appropriateseasonalload line markis not submergedat sea in salt water(RD
'1.025)the shipwill alwayshavethe necessaryreservebuoyancylo ensureseaworlhaness.

To ensurelhat lhe approprialeloadline is neversubnr€rgedat sea. it is essentialthat the leamer


hasa thoroughknowledge of the loadlinemarldngs, theirspacinganddimensions. Theabilityto
performcalculaionsto deteminelhe maximumamountto loadis alsoimportant.especiallyto the
ship olvner,as the absolutemaximum@rgo in 'ovedoadedterms of weight should be c€nied whenever
possible.lt is also essenlialthal the ship is never , as @ntraventionof the conditions
of loadlineassignmentwill arise,resultingin the ship beingunseaworthy with respectto legislative
requtremenls.

Leaming Oti*wes
On mmpletionof this sectronthe leamerwillachievethe following:
1. Knowthe dimensionsof a setof loadlinesas wouldbeassignedto a ship-
2. Understandthe tetmFreshWatetAllowancaIFWA)andderivethe formulafot FWA.
3. Understandthe temi DockWaterAlowance(DWA).
4. Perfom calculationsrelatinglo lhe loadingof a shipto the appropriateloadlinemarl..

CLASS ?1 STABILITY SECTION 4 LOd LiB 29

t_
1.'l LOADL|NEDrMEr{SrOr{S
The loadlinesas they wouldappearon the starboardsideof a ship are shown.

alof:o scALE
+ato_-___1 FrtA (nh) =g!S4.!gsa!! x ' stlrlilEi lnrocrl
4T 6, al
'Always loctt for"rd ta qtmtnar!'

!UIER
F'EEBO ND

EiJ.4.1

The following poinb should be carefuIy noted:


1. The notationsassignedto the load lines are as follows:
S: Summer
W: Winter
T: Tropical
VVNA:WinlerNorthAdantic
F; Fresh
TF: TropicalFresh
Eachload line indicatesthe minimumfreeboatdlhat appliesto lhe seasonalzone andor
areaas stipufaledin lhe /rlemationalCnnventionon Load Ljnes,1966.
(Referto Annexll: Zones,Areasand SeasonalPerbds)

2. The shipwill be loadedto the approprialeloadlinewhenthe waterlineis levelwiththe lop


edgeof the markcoocemedwhenioaling in sa/trvater(RD 1.025).

Thespacingsbelweenthe loadlinesare measuredfromlhe tqp edgeof one lineto the lop


edg6of the other.

4. The ass&/,ed (Sumne4 fteeboad is rneasuredfrom the lop edge of the mmsJll line
(whichconespondsto the top edgeof the Summerline)lo the lop edgeof the deck/ine.
5. The WNA'foadlinemarkis onlyassigned to shipsthatare t00 metresot lessin length.
Shipsover100m willloadto lhe 'W nark as appropriate.

6. Withtheexception arethesamefor a//ships,@gardless


of Fy!'A'andX: ail dimensions of
sizeofship.

7. Load finesshoufdbe cleadyand permanentlymarkedon the ships side; dark on light


backgroundor vic+versa.

cLr6s 21 STABTLmYSEmON4 fcd LiB 30


4.2 (FWA)
FRESHWATERALLOVITANCE

FrcshWatetAllowance(FWA)is the numberof minimetreshy whichthe nreandrcughtchanges


whena ship passesfrom saltwaterto freshwateLor vice-ve6a,rhhenthe shipis lsadedb the
Summer clisplacement.

The FWA is foundby the formula: FwA (mm)= DISPL.Summer


4TPCS

TPCvalueforlhesummerload
TPC$ is thesaft-water draught.

1.2.1 The'shipes a hydroneE'


lf the loadlinemarksareconsidered, r.o(aw)
lhe top ol the Summetma* andlhe txt
top of the Freshmaft ad as the limits to
of a scale of density that would t5
appear on a hydrometer (an a
insirument for measunng liquid r-0rr (s)
density).
The ship behavesas a very latge Fil.4.2

ff the ship were foaded to lhe Summer displacement in sak water (RD 1.025)then the waler line
would be level with the top edge of the Summer (S) load line. lf now towed inlo tesh water (RD
1-000)the ship woufd sinkby the he$h t /atet allowarce such thal lhe waler line would nolv be level
withthe top edge of the Fresh(F) load line.

Obviouslythe reversewould happen if moving from FW to SW!


I 1.2.2 Derivation of the FWA fonnula
The displacementof a ship may be calculatedby:

L x B xd x CBx p
DisplacementsHrP=

Consider the ship shown loaded to lhe Summer


dfaughtioating in:
L_ (i) saltwater;
(ii)freshwaler. Fig.4.3

will be the same.lf a ship is


will be differentbut the volumesof displacement
The displacements
ata draughlin FW,tofnd theequivalent
floating SWdisplacement forthesamedraught:
DISPL$=D|SPLFWx1.025

Therefore, x '1.025
fortheshipshown: DISPLFW = DlSPbw+ (WPAx FWAx 1.000Um')

whereFWAis expressedin meLes.


DISPLFW x 1.025= DISPGW+ (wPA x FWA)
1.025D|SPLFW = DISPLFW
+(WPAx FWA)
1.o2sDlsPLFw - DISPGW = (WPAx FwA)
0 o2SDlSPLrw: (wPAx FWA) (i)

Considerno$/ihe formulafor TPC,wherethe TPCswis the weightrequiredto sinkthe shipwhilst


atthesummerdisplacemenl by 1 cm:
TPC$=WPAx1.025
100
CLASS ?]1 SIABILITY- SECTION4 Load fi6 3'I
thisgives:
Reananging
WpA= Trce x 100 (ii)
1.025

wherethe WPAis thatfor the Summerloaddnught waterline.


(ii)intoequation
equation
Subsliluting (i):
0.025DlSPla*= 100x TPCV x FWA
1.025
FWA(m)= 0 02sx DlsPLFwil!25
100x TPC$

To expressFWAin mm then:
E]llA= 0.025x'100
DlsPLr":_!q25
1000 x TPCsw

gives:
Rearanging
FWA(mm)= 0.025x DISPL$x 1m0
100x TPCsw
Therefore:
FWA(mm)= 025xDlSPLsw
TPCS
Thus: FWA(mm)=DISPL.Summer
4TPC6Ni

Example1
A shipflo€tsin SWat the Sum''er displaaement of 1680tonnos.f fne TPCswis 5.18,hoit/mrch w
thedtawht changpby if the shipis towedto a betu wheEthe densityd thewderis 1.m0t/n'?

So/uf,on
In movinghon SWto FWthe shipwillexpeiencesinkageby an anount equalto the FWA.
FwA (mm)= DISPL Sunmer
4IPCsw
FwA = 1@ = 87-1mm
4' 5.18

The.fiaoghl wil, i,Ercg by 81.1 mm!


1.3 (DWA)
DOCKWATERALLOWANCE

The Dock WatetAllowance(DWA)of a ship is the numberof millimetes by which the mean
draughtchangeswhena sr,ir passgstom sa/t waterto dockt /ater,or vice-versa,whenthe shipis
loadedto the Summerdisplacenent

Considerthe loadline markssho\/n. Thetop of the Srmm€r malk and lhe top of the F.esfrma*
bothact as the fimitscf a scaleof density,indicatingthe positionof the sa/l waterand freshwater
watedinesrespectivefyfor a ship loadedto the Summerdisplacemont.lf sudr a ship was to be
foaling in waterof anintennediatedensily,termedDock lvate. the drangein draughtwhengoing
ftom saltv/atetlo dockwalerc€n be easilydetermined.

Considerthe scalemarkedon the sectionof loadlineshown.

C|-ASS 2/1 STABIUTY- SECTION 4 L@d UE


L_

--
Fig.4.4
lf the shipwereto go fromSWto dockwater
of RD '!.010,the draughtwouldchangery
lhe DWA.Theamountof the DWAis simply
L- a fiaclionof the FWAas sho\n, in ihis case
3/5thsor '15/25thsof the FWAvalue.

L- The DWA as a fractionof the FWA,is found


by tl|e formula:
Fig.4.5
L- DwA(mm)= FIYAx 119?!:BP
jssll44gll
25
I
Ng&Thedenstiosare multipliedby 10A0to sinplily the wo*ing.
Example2
I A shiphasa FwA ol 2N mm.Calculatethe changein draughtthat wi octur it lhe ship
L-
trcm S/l/ to a befthwherctheRD of the dockwabr is 1.018.
i So/utio,
L- DWA(nn) = FWAx (1025- RDdockwater)
25

L- Thercforc: DWA(nn) = 2Nx (1025- 1018)


25
DWA=55nm
Thedtaught wil, increeseby 56 mm!
the d|ange in draughtthatwouldoccrlrif the ship
The DWAfomula is easilymodifedto calcr.rlate
wereto proceedfromdockwaterof one densilyto dockwalerof another.

OWA(mm)= FWA,(

L- (- meansdifferencebetween;takesmall€rvaluefromgreal,ervalue-)

Example3
L- A shipis loadedto iE sumner disphcementad is to Wceed dott/nriverhon a beih wherclhe
dockwaterRD is 1.0U to anothetbeih whercthe dockwaterRD is 1.016.ff the FWAis 260mm,
calculatethe dange in dnught that willoccurand statewhetherit is an hcrcaseor a decrease.
L Solutbn
DWA(nn) = FWA' (RDM- RD"w,) Thereforc:DWA(nn) = 260 x (1016- 1(n4)
25 25
DWA= 1U.8 mm
lhe dnugLhtwirl@fi by 125mm since the ship is noving into morc densewab
NglqAnswersneed onlybe ta the nearestmm!
I
crrss 2]1 SIABILITY-SECTION,1LoadLts

I
44 LOADLINECALCULATIONS

1.1.1 Thend for awlyhrg DWAEWAaoensu€ mathnum cdrgo is loaded


Whenloadinga shipit is desirableto loadas mudt caEo as possible.fffneshipis loadirEin waterthat
is l-.ssd6nsethansaltwater,suchas dockwater,lhen allowanceshouldbe rmde for lhe ship ,stng
outof lhe wateron redtng thes€a,saltwaterdensitybeingg/e€terthanlhat of the clockwaler

Considerthe followingsituation:
A ship is loadingin the Summerzone in
d@k waterRD 1.012.It can legaly loadso
that the saft-waletwatettineis level with
thetop edgeof the SummerLoad Line.

Considerthe situationwherethe ofricorin


charye of loading, loads caagoutttil the
dock water watedinebecameslevel with
the top edgedthe Sunnnerloadline!
Fig. 4.6
When the ship proceeds fo sea, o,
reachingsaftwater(RD 1.o25)the shipwill
dse and be liJht of the Summertua*s as

MORE CARGO COULD HAVE BEEN


LOADEDS/NCEIHE SHIPIS L]GHTOF
THESUMMERLOADLINEMARK!
but lo alsoensure
To avoidlhis situation,
lhat too muchcargois rEverloaded,the FA.4.7
amount to safely load can be readily
calculated.

The aim of the prcblem is to ensurc that on ptoceeding lo sea lhe ship t:ses to lhe desired
'Fresh Water Albwance' or 'Dock
seasonal loac! lhE ma*. ThE is achieved by considenng the
water Allowance' as approwiate in the calculation.

1.1.2 Ptoc{durs for cotducting Load Lhte calculaliotts


The following examples illustrate the melhod to be used to determine the maxifium amount of
cargo to load when the ship is ffoating in dock water. lt is important that the c€lcrilation procedure
is followed exactly, paniculadyin slep 2 of the next ev€mple.

Example 4
A ship has a Summet load draught ot 5.80 n, FWA 140 mn and TPC of 21.82. The ship is loading
at a benh in dock water RD 1.007 and the Wsent dnught i6 5.74 m. Calculate the maimum
amount of catgo that can stil be loaded fot the ship to Lte at the Surnmer load line ma* on
rcaching the sea alowing for 26 tonnes of fuel still to be loadedVior to sailing.

Solrtion

1. CalculateDWA (to the nearest rnm).

DWA (nn) = 140x (1025- 1007)= 100.8mm = 101rnrn


25
'pemifted sinkage' in dock wateL Alwavs statt with the required load line
2. Calculate the
draught and wo* as follows:
CTASS 2/l STABIIIY SECTION 4load Um 34
L_

L RequitedSumnerdrcught (1.025) m
5.tv,)o
DWA + 0.101 m
Reguircddraught (.mn 5.901n
I lnitialdnuqht (1.00n 5.740m
Pemifted sinkee (1.(n7) 0.161n

3. Calculatethe maximumanount that can still be loaded in dock $/atet,qnoing any


allowancesfor fual or otheritems,
Pemif|ed sinkage(cms)= y
Trc
Thetefore: w = Permiftedsinkage(c/.ns)XTPC
L w = 16.1x 21.82xL992=U5.1tonnes
1.025
L* NotethatTrc mustbe corectedfor he densityof thedockwatet!
4. Makeallowancenowfor itemsotherhan caryothat mustbe loaded

ToEIthatcan be loaded' 345.1tonnes


26.0tonnes
L- Maximumcaraoto load 319-7bnnes
given TPCNt beenconvetlodfor the densilyof the dockwate\ the tolal lhat 6uld
J!9& Had ll@l€
I be loadealt lould have wod<edout as: w = 16.1 x 21.82 = 351.3 tonnes;
i-- resuftingin the shh being Oy.ERLOADEDBY 6.2 TONNES!

Example5
is floding in do* waterRD 1.002at a daught of 4.30m. Howmuchmorecaryo mustbe
A sh:jtp
toadedto ensue that the shipwi be at the Wnter load line na* giventhat tlrc Wintetdmught
corespondingto the wintetdisplacenentis 4.32m and the TPCis 21.60andthe FWAis 100mm.

Notethat the TPC valuegiven will alwaysbe the one that conespondsto sall water fot the
watelinethatis beingloadedto.

Solution

, 1. CalculateDWA.
i- DwA (mm)= 100x 0929:i@a= 92 mm
25
2- Calculatethe petmiftedsinkagein dockwater.
) RequircdWnterdraught (1.025) 4.3mm
DWA + 0.092m
RequircddmLght (1.002) 4.412m
lnitial drauaht ft.002] 4.300 m
Permiled sinkaqe (1.002) 0.112m

3. Calculatethe maximum amount that can still be ioaded in dock water.


Permilled sinkage (cms) = !
fPC
Therefore: w = Pemitted sinkage (cms) x TPC
I
L_
w=11.2x 21.60'1nO2= 236.5tonnes
1.U5
\ Total tllat can be loaded 236.5 bnnes.

or,ss zl STABIUTY-sEcrlofi 4 fo6d urc 35


Sometimesa questionmay be a littlemorediffcult wherebyknowledgeof the loadlinedimensions
thata sketchbe drawnto fullyundetstandwhatis beingasl<ed!
is essential-,t is recommended
Considerthenextexample.

Example6
A shipis floatingin dock waterRD 1.006.The watelinoto pon is 12 cm bebw the lowet eclgeof
'W mark. lf the
the 'S' ma* anc!on the statboardside is 4 cm above tl€ upperedge of the
Summerdisplacementis 21620tonnes(conespondingto a draughtin sanwaEr of 6.86m, TPC
18.6),how muchcaryoremainsto be loadedto ensurcthat the shipwill be at the Wtnterma* in
saftwaler,

Solution
1. in the question('S' and W in this case):sketch
ldentifythe load linesthat are mensioned
them (poft or slakoafu, it does not matter) and entet all known dimensions,calculating
them as ,ecessafy.

Thi*ness of the lines:2s nm (2.5 cms: 0.025 m)

D$ance betueen Winter and Summer load lines


(x):
X = Summerdraught= oio = 0.143m
48 48
Fig.4.8
2. *aiing with a known draught (Summet) calculate the daught on each side by adying the
distancesin the sketch.
PORT S'AD
Summerdrawht 6.860 6.860
Linelhbkness -0.025 x - 0.143
!129____________-
Dmwht each side 6.715m 6.757n

3. CalculateinitialmeandraughL
Initialmoandraught(RD 1.006)= 6.715 + 6.757 = 6.736n
2
4. CalculateDWA (in lhis case FwA must first be calculated).
FWAh n) =DISPL.Sunmer = 216m = 290.6nm
4TPCsw 4 x 18.6

DwA (nn) = 290.6 x (1025 - 1006) = 220.8 mm = 221 mn


25

5. Calculatethe required Winter draught.


Sumner
drcwht 6.860m
0.143n
Requied Wifter draught 6.717 m

6 Calculatethe 'petmifted sinkage' in dock water


Requied Vvinterdaught (1.025) 6.717m
DWA + 0.221m
Requireddraught (1.006) 4938m
lnitialdnuaht (1.006) 6.736n
Permiftedsink<re (1.0061 0.202n

Cl-r,SS?Jl SIABIUTY S€mON 4 Lod tre 36


7. Calculatethe maximum amount that can still be loaded in dock water.

Pemftec! sinkage (cms) = ttu


TPC

Thercfoe: w = Pennifted sinkage(cms) xTPC

w=m2x 18.6xL999 = 368.8loDres


1.025

L-

L-
l

crAss 2?1sTABtLtrY sEcnoN 4 LoadLi6


L-
INTRoDUCTIOI'I

Considera shipheGledoverby somee)demalforce,suchas the wind.


G representslhe @nte of g@ity ol lhe ship and B the
L_ centre ot buoyancy. fh6e are the points of applicalion of
the weight force (!Vf), acting vertically downwards,and the
buoyancy torce (Bf) acting vertically upwards. Ship
I
t- stability is concemed with the relative posilions of G and I
as the shipis heeled.

l-
Conside. whai will happen to the ship once lhe extemal
heeling force is removed-

t__
L lf the lines of acbon of v\lf and Bf are considered,they will
acl to retum lhe ship to the uprighl condition.

This section @ncems lhe veltical posilion of the ship s


centre of gravity (G) and how ils position changes when
weighlsare shifted,loadedand discharged.

The factoG iniuencing the posilion of the centre of


buoyancywill also be discrrssed.

't-

L_
Leaming OAectlvea
On complelionof this sectonthe leamerwill achievethefollowing:
l 1. lJnderstandthe term C€rtre of GraviA (G).
2. Understandthe effect on G of sh,ittinga single weight vertically

3. Understandthe effect of /oadirg a single weight in a posilion vertically


above/belowG.
4. Underctandthe effect of dischargr,l4ga single weight from a posilion
verticallyabove/belowG.
5. Calculatethe effect on G when shifiing, loading or dischargingmultiple
weights.
6. ljnderstand the term Certre of Buoyancy (B) and identify the factors
I that iniuence it s position-
7. Perlom calculations bas€don (2) lo (5)above.

CTASSZl STAAUTY SECTION5 Cetr€ of Buoy*Ey (B)arrdCdte ofolvly (G) 39


I
5.1 CENTREOFGMVITY (G}
'Centrcof gnviv' (G)of a shipmay be defmedas beingthepint wherethe totalweightforce(W
of tho shipis @nsideredto act vetlicanydownwards.
Providedweightswilhinthe shipare prop€rlyse(|lred,the posilionof G is as.sumed
to nol moveas
the ship heels.(Obviorjslyif the ship heelsexcessivelylashingsmay give way causingcargoto
shift!)
WeighttorceW atulaysactsvetlicalydownwards!

Fig. 5.3

When,r/eightsare shaed on board,/oadedor discrarg@d


G will rnove.Wh€noverG is caus€dto
movethe 'sh,Aof G'mustbe calculated.

The positionof the centreof gravitywithinthe shipis the mostinfluentialkct)r in detemining its
stability.The ofr@r in chatgeof loadingthe ship mustbe ftily conversantwith the way that G
moveswhenshinng,loadingaN discharyingwsigns.

Theverticalpositionof G is expressedin termsof 'rnetresabovethe keel'(KG).

The verlical po€itionof the centreof gravityof a weighton boardis also epressed in lerms of
'nutres abovethekeel'(Kg).

CLASS2/1 STABTLrY SECiON 5 Cd{€ of Sbyaml (3) andCenrEor Gdity (G) 40


:_ 5.2 WETGHT
STNGLE PROBLETTS

5.2.1 Etrectof shfittng a weightalreadyon boad


I \l/henevera weightalreadyon boardis shifredG will rnoveparale/to and in the samedirectionas
the shiftd thecentrcof gtavityot the weight(g).

q?
o!

t
Fig. 5.5

The shift of G is calculated by the fomula: ccv=g-g


w
wh€re:'v'is the weightshilted.
'd'is the distancsthroughwhichthe weightis shifred.
, '!l/ is the ship'sdisplacement,
L_ whichincludesthe neightbeingshifted.

, In this instanlGGvis a shifrof G upwardsi.e.K6 increases.

Example1
A shipdisplaces5000t an.! hasan initialKG of 4.5 m. Calculatethe final KG if a weig of m t is
1 movedvetlhallyupwads fromthelowerhold(Kg2.0 n) to ke upperdeck(Kg6 5 n).
Sdtttion
, GGv= v:_4 = 20.6.5- 2.0)=0.018n
i_ w 5000

InilialKc 4.500n
Gcvup 0.018m
FINALKG 1.518m

1 5.2.2 Efiactof loading a weight


l-- @tue d gavily of he badedweigllt(g).
lvhenevera weilht is loadedG willmovediredtytot€tds tlFrF-
Considerthe shipshownwherea weighlis loadedonto the deckon one side.G rnovesto q.

i.--

t_
Fig. 5.6

Ct "SS2/1 STAAILITY SECTONs Cenlreor B{Dyrrcy (B) ad c€nlre or GEvily(G)


I
L_
For caldialion pumoses the movement of G to G is considercd to have

GGv: a veiicalcomponent and GGF:a huizontal component.

At this slage it is only the veltical component of lhe shn of G that is lo be


considered since only lhis component will affect KG.

(The hoizmtal compnent is consideted k Sectio,l 11 - List.) Fig.5.7


ln this case. the KG of lhe shio will irclease.

t
t
Fig. 5.8

The vertic€l compon€nt of the shifl of G is calculatedby lhe formula: GGv =

where:'w'is the weightloaded.


'd'is the verfical distance betweon G of the ship and g of the loadedweighl.
'11"is the shiD'slntia, disDlacement.

NOTE A common mistake in usirlg this fofiula is to use the initial KG of the ship insteadof d! Also
note that the displacement increasesbecause a weight is loaded, hence: W, V in the formulal

Examole 2
A ship displaces 12500 t and has an inttial KG of 6.5 m. Calculate the llnal KG if 1000 t of calgo is
loaded into the lowet hoLl at Kg 3-0 m-

Sohnion
GGv=yJ-4 = 1@:JPL=!A= 0.259n
W+w 12fi0+10(n
lnitial KG 6.gn m
GGv down 0.259m
FINALKG 6.211m

Example 3
A ship displaces 17200 t and has an initial KG of 8.4 m. Cahulate the final KG if 1400 t ot catgo is
loaded onto the ntain deck at Kg 10.5 m-

Solution
GGv= y]_4 = 1!@_:JJ.9J!A)= o.15am
W+w + 1400
17200
Inilial KG 8.400m
Gcvuo 0.158m
FINALKG 8.558m
ctass ?]1 STAB|L|TY- sEcrloN 5 cdtre ol B@yancr(a) andc€nre of Gely (G) 42
5.23 Efrectot dischaeing a welght
Whenevera weighl is discharged,G vill manedireclly away hom the cente of gmviv of the
discharyedweight(g).
Considerthe shipshownwherea weightis dischargedfromthe upperdeck-G movesto Gi.
I
1
,, ! l
Gl--------
G'!t i
.ri

I
Fig.5.9
! ln this case the KG of the shio will decrease

The vertical componentof the shiff of G is calculatedby lhe formlla: GGv=

where:'w' is the weighldiscfiarged.


'd' is the ved,baldislance betweenG of the ship and g of he dischargedweight.
'ylf is the ship's inilia,displacement.
I
Example 4
A ship has a displacementot l%oo t atd an initial KG of 4.22 m. 320 t of deck cargo is discharged
: from a Fr,siticmKg 7.14 m. CalcLtatethefinal KG ofthe ship.
L-
Soldion

GGv = wxd = 320 / O.14 - 4.22 = 0.071m down


W-w lAm-320

lnitial KG 4.220 m
0.071m
FINALKG 1.119m

Example5
A shipdisplacos18000t and hasan initialKG of 5.30m. Calculatethe final KG if 10000t of cargo
is discharyedfrcn thelowerhold (Kg3.0m)
Sol.rti'

GG,= Vj-! = 10000x (5.3- 3.0 =2.875n


; W-w 18rJN- 10000
InilialKG 5.3@n
L GGvw
FINALKG
2.875m
8.175m

L
t_ crass 21 sTAalllw . sEc I loN 5 CcnF of BhyEmy (a) .nd c€itre ol G.avily(G) 43

L
5.3 WEIGHTPROBLEMS
IIULTIPLE

It would be very tediouslo do a c€ldlalion for every singleweightthal is shifiod,loadedon or


dischargedfromthe ship.
ln ptadice'mon@:FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF,ts
about the keel'ate taken lo determine the fnal KG of the ship, where:

OMENTS(t m) ' WEIGHT(t) x DISTAI{CE(m}

then: tlOlrENTS (i.m) = DISPLACEiIENT(t)r<KG (m)


lf a ship is considered,

Theretore: KG(m)= 49494194=4


DISPLAGEI{ENT{t)

Whena numberof weightsare shifred,loadedor discharged,the momentsfor eachweightare


of the shipto give
calculated.Thes€arc summ€dup and simplydividedby the final displacement
thefnalKG.
A tabularapproadris adoptedand the methodis easilyilluslratedby way of an example.One
importantpointto noteis that the frst weightto be enteredinlo lhe tableis that of the ship's,hrlial
disprac€m€rtalongwiththe ship's,la,talKG.
Example6
A shiodisdaces10000t and hasa KGof 4.5 m.
Thefulowingcaryois wo*ed: Load: 120t at Kg 6.0 m;
730tat Kg 3.2m.
Discharye: 68 t tromKg 2.0 m:
1O0t fromKg 6.2 m.
Sh,tt 86 t ftomKg 2.2 m to Kg 6.0m.

Calculato the final KG. IOIENTS ltnl

Consider the ta e shown. Each weight is


multiplied by its KG to give a maments
value. The soo of this value (+ o, )
depends on whethet the weoht is loaded
or discharyed. ln the case of the weight
thal rs strtled, thjs ,s simpA teatecl as two
sepante weights: one fhat is discharged;
and armtl,et of same weight that is
to6a2 a?525.40

ThefinalKG (4.459m) is simplyfoundusingthe fomula: KG (n) = MOMENTS(tn)


DISPIACEMENT(t)

i.e. 17626.80 = L4Em


iffi-zno
l&!9 ADsu/e6 shou/d be given to 3 decimai places. This method may be used for single weight
prcblems also, wtth the advantage being that the direction of movement of G (either up or clown)
'automatically'calculated!
need not be considerccl.A tinal KG is
To prcve this Wu should rcwork the ptevious single weight examples.

A prerequisatetor any KG caldrlaton lo be conect is that the ship's ltgl,twe tght Displacemqt and
KG values be accurate.This is the subject of Seclio, 19 - lnclining Experinent

CLASS2/1 STAaUTY- SECTION5 CernEor &b!€ncy (B) andC4te of GBvny(G)


5rl CENTREOF BUOYANCY(B)
'Centreof Blmyancy'of a ship is definodas being aI the geonetic centueof the udetvater
volwp of the shipat a pafti@larinstantand b the pointthrot8h wtich the ']otalbuopncy fofte
(4 is consideredto acl vefttcallyupwads.

Its posilionwill cffstandy moveas lhe shipmovesat sea.

Fig.5.10

Althoughthe cente of gravity(G) is assumed1o rernainin lhe same place as the ship heels
L__ (providedweightsdo notshiftwithinthe ship), the cente of buoyancyconslantlymovesas the ship
Dilches.ro s and heaves.

As the displacement (and draught)of lhe ship changes,so will the posilionof the centreof
buoyancywhenthe shipis upright.

i The vertic€lpositionof the centreof buoyancyis termedthe KB, beingthe verlicaldistancefrom


the keei(K)lo the centreof buoyancy(B).

i Fig. 5.11

For a box-shapedvessel on even keel KB is haflhe dta{rghL


I

L
CLASS2/1 SIABILITY- SECflOt{ 5 Cenre o{ &byaE1 (B)and CFr€ of A?tny G) 45

L_
cLAss 2. S rABI mY. sTcTloN . csrE oI Bm]€ncy (B) .d cste ol G€viy (G) 6
SECTION TOTRANSVERSE
6.INTRODUCTION STABILITY
STATICAL

INTRODUCTION
Havingdiscussedthe positionsof ihe canlreof gravityaM the centreof buoyancyin the previous
seclion,it is nowapproprialelo introducehowtheirrelativeposilionsaffectthe statility of a shipas
it is heeled.

In this seclionthe stabilityof a ship is introducedin termsof how it may b€ quantifedwithinsmall


'GZ CuNe' as a means of
angles ot heel. ft introduceslh€ 'CuNe of Statical Stabity' ot
represeitingthe stabilityof a shipin a graphicalfofmat.

Leamltv Obiectlv€s
Oncompletionof thisseclionthe leamerwill achievethe tollowing:
1. Understandthe tefir'TransverseStaticalStability'.
2. Understandthe tetm'Righting Lever'andhow rightingleversare presentedas a Culve of
StaticalStabiWlGZ Curve)for differentanglesof heel.
3. Understandlhe tetm'RtlhtingMonent'.
4. Unde6tandlhe tem' 'lnitialTnnsverseMetacerfle'andil's relevanceto the initialslability
of a shipwhenheeledwithinsmallangles.
5. UnderstandtlF!F- lelrn 'l',letacanticHebht'and its relevancelo dnent IMO minimum
stabilitycrileria.
6. Calculatethe 'Momentof TransverseStaticalSlability'lot a ship al a specifiedangle of

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clrss 2/1 SrAalL[Y - sEcTloN 6 Intrcdudin tr roB\]ee Slrlkt sr.bility 47

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6.1 TRAi.ISVERSESTATICALSTABIUTY
'Trarsversesfafica/slability'is a tetm usedto desdibe the abililyof a shipto rgtumto the uptight
whenit has beenforciw heeledby an extemalforce and is momentarilyat restwhenfloatingin
strinwater.
Thewords: exlemalfirrcel
momentarilyat rest; and',
slillwater are veryimporlant.
A simplewayof considedngthe abovestalemenlis to imaginesomeonewitha modelboatfloating
in a bathof sti//r,vatel:The modelis held in a heeledposition,representing
the extemalforce,and
thenlet go. lf a snapshotphotographis takenthe instantthat the personl€ts go of the model,then
the positioosof the cente of gravityand centre of buoyancymay be consideredat ihe same
instant,hencethe terrn momentadlyat reit.lhis idea shouldbe tome in mindwhenconsidedng
transverseslalicalstabiliv-
Whena ship is heeledat sea by wind and wavesthe situalionmightbe differentto our imagined
still watersituation.This is one of the limitationsof evalualingshipstabilityfor still walerconditions
onlyto be appliedin the dynamicenvironrnent in whichthe shipactuallyoperates!

ll is the relaliveposilionsof the cenlreof gravily(G) and the centreof brroyancy(B) as the ship is
he€ledlo a parlicularangle thatdetermines ho\/ stablea shipis.
Considerthe ship shown.Whenupright,in sf,zlvalet linesof actionof bothlhe weighlforce (Wf)
and buoyancyforce (BDactingthroughthe pointsG and B respectivelyare sho,r/n.lf the ship is
heeledby an extemalforceto someanglethe relativepositionsof G and B char€e causingtlte
linesof actioflof Wf and Bf to becomehoa,izontal/v
seoarated.

Fig.6.1

lf the extemal force is removed it is evident that the ship will retum to the upright as a result of the
forces acting through G and & .

crass 211sTAa[IrY - sEcTloN 6 hf[dudim lo Trsvm srdical srrbilirv 4A


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L 62 RIGHN G LEVER(GZ)

Righlit7gbver (GZ) is &M as the lwizontal disbnce,


L_ maasued in nEl€/fts,bell,€,enA1ecente ot Wvily (G) and
the vetlicallhe d acl*m of AE b@Wrrcytuc:E(80 adiry
trot8h tlre @nbe ot b@yancy (&) wlw Urc ship is
L

L
L Fig.6.2

L- Righling l€ver (GZ) incteases to sonre mauimum value and then dectsas€s as the ship
progressively
h€€lsfur$er.

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L Fit. 6.3

fhe ilrhting teveisfor s,€dfredangbsof heelarc rcpas€trbd ot a Curveof StalicalStatility,


L @mnonlyklown as a atz Curvoas sho||/'t.

L cl-alis 2/1 srAaurY sEcTloN 6lr|tldudb. b Tllltg* s-ld.d s6liv 49

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!a

at

C'
oa
a
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:lt

iat

FtC.6.1

The p.ocedure for p.odudrg auch a qlw€ i9 discuss€d in Soclftr, t0-

CLASS2/1 sTlaaJTY - sEcTloal 6 htldrnn b TdkE *C Sailv 50


I

L_ 6.3 I|OMENTOFSTATTCAL (RIGHTING


STABILTTY IOI{ENT)

Ihe momenlof slaticalstab,l'it, commonlyefen?d b as tne dghtingmonent at any givenangle


I of heelis toundby:
RlGHTll,lGMo ENT(t{n) = Gz (n) x DISPLAGEiIENT(t)

whidr results from the buoyancyforce (80 (being equal to the ships

_l
displacement (\ ff)), actjngonthe end of the leverGZ,wfiichpivotsaboutG.
'var.re
t- Therigfiing momentat any angl€of heelrepresenlsthe itslantareous
of the ship;sabililyto rglum to the Wrilht, expressectin tonnes-mehes, when e
the shipis in 'sti watef conditionsand is npmentaily at rcst i.e. acceleratbn t l
forcesas the shiptollsaG gnorccl.

E\amDle 1
Cahulatethe rnonent of slaticalstability(tightkg manent) fot a ship wilh a
l"l
:
ol 12000tomes if the dghlingbvet (GZ)is 0.46m when heeled
displacement l Fig.
Soldion

RIGHTINGMOMENT = GZ x DISPLACEMENT
RM = 0.46 t 12000
RM = 552, tan

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L ctass zl sTABtLrw sEcTloN6 lnrodudiq toT€nse siauersiattliry 51

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6.4 NMAL TM'{SVERSE IEfACE}ITRE O)

ls dofrt6das the pointd iaferssclbr ofs.rccessivelinesd aElic,lot buoyancytorce(q


shipis in theinital uq*lht conditionand subequenry heeled@nditbns.
It is assurnedto be at a ,tredpasiion wh€r|t|€ shipis h€el€dwit n srradengresor{y.

Consid€rlh€ shiDahowr.

Fil.6.6

Whei lhe ship h€€ls boyond srmll angles tlE pcint ot it{ersecton has b mow, h€ncs lh€ tBIm
lnitial Tra,r6vers€futatac€nte.

lfs pcilion is expre3s€das a h€ight abow ihe keel in rnef€s and is tent|ed KM.

The '/alue of KM is tabulatedin ship's hydrostaticdata and ib pocilion vades wifi draught.

The Inilial TransvorseMetacente is investig€tedfurther in Secdo.r8.

ctASS ?,l SI BIIITY- S€cTlOtl6 Intdudbn ro t|t*gs srti.d stdiv 52


A5 IETACENTRICHEIGHT(GiI}

This is the veftical distancebaween the ship'scentta of gravily (c) and the initialt ansletse
metacante(M).

Fig.6.7

Th€ GM is very important in determiningthe ,h,lal siabir,ilyof the ship i-e. the stability of the ship at
small angles of he€|.

tf the centre of gnvity (G) of the ship shown was highe\ the ighting lever (GZ) would be smaller
and the ship would be less stable (since the ighting nt<nent woud be slnaller!).

tf the centre of gravity (G) of the ship shown was lowe\ lhe ighting lever (GZ) would be lager and
the ship would be more stable (since the ighting momeft would be lagert).

Consider the verlical positions of the cenke of gravity (G) and the initial transverso metacentre (M)
for the ship shown in Figure A Z
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M is above G.

wherc GM is a poslfve vaiue.

l/VheneverM is above G lhe ship will be in a stable conclliul, in other words, the ship will have
pdsilive stabilily. lt is the aim of lhe officer in charge of loading the ship to ensurc thal lhis is the
case at all lirnes.

]n the normal loaded (nndition the initial metacentic hebht (GM) shotld not be less than 0 15 m-
(Me on lntacl Stability for All Types of Ships Covercd by IMO lnstruments (MO) - Chapter 3
Se(tbn 3.1.2.4)
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crass 21 STABIUTY. sEcnoN 6 Inlldudis b Tffiw sr.l6l 9.blrty

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6.6 CALCULATINGTHE MOMENTOF STATICAL STABIUTY AI ST'AII ANGLES OF HEEL

In triangleGZM: S i n e = O P P= @
HYP GIVI
I
Therefore: GZ= GM,.Sln0

HavingfoundGZ:
IIOMENT= GZ r DISPLACEMENT
RIGHTING r lJ.:
(* ,;&
. q l
NqqThe aboveformu,afor GZ can only be rsed tor
sma//anglesofheel.
&,J
Examole2 Fig.6.8
A ship hasa displacenentof 9420tonnosand a KM of 9.22m. ln fts presentloadedconditionthe
KOis 7.46m.
Calculatethe momentof staticalstabilityavailableif the shipis heeladto:
(a) 2 deg.
(b) 4 des.
(c) I des.
Sohnion
KM 9.22m
KG 7.46m
GM 1.76n

(a) GZ=GMxSine
GZ= 1.76x Sin? = 0.(fi142n
RM=GZxDISPLACEMENT.
RM= 0.06142 x 9420= 5?8.6,-m

(b) GZ=GMxSins
GZ= 1.76' Sin4'= 0.12277
m
RM=GZXDISPLACFMENT
RM= 0.12277x 9420= 1156.5tin
(c). GZ=GMrSing
GZ = 1.76x Sinf = 0.24494m
RM=GZxDISPLACEMENT
RM = 0.24494/ 9420= 2307.1t-m

Example3
ol8900 tonnes,a cofiespondingKM of 9.400m and a KG of 7.6m m.
A shiphasa displacement

(a) Calculatethe monentof staticalstabililywhenthe shipis heeledto 5 degrces.


(b) A webht of 200 tonrresis shiftedf.om the lowerhold (Kg 4.26n) to the upperdeck (Kg
12.60n).
Cabulatethe mdnent of slaticalstabilitythat wi now 6xistif the shipis againheeledto 5
degrees.

Sohrtion
(a) KM 9.400n
KG 7.620n
GM 1.780n
ctAss 2/1 STAB|LrY - SEcTloN 5 Inrodudjc'nlo T€nsw sraftd slabiltly
GZ=GM xSins: GZ= 1.780' Sin5"= 0.15514 m
RM = GZ t DISPUCEMENT; RM = 0.15514 x 8900= 13N.7 t+n
(b) Takemornentsaboutthekeel:
IIEIGHT ItI 9.!00
762 6 7 4 1 40 FINAL KG
200 426 {52.0 l.l&t
1260 25m.O
Elt|0.0 t,8f 60485_0

GZ = GM t Sin0; GZ= 1.593x Sing=0.1388/'n


RM = GZ I DTSPTACEMENT; RM = 0.13884x A900= 12:J5.7trn

Available ighting moment has reduced as a result of the increasod KGI

In this seclion the transverse statical slability of a sfabb ship at smal, angles of heel has been
discussed.

A smalt angle of heel is olten considered lo be any inclinationof the ship up to approximately10"
A more accuraie definilion of a sma// angle ot hed for a parlicular ship is the subjecl of disdrssio.r
tot Section 16 - The Wall SidedFormula.

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Ct eSS21 STABILITY - S€CiON 6 Inltoduclin 1oTftvge Slii:.| Stabilily 55
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ctass 2/1 sTAa[ffY - sEcfrofr 6 hf.ducrbn lo Trflsvre siaricc sl*ililv 56
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L sEc l'loN 7 - col{DlTloNs oF STABIUTY
r{IRODUCTtON
L fntheprevious
seclron,transverse in termsof a shiplhalwasin a
wasdiscuss€d
*atical staMlity
stabrecondilionor y. lt is e$s€rhl to disc[ss the behaviourof a ship when it may becolrE
undable.
L A ship may becomeunstableif the centreoI gravity(G) is allo.tedlo rise too high.Thereare a
numberof possiblec€usesof this, principleonesbeingihe loadingof too muchweighthigh up in
the shipandlhe effeclof freesurfacesin slacktanks.
t- This sectionsimplydiscussesstatility and instabilityin termsof the relativeposilionsof G, B and
M.
L Leanlr'4Obj*{w*
1. Understandthe tetm 'stable@ndition'.
2. Understandlhe tefir'neutral condition'.
L 3. Und€rstandthe tetms'unstablewtdition' and
'angieof loll'.

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L CLASS2/1 STABIUTY SECION 7 Cqdii$ ol Slatnrrv 57

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7.1 STABLECONDM(,I{

A shipi9 in a sfrb/e conditionof staulityil wf|€nh€€ledby an exto.naltorcain din wat€.to a srndl


ar€f€ of irdinalirf it E,llumsb the WiglX vll€n t e 1brcais r9mg|€d .
Considera shipthat is ffoatingupight in slill r€ler, withthe po€itbnsof G and B as sl|o|dn,lAt|€e
the ihfial tra$sLersemotacente(M)is aboveG.

i.e. KM- KG = GM:whichh.s a ,oai{irrrvake.

F*1.7.1

Itle ship is noi,vh€d€d by an externalfdce to a srna/ arglg of indhaliixr.

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Fig.7.2
Cons*lertt|€ lin€s of aclbn ot weightlorc€ (WD,acling do\{r|wardfrorn G, and buoyancyforce
(B0, acting upvar& from E lhroughlhe inilial t"ansv€rsem€tac€ntg(M). Th€ ship will wEntto
retumto tl|6 uprltrt cdrdilionwt|€nthe exbrnalforc6is romov€d.
In this stableconditionthe rightingleverGZis actingb nghtthe ship.
G is belowM:initialGMis Dositive.

ct ssz1 sragutY- sEcno TcnriEorsdv


7.2 NEUTRALCONDITION

A ship is in a neuhalconditionof stabilit if, when heeled


by an extemal force in slill water to a small angle of
inclin€tion,,1co,'os fo rest at an indeterminate angle of
heel wthin sndl angles of inclination.

Consider a ship that is ioating uprighl in slill weier wlth


G and B as shown. The initial transversemetacentre(M)
is at the same heighl as G.

i.e. KM - KG = 0: GM= 0

Fig.7.3
The ship is now heeled by an extemal force to a sma//
L_ argr-. of inclination- ,l

---'-'\
Since the ship has no GM, lhe lines of action of Wf and a
Bf remain in he sane vefticalt lh€re is N horizontal
separarbn between them when the ship is heeled within ,
snall angles of inclination. Thus, righling l€ver GZ will
not ex$.
\ i
ln this neulnl condition the ighting lever GZ will not
exist. G is at the same height as M: the ship has ze,o
GM. The ship will settle aI an indetenninateangle of heel
wthin small dngles when acled upon by su.cessive
extemalforces.
L_ Ftg.7.4
lf the ship is heeled berondsmallanglesthe centreof buoyancy(B) will move ootboardof the
cenre of gravity(G).Thiscausesa positiverightinglever,GZ,to takeeffecllo retumlhe ship back
to someindeteminatesmallangleof heeloncethe extemalforceis removed.
L-

Fio.7.5

N9!9
when heeledbeyondthe inilialsmallanglesof inclinalionthe initialtransversemetacentre(M) no
longerapplies- hencethe lerm initbl. At theselargeranglesof heel M can be assumedto be at
L- some indeterminatepositim on the line of acton of buoyancyforce (Bf) at any instant - it just
dependswhere the point of intersectionof lhe lines of action of buoyancyforce are at that
partioiarinstantas theshipis in theprocess of heeling!
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crAss 21 STABIUTY sECnoN 7 condidoreof slaulity
7.3 UNSTABLECONDMONAND ANGLE OF LOLL

A ship is in an unstab/econdition il when heeled by an extemal


force in slifl waier to a small angle, it continues to heel further
when the ertemal force is removed.

Consider a ship that is floating upright in still water with G and B


as shown. The initial t'ansverse metacentre (M) is belo , G.

i.e. KM - KG = GM;whichhas a r€gativevalue.

The ship now heelsto a smallangleof indrnalion.


Fig.7.6
Consider the lines of aclion of \M and Bf. They are acling in
s!c-h a way lo cause lhe ship to heel further over. GZ is a
capsizinglevet!

The question that now comes lo mind is: l/yi,/the srip caps/ze?

Possibryl As the ship continu€s io heel, the cenire of buoyancy


(B) will move out$/ard as the undeMater volume of the ship
cnangessnape,

Fig.7.7
Provided that the centre of buoyancy can move suftciently
outboard to attain a new position vertically below G tlEn the
capsizirE lever will disappear and the ship will come 10 rest al
an angle of loll. lf the cente of gnvity were very high then the
ship would possibly capsize.

Fig.7.8
lf the ship is heeled beyord the
angleof loll the cenbeof buoyancy
(B) will move outboard of the
centreof gravity(G).Thiscausesa
positiverighlinglever(GZ)that will
acl lo rctum the ship ba* to the
angleof bn-

llqE A ship ling at an angleof loll


is in a poleriially dangerous
situation. lf wind and/or waves
wereto causetneshipto rollthrough Fig.7.9
the vertic€lit would,in theory,comelo resl al lhe sameangleof lollon the otherside.However,
lhe momenfumof the shipas it rollsovermaybe sufficientto causeil to capsize.In any event,
c€rgoshiffwouldbe likelywhicfiwouldcausethe situalionto worsenfurther.

The effecls of 'fiee liquid surfaces'in slack tanks are a principalcause of instabilityin ships.
Seclbr 9 considersftee surfaceeffectin detail.Wheneverinstabilityis suspectedthe procedures
in Secfto|'t5 mustbe strictlyfollowed.

CLASSZl STAAIrY - SECTION7 Cddirms ol Sldtlilv


SECTION8 - IN]TIALTMT,ISVERSE
l{E ACENTRE

II{TRODUCNON
Whendesigninga ship the faclorsihat influencethe heightof the ir lial lransversemetacent€
(KM)are of primeimportance.lt followsthatthe greaterthe KMvalue,thenthe greaterwill be ihe
GMfor any givenKG.lt is importantto appreciatethatKG a/ore is notthe iniuendnglactor on the
ship's initial condition of stability. lt will be seen in lhis seclion thal KM changes with
draughudisplacement; this meansthal a particularKGvaluemay giveadequateinitialstabilitywith
respectto GMat one draughlbut nol at another.
ln this section,the learnerwill caldiate KMvaluesfor box-shapedvesselswherebyit will be seen
at lirst handthetactorsthat iniuenceKM.

Meta@ntrrcdiagramsae introducedas a meansof graphicalreprss€ntation


of the ship's initial
stabilily.
LeamrngObtectlvea
! Oncomdetionof lhis sectlon,the leamerwill achievethe following:
1. Understandmorecomprehensively the termlnitialTransverse Metacenle
2. CafcubteKMvaluesfor a box-shapedvesselandproducea melacentricdiagam
3. Use a metacenbicdiagramto determinethe conditionof stabilityof a ship at various
draughtsfor a givenassumedKG.
4. Use a meiacentdcdiag€m to determinethe requiredfinal KG to ensurelhat a ship
completesloadingwilh a requiredGM.
L_ 5. Unde6tandthetaclorsafrec'tingKM.

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CTASS 21 STABILITY - SECTtOltl 3 lrift TErewM lr/lal*nlre 6'l


8.1 INITIALTRANSVERSE
TIETACENTRE
EXPLAINED

The iniliallransversemetacenheis the poit ofinteEectionof the linosof actionof buoyancyforce


(80 dlen the ship is in the initial upight conditionand subsequenlyheohd conditions,wihin
sna anglesof heel-
Considerthe ship shoum,heeledto somesmallangleof
inclination.
ll can be seen that a wedge of buoyancyhas been
transferredftomthe highsideto the heeledside(bbr).The
resultantmovementof B to B at this instantis one that is
pan el to and in the same dhectionaslhe shin of the
cqtroid of thetnnsbr$d volumeof buoyancy.

BBrcouldbe calculatedusng the fomula:


BB1=Y r 66t

Fig.8.1

v is the volurneof the transfenedwedge;


6br is the distancethroughwhicfiil's c€nfoid has moved,and;
y is lhe volumeof displacement of the ship.
(Notelhat thisformlla is similarlo the shiffof a single',,/eightformuia!)

8-1-1 fitelacen''icRadrus
lf B js plotted for several sma/ angles of heel, il may b€
assumed that it follows the arc ol a circle cenlred at M.

BM is termed the melacethrc radirs.

Fig.8.2

8.1.2 CalculathryKil for box-srqpcd vessers


It is convenientto considerthe KMfor a box-shaDed
vessel be@uselhe malhs is simple,however,the
same principleswill apply for ship shapes.KM is
calculatedby theformula:
KTI= KB+ BM

For a box-shapedvesselon an even keel:

KB=gEgs!! K
2 Fig. 8.3

CLASS21 STAA|L|TY,SECION a h[id T@ree M€raenre 62


I

l__ BM is calculatedby:

whereI is the momentof inettia(sFcondmonent of arca) of the water-phnearea(WPA)abouta


longitudinal axis of rotation passing through the centre of the water-plane area; and V is lhe
wlume of displacementol lhe vessel.

: 8.1.2.1 nornent of inertia(second montentof atee)ol the waw{lene enaa


t- Considerthe water-plane
areaof a box-shapedvesselshown.

l-- --r

Fig. 8.4

, C is tre geometic centro of the wateFplane area and )O( is the longitudinalaxis about which it is lo
be rotated.

| (ln reality, it is the ship that will rctate alrout th,s axis as i heels, however it is convenient to think of
the t/rater-planearea rotaling about the same axs insteadl

For a box-shapedvessef
I
I irl
whereL and B are the /en!/, and brsadlh of the water-planearea respectively/ is in units of
I meheso(mo).
Al thislevelit is rrotnecessaryto undeBtandthedeivationof thisformula,leavethat to the menn
\ white aoals'
L-
Since: Blt = !
.
it follows that: Bilbx = la!
12V
TheEfore: B sor= |.33
I2LBd

l- thus: ITM;;E-1
12d
| I
L A simplistic, but convenient,way of considering the effecl of the momenl of inettia of the wateF
plane area is to @nsider that it gives a ship tesslance to heeling!

L fhetefqe,lhe laryer the water+/arg area, the /ess eas,t a ship will heel.

lf the formula for BM is considered:

L it is the breadh of the tt/aleFplate area that is most inflrAntial. lt is generally accepted thal the
broadere ship is, the more slab/e it will be.

L Tosummarise: KTI=KB+BM

andfora box-shaped
vessel: KMBox=d + B

L - sEcTloN a hi|lal T@\/ee


cLAsS 2?1STABTUTY rretaenlE
212d
63

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A.2 iIETACENTRICDIAGRAMS

A n etacentic diagramis a graphshorvinglrcryv


lhevalueot KMchanges withdraught.

8.21 Ptoducinga neac@ftlc dlagranl


Followthe procedurein the tollowingexample.

Example1 ,,-; ,':.,..,*


(a) Prcvethatthe KM of a tnx'slEpedvesse/
&aryes wih datghl as d]own behw for
he a€,6?€e
d d€,/ughb1.AAnb | 5.00rn9ivd1
t aI lenghis 100nandb@a&1is 20m.

Sodion ' , .
(a) Thevaluesfor KMarc shownhavingbeen
calculatedusing:
KM = KB + BM where:
KB=dnuaht; and BM=g Fig. 8.5
2 12d

Fmm the vdues cald.rlded7 is '.-.-T----


s€enthat as daught incleasas,
KME(fucfs to a minimumvalue
andthendatlsto marease again. 11 12.61 I
(b) 9.17
ff the KG were 9.0Om
5.56
<letennine the following:
(i) the nnge ot draughE
(ii)at whichthe vessel --t---
v
w l be unstable:
(iii)thetillhthg nonent I
|^/'lentr,evesse/,is h69led lfr
to an algb d 5" iI the
uprightdraughtis 3.(n n
in sdt wder (RD1.4q. 7.50 2.22
I
t-- ----.
Solrrtion 'KG'.Plot
Pld the valuesof KM withthe X-axislabeed 'dnught' and the Y-axislabe ed KM' and
an assunedvalueof KG = 9.00n on thegrcph(Thiswi be a slrcightlino!).

CIASS ?]1 STABILITY SEmON a hitd T€GWR MolasnlE 64


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r r a r r o r i r t

(i) Fot the vess€/ lo be unstablethe KG nasl be greater than the KM at the dnught
concened.Thisoccutsbelweenthe draughts5.2m and 12.8m.
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(i0 At a dratghtof 3.0Om KM wascalcdatedto be 12.61m.
KM 12.61m
KG 9.0om
GM 3.61m
DISPLACEMEN7Dx = L\ B x d x densv
DISPLACEMENTB''= 100x m x 3.00\ 1.025
DISPL,CEMENT@X = 6150 tonnes
l_
Gz = GM. Sing
GZ = 3.6'1: S,ia5'
GZ= O.31463....met es
t_
Thercfote: Rghtingn onent = GZ ' Displacement
Rbhtitutlonent = 0.31483......6150
I
L_ Rightingmonent = 1935ta

8-22 To doaenntE tlt€ frnelKG rcquircdaocomple'€ lodit g with a rcquircd Grt


Tt|ebox-shap€d vesselfor whichthe metacentricdiagramwasdrawnhada lengthof 100 m and a
breedthof 20 m. Considerthe iolloflingexampleusingthe samemetacenlricdiagram:
Example2
It is htandedto loadthe vesselto a maximumprmissibledraughtin sakwaterof 4.5 n.
(a) Wtat is themaximumdisitacemenlol the ves&l?

L-
CTASS ZI SIABUTY SFCION A hli'| T€FreR ll€la.'ie 65

L-
Solulioa (a)
D|SPLACEMENTNX= G x B x d ) x p
DISPLACEMENToy = (100 x m | 4.5) x 1.025
DISPLACEMENTN( = 9:225t
(b) The rcquircd GM on conpdion of loadingis 1.20n. vt/hatis the naxinwm petmissibleKG?

Solu1iotl(b)
Frcm the g6ph lhe KM for a draught of 4.5 m
is awroximately 9-5 m.
KM 9.5m
Required: GM 1.2m
KG 8.3m
(c) Ihe vesse/ is curcntly loaded to
dhplacenentof 8/'65t and hasa KG
of 8.40m. Whatis the rnaximumKg
at which to load the frnal 760 t d
cargo to ensure thal the final GM
requirementof 1.20m is achieved?

Solution(c)
In (b) it was detetmircdthat the maximum
KG requircdwas8.3m.
Takemonentsabod the keelin the normal
waybutlet 'x'equaltheKg at wllichto loadthe
fnal 250t.

ln the fotmute:KG (m) = MOMENTS(un)


DISPLACEMENT (t)

the frnalKG is alrcadyknot/n as 8-3m!


TYEGHT(t) KGlm) UOMENTS(tn)
KG (n) = MOMENTS(t+n) 71106
DISPLACEMENT(t) 760 76Ox
:II{AL 9225 71106+ 76Ox
8.3=(71106+7ffix)
9225
Sdving'x' willgivethe anst/ef

8.3'9225=711(fi+760x
76567.5=71106+760x
76567.5- 71106= 760x
U61.5 = 760x Therefore: W!.! = x = 7.186m
760

ThemaximumKg at whbh to bad the finalTN t weightis 7.186m to ensurethat thefinal KG does
not exceed8.3m, thusensudngthat thefinal GMis at least1.2m.
Had the valueof KM beencalculatedusingthe farmulainsteadof takingit from thegrapha more
accurateanswerwouldhave rcsultecl
ln practicethe metacenticdiagam fot a ship(if available)will haveto be usedas presentedin the
stabiltydatabook,sincethe KMfar a shipshapets notrcadilydetetmined.

NqE A questionmightask bt tt]p-maximumweightthatcanbe baded at a specifred Kg to ensue


that a final KG valLEis nd exceeded.In this caselhe samemethodas in Atswe. fd wouldbe
usedexceptthat l'equars the amountof caryoto loadal ihe spocifedKg instead.
CIASS Z1 S I AalLl ft . S'CTION 3 lnrtd Tt*rere Me@r€
8.3 FACTORSAFFECTIi'IG Ktl

8.3.1 Beanl
Considertv,,oshipsof diff€refltbeameadt heeledlo the sarneangleof indinalicnas s h(|||/rl.

In the nanowshipa sma/,wedgeof buoyancf


is transfenedfrom the high side lo the low
side(bbi)causingB to moveto Bi.
lnitialtransvers€metacentreis at I\4.

In the broader ship, a ,arger wedge of


buoyancy|s transfenedfrom lhe high side to
the low side (bb,) causingB lo movefurthel
orn to B. Initial bansversemetacentreis
higherat [4.
lf the formula:
BB, = !_Xg,
v
Fig. 8.6
is considered lhe larger the \olume of the lransfened wedge of buoyancy and the greater the
distance through which the centroid of the wedge is caused to shifl, the greater will be the outward
rnovementoI8 as the ship is heeled.

rcsuftitu in broader ships being nore skble.


Thus: KM irdeases as bean indc/eases

8.3.2 Dnught
Considerlhe formula: B B 1 = v ; 46 q

Atlhe load dtaught (displacemen, lhe volume of the


transfened wedge of buoyancy (v) represents a
snaller pad oI tha total wlume of displacementol lhe
ship (V) than it \Nould at lhe light draught
(displacement).

Thus: KM decreases as dratght increases for the


notmal nnge ol operetbnal draughls ot a ship.

Fig.8.7

I
L_
ct ss2t stAa |TY sEcTtoN3In'tstT@*6e lretanrre 67
I
L-
- SECTIONa h|tar r6Evee
CLASS2t1 STAB|LITY rvrelaenre 68
SECTION9 . FREESURFACEEFFECT

INIRODUC]ION
lvlostcaseso{ instabilityin ships are lhe result of free surfaceeffects,This occuE when tanks
withintheshipareonlypartially full,or slack.whena shipheels,liquidwifnina partially flled tank
will moveto the low side. lt will be seenin lhis sectionthat lhis advelsevaffectsthe lransveBe
stalicalstabilityof a ship.lt is essentialthat the leamerfully understandthe effectof slacktankson
transversestalicalstabilityand the necessityb maintainto a minimumlhe numberof slacktanks
at anyonetimeas appropriate.
Leanrng Obj.ctivet
On completionof lhis sectionthe leamerwill acfiievethefollowing:
1. Understandlhe effeclof a fee liquidsurfaceson the transvers€staticalstabilityof a ship-
2. Cafdrfalethe efreciol Free Suface in a rectangularshapedlank and determinelhe
offeclive(fuid) KG andGM of a ship.
3. CalculateFree Sufa@ Moments(un) lor a reclangularlank and take accounlof lhe ftee
surfaceby includingthemin the KG momentstable.
4. Understandthe methodsof rep.esentationof free surface data used in ships tank
sounding/ullage tablesand uses|Jdrdatain typicalcalqialions.
5. Underslandthe factorslhal iniuen@frce surfaceeffecl.

;*

t-

L_

t_
ctass 21 sTAa[mY sEcTroNI F@ sud* Elfed 69
9.I EFFECTANDTHE
FREESURFACE LOSSOFTRANSVERSE
STATICAL
STABILIW

Considerthe ship sholvnwilh


a partally flled tank. lmagine
the liquid in the tank is f.oze,
and the ship is heeled to a /--
smallangle.

ln the heeled conditionGZ is


7
the righting lever. Becaus€the
liquid is iiozen it acts as a
statjc weight and does not

Fig.9.1

Consider what will happ€n if the liquid in the tank thaws out
and is then free lo move as lhe ship heels, as would normally
be the case.

In the initial upright conditioneverything appears as normal.

But nole what happensas the ship is again heeled by an


exlemal force lo lhe same sma/,angle of inclination.

A wedge of the liquid is fansfened to the low side of the ship


(SSjl.

Since weight has shifted G moves paraile/ and in lhe same


Fig 9.2
direclio, as the shift of the weight (GGl).

This causesthe ighting leter to be reducedhon GZ to GlZr

The dghtinglever GZi. is the same as the Gz that would


have existed had G bee, raised to Gv.

Gq, represents the vilral ise of G that results from the


free surface effect of lhe slack tank.

(c doesnotaclually rise,but the rnovemer*of Ereliquidin tl|e


tank has trre sarne effec1on GZ values as if G had actudly
beencausedto rise- hencerhe t'etmliftual nseof G'!l

Thus: GM is termed the so/d GM ; Fig.9.3


Gvl,t is termed the efecdve or fluid GM.

Whenc€lculatingthe GMof a ship it is importantlhat the effeclsof free surfacesin slacktanksare


considered.The loss of GZ will be greateras the numberof slack tanks increases,i.e. the
cumulativeeffectof all slacktanksmuslbe accounledfor.
IT 13ALWAYSTHEFLUIDGM |HAT MUSTBE DETERMINED fO TAKEACCOUNTOF THE
REDUCTIONIN GZ VALU€S1HATARISESFROMLIQUIDMOVEMENTWITHINTHE SHIPAS
IT IS HEELED.
When the ship rctumsto lhe uprightcondilionthe centreof gravily (q) will move bac{ to it's
originalposilionat G as the liquidin the tankfindsits ownlevel.
Rehembei G doesnotactuallymoveup to Gr'-
Ct .5S ?J1 STABILIIY . SECTION I F@ Sudae Efecl
9.2 OATA
FREESURFAGE

Fq a rectanErlarshapedtank, the calqiation of the effectsof free surfaceis st€ightforward


i How€ver,notall tanksare this convenientregularshapeand datarelaiingto tanksof all shapeson
boardare includedin the ship'slark SourdirgDafatables.Thisdatacan be providedin a number
of ways,lhe personon boardconduclingthe shipsstabili9 calculationsmusl be familiarwithlhe
datasupplied-

9.2,1 Carculelingthe 6fect of fr€psu aceln a recaangutarstEped lank


Fora tankthat hasa rcctangularfreesurfacethe v/rlual,se of G in meltescan be calculatedby:
ccv= Dr x g
lAl ds

s,here: GGv is the virlual rise of G in metres;


I is the l,anklonglh;
b is the iank breadth;
dl is the density of the liquid in the tank:
ds is the densty of the water in which the ship ffoats ('1025 vm ):
and; yis the volurne of displacementolthe ship.

Since: DISPLACEMENT I DENSITY


= VOLUMEOF DISPLACEMENT

I i.e. W=V x ds

it followsthat: ccv= lbj x dt


12W

Example1
: A shiphasan iniliatdisplacement of 10500t and KG 7.60m. A rcdangularcatgooil t4* ol lenglh
l- 30 m and tueadh m m is panialy frtledwith 9c00t of oil (RD 0.86) ff the Kg of the oil is 8.@ m,
calculatetheetrectiveGMif theKMfor the finaldisplacement is 8 80 m-

Solutkm
1. Takitv monentsaboutthe keel,calculatelhonew solidKG.
WEIGHTft) KG lm) MO[E}{TS (t{n)
10500 7.60 79800
:amo oil 9600 8.00 768()0
:INAL 20100 7-79' 1566{X)

2. Calculatethe etrect offt96 surtace.

GG.=/br dt = J0\2d ,086=0.856m


1rw 12^,O1oO
(Thefinaldisplacementmustbe usedl)
L
3. Calc!.nabtheffi GM aN tlen edy the heeslnfee @ €c[t'l. to &tain tlrF-flukl GM
I
L_ 8.800
SOLIDKG 7.791
SOI ID GM I 009
i_ F S E( G G v )
FLUIDGIU
0.856
0.ltt:]

L CIASS 2/1 STABILITY' SECTIOII 9 FE SUfM Eff€€I 71

L
9.22 Frcesu ace momen's
ftte noment of i@ftia (ll, oftentemed the secotd momentof area, ot lhe free liquidsuriaceof a
recianqulartankmavbe delerminedbv:
I r= b3 (m1l
I 12 |
ff the vafue of I is muftipliedby the liquid density lhen a value of 'Frce Surtace Moments' (FSM'9)
(t-m)is obtained.
Fsfl's (t-d) = D:x d
12
Considertheprevious effeclfomula: GGv= lb3 x dt
fteesurface
12W
Therefore: GG, = ESM!
Displacement

Since: FinalKG = S!!4-D9U9qE


Displacement
it is evidenttromthe abovethat the greaterthe valueof the freesurfacemoments.the greaterthe
valueof ihe effectiveKGandthe greaterthe lossof GM (GGv).

In calculatingthe etrectiveGMit is usualto makealbwancesfot free suiaces by incoryoratingthe


FSMs in the KG tablewherctheymuslalwaysbe ADDED.

Considerthepreviousexample.
Example2
A shiphasan kitial displacementof 10500t and KG 7.60m. A rcctangularcargooil tankof lenglh
30 m and brcadth20 m is patlia y ft ed with 9600t of oil (RD0.86).ff theKg of the oil is 8.00m
calculatethe etrediveGMif the KMfor thefrnaldispla(Fmentis 8.8Om.
Solulion
1. Cabulatethe FsM'susing:
FSM'S(rn) = 1b3
x dt
12

FSM'S(t-n) = 30 x 2d t 0.86 = 17200t-m


12

2. Takingmonentsaboutthekeel, alsoadditv the FSM'Sin the 'momenbcolumn',calculate


the fluidKG.

WEIGHT {t) KG {m) MOMEXTSft{n)


nitialdisol. 10500 760 79800
q6m 400 76400
sM's 17mO
20100 8.647 'r73800

3. Apply the flukl KG vatue to the final KM to obtain the frnal fluid GM.

<M
FLUID KG a.u7
FLUIOGM 0.1sit

. SEC1OUg F@ Surtue Efied


CLASSZ I STABILITY 72
;;._ 9.2.3 Reryesentalionof fae€surhce datein lank soundlttg/uttegclaues
In tanksoundingor ullageliablesfreesurfacedatafor us€in calculatingthe ship'seffectiveKG and
GlVlcan be representedusingaftomalivemethods.

9.2.3.1 Me,hod1 - Freesufiar'. mome.tE for an essumeddensityYarue


Considerlhe exfacl from a tank soundinglable sho\m payingparlicularatt€nlionlo the colunn
headings.

2CO.Stbd otl

Soundlng l|l.|s LCG rcG vcG FSIt


It{}

130()

too
37l}I
150 3 569s 2 302

268t

The table is tor a cargo oil tank in a tanker - No. 2 Cargo Oil tank Starboard.

F.ee SJrface Moments (FSI\,'l's)in tomes-metres a.e tabulated for an assumed liquid den$ity of
0.740Um'.

Weighlof liquidin lhe lank is tabulaledagainstsoundingfor an assumedr,qulddensilyd O74OUm'

VCG (Vertic€l Centre of Gravity or Kg) indicates lhe verlical positioi of the oil within the ship in
lerms of metres above lre keei for the appropriatesounding.

Example 3
A ship displaces5400 t and has a KG of 7.860 m. No. 2 Caryo Oil tank Stbd.is filled to a sounding
o[ 150 cms with caep oil RD 0.740. Calculatetlp frnal efrediue KG and GM it the KM bt the final
conditionis 8.000 m. (Use the sounding table extact gNen.)

2CO.Stbd oI 0.7:O

w.bn LCG TCG vcG FSH'g

-_
7A29
50
L_
7A379

L- t50 3 560s 2 302 373.7

I
1 6 64 1 7A 421

L_
- sEcTloN I F@ Sud*
ctass zl STABTLTTY EfrbcI

I
Sohnion

56undlng Wolght LCG TCG vcG FSf,'s

100
125

7a 406 3 6O2s 2 430 376 5

225 166.41

Calculatethe tinaleffecliveKG aN hencethe frnaletrectiw GM.


WEIGHTITI KG(ml XOXEI{TS("m) amo
:LUIDKG 7.819
10746 2 302 247 4 :LUIOGM ctlt
373 7
5il7.$ 7.t19 43065.'l

For intemdiate sounclings, intetpolationwouldbe necessaryto ef,ncl thQvalrcs.


The previousexamplewas sbaightfoMard,wherebythe tank was loadedwith liquidof the same
tabulateddensu.
Hovrever,if liquidof a diqerertdenslilyto thatassumedby the tableshadbeenrun inloihe tank fre
tabulatedvaluesof bothweightand FSM'9wouldbe in eftor!
Therefore,tabulatedvaluesmuslbe coiected for the appropiatedensity.
(Bothmass(weight)andthe vahe of the FSM'' are direcUyptopttional to densily.)

Considerthe previousexampleagain.This tjme saft-waterballast(RD 7.025)is loadedinlo the


tankto the sarnelevelas before.

Examole4
A shipdisplaces900 t and hasa KG of 7.8@m. No.2 CargoOil tank Stbd.is filledto a 5ounding
ot 150c,nswith saftwaterbalksl RD 1.025.Cdculatethe finaletrediveKG and GMil the KM lor
thefrnalconditonis 8.000m. (Usethe soundingtableextacl given.)

t: 2CO.Slt'd Oil Dcnsitv: | 0.ZO

Soundlng W€lgln vcG FSf's


{mfoar)

'to0
125
150 107.,16 373 7
2 430

7A 421 3 64as 2.644

CLASS 2/I STAAUTY SECTION 9 FE SUdM ENiECI


L- Solutbn
Obtaincaryodatafrcmlabloas given.

nk: zco.slld Oif Densitv: I O.7Q

Sounding Welght LCG FS I

0 000 74.145 0.063s I 503 o0


25 13.00 7A.n 1 555 269.6
50 30.83 78.345 3 242s 1 785 300.3
75 7a 366 3 365s 1.914
100 68.44 78.379 204! 368.2
125 47.92 3 525s 2174 370.9
't50 7a 394 3 569s
175 1 2 70 5 7a 406 3 602s 2.430
,(\\ 14670 7A414 3.624s 2 457 379 3
225 1m.41 7a 421 3 64as 2.ffi4 382-r

Aclualmassof saftwaterballastloadedis foundby:


107.46x tr92t = 14885 tonnes
0.740

ActualFSM'Sfot the saftwaterba astloadedis toundby:


373.7 x UE,. = 517.625tonnesrnetres
0.740

TheKg of thelhuid is as beforc- notbeingatrededby densiu!

Calculatethefinal'treclive KG atd hencethe frnaleffectiveGMexactlyas before.

wEtGliT ttl MOMENTSat{}


L- :LUIO KG 7.au
FLUIDGII 0.'t96

5544.85 7.404 433tt4.3

9.2.3.2tlethod 2 - Itomen's of tnertla(m4)arc bbulated


Considerthe altemativeextractfroma tank-sounding tablefor the sametankshown
r-
2CO.Stbd

Sounding LCG TCG vcG t .


lrnill
0
l 7A29

L_

78.406 3.602s
20n

L_
CLASS ?]1 SIAAIIIY - SECTION 9 F@ Sutf@ Effed
Momentsof lnetlia(l) in metrcs"(m")are tabulated.
Volumeof lhuid in thetankin cubicmetres(m') is kbulated.

Density ot lhe liquid is nol considered.


-
To oblain ihe w€ight (mass) of the liquid and tlle Free Surface Momenls which are to be
incorporated into the KG momenb table both volume and I values as tabulaEd must be muftipli-^d
by the density of the liquid in the tank.

ExamDIe5
TE6iiz ptaces54oo t and has a KG of7.8N m. I'to.2 Catgo Qil knk stbd. is tilled to a sounding
of 1fi dc,nswitt caryo cil RD O.74O.Caldlde the frnal etroclive KG and GM if the KM for the final
conditidt is 8.000 m. (Use the sounditg ta e exbact given.)

Sohrtion
Obtain.atgo datafromtable.
2CO.Stbd

Soundlng LCG TCG VCG

o01}

516r1

Calculatethe massol oil in the tank. Mass= Vdumex Darsity:rlass= 145.22x 0.740= 107.46t

Caltulatethe FSM'9fot theoil. FSM'S= I ' Density; FSM'S= 505.0' 0.740= 373.7trn

CalqtlatethefinaleffectiveKG andhencethefinaletrectiveGMas before.

wEtGHr(r) KG (M) UOTENTS {cm)

:LIIID KG 7 819
107.46 2_302 :LUIOGM 0.18'l
5507.45 ?3r0 43{t65.1

9.23.3 Summery
You will not have a droice as to which of the two methods to use, it simply depends on the format
of lhe tank soundingtables that are suppliedto the ship.

Consider the signifcant enors in the calculationof GM that will occur if

Tabulated FSM'9for an assumedliquid density are not cfrnected for the actual density of the liquid

Volume is nol converted to mass!

TabulatedI values are not nuftiplied bythe densiu ofthe quid inthetank!

ALWAYS CHECK!

Tank soundingdata for M y- A/mar are bbulated usingassumeddensilyvalues (Mefrcd 1).


cf-rlss 2y1STAB|L|TY, sEcltot{ 9 F@ surf@ Efecr 76
S.3 FACTORSINFLUEIICINGFREESURFACEEFFECT

Considerthe fiee surfaceformulator lossof GM (GG"):

It is clear that the brcadtb of the tank js the mosl important


g-3.1 Tank tueadth
ff a tank k subdivided,the loss of GM can be geauy recLrcocl.
This can be demonshatedby way of the following fh.ee worked oxamples.

Example 6
A ship has a disdacem$t of 12000 t and inilial KG of 7.84 m.
A rcctangukr ddtble boftom ta < has the following dimensions:leIEIh 20 m, brcadth 15 m ancl is
L- filled with saft water ballast(RD 1.025)to a sounding of 2.00 m.
ff the KM for the final cdldition is 8.00 m, calcdate the final etrec'tiveGM-

Solution
1. Calculatethe massand Kg of the ballast water.
Mass=VolumexDenstty;
Mess= (l x b'sounding) x density;
Mass= (20 \ 15 | 2) x 1.025= 615.0t

Sirrceit is a double bottom tank the Kg d the ballast wabr will be half lhe souncling:
K9=05x2.0=1.00,7'

2. Calculatethe FSM'Sfor the rcctangular ftee lhuid suface:

FSM'S(t-n) = h3 t dt

L_ FSM'S(trn) = m x 153x 1.025 = 57656 t-n

Takingnonents about the keel calculate the frnal KG and herce the final KM:
WEIGHT(tI KGlml UOIEI,ITS lt{nt
:LUIDKG
615.00 '1.000 r-LUIDGI

126t5.00 7.91 10{t450.6

To salis! te IMO inH sbbilityrequlemenbt|e minimumGM rcquirernerforashipb0.1tn


This ship deady does not satisfy that requirerfientl

Considerthe same exampfebut this lime the lank will be qually suMivkled into lwo l?/lks.

Example 7
L A ship has a displacemont of 120N t and
initial KG of 7.U m.

A eclangular double bottom tank is equa y


L subdwided has the foltowing dimensions:
length 20 m and brcadth 15 m and is filled with
salt watet ballast (RD 1.025) to a sounding of
L 2.00m. 15m
Fig.9.4

L
cL.r.ss 21 sTAarLrTY sEcTloN I F@ Surre Efied 77

l_
lf the KM fot the final condition is 8.00 m calculate tha frnal effactive GM.
ll can be seen lhat lhere are now lM,otanks each having a breadth of 7,5 m.

Souion
1. Calculate the mass and Kg of the ba asi wabr.

Mass=VolumexDenstty;
Mass = (l x b x soundjng) x density;
Mass= (20 x 15 x 2) x 1.025= 615.0t

Aftemaively:
Massper tank = Volume x Density;
Masspertank = (lx b x sounding) x density-
Mass= (20 x 7.5 x 2) x 1.025= 307.5t
Tokl mass= 307.5t 2 t:anks= 615.0 I

Since it is a double botton tank the Kg of the ballast watet will be halfthe sounding:
Kg=05'20=1.00n

2. Calculatethe FSMs per tank fortha rcctangular frc6 lhuid surtace:

FSM'S(t-n) = h3 , dt

FSM'S(t-n) = 20 t 7.53t 1.025 = 7m.7 Lm


12
TotalFSM'S= 720.7x 2 tanks= 1441.4 t-m

3. Takingmoments about the keel, calculate the final KG and hence the final GM:
WEIGHTITI (G lml ||OMENTS lt{l

:LUID GX o3n|

t26t5.00 7.621 06t364

Subdividingthe tank has resulted in the Itnal GM being much improved-

This is a direct result of the reduced free surfa@ moments.


For the undivided tank the total FSMs where 5765.6t-m.
For the subdivided tank the total FSMs wherc 1441.4 t-m.
FREE SURFACEMOMEN|S HAVE BEENREDUCED TO ONE OUARTEROF THE|R ORIGINAL
VALUE!

i.e. 5765-6 = 1,141.4 t-m


4
Considertl|e same examde but this tirnehe tank will he equaltysubdivideditlto three tanllss.

Example I
A ship has a displacement of 12000 t and initial KG of 7.U m. A rcctangular buble boftom tank,
which is equdly subdivided into three compatunenE, has length 20 m and overal brcadth 15 m
and is filled wilh saft water balast (RD 1.U5) to a sounding of 2.0Om.

ff the Kl,t for the tinal qnditicn is 8.00 n, calculate the fnal etfective GM.

It can be seen thal there arc now tt ree lanks each having a breadth of 5.0 m.

CLASSZr STAaLm SECiON 9 F@ Sud@ Efiecr 78


15n
Fig.9.5

Calculatethe massdld l<gof the ballastwdeL


Mass=VolumetDensity;
Mass= (l x b x sounding)x d6nsity;
Mass= (20a 15x 2) | 1.025= 615.0t

Altematively:
Masspe, tank= Volume, Density;
MassWtank = (lt b t sounding) 'density;
Mass= (20t 5.0\ 2) x 1.o25= 205.4t
Totalmass= 205.0x 3 tanks= 615-0t

Kg=0.5x20=1.04n

2. Calculatethe FSM'Sper tankfot thercctangularfreeliquidsurtace:


FSM'9(tin) = lb3' dt
12

FSM'S(-n) = 20 x 5.0'' 1.025= 213.542t-n


12
TotalFSM'9= 213.542x 3 '€n's = 640.625trn
3. Takirrynomentsaboutthe keelcalculatethe finalKG andhencethe finalKM:

II'EIGHTIt} KG(ml MOIENTS lGm)


:LUIO KG
61500 1 000 6 1 50 :LUID G[ 0.{43
640 6
126r5.00 7.557 95335.6

As a resuit of subdividingihe tank into three it is evident that lhe itna, GM is further improved-

This is a direct result of the reduced fiee sufa@ momenls.

For the undivided tank the tokl FSM'Swhere 5765 6 t-m.


For the lank equally subdiwdedinto three compaimenls the tatal FSM'Swhere UA.6 [m-

FREE SURFACEMOMENTSHAVE BEEN REDUCEDTO ONE NINTHOF THEIRORIGINAL


VALUE!

i.e. 5205! = 6a0.6tm


9

CLASS 21 SIABILITY SECTION I F@ Sufa@ €tu


maybe drawnfromthe previousexampleson sobdividedtanks.
Thefollowingconclusions
Equallysubdividinga tankhasthe followingeffectson freegJrface:

h| No subdrv?sro,

Fig.9.6
(b) A single subdivision

Fig9.7
A singlesubdivisionwill reducethe free surfacemoftents (and losr of GM)io ore quatlerol lhe
originalvalue.
(c) Two subdivision'(crcatingthrcecompa n ents)

Fig.9.8

TwosuMMsimsreducethefr€esurfacemdnents(ard lossof GM)licon€|,,ht of lhe oigiml value.

It followsthatlt|e originaltreesurtacemornents(andlossof GM)will reduceby the faclorol.


I

wherer is the numberof eoualslzedcomDarfnents


intowhichthe tankis subdivided.

Therefo.e,subdividing
a tankintofouregualsubdivisions
willreducethe FSM'Sto onesixleenlhi.e.
1 I
t 't6

CTASS Z1 STABILITY SECTlOl.l9 F@ Sun@ E eci 80


andsoon-..-...
It is usual 10 subdividetanks into three
comparbnentsal most. The benefit of any
furher subdivision which would improve
effectiveGM by a dscreasingamounteadr linr€
would be greadyoffset by the addiiionalsteel
weight and piping anangemenlsrequired.An
exceptionmightbe in the caseof a produc{or
chemicalcarier wheresuchshipsare designed
to carrya widerangeof carg@sat anyonelime
smdlerquanlilies.
in relalively

7f'&,.r,tl rnt .brtt .'rd'gg'/rena


Fig.9.9
9,3,2 Tank length
Freesurfucemomenls(andlossof G[4)aredireciyprcpodinalto fle lerEthof thetankie. ifthe tank
lengthis doubledso willbethevalueof thefiee surfacemornenb(andbss of GM).

9.3-3 Density
Freesurfacemoments(andlcesof GM)are direc{yproportionalto the densityof the liquidin the
tankas discussedin 9.2.a1,the greaterthe densityof the liquidin the tank,the greaterthe FSMs
andsubsequent lossof GI/|

9,3,1 Ship displacement


Freesurfucemomenls(andlossof GM)are inverselyproportionalto the displacement of the ship
Fora giventank,the lossol GMwill te smalleras lhe displacemenl increases andvice_versa. lt
shouldbe noted that the actualfiee surface moments for any tank are /|ot affectedby the ship's
displacerient(sinceshipdisplacement is not includedin the formulafor theircalqiation anway!).

9.4 FREESURFACE]'O[ENTS
IIPORTAI'ITPOINTSTO T{OTEREGAROING

Theseare summarisedas follows:


L For a tank tt be consilered
subdivided, it nnlst be fittedwith
t- an oil-tgft .x wateright
longitudinalbdkhead en$nrE
thatt|ere ilsno pos.siulily of lhuij
lransfur.Thb means that any
valvesconnecting thesubdMded
tanls mustbe capableof being
tullyd@d
1., fua Ord -ath -ah dt''
2. A washdate is fittedto prevent
darnageto intemaltank plating
I that m€y be caus€d by wave
adion withinthe tank. ,t does
not rcducefreesuface etrect!
It_

It_
(U T.r* tu n 'rJ tottgtat&1.tb.ah,,(
Fig.9.1O
I
t-
Ctlss2?1sTABlLrv S€CTONI Fe sude Efied 81
I
L-
3. lf two similarrectangulartranks
are illed to difierenllevels,the
hee )merfs tor eadt
wiube the sane. (Considertle
formula for FSM'S if you al€
unsure!)
4. ll atank is emptyor pressed-up,
free surface rnomentswill not
existin thattank. Fig.9.11

5. Whenc€lculatingthe efiecliveKG/GM,the f6e surfacemornenlsof a//slacktanksmustbe


incorporatedintothe KG momenlstable.(Lossof GI\, due to freesurfacewill be that which
resultstromlhe cumulativeeffectsof all the slacktankson board.)

CI,.SS 211 SIABILITY . SECTION I F@ SudG Enecl a2


L_

L @
INTRODUCNON
L the Ne of staticalstabilry,ot GZ cuNe as it is most commonlyrefer€d to, is a graphical
representatonof the ship'stransversestaticalstability.
I Tre/'sl!€/slestaticalstabihtyis the tem usedto describethe abilityof a shipto r€tumto the upright,
L- when it has beenforciblyheeledby an extemalforc€ and is momentarilyat rest whenffoatng in
siillwater.
RIGHTING MoMENT(t-m)= GZ (m)x DISPIACEMENT (l)
L
Al anyangleof heel,it is the hoizontaldispositionof G and B that determinesthe GZ value.

L heelsoverthe ightlag /evea,GZ, increas€sto somemaximumvalueand


As a ship progressively
thendecreasesuntl at someangleof heelit becomesnegalivei.e.it becomesa capsiing lewr-

Calcllatingthe valueof GZ, al specifiedanglesof heelfor a ship'spa icularconditionof loading,


L a cuNeof staticalslabilily,or GZ cuNe,llJbe poduced.
r'ill allotAt

L
L
t_

L_-

I
Fb.10.1
t- Thegreaterthe valuesof GZ,the greaterwill be the a/eaunderlhe curve.Minimumstandardswith
respectlo the aroaunderthe curve(andothercdteria)are specifiedin the Code on intact$hbilily
(fMo)'and thes€are incorporetedin the govemmentlegishlionof rnostcounhiesthat adoptthe
ll\ro convenlions.
Assessingcomplianceof a ship'sloadedconditionis consideredin Secliont4. lt is he aimof this
L- seclionlo reviewlhe methodof actuallyproducinga qlrue of staticalstabilityand to be able 10
extractbasicinformalionfromit.
Leeming Objectlves
L On completionof this section,lhe learnerwill ac+ievethe following:
1. Undersiandthe termKN and hovvKN varuosrnaybe usedto oblainGZ valuesfor specified
anglesof heel.
L 2. Knowlhe procedurefor producinga oJve of staticalstability.
3. ldentrythe basicfeaturesof a curveoI staticalstability.
4. Understandthe termsSdifandlenderwih respectto the curveof staticalstability.
L
ctAss 21 sTABtLtw sEcrroarl0 cutw ofsra , slabilftv
lcuc) 83

L
IO.,I CALCULATINGGZVALUES

10.1.1 KN values
As a ship heels the centre of buoyancy(B) constantly
moves,il's lransversepositionb€ingdependenton:
- the wlume of displa@nent( anddraught)of the ship;
- the angleof heelat any inslant.

The GZ value is predominantlydependenton the ship's


KG. Becauseof the many possiblepositionsof G, it is
convenientto crnsiderthe GZthat wouldexistif G weteat
the keeLletmed KN, and to make a coreclion for ttle
actualheightof G abovethe keel.

lf the figureis consadered:


sine0=gEe... sine0 = Q9q99l!q!&_(N Fig.10.2
tfYP KG
ano: GZ = KN - (KG Sine 0)
Therefore: Coreclionto KN= KGx Sine0
Crcss curves of slab ity (KN curyes) are provided by the shipblilder to allow GZ values to be
determinedfor any value of disdacementand KG. Aflemalively,KN values may be tabulated.
'15' intervals.
It is usuallhal KN valuesare givenfor anglesof heelat 10' or

The KN valuesfor MyAlmarare givenin tabulaledfdmat on page 16 ofthe sbbil y data book.

For calculationpumosesin lhis sectjon,the labulatedKN valuesfor I\,4VAlmar will be used. In


some cases, interpolatjonof values may be necessary.

10.1.2 Prgc.dure for catcutating GZ values


Example 1
M.V. Almar conplotes loading with a displacementof 29000 t and a KG coffected for free sudaces
ot 8.92 m. Calculatethe GZ values and GM if the KM for the loaded displacementis 9.46 m.
IUse labulated KN values fot M-V. Almat.)
Solution
Usingthe formula: GZ=KN-(KGSineq cabulatethe GZ valuesfortheloadedcondition.
l0 20 30 40 60 80 9.4m
a07 KG a 920
155 GM 0,540
olo 0.25 o.a7 .o.tl

The GM c€lculated is that allowingfor free surfaces since the question gave a fuid KG.

Fluid KG must always be used to calculate GZ values.

When KN values arc tabulated, interpolation for displacement values olher lhan those staled
shouldbe done, but it shouldbe bome in mindthatthe rale of changeof KN is not lineat lf lhe KN
ralves Jor M.V. Almarv@re plotted, they would be culves - ''ot stra,ghfliresl However, any erors
caused by interpolationof KN table values are likely to b€ negligible.

10 Curus ol sialblstabilny (CuN€s)


CLASS2r1 STrStLrTY SECTTON a4
L_

'I0,2 PROCEDURE
L THECURVEOFSTATICALSTABIUTY
FORCOI,ISTRUCTING

be lndertakenwhenproducinga qrve of staticalstabiliv.


Thefollowingstepsshouldah/vays
L 1. Determinethe shios displacemefltand effectve KG for the condffon b€ing considered
(effectiveKG beingthattakingintoaccountfre€liquiderfaces in tanks).
L 2. Fromthe hydrostaticdalalind the valueof KMfor the ship'sdisplacement.
3. FindGWruDusing: c = Ktl - KGFLU'D
1._ 4. Enter KN tables lor qllves) and obtain KN value in metles for eac*l angle of h€el given.

L 5. Using: cZ = KN . (KGSineo)

detemineille Gz valuesfor he anglesof heelgiven.


L 6. Plotthe GZ values.

i 7. Beforojcining all the poinlson the curveconslrucla v€rticalat 57.3" and ftom the base
up /ardsmarkoff lhe valueof the effediveGM (usinglhe GZ scale).Frornthis pointdraw
a straightlineto the originof the drrve to be drawn.This will indicatelhe initialtend
of tl|e curveat smal/anglesofreel andwillassistin sketcfiingthe actualcurvebetweenthe
L originandthe irst plottedGZ value.
(GZand GMarc cbselyrelatedal sma anglesd heel.)
L The curvefor the GZ valuescaloJlatedin Example t is sho\m. Notethe consfuctionusingthe
inilialGMvalueof 0.9 m.

L
;l
t-

L
-- 02

L-

L Fig.10.s

L
L
- SRTION 10CU'E of srarEl sr.bility{cuMs)
CLASS?]l STABTIiTY 85

L
'I0.3 BASIC INFOR]{ATIO]'I AVALABLE FROTITHE CURVE OF STATICAL STABILTTY

Consider lhe orrve in lhe previous example.The following infqmadon can be extractedtrom it:
(a) The GZ vahE for any angle of heel-
This can be used lo calculate the moment of statical stability for lhe ship at that particular
angleof heel if the formula:RIGHTINGMOMENT(trn) = GZ (m) x DISPTACEMENT (t) is
aoolied.
(b) The maximum GZ and the angle of heel at which it octuts-
(c) The ftnge ot posi've stabilily and the angle of vanishing stability(AVS).
(d) The apprcximale angle of deck edge innercion (goE).

Figure 10.4 shows the ship heeled to lhe poinl where dec* edge immersionlakes place.

The angle at whic*rthis oc@rs is idenffied on t|e


c!rve as the poinl where lhe cuNe tend changes
hom increasiag sleepness lo daqoasrng
steepness

This is known as lhe pdirt of inflexiond lhe o'jNe-


It is oflen dfficult to estimate its position but it
h€lps lo identify the point of infexion if a sedes of
vertical lines are drawn on lhe curye. lf each srice
is taken in tum it may be considered if the trend is
one of the following:
Fiq.10.4
,lqcreasi,gsfeepr,ess;
dgcreas,hg sfeepness;
o\ naither.

R is only an approximalion and open to


interpretatjon! HLrion
ConSder the cwve constructed in the Wvious
example, Ihe dorenenlionec! infomaljon is
ilustrated.

Fig. 10.5

The maximum GZ value is


0.57 m and oocurs at an
apryximate angle of heel of
39..

The range of slabililyis from


e b Uo (the angle of
vanhhingstabiliv beingU').
Theangleat whichdeck edge
immersion takes place is
approximately
29.

Fig.10.6

- sEcrlofi 10 CltB
ct lss 21 STABILITY ol star€l slattlily lcures) 86
STABIUTYFORSTIFFANDTENDER
OFSTATICAL
10.4 CURVES SHIPS

10.1.1Stifr ships
l A srff ship is one with a verylarge GM causedW KG b€ingloo
small.This occursif too muchweighl is daced low downwithin
the ship.The ship will be excessive/yslab/e,rightingmornenls
j will be so largeas to causethe ship to retumto the uprightvery
quicklywhenheeled.Rollperiodwill b€ short.
A verylargeGMshouldbeavodedforthefollowing reasons:
. Theshipwillretumto the uptightveryquicklywher€bythe
notkm will be je*y cars,irg e.xc€ssie sfuainon catgo
lashingsand possibbcargoshift.
t-- Lo()segearwillbe thrownaboLtt.
for ew aN injurymay |esultfrcn the
It is uncomfotTable Ftq.10.7
shio'soulckmotbn.
Structutuldamageto the shipmayoccu due to racking.

10.1.2 fendq ship6


A tender ship is one with a very small GM causd by KG being too large. This occurs if troomuch
r_ weight is placed high up within the ship. The ship wil have /rsuitrcienl sfabi/lly, righting moments
will be very small when heeledcausingthe ship to be sluggishand slow lo retum to the upright.
Roll periodwill be long. (A tender ship is slill a stab/e ship i-e. [,1is above G.)
I
A very small GM should b€ avoded for the following reasons:

Becauseof the smal rightingmonents the ship will only otrer


L_ limitedresistanceto beingro ed, causingthe shipto be ro ed to
laryer anglesof heal. This will increasethe isk of water being
I
The ship wil be slow to rctum to the updght and will tend to
rcmainat theextentol he roll for a comryativelylong time.This
will creategeeter end moreNonged strainon caryo lashings
andincrcase the isk of caryoshft.
Fiq.10.8
Rollingto excessiveanglesof heel is alsouncortortabletor the
crewandinjurymay result.
As a guide, a GM of between +8% of
I the ships breadth is desirable.
Container ships that have contaners
stowed on deck may probably be more
suited to a GM value on the tender side
of lhese Imits to minimise Ite slresses
on deck container lashings.
L* Typical clrrves of statical stability for
bofi a stiff and tender ship are shown.

L_

L- Fig. 10.9

- SECTION10Cures ol slattar $ahltv (Cu@)


Ct l.ss 211STABILITY a7

L
cl-l"ss 2/1slAa[mv - sEcTroN10crc of srarjl:rsrdiriry(cuG) 8a
:-

t- sEcTtoNfi - usT
INTRODUCTION
I So far stability has only been consideredtor a ship thal is upright,wfiereby G is on lh€ cenlre line
and the ship foats upright in stll water. ll is necessary lo consider lhe posilion ot G in the
trarsv€rse sense as well as the vertical.

There is a dislinction lo be made between lhe tems /ist and lEel, this offen being ovedooked or
ignoredcompletsly.

L- Listi6 the tem used to desdibe a ship that is itrdined due to the distributionof waights wihin it

Heet is the tetm us€d to desdibe a ship that has been forclbly inclhed by ertemd torc's (wind

Leaming Obj*tives
On compleiionof lhis section,the leamerwill achievethe follcwing:
L- 1. Calculatethe list caused by a transverse shift of a single weight lsing the basic list tnangle'
for a shipthat is initiallyupright.
2. Calculatethe list caused by a lransverse and vertical shift of a single weigh for a ship thal
is initiallyupright.
3. Calculatethe list caused by a single weigh being loaded or discfierged.
4. Calculaie the weight to shn to bring a listed ship upnght.
I 5. Calculatethe fnal list when loadingand/ordischargingmultipleweightsfor a ship that is
initiallyupright.
6. Calculate the fnal list when loading and/or disdlarging 'r|ltiple weighls for a ship that is
inilially listed.
L_ 7. Calcriate the weights to load each side of lhe centre line to ensu€ that the ship completes
upngm.
L lheeffectoffreesurfaceonlist.
Understands

t-

L
i-

I
t-
I

t-

L-
Cl^ss 2v1STABILITYSECTIoi.J11usl 89

L
1I.I CALCULATINGLIST CAUSEDBY A TRANSVERSESHIFT OF WEIGHT{THE LIST
TRIANGLE)

Consider a ship ffoating upright, G and B on the contre line


with a weight !v' on one side.

The weight'$/' is shifled transverselyacross lhe deck-

Renenber the nrle:

lf a weight already on baad is shfted, G will move paalbl


to and in the same dircction as the shift of the centrc of
graviu of the weighL

Fiq.11.1
G movesotr the cenlre line to Gr and the ship lists ove(
comingto rest wjth the centre of buoyancy,B, vertically
belo / the centreof gravity,nowq{.
The distancethat G nrovesoff the cenlre line, GGH,is
calculatedusingthe fomula:

where:'w'is theweightshifred;
d' is the distance through which the weight is
shiffed,andi
'lf is the displacernent
of the ship {whichincludes Fiq.11.2
theweight).
fiangle GGHM is the /,:st(termed0).
Theangleat the metace re in the right-angled
Tan0!e = Qee = @,,
ADJ GI\4
Therefore: Tan oLEr=!:!f{
Gtl

Forthe aboveformufato be validfho /isf |l,ust be restbted to a $dl angle,i.e. lhe o,?
initia|transversemetacentreisassunredtobeinalixedDosilionwithinsma||
anglesof indination
only

FA. 11.3
ExartDle1
A shipinitiallyuprightdisplaces12000t and hasKG 6.7m and KM 7.3m.A weightof 60 t alrcady
on boad is shifted14m horizonkllyacrossthe deck.Calculatethe resultingangleof list.
Solution
KM 7.3m G G H = t t ,x, d GGH=60x14 =0.070m
KG 6.7m w 12000
GM 0.6n
Tan06,= 9G)' glZP = 0.11667 List = 6.V
GM 0.600

ctAss 2/1 STABILmY-sEcTloN 11 Lisl 90


1 '11.2 CALCULAING LIST CAUSED BY A TRAI'ISVERSEAND VERTICAL SHIFT OF
WEIGHT- SHIPINITI,ALLY
UPRIGHT

I tt " weight is shifred both


vetlicallyand horizontally(Figure
tt.4, thenthe movement of G to i
,'
q is consideredto have two
components: Gr{s.l Glr
tl
\ ccv; a verticalcomponent qi'G- la,,
L_ GG.; a horizontalcompanent.
rt li

L Fig.11.4
Theprocedurefor calcdatinglhe resultantlisl is as follows:
t-- 1. GGvusing:GG/=W!d
Calculale
w
'd'being the vertrca,dislance through which the weight is shifted.
L-
2. Apply GGvto fie ship's initial KG to find the fnal KG.
3- Calculatethe fnal GM usirE:GM = KM - KG
Caldiaie GGBusing: Gq. = W!
L 4.
W
'd beingthe hohzontal distancethro'lgh which the weight is shifted.
5. Usingtheformuia' t- a*. = calculatethe list.
L_ &,"^,

) Folbw Exanple2. It mayhelpyou undeBtandingof he wuking if you do a sketch

ExamDle2
, n snA inAW u\gh| hasa disptacement of 12200t, KG 6.36m and KM 7.62n. A webht of 40 t
' is in the lowerholdin a posilpnKg 2.20m. 4.00m lo ponof the cente line.
Catculatethe fnal tist if the tteight is shiftedto a new positionon deck, Kg 114 m, 26 h to
staftoad of tho @ntreline.

Solution
1 GGv=yJ-{ = 40 x (114 - 2.2) =0030m
w 12mo
2. lnitialKc 6.360m
Gcv(upl O-Omm
FinalKG 6.390m

3. KM 7.620m
FinalKG 6.390m
L_ FinalGM 1.2Wm

\ 4. cc,=vJ_d = 40x(4.O+2.6t =0.022n


L_ W 12200

5. TansLsf=QlAt = 934 =0.01789


GM'rW 1.230

List= Le Stbd
L-
ct ss 271staBtftTY- sEcTtoN11Lbt 91
1,I-3 CALCULATINGTHE UST DUE TO A SINGLEWEIGHTBEING LOADEDOR
DISCHARGED

lf a weight is loaded or discharged l


then both the vetTicalaN hotizontal
components of the shiff of G must be
considered and the fi,a, GM must be
used to c€lculate ihe final list.

Remember the nies:


n
If a wetght is ba.led G will move e
dieclly towarctsthe centre of gravily
of the loaded weight.
f a weiJht ls discharyed G wil tnove
directly away frcm the centre of Fig.11.5
gnvv of the dbcharged weight.

The procedure for single weight load/djschargeproblems is as tollo\ /s:


'1. CalculateGGvusing: GGv= g:g
Wtw
U'being the veltrca, distance betweenG of the ship and g of the loaded/disdarged weight.

2. ApplyGG/ to the ship'sinilialKGto tind lhe fnalKG.

3. Calculalethe linal GM using:GM = Kf.l!- KG

4. CalculateGGx using: GG, = Wl_d


Wlw
U'being the ,onizontal disiance between G of the ship and g of the loaded/dis{harged
weight.

5. Usingtheformula: TanoLEr= gq] cahiate lhe list.


GIV

Follow Exampbs 3 and 4, one for a weght being loaded, the other for a weight baing discharyed.ft
may help your unde6tanding of the wo*ing if you do a sketch for each case-

Exampla 3
A ship initially upight displacEs6400 t and has KG 4.6 m and KM 6.5 m. A weight of 80 t is loaded
on deck at Kg 10.2 m, 6.2 m off the centre line to staftoatd. Calculate the final list. Assunle RM

Solrtrc',
cG, = y:_! GGv= @JJ1qz:tlA= 0.06en
W+w U00 + e'0
lnitialKG 4.600m KM 6.500n
GGv(ud 0.M9m FinalKG 4.669n
FinalKG 4.669m FinalGM 1.831m

GG"=wxd GGB=80 x 6.2 = 0.077m


W+w + 80
6400
TansLN= 99)r =9912 = 0.u205 List = 2.1" Stb.l.
GMmr 1.831

qASS 2/1 SIABILITY- SECTION11 List 92


L_
j

L ExanoleI
A shipinitiay wightdi laces144fotandhasaKG8.82nad KM 10.96n.Aweightd240tb
fom a positidl in the lowet hold Kg 3.6 m, 2.8 m f the centr€ line to pof.
dischaq@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@cd Calc'iate

L_ thefrnalIsl. Asslme KM 'enains @nsla .


Sohnion
I GGv=v.4 GG, = 4:19j,2:-gj)= 0.088n
w-w 14480- 24o

IniEdKG 8.820m KM 10.960m


I GGv(ud 0.088m FinalKG 8.908m
FinalKC 8.908n FinalGM 2.052n

t_ GG"= !yl_d_
W-w
GGH=21Or2.8
1'U80-24O
= 0.047m

L TangLtst= 99s
GMaw
= 9U = 0.02290
2052
list = t'3'slbd

L
I

L
L
L

l__

L-
L
L
L
L ' S€CiO 11LiBl
ctAss 21 STABILITY 93

L.
11.,1
sHlmNG A WEIGHT
ALREADY
ONBOARDTOBRINGA USTEoSHIPUPRIGHT

Fora shipto be uprgrt PORTMOMENTS= STARBO,4RD MOMENTSvi,hereG muslbe on the


ceotreline.
A ship that is listedwill have G off the centreline by a distanceGGHas

Considerthe formulator a shiftof weight Gq = w x d

Reanangingthis gives:

(GGts' V!) reprcsents the lisling moments that the ship inilally has.
(w t d) representsthe n.o,I:tentsrcquhed to equal (GGB , W if the ship is to
completeupnghL

Considerthe following example

Fi9.11.6

Example5
A shiphas a displacementof 12000t and is initialy listed2' to staftoad. ffthe KG dthe shipis
11.60m and the KMis 12.00m, how muchballastwatermuslbe transleredftoma sta'iloa'd side
balasttad<to a pod 6ideballasttankthtougha dislanceot 16.00m?
Solution
Toatunpleteupright: PortMoments= Starboardmoments

Shipis initja y listedto starboard.

KM 12.00m
KG 11.60m
GM 0.40m
ran gus= 9.9,\ Tan2' = 9.9n
GM 0.40

GGh=Tan2'x 0 40= 0 014m

c is otr thecentrclineto slahoad by 0.014m.


Raquiredporl monentsto countenct tist(w x d) mustequatinitialslahoard listingmomenls(GGH
xw).

0.014t12000=u/\16.00
168= 16w
w = 1O.5tonnesb uansfer

ctass 2/l sTAB[m sEcroN 11Lisr 94


!- {I.5 IIULTIPLEWEIGHTPROBLETIS- SHIPINITIALLYUPRIGTTT

fn praclice list problems are solved by taking ''on'ents about the keel to determinefinal KG and
then final GM; and then taking noments abod the cenlre /ire to determine Gqr.

The procedure is as follo\ /s:

L_ '1. Take moments about the keel to deternine lhe final KG:
FinatKG=qu[9189@ob3!99!_t99!l!q]
(t)
FinalDisplacement
L--
2. Calcllatehe frnalGM: GM=KlV-KG

3. Take moments about lhe cenlre line to calc1llatethe final dislance that G is off lhe centre
line,GG: GGH= Sum of momentsaboutcentreline (!m )
(t)
FinalDisplacement

4- Calculale lhe list: Tan0!s' = 99r


Gtut,NAr
Foilowthe workingin thenexlexample.
t_
Example6
A shipdisplaces8000tonnes,KG 7.60m andis inftianyupright
Thefolowingcaryois wo*ed:

l
Load:3O0t atKg0.60m,6.1 mtoNtlof CL;
250t at Kg 6.10m, 7.6n to slbdof CL;
Disch: 50 t fton Kg 1.20m, 4.6m to ponof CL;
500t ton Kg 12.60m, 4.6m to slbdof CL.

tule he fnd 6,ub cfli* m @npld*n d @gof AEKMttxtE fnd Mersn b g.firn.

1_
S<lutbn
aboutthekeelto determinethe final RGand GM.
Taken:F,nments

30m

2g 6.10
I
500
lrta 56145.00

Take noments atnut the centre line to detemine GGH


L-
=0.250n
c c, =NgL!!g!Ds-ne@!!9=W
Finaldhplaceneft 80OO
L-
CalculatethefrnallisL
ran eLsr=99l = 92@. = 0.10675
GMr* 2.U2

Final list = 6.1oPotT


L-

CLASS2yISTABImY SECTTOiI11Lbl 95

I
1I.6 - SHIPINITI,ALLY
iIUL'IIPLE WEIGHTPROBLETIS LISTED

lf a shipis initiallylistedG mustbe off the centrelineas shown:


Since: Tan sL'$ = GCj,
GM

lhen: GGH= Tan ousrx Gld

where GGx is the inilial listing lever to be incorpo€ted into the momenb table for
the ship.Considerthefollowingexample.

FU.11.7
Example7
A shh hasa displacement of 15000t, KG 8.6n, KM 9.4andis listed6" to slaftoarc.
Cargois wo*ed as folltcws:
Load 150t at Kg 7.6n, 5.0m to pottof CL:
Load305t at Kg 8.0m, on theCL;
Load95 t at Kg 8.0 m, 4.2 m to stehoardof CL.

Calculatethe tinalangleof list.


(AssumeKMrcmainsconslant)
Sohnion
CalculateinitialGM.

KM 91N m Calculate GGHusing:GGh= Tan oLtsr' GM


lnitialKc 8.6N m GG" = Tan 6' t 0.800= 0.084m.
lnitialGM 0.800m
Take momenE about the keel to detefinine the final KG and GM-

IVEIGHTIII KG(m) IOiIEXT$ fi{l

t555ll 1333r|o.0

Takemomentsaboutthe centrelineto calculatefinalGG*

GGH=NetlbtinamomenE=@= 0.058m
Finalclispla@ment15550

Calculatethe final list.


Tanaus=99n =9!@ = 0.07030
GMnuet 0.825

Final,lst.1.0 Snrd.

ct ss 2/1srABtltw, sEcTroN11t6r 96
,I,I.7 LOADINGWEIGHTSABOUTTHE CENTRELINETO COMPLETEUPRIGHT
L-
A commonqueslionariseswherethe ship is nearcompletionof loadingand the remainingcargo
I has to be distnbuted between two compartrnentsthat are either side of lhe centre line in $rch a
way that the ship completesupright.

To complete upright Poft moments musl equal staftoard moments!


L_
There are lwo methods of approachto this type of problem as shown in the next example.

L ExampleI (Method 1)
From the following details cahulate the final GM and the amount of cargo to bad in each spaceso
that the ship wil canpleE loading upnght
I
lnitial disphcenent 18000t, KG 8.80 n, KM 9.40 n and listed 3' to stuhoard
400 tonnesof cargp remainsto be loaded wherc spaceis available in a tween de* Kg 10 5 n, 7 0
m to potl of CL and 10.0n to sktboard of CL.
L_ (Assume KM remains constant).

Solutbn
L Calculate initial GM.

KM 9.400
L lnitialcM 0.600

Gc+using:GGB=TangusrxGM
Calculate
L-
GGH=Tan3',0.6(n=0.031m.

L Take momentsaboutthe keelto dotetminethe frnalKG and GM ( tre hat all 40Ot ot ca.go is
loadedat Kg 10.5m so treatas a singleweight!).
I WEIGHTlt| ||OMENTS(t{l

400 4200 0
6.at t62000.0
L Takitgfironentsaboutthe cente line loada 400t in theport side.

L-
L

L
tf all4OOt wee loadedintothepon side spacethe shipwoud completewitlt an excossol 2242t'
m momentsto pott. Thereforesome of this 400 t must notAlbe shiftedto the spaceon the
L stah@rd sidek disknceoi 17.0m).

2242=w xd
L 2242=w x (7.0+ 10.0)
2242= 17w
w = 2242= 131.9 t to shiftlrcmportb saftoad
L 17
clAss 2/1sTABlllTY sEcTloN11Lisi 97

L
To complete uprbht:

Load 400.0-
131.9
268.1 t pott Load 131.9 t S'a'hoard

Solution (Method 2)
Calculate initial GM.

KM 9.4t)0
lnitial KG 8.gn
lnitial GM 0.600

Calculate GGHusing: GGts= Iar 0usr x GM


GGh= Tan3' x 0.600= 0.031m.

about tha keel to detetminethe fnal KG and GM (notethat aI 4N t of cara is


Take nmone:ePPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP
baded at Kg 10.5n so fieat as a singleweight!).

[*_l-".*l
159___.1_s!z.l
l8{,tt lt3l r626{0.0 t9!___r$!!-l
TakingmomenEaboutthe centrcline: Lett = catgo to load to potl; (4OO- x) = cargo to hnd to
starboard.

Tocompleteuprilht
Pott momdlts mustequalslarboardmoments.

Tharefore: 7x=SS8+(4000_10x)
7x=558+40(n-10x
7x+lU=558+4000
17x= 4558

x = 4!99
17

x = 268.1tb porl
400- 268.1= 131.9ttu s',tuoa'd

- sEcTtoN11Lrsr
cl,ass 2/1sTABtftTY 9A
l

L- EFFECT
1I.8 LISTANDFREESURFACE
figure17.8.
Consider
Listwith no free Bude
The basiclist tiangle is Gqrtul. Glvlis the sorrdmelacentdc
height,the G[.4thatwouldexistif the shiphad no slacktanks. List*ilh fiee surfac€s
I
GG, is the distancethat G is off the centreline.
cG, is the virtualriseof G dueto tankfiee surfaces.SinceGM is
I reducedto G/M(tlE Frutd Git) it can be s€enthat the angleof
tist has increasedior the samedislancethat G is off the cenfe
line(GClr).
I
fhe gteatertt?€hee surtace mon'FJnblfreesurtadedtect; ahe
gEater wi| b the tist for tle samelisflng moma'n's.
L ExamDleI
A ship displaces13200t, KG 10.2 m and is initialy uptight.
BallastwaterRD 1.025is run into a reclangularDB tank length
I 24 m, bteadth 10 m to a saunditvof 4.00 m. ff the Kg of the Fig. 11.8
batlaslwateris 2.00m and it's transvercecentreof gravttyOCG)
is 5-OOm to starboarc!of the cenle linecalculatethelinalangleof list:
(a) assumingno Ireesuface moments;
(b) accountingfor frce suface moments.
AssumeKMfor thefinaldisplacement is 11.U m.
I
Solution
massof ballastwaterleaded= 24 x 10 x 4 x 1 O25= 984t
l
(a) (assumingno FSM'S)
L-

l [*-|'*"l
l!G____pq2.!l
E!-lllggJ
the keelto determinefrnalKG and GM,
L aboutthecenlrelinecalcul€te
Takingmoments GG!.

t*

L-
GGH= Netlisfna monents= 44 = 0.347n
Finaldisplacement 14184
L_
Calculatethelinal list-
Tane"st=99j! =99 =017272
: GMM 2.009

Final list = 9.e stbd.


L_ (b) (including FSM'S)
FsM's = ib'' dt =24:14." 1025 = 2050 t-m
12 12

ct-ass zl STABILITYSEcTloN 11 usl 99


Takino momenb about the keel to deEtmine final KG and GM.
wEGHr[) KG {MI MOIIENTSft{)

944 2IIJ 19640

11141 134658.0

The value of GGHis not affected by frce surtace moment'

Calculate the final list.


TaneB = 99t = 9.gZ =0.18616 ust= 10.5" stb.t.
GM,,*, 1.864

When calcllating list fr€e surface effects should always be accounled for, as they will always
causean ,rderse in lhe lisl of the ship!

Example 10
A shipdisplacingn90 t KG 7.57tn, KM 8.12 m is tualjv Wight. A doubb b€ftotntank of recang.lar
crosssec6o.r,:5dn ded irao lwo equal pans,each 16 n lorc, 6.9 n wide and 1.6 n deep.
ln the upohl condkionthe poft side is ful of diesel oil (RD 0.88) and the staftoard side is empty.
Calculatethe res!- itu at8le of list whenhat d Alisoil E tnnsbned to the sb,,boad side ofthe tank.

Sol/,lkn
Assume that the bottom of the double
bottom tank is at the keel.

Mass of oil t@nsfeied =


16 x 6.9 x 0.8 x 0.88= 77.7tonnes I
:
I
Oil is moved down from Kg 1.2m to Kg
0.4rn.
o..l I I
FSM'S= b" xdtx2tanks Fig.11.9

FSM'9= 16 x 6.d x 0.88= 770.9t-n


12

Takingmoments about the keel calculate the frnalKG and hence frnel GM.

WEIGHTIt} KG {M) $oMENrS(l{)


757
120 -9324

770SO
7790,0 7.061 5!)679,tr

of 6-9m.
Oil is trcnsfenedto slaftoad thtougha alistance
GGH=tyxd = 1LZ_z_43= 0.069n
w 7790

Calcuhtethe ftnallist.

Taneus= 99j = 9@ =0.15033 Usf=85"slbd-


GM,*, 0.459

CLASS2/1 StABtLtTY- SECTTON


11 Lid 100
sEcT|oN12- lilrRooucrloN TorRltl
INTRODUCTION
L_ Irm is the differencebetweenthe draughtsfoMard and aft. Whenlhe toMald and aft draughts
are lhe samelhe ship is said to be on an evenkeel. Trim is an importantconsiderationwhen
loadingand/orballastingthe ship.A smalltrim by the stem is desirableas mostshipsare exp€cted
I to handlebotierin a seawayin thiscondition.

A tin by theheadshouldbe awided fot the followingreasns:


' the ru&er willbe imnersedlessmaklngthe shipdincd b steer'
' morewateris likelyto be shippedfoward.
L_ ' edu@d ptopdler inn16rskmwill lessenpropudon efficiency 'Ece . This
' if the shipis pitching(especialyin theMt conditbn)the propellerwi tendto
acconpaniedwnhindeasedvibrdionmaycause proryllar shaftdamage.
* ruddetefrciencywillbe intetmiftentas the shippitches.
' fo
bal/astsrrcttbtsarc sitedat the aft end of tanks,a head trim vri makelheselmposs,ibre
emptycompletely.

Excessivetim by the stemshotid alsobe avodealbecause:


' the kJq4ewind ateafotwad and too deepimnersbn of the ste/nw l firakeflE shb difficuft
lo sle€r
" pitchingmay be excessivein heavyweathercausituex@ss|e pantingandpounding(this
witlbe 1videntrcgarcltessof tim if the toNad daught is toosmal).
' a larya btindarea witt exislfotwad, especiallywith an aft bidgq, hindetingpiwage and
reducing lookout efiediveness.

Tim is especiallyimportantwhendry4ockinga ship.lf timnwd t@ muchby the stem excessvg


L_ tossof stabitityand silructunldamagpnight occur(Sect/bn2t). Otherconsiderations will indude
deepestdraughtlimitations for bothportentryand departureandlhe availablewateron a benh.

Thisseclionservesas an introdlrction to solvingtrim problems.


ln Sectio, 3 - Tonnesper Centimetrelmme^,ion(TPC)it was emphasisedthal meanhyclrostatic
valuesof IPC shouldbe usedfor the rangeof draughtsconcemedwhenloadingand discharging
weights.The sameprinciples apdy whenconducting however,as lhis,rsan
trim calculations,
introductorysectionto the tapic it will be assumedat the outsetthat the hydrostalicpatticulars
givenin eachexampieremainconstantlor the rangeof dmughlsconcemetl
ln Section20 - ftim UsingHydtostaticData,the use of meanvalueswill applyfor calculations
whenappopdate.
LeamlrrgObjectives
l On completionof thisseclionthe leamerwill ad evelhe fo{lowing:
1. Understandthe tetms Foward Perlnrdicular (FP), After Peryendicular(AP), Length
betweenPeryendidiars(LBP),LengthOverall(LOA)aN Amidships
2. Interpreldraughtmarkingsand readdraughts.
3. Unde6trand ihe term Inim.
4. Understandthetem Changeof Inim.
UndersiandthetermMomentto ChangeTim by one Centinetre(MCTC)andcalculatethe
changeof trimthat occurswhena weighton boarda shipis shifted.
6. Derivesa fomula for the calculationof MCIC.
7. Understandthe termLor,g,ludiralCerrtreof Flotation(LCD.
I L of the
Calculatethefnal draughtswhena weighton boarda shipis shiftedby consideralion
oositionofthe LcF.
L Calqjate the final draughts when a single weight is loaded or discharged.
I 'lO. Calorlalethe finaldraughtswhen muhipleweighisare loadedand discharged.
L_
1l. Calculatethe weight to shifl to reduce the trim by a specifed amount
12. Calculatethe weighl to load to bring a ship lo an even keel.
I '13. Calculatethe weight to transferto reduce the deepesl draught by a specified arnount-

clrss 2r'1STABILITY-SECaON12 Inlroducrionlo tim 101

I
12.I TERTIS RELATING TO SHIPLENGTH
Thetollo\ringiems relalinglo shiplengthshouldbe understood-
121.1 FonYetdPerpendicular(FP)
This is the verticallineot referencethal intersectslh€ SummerLoadwalerlineat the forwardedge
of the slemwhenlhe shipis on an evenkeel.

121.2 At@ Perpendicular(AP)


This is the verticalline ot referencethat coincidesu/iththe after edge of lhe stem po6l,or, if no
stempost,lhenthe fumingaxisof the rudder.
121.3 Length belweenperyen<ticura's(LBP)
ls the horizontaldistancebetweenhe foru/ardand after perpendiculars.
lt is this lengththat is
consideredwhenconductingtrimcaldiatons

12.1.1Lengh overr (LOA)


ls the horizonialdistanc€betweenthe aftermostpartandforwardftost partof the ship.
12.1.5 Ami&hips
ls the mid pointbetweenthe iorwardand ait perpendicars. lt is ttot th€ mid pointin tf|e lengthot
theshiD.

ConsidetFigute12.1.

c
F4.12.1

q ASS21 STABIIIY - SETION 12- Intrcducliq to tim 102


t--

L_ MARKSANDREADING
12.2 DRAUGHT THEDRAUGHT

The draught marks on a ship should be


L- marked at lhe FoMad and Aft
Pwendicularc on bolh sides.The numerals 2
are '10cenlimefesin heighland are spaced
I 10 centimetresapadas shown. 5.0 .-
The dEughtis readas shol,vnin FAurc 12.3
lsing the bwer edge of lhe numerals- 8,,., ..::
lnlemodiatevalueshaveto be estimat€d.lf
the water is quile choppy then great
acEuracywill not be possible. .6 ,.,..-:;
:-
.,.4,...,1:
L- ..2 ".2....,,,,
:
: 4-0 *
8 8
l Fig 122 Fig.12.3
Examore1
Whatis thednught rcadingbt eeh of the watetlinesshownin Figurc12.4?

Soruf,o'l 2
I (a) 2.80m 3.0
(b) zfi m
(c) Awroxinately 2.37m
(d) Apptoximately1.82m

L-
2.O
ldeallythe draughtsshouldbe read on bolh sidesof the ship and
L- lhe mean draught foMard and the mean draught afr determined.
For obvious reasons this is rarely done so before the draughts are
read the ship should be brought to the uprighl condilion to
L_ eliminateerrors.
Fig. 12.4
At the outset il was staled hat the draught marks should be in line with the foMard and after
I oerDendidiars but this will never be so. At the afler end the cuNafure of the slem may make the
L-
draught marks diffidit 10 see. At the foMard perpendicular lhere is nothing to mark lhem on!
Therefore it is usual lo set them a suitable distance forward and aff cf the respective
peDendicularswhereby the readingsobtained will have to be conected to the perpendiculars.

I
t_
Ct tSS 2:/1STABIUTY SECIION12 Intoduclt'n to tim 103

L
'12.3 TR|M

Tim is the alifferen@in centimetres or metres belwegn the foNatd atfr aft dmughts, as neasured
at he fotu/ard and aft DerDendiculars-

Consider the ship shown in Frgruret25 with draughts Fwd. 2.20 m and Aft 2.68 m.

F4.12.5

The ldm of lhe ship is: 2.68-


2.20
9!!9 m by the stem,oc 18 cms by the stem.
The same ship|s no/, foatingwith d€ughts Fwd 2.70 m and Aff 2.32m.

Fil. 126

The tnm of the shipis: 2.70-


2.32
9!38m by thehead,oG38 cms by the hezd.

o rss zl STABILIIY- sEcTloN 12 Inlbducrbn io lm 104


L
,,_ 12.4 CHANGEOFTRIM
the shipwill expetien@e changeoftrim.
ff a w€ightis shifredfongifudinally
Considerthe followingexamples-
L-
Examole2
A shipfroatsat draughtsM 6.000n andAft 6.m0 m. A weightis hen shiftedfoNad Thefrnal
L- dnughtsare Fwd6.080m andAft 6.1m m.
Whatchangeof trim hasoccuffed?

L- Soi./f,on
Calculatethe initial tim:
Aft 6.2Nm
M 6.0(nm
lnitialtrim qrylbythestem

1 Calculatethe finaltim:
i.-- Afl 6.1mm
F,rd 6.080n
l Finaltin QlggLby the stem
Calculatethe changeof t im (COn:
lnitialtim 0.200m by the s'€m
L- Findt im
COT
0.U0 m bv the stem
0.160m bvthe HEAD

Thettm by tE stem hastducd by 0.160m.


L
Exanple3
A ship floatsat drcughtsFwd 5.000m and Aft 4.U0 m. A weighlis then shiftedaft Thefinal
L dnLghtsae Fwd4.680m andAft 4.960m.
Whatchanoeof tnm hasoccured?

I soar,i'
c.t u^-t" tn" nnial tim:
Aft 4.U0 m
I M 5.000m
lnitialtim qSoQIbythehead

I Calculatethe tinaltrim:
L_ Aft 4.9ffim
Ptrd 4.680m
Finaltrim L2@! bYthe stem
Calculatethe changeol him (COn:
lnitialtim 0.360m by the head
Finaltim 0.280m bv the ste/n
COT 0.640m bv the STERN

I fhe shlp, iniliatly trid ned W lhe heed, comple.€s tlimmed bythe s'om-

L
L '105
CTASSZl SIAaUTY SECrn l2- InLodudis totin

L
Let us considermore closelywhat happens
when a weightis shifredlongitudinally.The
ship shownis on an evenkeelwith a weight
on deck.
'G' is the longitudinalcentre of gravi9
(LcG).
8' is the longitudinalcenfe of buoyancy
(LCB).

The weight is shifred afr aloig the deck


throughdistance 'd'metres. In accordance
withthe formula:

GGj = q:_d

:
Fig.12.7

G will rnoveafr to Gi (parallelto and in the


samedireclionas the shiftof theweight).

G and B become horizontallyseparated


crealing a limrning lever This causes the
shipto trim by the stem untilB attainsa new
positionverlicallybelo.l,the new longitudinal
cenlreol grav y, q.

Fig.128
ML is lhe longifudinal metacente, GML heirg
lhe longitudinalnetacentric height.

Fiq.12.9

ctAss 2?1STABTUTYsECnoN 12 Inlroduclionlo tim 106


; 12.4 CHANGEOFTRIM

lf a \Neightis shilted longitudinallythe ship will expeien@ a change oftrim.


Consider the following examples.
t_
Examole2
I A shipfloatsat dnughts Fwd 6.0N n andAft 6.200m. A wegft is thenshlftedbwad. Thefinal
draughts arcFwd6.080m andAfl 6.1mm.
WhatchatBeof tim hasoccwrcd?

!_ Sohnion
Calculatethe initialtrim:
Aft 6.200m
tud 6.m0 m
lnitialttim 0.200m by the stem

Cabulatethe finaltrim:
Aft 6.120m
F$d 6.080m
Findtrim glEgAbythestem

Calculatethe changeof trin (COI):


Initialtim 0.200n by the s1em
Finaltrim 0.U0 m bv tho slem
COT 0.160m bv theHEAD

I The tim by a.heswn has rcducedW 0-1@m.

Examole3
1 A shipffoatsat dnughts Fwd 5.000m and Aft 4.U0 m. A weo is then shiftedaft. The frnal
L- draughtsare Fwd4.680m andAft 4.960m.
Itttat changeof tim hasoccured?
I so/utkn
L;atcuE
te me nuEt mm:
Aft 4.640n
FN Z@!
Inilialtim 0.3N m bythe head

I Calculate the final trim:


L- An 4.960m
Fuld 4.680 m
. Finaltdm q@Ibythe stem

Calculatelhe change of lim (COn:


lnitialtim 0.360m by the head
Finaltim 0.280m bv the stem
COT 0.640m bv the SIERN

i The ship, inidaly frmmed by the head,compretestrlmmedby the s'€'''-

L-
L ctasszl sTABlLlw- sEcTloN 12 lnlr.dudion lo tim '105

L
Let us considerfiore dosely whal happens
when a webht is shned longitudinally.The
shipshownis on an evenkeel$,ilha u/eight
on oecK.
'G' is the longiludinalcenlre of gravity
(LcG).
9' is the longitudimlcentre of buoyancl
(LCB).

The w€ight is shiffed aft along the deck


throughdistance'd'rnelres. In accordance
withthe tonnula:

GGt = !]_d

Fig.12.7

G will move aff to G' (parallelto and in the


samedireclionas the shifrof tlle, eight).

G and B become hodzontallyseparated


cealing a trimmingl6ver. This c€uses lhe
shipio trim by the stem untilB attainsa new
positionverticallybelowthe new longiiudanal
cenlreol grav y, q.

t ?
Fig.12.8
ML is lhe longitudinal metacente, GML beirg
lhe longitudinalmetacentricheight.

Fig.12.9

ctass 2/1sTABrLrrYsEcTro{ 12 Inrbdudio.to lnm 106


L_

L_ I2.5 iIOTIENTTOCHANGE (I|CTC}


TRITIBYONECENTIIIETRE

momartrequiredto changetl|e shipstrim by exactyone ceniimetre.


Thisis the tnimm,hg
paftitularsand is usd to .letetminethe changeof lrim that
h is tabulatedin the shipshyclrostatic
takesplacewhenwe@tsare shifted,loadedor discharg6.l-
I a weightwas shned aft alonglhe
considerthe sttp previouslyshown F/gurcs12.7-12.9\.y'|:rJrc
deck.Theciange of fim canbe calsiated by the formula:
COT (cms) = Trimmino momenl
MCTC

wherethe tnmmingmomenlis: wr d
:_
'w'beingtheweightshifbd,and
i d'being lhe disiancethroughwtrichthe w€ightis shifredlongitudanally.

Thus: COT (cln6) =


Trc
Examole4
\ e weightot t SOtomes is movedaft by dstance of m m. ff the MCTCfot the cutent draughtis
2fi t-'mdeteminethefinattin of theshipif the initialtim was 0-20m by the stem.
Sofutb'l

COT(c,i's)=wxd = L@:29= 12cns


MCTC 250
I
COT=O.120m

i Initiattrim: o.2oom by the stem


COT: 0.120m tutlherbv the slem
Finaltim 03m m bv STERN
I

l
L-

I
t_

CLASS2/1 STABIIITY-SECTl('i 12 Inrroducrbnio tim 107


12.6 FORHULAFORCALCULANNGIIGTC

ln praclice the MCTC value will ah/vaysbe tound br the draught in questionin the ship's
hydrostaticparticulars. Ho\,ever,in examinalions
il mav haveto be calculaledand the fomula for
caldlating MCTCis:
Hcrc =!Llti![
IOOLBP
'yl/ is the ship'sdisplacement;
'Gltr'is the longitudinalmetacentric
height,&;
'laP'is the lengthbetweenperpendiculars.

Thederivationof thisformulais as lollows.

fhe shipin Figue 12.10is on an evenkeelwilh


a weighton deck.
The weightis shifredafl alongthe deckthrough
distance 'd' rnetres. ln accordancewilh the
formula:
=wxd

Fiq.12.10
G will moveaff to G' (parallello and in the same
direction as the shifi of ihe weight)-

t
Ftg 1 2 . 1 1

:t
G and B becomehodzontally separatedcrealing
a trimminglever.This causesthe ship1otrim by
the stem unlil B attainsa new positionverlically
belo\uthe new longitudinalcenlreof graviiy,G
(Figure12.12).

Ir
Fiq.12.12
cl-Ass 2?1STABLTY, SECTION12- |lnoducrd to rim 108
GGr fi! is a right angled lriangle lvherei

Tan0 = gPe therefore:


ADJ

Since: c q = ry ano; Tan0 = gg,


w G[.

lllen: tan 0 = gj
W x cill

Nso,itrFigurc12.13. Tano=fE!.(m)
[aP (m]

Fb.12.13

ff the dfange of bim dueto the weightshned is exac(y1 cm,lhen:.


Tan0 = g]q! (m) whichequals Tad = _l_ (l)
LBP (m) lOOLBP

Since:

Tan 0 = 4 equals: ran 0 = lglg l2:)


W r Gllr W! c$r

(because(w t d) is themomentto changethe tim by exactly1 cm.)


fomulae(l) and(2)togelhergives:
Bringing
I = lilCTC
lOOLBP wrGmL
lhisgives:
Rearranging
Mcrc=!l!:Sq
IOOLBP

l
L-
cfAss 2/1 STABILITY-sEcToN 12 rhrr.drrion lo tim 109
CE].ITREOF FLOTATION(LCFor F}
12.7 LONG]TUDINAL

This is at the geometic centre of the


ship'swater plane area and is the point
aboutwhichthe shipwilltdm.

Consider the ship where a weight is


shiftc.dlongitudinally.
Fiq.12.14
It can be seen that the LCF is in he
sarne position in the ship's length as the
point where the ,j1rfialard fmal watedines

It rnay b€ helptul io think of the ship as a


dild's see-saw that has ils pivot point
siluatedatthe LCF. -

E
L

kB€causethe wabr plane area changas


shape d size with drcugln tho posiion
ofthe LCF wi also dlange with d6ught.

The position of lhe LCF is normally


quoted in hydrostatic data as being so
t'Il€ny metres foNvafu of the after
peryodicular (foap). Fiq.12.16

The oositionof the LCF b imoortantbec€useif


a ship experiencesa ciange of tim, softe of
lhat drange of lrim musl be appliedlo lhe aff
draught and the remainder applied to the
foMardd€ughtasc€nbeseen.

ln lhiscase: Fiq.12.17
Aff draught,'lacreases;
FoNard drawht dodeases.

cfAss 21 STABMTY sEcnoN 12- Inibducto. to hm 110


THEFli'lALDRAUGHTS
12.8 CALCULATING WHENA WEIGHT
lS SHIFTED

The positionof the LCFdelermineshowlhe changeof trim (COT)will be apporlionedb€t/veenthe


forward and aft draughb-

12.8.1 Ship wnh LCF enidships


Consider a ship with a weight on deck

The weight is shtied forward causing


the ship to change trim by the head

COT (cms)=w x d t
MCTC. F4t.12.18
The change of trim has to be shared
between the foNard and afl draughts
where:
'7a' is changein draughtafr due lo tdm,
and; {
'Ir" is the changein draughtfoMarddue to
Fig.12.19
lnm.

lf the LCF is amdsl,,iosthe changeof fim (COT)will be apportionedegual/yto the draughls


forwardandaft suchthat: Ta= COT and; Tf = GOT
2 2

Considerthe folloM/ing
example.

Examole5
A shiptloats at draLghtsF 6.50 m and A 6.80 n. Determinethe final draughEif 25 tonnesis
moved45 n fovad giventhatMCTCis 112.5t-n and the LCFis amidships.

Sohnion
-calcutate
thechangeof tim (COT) coT=etxd =25r45 = 10cmsby the@@
MCTC 112.5

Awdiion the COTequay to the tqwad andaft draughts

Ta = 79= 5 cms (4ft draughtwiureduceby 5 cms)


2
Tf =19=5cms (Fotward drawht will indease by 5 cms)
2

Ta = -0.050m Tf = +0.050m

Calculatethefinaldraughb

lnitiddraughE F 6.500 A 6.800


Tin + 0.050 - 0.050
F'NAL F 6.5fr N A 6-750m

cLr6s zr sTABlLlw - sEcTpN 12- Inirodudkrnro irim '111

L
128.2 Ship with LCF not ani.tshlps
Consideraship with a weighton deck.The
LCF is aft of amidships.

The weight is shifted forward causing the


ship to change trim by lhe hoad where:
COT(cms)=w: d
MCTC

ln this case it can be seen that the


changesin draughtforwardand afi are
ne same.
The change of trim (COT) will have to be
apportionedto the foMard and aff draughts
acaordingto ihe position of the LCF within Fig.12.21
ihe ship'slength.
?' is lenglhof ship af of lhe LCF.
f is length of ship frryard of the LCF.
COT=Ta+Tf

Consider the similar triangleswhere:


Tane=gee
ADJ
Fiq.12.22
T a n 0 = n and; Tan0=COT
f LBP

Therefore: Tf = coT
f LBP

thisgives:
Reananging rr=l. r COT and it followsthat: fa r COT
LBP LBP

Examole6
A shiphas initialdraughtsF 10.25m andA 10.15m. A weighlof 95 tonnesis movedaft througha
distanceof 42 m. Calculatethe final dtaughtsgiven that LBP is 10Om, LCF is 48 m foap and
MCTCis 285t-n.

Solutf,n
eiiffate thecnmgeof Mn (CO, COT=t4xd = 95]-42 =l4cmsbytheg@D
MCTC 285
Appottionthe COTaccordingto theLCF positon

T a = 4 8t 1 4 = 6 . 7c m s T f = 5 2x 1 4 = 7 3 c m s
100 100
(Altematively:
Tf=COT-Ta; Tf= 14.0- 6.7= 7.3cns)

weightis movedaft so the shipwil trimby the STERN.

Ta= +0.067mTf= -O.O73


m

Caltulatehe finaldraughts
lnitialdraughts F 10.250 A 10.150
Trin -0.073 + 0.067
FNAL F 10.177
n AJq2JZq
crrdss ,/1 sTAa[rY - sEcIloN 12- lntDdudi( 1olrim 112
L- 12,9 THEEFFECT ANODISCHARGING
OF LOADING WEIGHTS

lf w€ightsare ioadedor dischargedthe effectof bodilysinkageor risemustalsobe considered.


Sinkage/Rise cms = !
TPC

Thefollowingprocedureshouldbefollowedwhen,oad,'ng a weight:
1. Loadthe weighlal the LCFposilionandcalculatethe sinkageusingthe TPCvaluegiven
(ff a weightii toadedat theLCF the shipwil sinkunifomly,thercwillbe no changeof tim!)
2. Calculatelhe COTby movingthe weightf.omthe LCFpositonto its actualloadedposilion.
3. FindTalTfby apportioning the COTac{ordingto the positionof the LCF.
4. Applyboththe sinkageandTalTfto the initialdraughlslo determinethe finaldraughts.

Considerthe followingexample.
Example7
A ship1OOm in lenglhfloatsat d@ughtsF 7.0Om andA 6.80m. CalculatethefrnaldraryhE if 150
t is loaded20 n {oapgiventhat TPCis 15and MCTCis 150trn andLCFis 45 m foap.

M Alwaysdmwa sketchto helpyou picturcwhatis happening!


-+4,n -,..---------J
.*.,
i l

t
i
So/urbn
Calculatethe sinkage Sthkage= s = 150 = 10c/ns=0.100m
15

Calcdate the change of trim (COT)

('d' is the distan e that the weight is loaded fron the LCF)

coT=g/_d =1fr\u5-20 = 25.0cms


MCTC 150
T a = 4 5x 2 5 0 = 1 1 . 3c m s= 0 . 1 1 m
3
100

Tt= COT- Ta:Tf= 25.0- 11.3= 13.7cms = 0.137m


t-
Weightis loadedaft of the LCFso the shipwilltin by the SIERN

L- Calculatethefrnd drcughE

lnitialdrcughE F 7.000 A 6.800


Sinkage + 0.1M + 0.100
7.100 6.900
Tim + 0.113
FNAL A 7.013 m

clrss - SECTIOU12 hrr.duclbn lo lim


21 STABILITY '113

L
The same procedureapplies when d,schary,inga weight:
1- Dischargethe weighl from lhe LCF position and calculate the dse of the ship using the TPC
value gNen.
2. Calcriate the COT by consideringt|e effect of moving the weight from its original position
to the LcF.
3. Find Ta/Tf by apporlioningthe COT according to the position of the LCF.
4. Apply bolh the rise and TalTf to the initial draughts to determineth€ fnal draugtrts.

Consider the {ollo,vingexample.

Examole 8
A with LBP 160m floats at dmughE F 3.22 m and A 3.10 m. Calculate the finol draqhE i|208 t is
discharyed fiom a positbn 118m foap givffi that TPC E 32, MCTC is 306 tan and LCF is 88 m
foap.
l--iiil€

t ? :

f
Fig.12.24
Solutkm
Calculate the dse

Rise = w = 208 = 6.5cms= 0.065m


TPC 32

Calculatethechatgeof tim (CO,


('d' is the dislancethatthe weightis discharyedftomthe LCF)

CoT = s]_d = 4EIJ11A-:,99L = ml cms


MCTC 306

Ta= 9L.20.4 = 11.2cms=0.112m


160
Tf= COT- Ta= 20.4- 11.2= 9.2cns = 0.092m

Weightis dischaeedhottlfoNatd d the LCFso the shipwinbn by the STERN.

CdculatethefinaldnughE

lnilialdraughts F 3.2m 43.100


Rse -_q060 -_g6p
3155 3.035
nim - 0.092 + 0.112
FNAL F 3.063m A 3.147m

ctass 2'1srAB[nY sEcTlotl12- Inrodudiolo 'im 114


,I2.IO TIULTIPLEWEIGHTPROBLEMS

Problems involving multipleweighls require a tabular 4proach to be ad)pled where moments ate
taken aboutthe LCF.

Considerthe following example:

Example 9
A ship 120 m in bngth floats at dar-ehts F 6.24 m and A 6.36 n. LCF is g n toap, Trc 14.2and
MCTC 116t-n.

The following cargo is wo*e.l:


Load 120t lcg 10.0mbap;
Load 68f lcg 86 m toap;
Discharge 36 t lcg 22 n foap;
Discharge 48t bg 60 m foap.

Calculatethefrnaldraughls.

Solution
In cotumn (1) the weights loaded and clischargedarc summed to find the net weight baded or
discharyed.
ln column (2) the weights are listei as Fnsitivevalues, rcgardless of whether the weight is being
loaded or discharyed.
ln column (3) the ddance that each we@t is loaded or discharged from the LCF is listed.
Timming nmonments are calctlated (Colunn 2 being multidkld by cdumn 3) and entercd in colunn
(4) or (5) depending on whether they ate head or stem mom,ents.

(lt is here that mistakes are commonly made whereby the monents are often applied the wrong

Determinethenet triitming moments- in thiscase2240tin by the slem

Calculatethe sinkagehiseofthe ship

Sinkage(cms)= y = 1U = 7 3 cms= 0.073m


TPC 14.2
L
Calculatethe changeof tin (COn
L_ COT= ftinmina ,7'ornents = 224 = 19.3 cms by the g!91!
MCTC 116

L Ta= yr 19.3=8.7cms=0.087m
1m

Tf= COT-Ta = 19.3- 8.7= 10.6cms=0.106m


L
clAss 2t1 sTAauTY SECTION12 Inlrldelbn io lrim 115

L
Calcalatethefinald@ljglhb

lnitialdawhts F 6.240 A 6.360


S,h*age +_9073 + 0.073
6.313 6.433
Tritn -0.106 + 0.087
FINAL F 6.207n 46.520n

Th6re are fiEny different typ€s of queslions that might be asked. Most probletns arg
straightb&ard providedthat you understandthe intormaiionbeinggivenand can recognis€lhe
formulato whichit belongs.

The nen few subseclions deal with frequondyasked questions that are not quite as
as thoseso far encounterEd.
slraightforward
ll will be ussfulif you keepa copyof the lormulaecommonlyusedin this sectionin front of you:
Theseare:
(cms) = !
Sinkage/Rise
TPC

COT(cms)=w i d = Trimmino
moment
MCTC MCTC
ta= a x u(Jt
LTP
Tf=COT-Ta

O-ASS2]1 STAB|IIIY- SECTION12- l.lroduclkD b tm 116


{2.I1 WEIGHTTO SHIFTTO RETruCEIHE TRII BYA SPECIFIED
AIOUI{T

Considerfie folbwing example.


L
Example 10
A *tip LBF 152 m is floaw at &aWhE F 1.ffi n A 5.46 n. How much banastwabt musl be
I tansfened fron the aft paak tank (hg 2 n foap) to the fore pe* ta* (lcg 15Om) in oder to
!- redu@ the bim by the stern to o.fi m if theMCTCislS6trn.

Sorl,fion
Cald.latetheinitid trim
A 5.46
F 4 @
lnitialtrim q@m by the stem

L Cald-latethe changeof bm required


0.86m by the sl€'m
lniEaltim
Requircdtin 0.50m bvthe slem
L COTrcquhEd 9&-@_!!-&9..H@.= 36 cms
COT(cns)=V4 36-wx(150-2)
156
L- MCTC

148

L
L
t_

L-
t_
L_ '117
ct^sszl sTABluTY SECT|Oul2 Intldu.lim to tim

L
12.12 WEIGHT
TO LOADTOBRIT{G
A SHIPTOAN EVENKEEL

lhe following
Consider example.
Example11
(a) A shb f,oatswithdraughtsF 6.32m A 7.42m. Howmuch ballastwatermuslbe takenmto
a foNard tank (kg 168n foap)in orderto britrgthe shipto an ewn keel.
LBP 184 n, TPC33,MCTC260t-n and LCF92m foap.
(b) Calculatethe finaldaughts
Solution
(a) Calculalethe initialhm
A 7.42
F 532
lnitialtim XlPm by the stem
Cabulatethechangeof tim requhed
lnitialtin 1.10m by the stem
Reauircdtim 0.00m evenkeel
= 110 cms
9g-@.U@_--_____JJ.p_s_!yJtgt!E4p
COT(cms)=y371 110=wx(lN-92)
MCTC 2@

1J9:2@ = ww = 376.3bnnes b load


76
(Remember
that d' in lhe fotmulais lhe distancefron the LCFthat the we'ghtis beingloaded)
(b) Tocalculatethe finaldraughts

Cabulatethe sinkage
(cms)= llL Sinkage
Sinkage = 3763 =11.4cms=0.114m
TPC 33
fhe changedtrim requiredis hown to be 110cmsby theEAIL

Awottion thisCOTaccordingto the positionof the LCF

SinceLCF is amidshipsTa = Tt = COT= 110= +/- 55 cms


2 2
Cdculatethefinaldrcughts
lnilial F 6.3m A 7.420
Sinkage +0.114 +0.114
6.434 7.534
Trim + 0.550 - 0.550
FNAL 6.9U m 6.9U m (6wn keel)

ctAss 21 sTAa[fft - sEcTloN 12 l.tduclion io lrim


118
L- 12,13 WEIGHTTO TRANSFERTO REDUCETHE DEEPESTDRAUGHTBY A SPECIFIED
AMOUiIT

-_ Considerthe follolrringexample.

Example 12
(a) A ship has to ctoss a bar where the maximum depth of water is 9.5 m. The present
dmLghts arc F 7.55 m A 9.00 n. Mat is the minimum amount of ballast to transfer fowatd
through a clistanceol 62 m in ofuer to cross the bar with an underkeel cleannce of 0.80 m.
LBP 136 n, MCTC 248 trn and LCF 65.6 n foap.
; (b) Calculate the final draughts.

544!eL
(a) Waterdepth avallable 9.5o
deannce eqwed 0.80
Max. draughtalowed 8.70
DeenestdftMhthftl 9.4)
Reductionrequiredaft 9&= 30 cns

The educlbn in draught aft wi| be achbved by a change of trin by he @!!.

fa is the reductionin dnught aft due to tnm, whhh must be 30 cms.

t_ thaCoTrequited
Calcutate Ta=zBpxCOT 30= ' CoT
#3
coT =30x136= 62.2cms
65.6

Calculate the weiqhl to tansfer COf (cns) = t4' d 62.2 = yii2


MCTC 248

922:249=w w = a8.8 tonnesb tanste,


L_ 62

(b) Tr= COT- TaTf= 62.2- 30.0= 32.2cms

Cabulatethefnal draughE
lnitial F 7.550 Ag.An
Tim +0.322 - 0.300
:::::::: F,NAL F7.822m A 8.700m

NgE
Therearemanywaysof questioning
yourknowledge
of trim,theyhavenotall beenmveredin this

Alwaysreadthequestion carefullyandhighlightthose
elemenlsin lhetrimformulaethalaregiven.
Therewill alwaysbe one formulawith only one unknownand this is wfiere you shouldstartthe
problem.A sketchshouldbe drawnwhen necessaryto aid your understanding of what is being
asked,thisis helptulasitwillhelpto preventapplying
moments lhewrongway.Balance yourruler
on yourfrngerand lry to imaginethe see-sawsitualionif it helps!Mistakeswill be madebut
practiceis the onlywayto over@melhese.

Now allemptthe lrrtorialquestions,somewill be recognisedas beingsimilarlo those coveredin


this seclion,olhersrn€y havelo be given s{rne furtherthought.lf in doubt study lhe solulions
carefullyto identryanymistakes- that is whattheyaretherefor!

- sEctloN 12- Inrrcdocrion


crrss 21 STABIUTY io rrim 119
CIASS 2/1 SIAAI|ry SECITON12- knEdu<lionlo tnm '120
l_
L-- sEer9u.3-.us@ryE!sdr9
I}TRODUGTION
when a weight is suspendedfrom a ship's crane or dsnick ifs effecti\,/ecenlre of gravity will be al
the point ot suspensiond the weight, being at the denick or crane head. As soon as the lveight is
picked up, eiiher from the quay or from somewhereon board, there will be an immediatetransfer ol
j the weight to lhe defiick (or dane) head witr| a lesulting upflard vertical rnovementof lhe shap's
centre of gravity, G. This causes a correspondingrcduction in metacentricheight, GM. lf lhe weight
being lifted is substantial,as in lhe case of a heavy lift, the considerable upward movement of G
cannol be ignored, requinng lhe maximum permissible KG ot minimum pemissib/e GM prior to
lifting the w€ight, to be calqialed to ensure that the ship remains stable during the lifting operalion

When the weight is plumbedover the side a largerlhan normallist will also occur and certain
precautions will have to be laken to ensure thal the maximum list is restdcted to an acceptable
limit.

i Leffiing Otteclives
On complelion of this section the leamer will achieve the following:
1- Understandthe effect on KG of liffing a weight using ship s gear.
2. Caldrlate lhe vertical and hotizontal @tnponenls of the movemenl of he ship's centre of
L- gravig (G) dudng a lifring operalion and use lhese to delermine lhe maximum angle of list
that will oc{Ur.
3. Calqiate the maximum permissibleKG required prior to loading or discharginga weight to
I ensure thal a certain list limit is nol exceededduring the ope€lion.
4. As (3) but wilh two weights.

L_

L
L-

L-

L
L
L-

L-
L_ Crr€S 21 STABILIIY SECIol{ 13-S6pddedreEhts

L
I3.I EFFECTON KG OF LIFTINGA u,E|GHT USING SHIP'S GEAR

Consider the glualion where aweight alrcady on boad is to be


lifled trom a posilion in the blver hold using the ship's own
denick.lnitialKG is shown.

FiS. 1
As sooflas the weightis Ined clsarof the tanklop lhe centreof
gravity ot the weight moves verlically up to its pdnl of
suspensionat 9,. This resull's in a coftespondingvertic€l
mvement of G to Crr',causingan ,ncreasein KG.

ccv = g:_g

where'd'is the distancethroughwhichthe weightis effectively


shifredupwardsfrom it's initi€lstowagepositbnto the denick
neao.

FU.2
Example 1
A ship has a disdacenent of 10516t, KG 8.20 n and KM 9.0Om. A weight of 86 t in the lower hold,
Kg 3.1On, is h'ftedby the ship'sheavy lift denick, the head ofwhich is 22N n above the keel.
(a) Calculatethe GM when the tEight is suspended.
(b) Calcukte the finalGM wlten the weight is restowed in the lween deck at K9 8.50 m.

Solution
(a) ccv=14'd =99JJ4!9:_34) =0.152n
w 10516
Initial KG 8.2OO m
GGV 0.152n
KG wlien wewt sus@nded 8.352n
KM g.Un n
G|, when weight suspended 0.648n
Thisis the minmumGM.luing theliftingoryration.

- SrcTlON 13- Suspend€dwights


CLASS21 STABILITY 122
L @) To cahulatethefinatGM when the,fle'rht has beensn-ne.tfieatas a nonta! sindovEEItt
problen - sinply shiftthe weighthan it's hitial slowagepositbn(Kg 3.40 n) to ii's frnal
slowagepasition(K98.50m) i.e.B{rorethe denick
L- cc, =a._d =@a134:_3!!9 =0.M2n
w 10516
L- InifalKc 8.2OOm
GGv 0.012n
FinalKG 8.212m
L KM
FINALG$
Lunm
0.758m
I The previousexamplewas vory simpleas therewas no horizonialshifrof G invotuedas wouldbe
the casewhenloadingor disciarginga neight.

I Whgnloadingor dischargingweightsusingship'sliftng gearthe follo.!,ingmustb€considered:


L_
1- the increa* in Kc/dedease in GM when the we,grl is suspendedat the deniclduane

L 2- the maximumanaleof list that will occu. when the denick or craneis plumbedover the

l_
L-

L
L
L-
L
L
L
L
L
L - SECTION13- Scpeftted EEms
CLrGS 2?1STABILITY 123

L
I3.2 A WEIGHTUSINGSHIP'SUFT| GGEAR
LOADING

Considerthe movernentof the ship'scentre


of gravity(G) whena weightis lifredoff the
quay on one side of the ship and stowedin
the lower hold on lhe centreline. (For the
purposeof this explanationthe ship is not
shoumto list.)
1.Deni* dumbedoverthe weight.

Fis.13.3

2. Deni* pick the weightup off the quay.

G movesto q, directlytowardsthe centre


of gravityof the loadedw€ight- t|e pointof
suspension (gr).

ThemoverneriGG1hastwo components:

GGv:whichcausesan increasein
Kc/decreasein GM.

GGn whichcausesthe shipto lisit.

Fig.13.4

ft is at this stagethat the maximun /isl wouldocoJrwhich


coincideswith the momenlwhenthe GM has its mininum
varrre-Considerthe list triangle(Figue 13.5)'.

Tan oru ll3r = gg'


G[."

Fig.13.5

- SECTION13- Suspend€dweighis
CLASS2'1 STABILITY 124
I

3. Defiic* swingsinboardto plumbstowage


positbnon the centrcline.

Gr moves to G as the weight is swung


inboardiiom gl to gr. Shipbecomesupright.

Fig.13.6
4. Weightlanded in the lower hold.

The weight is removed from the denick head


al $ as it is landed in the lo$/er hold and
L_ finallyacls al93. G, movesto C.3.

Note
l The weight is loaded berow the initial centre
of gravity of the ship; so the fnal position of
G, G3,musl be ,or€r KG is reduced overall.

Fig.13.7

Example2 illustratesa typicallist questioninvolvinga heavylift beingloaded.Thecalculatioomay


be solvedby oneof lwo methods:
l_ fi) Fotmularnethod.
(2) Takingnmoments aboutthekeeland thecenteline.
i
!_ Bothmethodsare shown,however,lhe rnomenlsrnethodis muchsimplerand will be adoptedfor
all olherev€mDlesin this s€dion.

Example2
A shipdisplaces8850t, KG 7.15m andKM 7.98m. A weightof 40 t is to be loadedfromthe quay
15.0m to stahoard of the ship'scqte line. ff the headof the denickis 27-0m abovethe keel
whentoppedto it'smaximumextenlfor theliftingoperation,calculate:
(a) the GMwhenthe weilht rbsuspended;
(b) the maxinumangloof list:
(c) thefmalangleot listif the weightis daced on deckat l<g10.40n, 5.0n off the centrc
I
L_ lineb slaftoad.
(d) the weightof ballastto t|ansfetbetweentwo doublebottomtanks,999hhaing iE centrcof
gravity4.0 n otr thecentreline,to btingthe shipupright.
(AssumeKMremainsconstant)
t_
solulion(Method1)
I (a) Tocalculatethe GMwhentheweightis suspendod.
L_
Loadthewsightat thederick head.

CIASS 2/1 STABIIIY - SECTION13- Susp€ndedr€€nls 125


GG,=w'6 - 40 x (27.00
- 7.1O=0.089m
W+w 8850+ 40

lnitial KG 7.150m
GG, 0.089m
Maximum KG .239m
KM 7.980m
c$ when weightls suspended 0.741m (Thisis theminimun GM)

(b) Cal late the distancethat G is otr the cente line whenthe weightis suspendedover the
quay(GGJ.

GGs=e/xd GGH=40 x 15 =0.067m


W+w 8850+ 40

Tanew usr= 991 TanquaxLtsr=0.067 = 0.OgU2 Uaximum Ist= 5.? Stbd.


GM., 0.741

(c) Calculatethe final angle of list when the weight is placed on deck
(Simply load the weight on deck, ignaing flte derick as in a notmal single weight problen.)

GGv=wxd GG,= 49JJL9!9:_L!!) = 0.01sn


W+ w 8850+ 40
lnitialKG 7.1fr m
GGV 0.015m
FnalKG 7.165m
KM 7.980m
FinalGM 0.815m

GGH=w.d GGH=40xS =0.022m


W+w 8850+ 40

Tane usr= 991 fan 0,,", = 0tn22 = 6.62766 Fir'6l list = 1.9 StDd.
GM"*, 0.815

(d) Calculateweightof balast to tanster trcm Stbd.DB tankto Potl DB tank.


ln the tinalcondttionG is off the centelineby 0.022m (GG)

GGts=vt/' d 0.022= w:_9 w = 9p4:-9@9 =24.5t


w 8890 I

Tr'nsfer 21-St

solution(Melhod2l
(a) Tocalculatethe GM whenthe weightis suspended.
Loadthe webhtat thedefii* head.Takemonentsaboutthekeel.
Ke (m)
8850 7.15 63277.5 KM 7 gqn
40 27.W 1080.0 KG 7.239
8890 7.239 64357.5 EH o.711

cU when weight suspended0-711m (Minimun GM)


- SECTON13- Suspendedreishls
CLASS2/1 STABTLITY 126
(b) Takemomentsaboutthe centelineto detemineGGH

GGH= Net lislinomome s=@ =0.M7n


Final displacement 8890

TaneBAx Lt!f=99a Tanew Ljs=qW = 0.09042


GM",, 0.741
Itaxtmum list = 5.? Sbd.

(c) Calculatethe final atgle of lisl wlEn the weight is placed on aleck
Take mor'nen/sabout tha keel.
l KE(m)
weioht (t)
8450 715 63277 5 KU 7.980
40 10.40 4t6.0 KG 7165
4890 7.165 63693.5 GM 0.815

Takonomentsaboutthe centalno to detetmineGG-

GcB= NetlistinomonenE = ry = 0.022n


Finaldisplacement 8890
i_
TaneMMLtsr= 991 TaneuM Ltsr= qA2 = 0.09u2
GM,^n, 0.815
I Flnal list= l.f Slbd.

(d) Calculateweight of ballastto tnnsler from Stbd.DB tank to Potl DB knk.


ln the frnal condition G is of the centrelineby 0.022 m (GG)

G G H =t u ' d 0.022=v!-g w =9@]-9999 =24.5t


I w 8890 I
i-
T'enster U.5 t

Ne@
lf a heavylift weight is to be drschafgedthe same principlesapply wherebythe maximumlisl
duringthe operationwill ocorr whenthe weightis suspendedal the derick or sane headandthe
weightis plumbed overtheship'sside.

Ct .sS 21 STABlLn"r. SECIION13 Suspenr,€dFrghts 127


13.3 TO CALCULATETHE MAXIiIUiI PERMISSIBLEKG REQUIREDPRIORTO LOADING
OR DISCHARGII'IG A WEIGHT TO ENSURE THAT A CERTAIN LIST LIMIT lS NOT
EXCEEDED

The key point here is to firstly identify the sifuation during the lifling op€ration that will create the
maximumlist.Drawinga diagramwill help.

Consider the following example.

Examble3
A ship displacing16200t is uprightand has a
90 t weighton deckat Kg 13.0m, 6.m m b potl
of the cenbe line. This wetJht is to be
dischargedinto a l4lhteron the potl side,14.00
m hom the @ntrcline usingthe shb's heavylifr
denick.f the angleof listis not to exceed8oat
ary tine duing the operation,calculale the
maximumdlowableKG prknto discharyegiven
thatKMis 9.60n.

Sohnion
Ma(mum l|st w l occur when the weight is
suspendedat the denickheadandthe denickis
Dlumbedoverthe oortside.
Fig.13.8
GM will have its minimumvalue TanqMAxLts = 991
GM",N

Calculatethedistancethat G willbe otr the cente line (GG) whenthe shipis at


il's maximumangleof lisl.

GGH=ut/' d GGH=g)].JJ7:3) =0044n


w 16200

allowedlistis8". GGHis0.044
Maximum m. ThisallowstheminimomGMtobe

Fig.13.9
Tanqw us= 9G1r
GM"',

TanI = 9!4
GM"*

Therefore:GMhN=EEA = 0.313m
Tan8"
3 m is rcquiredwhenthe weightis plumbedoverthe side
A minimumGMof O.31
at Kg 27.0m.

KM 9.ffi0m
MinimumGM 0.313m
MaximumKG 9.287m Fb.1s.l0

clrlss 21 sTAB[rrv - sEcTloN13- suspended


@(jhls 124
L
L lbviE dcrtld/€d116 nax,l''dt,',M KG wh.'l.dE wei.','db sllp.t & fdn tlp turbk lregd
(Xg27.0n), $iA he walghlDtd fo ns o4r,lDdstor|8gppo€{i.trdr (H fg 13.0)b cddffi the
RG requirad$kxlb si,/litu tl6 opddiql
n'€xin'/.anhil/nal
L Td@nwncrl/s abo{/ltt'€l@L

L
I co t3m
t-
Tlreintial KG nfrr5lnd b. gsder tw 9-Zfi, it hrd.let to limllha M b e.
L

L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L Crass zl sT g|llw- s€cno{ € - s|4.id.dFidr. 1p

L
CIr"sS 2/1 STABILITY-SrcION 13 Suspsr]d.dmights 130
INTRODUCTION 'Codeon lntacl
The minimumintactstabilitycriteriafor a numberof ship typesis specifiedin lhe
StAbilityfot A Typesof ShipsCovercdby IMO lnstruments' (lMO). This seclioncoversthe
p.oceduresfor veriryingcompliancewith suchcnleriafor a lypicalcargovess€|.The intactslabilily
requirements for passengervesselsare also detailed.(The additionalsp€cificrequirementsfor
othershiptyp€sand conditionsof loadingare coveredin latersectbnsas appropdate).using the
sLabililydatabookfor M.y. A/marlhe proceduresfor verifyingcomplianceof a loadedconditionwill
bedemonstrated wjthlhe aid of workedexamples-

Le.ming O,l€rtives
On complelionof this sectionthe leamerwill aclfevethefollowing:
1- CalculateareasundercurvesusingSimpsor'sFi|sf and SecordRu/es.
2. Unde6tandthe tetm DynamicalStabilityandifs relevanceio the area underthe curueof
staticalstability.
3. Understardthe tMO andM.S.(LoadLine)Regulafiorst998 intactstabilitycriteriafor cargo
shipswilh respedto the curveof statrcalstability-
4. Verifylhat a shipsloadedconditioncomplieswithrequiredminimumcriteria.
5. Understand the IMO and M.S. (Passetver Ship Constuctio/t:Shipsof ClassesI, Il and
ll(A) Regulati<rls1998)intactstabilityc.iteriafor passengershipswith resp€ctto lhe curve
of staticalstability.
6. Understand the relalionshipbetweenGZ and GMat smallanglesof he€].
7. Understandthe limitationsof usingstalicalstabilitycurvedata as a meansol assessing
shipsliaLilityat sea.

CLASS 21 STABILITY SECTION 14-Assing @mdiar of ashipsb6ded.dditbnwi*r IMO 131


14.1 SIMPSON'S RULESFORCALCULATING AREASUI.IOER CURVES
Simpson'sRules providea simple meansof calculalingareas under curveswilhouthavingto
resortto integrationteciniques,whichc€n be somewhatconfusingfor the non-malhemalician.

Thereare two Rulesthat are usedlo calcrrlateareasunderlhe curve of staticalstabiliv, these


beingnecessaryto veriryfiat a ship'sproposedloadedconditioncotnplieswilh the iniactstability
criterialaiddownby lMO.

11.1.1 Simpson's fi'st rule


Considerthe shapesholvri:
A, B and C are knownas ordirates,having
lengthsexpressedin rnetres.

The spacingbelweeneach of the odinales


mustbe the same,with h b€ingthe distance ^
between the ordinates, known as the
Common/r erval expressedin metres.

To cafculalelhe area of the shape:


FM. 14.1
faREl;-ilg;,(A-18;nil-
wherethe nlmbers t, ,r, and t are knownas S,mpson'sMuftipliets.
Thisis Simpson's
frst Rule-

E)Gmple1
A sectidr of steel plate to be used in the
conslructionof a ship'sdeck has ditnetsions
as shown.CalculaEtheareaofthe plate-
'''r
to the solulionare shown.
Twoapproaches
Sohnion(1)
Area=1bth,(1A+48+1C)
Arca= 1b t 6.3 rt(i' x s.4)+(4x 4 3)+(1x1s)l
Aea = 2 1, (5.4+ 17.2+ 1.9) Fiq.14.2
Area= 51.15m'

The calculationis very tediousin the formatsho /n. A tabularapproachmakesthe calcul€tion


mucheasieras follows.
Solutione)
Area=14xh\(1A+48+1C)

Usinga table,firstcalculatewhatis in the trackets.

SM Arca=1/3xhtSum
Area=1h' 6.3x 24.s
4 3
Areao 51.'15m'
I
216

Clr"SS Zl SIAA|L|TY SECnON AssnE mplbM of s ship'sloaded@|natdt wnh|l!lo 132


1L1.2 Extanslonot ahefttst rule
consaderthe shapeof a ship'shalfwater-planeareashown.The areahas,tveordinates.Oneway

,t!.n .a-----------"{

of calcllating the whole area would be lo divide it up inlo lwo, use Simpso.l's frst rule to calculate
both areas 1 and 2 separatelyard then sum them up lo wo* out the lotal
Fig.14.3

A more convenienl way is to consider the Simpson's mullipliers for ttoth of lhe areas concemed.

;.- AFEn l rrPEi : --!-5

Simplysum the multipiielsfor the ordinalethal formsthe boundaryof bothshapesand beat the
wholeas a srng/eshape.Thisgivesmultipliersof 14241.
F4 144
ExamDle2
Ii.Tips waer+tanearea hashalfatdinatesftoman to foNard as follows:
O-Om. 1.5m. 1.6 m, 1.4 m and 0.0 m. lf the half-odinab arc equanyspacedat 4-2 m apatt,
calculate:
(a) thetotd water+lanealea;
(b) the TPCif the shipis floatingin saftwater(RD 1.025).

- .2F ++ a,2d + a.rr <

Fig.14.5
Solution
(a) Cahulatethe areaol thehalf wder+lane area
L_ Arca=14xhxSum

Area= th x 1.2x 15.4=2156n'


6 32
L
00
ToktWPA= 2 r 21.56= '1j.12mz

l
(b) TPc=WAx p TPC= E:!2, 1.025= O.tU2
I 1N 100

Ct-Ass 2/1 STABIUTY sEcnoN - AsessrE @mpraM ofa ships lo€ded@ndilih *ifl lMo 133
IEE Simpson'sfrrslrule @n be usedwheneverlhere are an odd numberof ordinates;henceit is
oftenrefen€dto as the 'oddodinat1 nte'.

Thus:
W-rth3 ordinatestheSimpsons multipliers are. 141
I4tth5 ordinatesthe Simpson'smlllipli€rsare 't4241
Wrth7 ordinates lh€Srmpsons muhipliers are. 't424241
Wnh9 ordinales lheSimpsoos muhipliers are. 142424241and$or1...

11.13Simpson's seconalrute
Considerthe shapesho$,n:

AREA= 3/0,( h I (1A + 38 + 3C + 1

TheSimpson's are1,3,3, and7.


mullipliers a
Followihe workede,xample. r-- i ----jF- h ,----'* i ------.i

Example3 14.6
A plate sectiotr has dimensionsas shown. Calculab the area.

Solution

Arca=3/g' h ' (1A + 38+ 3c + 1D)

Using a tade, calculate what is in lhe


brackets, ----ri-
'$6 aa- --.t --

Fiq.14.7
1n" = 3 h x h x g u m
Arca= 3/8x 4.6 x m1
Arc. = 51.92m'

11,1.1 Exfursid, of the secand rule


Considerthe shaoe of a shio's half i.- r&a., --+- ,rr{} .
waler-planeareashorm,The area has
seve, ordinales-The aooroadris the

The multipliers in this case are


1332331.
Consider theexample-
h-*-r +-:* n--?-t{:* n --j- n -l

3 3 1
1

:
Fig. 14.8

CLASS2l1 STAAIrY - SECTION14- Assstg mdlro ol, ships load€d@ndilir w{h DIO 1U
Example4
A srnall boat has a half water-plane
area wih equalyspacedhalf-odinates

0.20n, 1.20m,1.70n, 1.82m,1.75m,


1.65mand 1-21n.
Fiq.14.9
TIl€halfardinatesare equallyspacedat 1.40m apaft.
Calculatethe water-pl e aea-
Sordion
Atea of haff WpA= 3/Ax h x Sum
1n" o11ru61lYP1= 34 x 1.40 x 23.95
Areaol hatfwPA = 12.57m'
1.42 Tokt WPA= 2 \ 12.57= 25.15 m'
1.75
165 3
121 1.21

NoteSimpson'ssecondrulecan be usedwheneverlhere is a numberof ordlnalesslch that:

Nlmberof ordinates- 1=awholenumber


3
Wth 4 ordinatesthe Simpson'shrrltipliersare: 1331
where: 4:l= 1
3
With7 ordinates theSimpson'smultipliers are: 1332331
where: !:l=2
3
With10ordinates theSimpson'smultipliers are: 1332332331
where: LQjl = 3
3
andso on....

Theremay be instanceswhen eitherrule rnaybe used,suchas withthe previousexamplehaving


7 ordinates.

Simpsonsfirst and s€condrules will be appliedto the calculatonof areasunderlhe curve of


stalicalstability.

i._

CLASSZ1 STABIUTY- SECTION14- AE**rs mplire of a shjps loaded@ldibd ritrl IMO 135

L-
I4.2 DYiIAI'ICALSTABIUTY_ THERELEVANCE
OF THEAR€AUNDERTHECURVEOF
STATICALSTABILITY

11-21 Dmamical stability defi oed


The 'dynamicalstabiw' of a ship at any parlioiar angleof inclinatonmay be defnedas lte wott<
rcquiredby theerteold for@s(wind,wavesetc.)to heelAle shipto thatangleof heel'.

When assessingthe transversestability of a ship a curve of statical stability(GZ curve) is


produc€d.ff the termdynamicalstabiw is cdlsideredit is moreappropriateto consiier a cu € of
tightingmoments,wherebyall GZ valuescalculatedat specifredanglesof heel (for which KN
valuesareavailable) arcmlltipliedby theship'sdisplacemenli-e.
Righting moment(tfl) = Gz (r0 x Dkplacemer* (t)

Fiq.14.10

The lenn dwamical stabilily cE,.l


now be more readily appreciated.
Consider a ship that has been
inclined by extemal forces to an
angle of heel of 25o. In order for
lhe extemal forces to achieve
this, d is recessafy araf lhoy
overcone the sum of all the
dghting moments that the ship
inherently has up to the angle of
hed of 2tr. the shaded area in
figure14.11representsthis.

It is now clear that dynamical


stability is determined by
consideralion of lhe area uncler
the arNe of ighting fno|n,entst4
to the angle of heel concemed.
FirJ.14.11

STABILITY= AREAUNDERRtl CURVE(|r lo 0o)


Therefore: OYNAMICAL
Clr.SS 21 STABIL'aY SECnO{ 1]'- Asssing @mplia@ of a ships lod.d dditln withIMO 136
wherethe unils of dynamicalstabilityarc lofttemette-radiars (sincethe minimumIMOcriteriator
areais expressedin mefe-radiansinsteadof mefedegreesl,)
Of course,in practiceit is a GZ curvethat is producedand since:GZ(m)= E!g!!!!g-E9494(t.m)
DisPlacerElit (t)
it foflowsthat dynamicalslabilityispropottionalto thea@aunderthe GZcurye.
ln conclusion:

lt{n{) = DISPLACEIENT
oYNAi|lcaLSTABILITY {tl x AREAU oER62 CURVE(0'to 0"){m4
'tansverse sbtkal stattlllly'
1L22 The disthcaon betvt€€n 'dynamical stafitity' and
'Trcnsvetse staticd itabihty' is the term used to describe the ability of a ship to retum to the upight
when it has been forqbly heeled by an exlemal fot@ and is momentatily al resl whon floating in
sti rBter
It is calculatedby the fomula:

RlcHTlt{G IIOMENT(t.m) = Gz (m)x DISPLACEiTENT


(t)

where GZ is a measureof hw lat G endB arehorimntallyseparatd at a particllarangleof heel.


'dmamical
ftlF- stability'ol a ship at any parlicular angle of
inclinalronis 'lhe wo* tquired by the exlemal forces (wind,
waves etc.) to heel the ship to that angle of heel .

ft is assessed by considerationof the area undq the righting


moment cuNe \tp Io lhe angleof heel concemed.

= AREAUNDERRMcuRvE {f to 0')
DYtlaflcal STABILITY
or (in practice):
Fi1.14.12
DYNAMIGAL STABILITY {t{<) = DISPLACEI{ETT (T)X AREA UNDERGZ CURVE ((r tO O.I (M{)
Thedistinctionbelweenlhe two termsis madeevenclearcrif the curveof stalicalstabilityin fgure

L-
L_
'14.13
is considered.
L Fiq.14.13

L
CLrSS 21 STABILITY - SECTION 14 - A5s6ing @plEne ot a ship's h6d€d oudilion witl |rJlo 137

L
The moment of static€l stability will be the same for when the ship is heeled'work'
to 25' or 53'.
Ho$,ever,the dynamicalstability will obviously be much greater at 53osince more is required
by the extemal forces to heel the ship over to the larger angle of heel.

The €lationship betweenGZ and dFamical stabilit can be furfier apprecjatedif a comparisonof lhe
valuesof GZ and dFantcal statility ale comparcdat differentanglesof hed.

Fil.14.14

It followsihat if dynamic€lstabilityis a measureof the \rork' io be doneby extemalforcesto heel


the shipo'r'erlo a particufarangleof heel,dynamicalslabililywi| continueto incrcasewithheel as
longas the shipcontin@sto rcsistsuchheelingi.e.as longas the shiphas posiliverightinglevers.
Onceheeledbeyondthe angleof vanishingstability(AVS)the shipwillc€psizeon its own-

NgE
ft mustb€ appreciated that the explanationgivenis onlytruefor a shiplhal is heelec!in stillwater,
is morentaily at rest andis not heeledbeyondthe atEle of progressiveffoodrng.Furthermore, it is
assumedthatthe posilionof lhe centreof gravityof the shipdoesnot rnove,evenwfienheeledto
suchlargeanglesfor whicha GZ drrve is normallyplotted.Cleady,in practice,the sifualionwhen
a shipheelsat seais completely (Seesection14.7).
different!

CLASS21 SIABTLITY SECTON 14-Asssingompla@ota shFs loadedddilinwnh Mo 134


14.3 MINIMUMINTACTSTABILITYCRITERIAFOR CARGOSHIPS

Chapter 3 of the Code on htacl Stabilitytor A Types of Ships Coverec!by IMO lnstrumenb (IMO)
details the minimum intact slability crileria to be satisfed by all cargo ships lvhen at sea. Similar
requiremenls are slipulated in MSN 1752(M) lhal accompaniesthe M.S. (Load Line) Regulations
t99A beingapplicableto all UK registeredships.

Requirements for other types of vessels are also included in the /MO Code and the MCA
publication Load Lr,es - lnstuclions for the Guidance of SuNeyors'. The various requiremenls in
the above publicafons will be covered as deemed necessary in this and subs€quent seclions

1L3.1 Recommended generel citeda for cargo shlps (lMO)


Thisis as follows:
* The arcaunderthe ighting levet cuNe (GZ cuNe) should not be lessthan 0.055metle'
radianup b 3e angleof heeland not lessthan0.09metrc-ndianup to 4e or the angleof
downnnding &, il thi6angleis lessthan4v. Additionany, he atea underhe itghtittglever
cuNe (GZcuNe) betweenthe atvles of heel of 30 and 4e ot between3e and er,if this
angleis lessthan4e, shouldnot be bss than0.03netre-radian.
' Theighting levet GZshouldbe at leasl0.20 m at an angleof heel equalto or greaterthen
3e.
' Themaximunighting atm shouldoccurat an angleof heelpreferablyexceeding30', but
not lessthan25'.
' TheinitialmetacenficheighlGMshouldr:Ftbe lessthan0.15m.
(q is an angleot heelat whidt openingsin the hull, superstructures
or dack-houses whbh
cannotbe closedweathettghlimmerse.ln apdyitrg this diteion, sma openingsthrough

which prcgressiveflooding cannot take place need not be considercd as open.)


Fig. 14.15 (lMO oftena)

11.3.2 lntact stability crltefia for cargo ships asslgned freeboards under lhe .5. (Load
Line) Regurations 19 (as specified in,ISN 1752(M))
This is as follows:

The design and construction of the ship *aI be such as lo ensure ll,af its sfabiw in aI Vobable
loading conditions shall be sufrcient for the freeboards assigned, and for this putpose due
considefttion shallbe given to the intended sevice of the ship and to the followng cnteda.
" The area under the cuNe of ighting leve6 (GZ cuNe) shall not be less than:
CTASS Z1 STABILITY - SECTION 14 a$€Mg mdi.G ot. ship s loaded cdrd.lid wih IMO 139
(i) 0.055nete-tadians upto an angleof 30o:
(ii) 0.09nete-rdians up to an angleof 4e orthe angleat whichtheloweredgeof any
openingsin t|re hull, supeGlructuresor decr(houseswhich cannot be closed
weathe'loht,are imnersedif thal angleis less:and
(iii) o.U metre-radians belweenthe atvles of heel of 3e and 4e or suchlesserangle
as refeted to in subpaagraph(ii)above.

Thedghtkg hver (GZ) shal be at leasl0.20m at an angleot heel equalto or geabr than
3e.
Themaximumr*jhtinglever shallociur at an angieof heelnot lessthan3e.

Theinitial t6nsve6e notacentic haightshallnot be lessthan0.15 m. ln tho caseof a ship


catryitg a tinbet deckcargothat @mplieswiththe areareguirements aboveby takinginto
accountlhe volunEof timberdeckcaryo,the inilial hansve6emetacenticheightshal not
be lessthan0.05m.

Fi9.14.16(M.5. (LoadLine)Regulations1998qiteda)
These requirementsare very similar to those specifiedby lMO. The specifc requirementsfor
imber deckcargoeswherea ship l6s b€enassignedtimbertreeboardswill be coveredin Seclion
27.

ft e lnLlal netecentic heighl ,equitsnent is always a value of GM tlat has been conected
of tlee sufiacesin tanks.
for lhe efr€c/sss5
lor passengershipsand otherspecifrcshipVpes. Someot the
Thereare addilionalrequirements
more @mmon ship typ€ requirementswill be coveredin subsequenlseclionsas necessary.
Passengership requirementsarecovered in seciion'14.5.

'14.4 ASSESSING
COI{PUANCE
OFA SHIP'SLOADEDCOI'|D|T|ON

CLASS 2/1 STABILITY SECnON Assshg ffpr.E oia ship s lo€d.d qlditi'n wnh DrO lzlo
11.1.1 checking comdlance when the angle of progresstvefloodi.tg Pl is greater
lhan /te
Example 5
M.V. Alrnar completesbading with a displacementof 26000 tonnes and an etrective KG of 8.86 m.
Produce a cuNe of staticalstability for the loded condition and vetfu that the ship complies with
the minimum IMO intact stabilitycritctia.

Sorrriirn
Enter hvdtostaticclala and obtain value for KM. CalculateetrecllveGM.

G[ FLUID 0.:160
i
UsitlgKN valuescalculatethe valuesof GZbr thel@dedcondlion.
t0 20 30 50 a0
t-
154
o.l0 o.27 0.6t o.!0 -6.54

Plotthe cuNeof staticalstabilitv.

L_

L_

L
t_

i
t-

I
L_

Fig.14.17
t_ Us,l49Simpsor3 Rules calculate the ateas under the cuNe.

Areae to 3e
t A r e a= 3 x 1 0 x 1 . 7 2 0
l- GZ SM
0 000 0.000 I 57.3
10 0.10 3 0 300
Aree= O.173m-r
L 20
30
0.27
061
3
!
0810
Arcaeble
sus 1,7m

L
I
CLASS 2/1 STABILITY SECio|{14 &$sing omdi.M of a shiCs leded d{ilj@ sifl lilo 141
I
L--
GZ ss Arca = 7x1p x4.180 AEe=0.213m-r
0 0.00 0.000 3 57.3
10 010 0-,100 Arca3,,b4e
20 o27 2 0.go
30 0.61 Tal<e the ditrerence of the two ateas iust
40 040
3UT a,tco Area= 0.243- 0.113= 0.130mn

NgbThe arearcquircmentsarc expressedin metrc-radians.This neans thatthe values6 GZare


in metres;sincethe commoninteNal, h, is 1e sinply diiding this value by 57.3 wil give a
comntonintetvalexptessedin radians(since1 Radianis 57.3o).

Conside€tionof the GZcuNeand the calculabdareasgivesthe folbwinganswer.

lLo Crlt rla (fini6um)


Gta
olt3
o.24 .' YEA
0.t30
0,ll YES
YEs

ft is assentialthatall thecriteia ba net.


wr|€ndE arule of p,ogrs6sivefroodlngPd ls ,as tha, 10
1LL2 Ch€ckng co,npl/d6'ncE

Undernormal loaded conditonswith reasonablefim it is usual for the angle of progressive


foodingto occurat an angleof heelgreaterthan40ofor mostcargoships.However,lhere maybe
instanceswhenthis is not the case,paniculadyin lhe caseof offshoresupplyvesselsand tlgs,
wherethe low freeboardafl in way of lhe workingdeck will resultin eady anglesof deck edge
immersion andsubsequent eadierflocdinganglesdepending on the arangemenlof openings on
the afrerdeck.
Example6 considerscompliancefor MV Almarwherethe angleof progressiveffoodingoccursal
360.Thiswouldnotoccuron the shiofor whichthe datafor l\,lvAlmaris based.

Example6
M.V.Almarcompletesloadingwitha displacemant of 26000tontes and an etrectivoKG of 8.86m.
Prcducea cuve of staticalstabiliy for the loadedconditionand veify that the thip @mplieswith
the minimumIMO intact stabiliu ctiteia giyen tl'dl tl7€ angle of heel aa which p@gressive
f,oodingffi6 praceLs3e,

So/utb,
Enterhydrostaticdataandobtainvaluefor KM. Calculateefuctive GM.

vahtescalculate the values of GZ for the loaded audilion-


io 20 al 00 80

0.lo 0.27 oal 0.80 ola .0.59

Phrt the cuNe of statical stability.

Clr"SS 2?1SIABImY SECT|oN14-Ass€srE@mdisM drshiCs loadedd\drlthri$ IMO 142


L_

L
L-

L-
L_

L
L Fig.14.18

Usirg Simpson'sRulrs calculate fhe areas undet the cu1!e.

L- GZ sta Are aPb 3lf


0.00 0.000
10 0.10 3 0 300 Area=3x 19 x 1.720
L 20
30
0.27
0.61
3
I
0aio
0.610
I 57.3
sur 1.fm Arce= 0.173m-r
L_ Ar€ee b 3e (he angled progrcsslve f,ooding)
To calculalethis area it is necessaryto obtainGZ valuesftom lhe dirve drawnusinga slitabl€
commoninterual.Alwaysaim for an ir eNal of aroJnd10o- in this case9" hasbeenchosen.
L
Fromthe curveobiainvaluesof GZ for the anglesof heel9', 18o,27oand 36' and calculatethe
area underlhe drruefiom f to 360in the nornal mannerusingeitherthe lirst rule or s€csd rule
as appropnate.

L
L_

L
L FBJ.14.19

L
L - sEcTloN 14-As€shg
CfaSS 21 STABILITY MpliaE ola ships lod dnnbo wih lMo 143

L
slll erea =7.1! \3.590 Aree=0.2)gm-r
0 0.00 1 0.000 3 57.3
009 0 360 ,/ea 3e b 3e
1A o.22 2 0_440
2f 0.51 2UO Tal<e the difrercn@ of the two areas just
oT5 0_750
SUI 3.!t90
Area= 0.209 0.113= 0.lxt6m-r

Considefttion of the GZ cuNe aN he cabulated areas gives the following answer.

IIO CriLri. {fliniDuml

Not bs lian 0 O55 Gr 0_lt3 YES

oi$ vEg
0.al

dc&
X ,s 360,fhe ,esse. awre of Vogressivo fl@ding being less than 4C.

Ct €S 21 SIABILITY- SECnON1. -Asss$g omdirre of 3 slrp's l€ded dnns tith llilo 144
14.5 IIINIiIUM INTACT STABILTY CRITERIA FOR PASSENGERSHIPS

11.5.1 Additional ,*lO dlbrla for passetger ships


Passenger ships must demonslrate compliance with all the requirements laid down in section
'14.3.1(as applicableto cargo ships). However, addilional requirementstake account of the effects
of crowding of all pass€ngersto one side of the ship and the efiec1sof heeling during tuming at

L
are summarisedas follows:
Theseaddilionalreouhements

L ' The angle of heel on account of ctowding of passetge/s lo one sde (as detined below)
shottlc!not exceed 1U.
'
L- A mass of 75 kg should be assumd for each passengerexcept
that this vafue may be rcduced to not less than 60 kg wherc this can be justified. ln
addition, the mass and disttibution of lhe luggage should be detemined by the
Administtation.
' The height of the cente of g6vi, should be assumedegual to:

L_ (1) 1.0 m above cleck level lor passengersstanding upight. Account may be
taken. if necessary.of camber and sheer of deck:

L '
(2) 4.30 m above the seat in respect ofseatedpassergers.

Passengersand luggage should be considercd to be in the spacesnonnally at thei


disposal
L ' Passenge,'swithout luggage shauld be considercd as distibuted to Wduce the
most unfavautable combination of heeling moment and/or metacentric heryht at no
L morc than 4 personsper square metre.
' The angle of heel on account of tuming should rot etcQad lU when calculated using the
l_ fo owing fomula:

Heetins monent (kNl',) = 0.196 x V-ZY x (KG - O

L-
wherc: V = service speed (ffi/s)
L = length of ship at watedine (n)
i__ W = displacemant(t)
KG = height of certrc of gravity above baseline(m)

L- !le!e
This formula gives a valt@ of heeling moment in kN-r'rr,.The valrc calculated must be
convefted into tonnes-mettes and may then be plofted as a heeling am on the cuNe of
ightitv nonents whereby inte6ection of the heelhg moment and righting moment curyes
L wil hdicate the angle of heel due to tuming.
Use of this fotmula will be discussedtully in Section23 (There eists much Lonfuston
between the tems kN and tonnesatfr it is here that these tetms will be explained).
L_
L_

L-
CLASS zl1 STABILITY - SECTION 14 - Assins srlplbr of a ship s b.ded dldrlir ritl IMO 145

L-
1L5.2 tntact saabiritydltefia tot ttassetger srhs (/V.S. (Passenger Ship ConstucUon:
,, ,, arr.t I(A)) Regulations1998
Sttps of Cl&s-ses
Theseallemativerequiremenlsapply to UK registeredpasserEerslips and are similarto lhose
lor cargoshipslaid out in section14.3.2and are io be foundin Sdedule 1 of MSN
requirements
1698(M).Thes€areas follows:

1. Aftet coTeclinglor the etrectof f.ee sudaceof liquidsin tanks:

O) Theareamder the cuve ot nghhg levets(GZ&Ne) shallnotbe lessthan:


(a) 0-055mete-'adianup to an angleof 3e;
(b) 0.09 netrc-adian up to an angle of 4e ot the arrgleat which the lower
edgesof any openingsin the hull, superctructutgs or deckhouses,being
openingswllichcanrct be clo*d weathedight,arc imnetsed if thatanglebe
,essianct
(c) 0.03mete@dian belweenthe anglesot heel of 30oand 40 or suchbsser
angleas refeied b in subparagraph (b).

(2) Ihe dghtirp bver (GZ) shanbe at leasl 0.20 m at an angle of heel equal to ol
greaterthan3e.

(3) The maximumtighting lever shal occur at an angle of hoel not less than 30
prcvided that this aryle nay be Wmilted to be rcducad,having regad b the
designof a parlicularship-
(4) Theinfttd transversenetacentic heightshalltmtbe lessthan0.15m.

2. Whercit is not pssible, drE to the paniculardesonot openting conditansof a particular


ship,to comdy withthe critetiaof thisSchedule,the applicaltonof altemativecitena may
be panifted if it givesa standad of stabililyat leaslas ertectie.
Arguably,the aforementioned
requirements are virtJallylhe sameas thosefor UK registeredcargo
ships;theyhaveb€en includedfor the purposeof completenoss ofthis parlicularseclion.

q r''ss Zl STAa[rrr ' SffflOtl 14 As*snE ompldE ora ships lo€deddrdabonwilh IMO 146
1.- 14.6 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN Gll AllD THE ll'llTlAl- SLOPE OF THE CURVE OF
STATICAL STABILTTY

When plotting the GZ curve it is usual to draw a vedical at 57.30(1 radian) from lhe baselineequal
lo the etfective GM value as measured on the GZ sc€le. This allows the construction of a line
emanatingfrom the origin that will indicatethe inilial lrend of lhe GZ orrve wilhin sma// atgles of
heel. The purpose of this is to
L simply aid in the sketchingof
lhe c[rve al small angles of
heel between lhe plotled GZ
L values as dedved ftom the KN
values provided.

(The actualdistinclionbetween fr d
L stabilily at small and large
anglesof heel is discussedin
t_ seclion16.)

The proof of the relationship


beb!€en GZ at small angles ol
L heeland GMis as follows:
Fig 1420
considerfgure14.20.
I
t* AD is a linedrawnas a tangentto the GZcuNethatemanatesftumhe originat A.
AD cutsa linednwn vetltcallyupwatdsfrcn the heel scaleat E, 57.? (1 ndian).
L
LineDE haslengthequalto the ship'setrectiveGMas measuredon lhe GZ scale-

L BC is a GZvdte closeto theotiginat a sna angb g.

TianglesABC and ADEare similar.


L .. DE=BC
AE AC
t_ .. O E= G z d e
57.y e
L If sidesAC andAE are expressedin rcalians:
AE = 1 radian AC = e ndians
L .. pE = Gzate
1 rcdian g raalians
L Since DE = lnitial GM then:

L ... lnitialcM
16dian
= Gz ate
0 Edians

L Reatratging this gives:

lnitial GM x e expessed in radians = GZ at e x 1

L CLASS271STABILITY-SECIION14-Ars6i\g @trUr|aM of a ship'sload€dodinr. lnh lMo

L
in ndians = GZat 0o
lnitiel Glt x 0 exDr?.s's€d

Wilhinthe ange of smallangl,es,the vafueof any angle,expressedin radians,is very closain


vdue to the Sineof the anglain question.CotEidertheEble below.
andl..rffi.d ln Edi.6
0 0175 0.0175
0.0349
3 o 0524
0 0698 0.0694
0 0473
5 01045
o 1219 o 1222
a
g o 1564 01571
t0 o 1736 0 1745

Thus,in the abovefotmulag expressedin .adlans' may be substtfutedfor Sine g'whee e is


expl€ssedi, doglees.
Therefore: lnlatalGrt x Sineg=GZeroo Pobeinga smdt angle)

CL,ISS2?1STABIUTY- SECTION14- AsstE @md!re of a slip's loaded@ndilir eifl n O 148


14,7 THE UNRELIABILITYIN PRACTICEOF USINGSTATICALSTABILITYCURVEDATA
FORASSESSING A SHIP'SSTABIUTYAT SEA

.L- Considerthe deinitionof lhe term tratsversestatba/stability- it Elatesto the abilityoI a shipto
rctum to the uptbht codition when it has be€n torcidy inclined by an ertemal force, is
nronentadtyat rcst and i9floa{ng in sd we|&!r.
I
At s€a the ship will be subjectedlo forces and momentsthat are not laken inlo accounl in
c€lculalionslhal assume'stalic condilions.The ship will be activelyrclling,pitchingand heaving
and as such a more relevanldynamicapproac*ris more apprcpriaieto what is essenliallya
L- dynamicproblem.The problemthat faces modemship designersis how such a moreaccurate
meansof siabilrtyass€ssment can be acfiieved.

The dynamicforces,aclingeitherindividuallyor clrmuhlively,c€n be subsiantialand have been


the caus€of lhe lossor nearlossof shipswhidt havehad slaticalstalility in excessof lMO,M.S.
(LoadLine)Regulations or otherstafuloryrequhehents.
l Thelimitalionsof usingstalic€lsbbility curvedataaresummads€din the follo\^/ing
sub-sections

1L7.1 Lighadisplacetnentand XG assrmptiors


Forany KG calculationto be validthe conectlightshipKG and displacement valuesmustbe used.
I Section 19 describ€sthe procedurefor cdculating lhese values by means of an inclining
experiment.In s€rvice,however,the light KG and displacernentwill alter with age by reasonsof
changesof equipment,fttings, paintcoatings,corrosion,and accumulation of spareslo namebul
L_ a few. Strucfuralchangesmight even lake place wherebythese values will have changed
signmcantly.Whenany modifcationlo the vessellakes placethe changesin KG and light
displa@rnenlmuslbe accuratelydeterminedandthe shipre-inclinedif necessary.

Furthermore, the ship as completedmightnot be exacljyto design(drawing)dimensionsand the


possibilityalsoexistswherebydataextractedfromdrawingscan b€ in enor.

t_ It is essentialthat periodic'constantcalqiations be perfonned,wherebythe draughts6 readare


usedlo delerminethe ship'sactualhydrostaticdisplaoemenland this in tum is comparedto lhe
calculateddisplacement and draughtsso that tl|e eror (clnstanl) c€n be calculated.Theconstant
is a valueof an imaginaryweightloaded(or discharged) fromsomepositionto correctlhe draughts
as calculatedto te the sameas thoseacluallyread.ll is not possibleto determinethe KGat which
thisweightmuslbe loaded(or discharged). Theonlyway to oblainan up to datelightship KG
valueis by conductirEanotherindiningexperiment.
11.7.2 Cetcula6on in accu ncies
'!- The infomation giv€n by a c|lrve of stalical sliabilitycan only be valid if }le ship is in the conditionof
loadinga$sumedby th€ p€rsondcing the calqllations.To tre valid the ship must:
(a) be at the assumed displacement;
(b) b€ al the trim stated on the hydmstalic particulars and KN tables (which is rarely the
case);
(c) be loaded or ballasled to tlle assumed effective KG in the calculationwhereby free slrface
momentshave been fully accounted for;
I (d) be intact, displaqng water al all comparlmentswhich can be maintainedwatertighl.

11.7.3 Efrec'solteeUm
This is the effectof the ship changingtrim, usuallyfurtherby the stern,in responseto heelingto
such an agle that the fore and afr dislibulion of buoyancychanges.This is fully discussedin
seclion26 as it is particularlyrelevantto offshoresupplyvessels.

i 11-7-1 Dynamic ellecb of the ship's molion at sealn generat


I\rechanismslhat will reduce stability and might lead 10 capsize in waves of any heading to the
ship, either in isolation or in combination, arise because of the ship's moverflent in a seaway, in
parlicllar pitching, rolling and heaving.
L-
CLASS2/1 sTAalLfY - sEcTloN 1il - As*s*rg dplian@ ol a ship'sload€dondilid wih lMo 149
11.7.1.1 Changesin stability ceusedby heaving,rclting ahd pibhing
Thes€ motionscreale changesin the magnitudeand position of applicalionof lhe upward
buoyancyforce.Theacceleralionof the shipas a resultof thesemotionsis alsonotaccounledfor.

11.7.1.2 Thefreclof staadywind momen'sor aswmetuc icing


Thesecrealea sleadyheelto the ship and reducethe ship'sabilityto copewith isolatedsudden
efemal forces such as gustingwinds, individualexceptionallylarge waves or the impactof
breakingwaves.
Windheelingandice accretionetfecbare disdrssedin section25.
11.7.13 Stabr'rityross on a rvavecr€st
Stabilityis reducedwhenlhe shipis on a weve6est and increasedwhenin a lrolgh-
lf an 'end on' wave,equallo the lengthof the ship,has its crestamidships(wherewall-sided)a|d
troughsal the ends(wherefne-lined)therewill be a reductionin walerplaneareacomparedwith
the sliffwaler level.This createsa reductionin BM and a loss in Glvl(see wdl-sidedfomula in
section16).As BM is a direcllyrelatedto the size of the water planearea and becauseof the
volumesof displacenental he endsof lhe shipthercwill be a reducedoulwardmovementof B as
thevesselis heeledresulling in reducedGZvalues.Consider figure14.21.

l-'----;-;.-----

(1) Wavec'!st anidships - ahenansterot wedgeot buoyancy shen shtPhaaledis sinila. to thal
,t the stil watercoftI$on as the ship is va -skleclzmtclshhs.
(2) At the @ds of the ship (t ough) the tanster ot we.tgeot buoytncy is smalle.than that to. the
sti *atet conclitioncaustrg ova.a outboa.d movemontof B to be rcducecl.
Fig. 14.21

The diagramsin figure 14.21 show that the crest addships do€s not affect lhe amount of
buoyancy transfened across at amidships, but il is reduced at the ends of the ship. A reduced
outward movementof B implies a reduclion in BM value and reduced GZ value- When the trough is
amidshipsthe oppositewillb€ t ue.

When the ship is beam on to the waves the ciresulrough influence on the position of B is
insignifcantbut the loss of buoyancyforce in the crestappliesthroughoulthe ship'slength.There
is a significanllossof sliabililydue to this causealone.

11.7.1.1 Paramefictesonance
This is the increasein roll (or apparentloss of stabilily)due 10 the periodicpassageof regular
waves thal causes lhe ship to pitch. lt is parlidlady associated with container ships lhal require
large deck spaces for @nlainer stowage and line lined hulls for fast service speeds. Such ships
have hull forms that feature fine lined bolvs and wide stems in order to maximis€ deck space afl.
This variation between bow and stern hull form is such that it causes a tendency for lhe ship's
pitching motionto induce rolfing a phenomenon known as parametnc resonance.

Ct .sS 21STAA||Iry SECTION 14 Aisding ompliae ota.hip s lod6d ondilts with IMO 150
L_

11.7.1.5 Dynemicmovamentof wafe,ron deck


Water shiooedon deck will not be accountedfor. This will cause an irrcreasein KG fo. the
followingreasons:
(1) addedweighlhighupwillcauseG to rise,and;
12) assodatedfreesurfacemornentscausinga furher risein G.
t_ Wateron deckpresentsfurlherproblemsfor the shipif il is activelyrolling.Thedynamicmovement
of the waler mightat timesbe out of phasewith the shipsrollingmotim, as suchit wouldbehave
as a passive abilising(flune, tankin a favourablemanner(theprinciplesbehindsuchtanksae
L- disclss€d in soction26 as they are often ulilis€d in offshoresupply vessels).However,this
dynamiceffectof lhe rnovementof watermuslnecessarilybe assumedto be detimental,whereby
its movomenlis in phasewilh lhe rollingof the ship.The t?nsveEe rnovemenlof G (whichis the
trueeffectof a kee surface)causesa reduclionin lhe ship'sGZ values.

At the limitof {hewaterstravel: Lossof GZ = GGHx Cosinee

where: GGHis the distancelhat G has moved off the centre line as a result of the
fansversemovemenlof wateron deck.and:
0 is the angleof heelfor whichthe lossof GZ is beingconsidered.
(Thederivalionof thisformulais fullydiscussedin section17)
Since GClr= W-X-d
W
Lossof Gz = EgSSgL@Et&Eg!99_q[-E! x cocine0
Displacement

The maximumstatic effect of the


nrcvement of waler on deck is
in figure14.22.
illust'ated
l The real effect of lhe movementof
water m deck will be greater by
roason of its momenfum when
surgingacrossthe deck.

: l
Fig. 14.22

11.7.16 Broachlng
Broaching occurs when a ship is
I
tavelling with the direction of approach
t-- of lhe waves fom a near aslem
dheclon. lf, when sailing away ftom
I waves the caest of a partidrlarly large
wave overlakes the ship and hits one R&ti'ddrauon dnr,lt 6 ard,lrttrd bssens ,Fsdadce it
quarter (rather than sqrarely onto the tunn4 br.e P;.'t!{l by tiate r'ed an
stem) the ship will tend lo be thrown
round into a direclion in which the
wave is moving. This will bring the ship
beam onlo the sea resulting in severe
heeling.
Sh4oldns leat ot io |'e !ea.
Fiq.14.23
L-
CLASS 2]1 STABILIry- SECTION 14 Aes6nE mdi.n€ of a shp s b6ded @rldilbn with lLlo
Once beam on to the waves stability is
severely compromised as evident in
figure 14.24. The effecl of waves acfng
beam on to the ship causes reduced
rjghting levers when comparedto lhose
that would have existed had the ship
been heeledto the sarneangle in still
water. Of @urse, the stability of the
ship will always be affec'ted when
waves approach the ship trom any
direclion, being different to the
assumed still water @ndilions for |A..*.rrt
-e'o.
raa.t
which the curve of stalic€l statility is !-*r.bi-...!rrrad
ptoouceo, Ifr udart'r*..u.N..
de-'it
Fig. 14.24
Syndronism is anolhera problemassociatedwith waves wherebythe Friod of encour er of
\ /avesis similarto the naturalrolt pedodof the ship c€usingthe ship to roll excessivelyevenin
relalivelycalmseas.Theeffectof this is coveredin delailin Seclton25.

1L7.5 Summary
h is dear that a 'dynamic€lapproachshouldb€ adoptedfor determininga ship'sseaworthiness in
termsof stabihty.Invesligalions worldwideare ongoingto find a nore roalisticdynamicapproacfito
stabilityassessment-However,the problemto be overcomeis that of lhe mndomnafurein which
the environmentalfor@ssuchas wind and wavesoperale,and beingrandom,makeslhem very
diffcull to predictrealistically!
As technologyadvancesthe use of movenEntsensors'r|ay becornemorc widely adopted
wherebythe ship'smovementwill be monitoredin all planesof motionand ship accele.ations
will
be monrtoredto producsa more meaningfuldynamicalpictureof the ship's sea-keepingand
Suchsystemshave beenin us€ for some25 yearsnow on Dynamically
stabilitycharacterislics.
Positioned(D.P.)vesselswherestationkeepingis achieved by computer@ntrolof mainengines.
thrustersand rudders.Thesesystemsdo nol haveany 'dynamicalstabili9 monitoting'capability,
but I am in no doubtihat suchsystemsare cunentiyunderdevelopmenl.

ct lsszl sIABlLmY SECiON A6*36tlq mprre of. shps lcd€d ondiltm *h IMO '152
l
L_

!- SECTION15 - CURVESOF STATICALSTABIUTYFORVARYII{GCONDITIOI'IS


INTRODUCTION
I fn section7 stat/e, unstableand ,eutral conditionsof stabilrlywere dis.uss€din le'lns of lhe
relativepo€itonsof G, B and IV.ln s€61ion11 /tslwas disolssedwherebya ship b€c€meinclined
due to G beingoff the cenlreline in a stableship.In sectjon10 the curveof staticalstabilitywas
' introducedand this wes furlher examinedin wav of the requiredminimuminiact criteriain the
!- oreviousseclion.
No / all of the aboveis dra$,ntogetherso that by consideration of the shapeof the curveof stalical
L_ stabilityalone,it will be possiblefor the actualconditionof stabilityof the shipto be recognised.

, questionmighttakethe form:
An examinetion
'Considerthe cuNesof staticalstabilityillustnted.For each statethe conditionot stabllilyof the
shipand identifythe angleof itrclinationthatthe shipwouldbe lyingat, indicatingthe causeof such
I inclinatbn.'

It is the purposeof this seclionlhat yoube ableto answerthisand olhersimilartyp€queslions.

It is of particular importancethat the differencesin the shape of the drrve of statical stability at the
initial angles of heel are appreciatedand understoodfor each condition.

Leaming O}l€cttues
On comdetion of this sec'lionlhe leaher will adieve the following:
1. ldontify the features of the cuNe of siatic€l stability for a ship in a stab/econdition-
2. ldentify the features of the drrv€ of statical stability for a ship in a nedral condition.
L-- 3. ldentifylhe teatures of lhe qrve of stalical stability lor a ship in an unstable condfion.
4. ldenlit the features of the crrrve of static€l slebiliiy for a ship in a ,isted mndition.
5. Knol / the safe proceduresfor conecting an angle of loll and an angle of list-
L-
:___

L-

L-

L
L_
- sEcTloN 15- cffs
ct-Ass ?/1 STABTLiIY or slatiel slabir'lyfd varyng onditims 153

I
15,1 CURVE OF STATICAL STABIL'TY FOR A SHIP IN A STABLE CONDMON

A ship is in a stab/e condition of stability if, when heeled by an exlemal force in still waterlo a small
angle ol inclinalid\ k rctums lo lhs l/pngrt when the odemal force is rdDoved.

Consider a stable ship being progressively heeled from the upright within small angles of
indinatim.

KM - KG = GM: which has a Dos/ive value.

U) Ship upright - GZ zero


(2) ship hdd tu a small angle- Gz positiye
Fig 15-1
ln the heel€dconditionGZ is positive,wfiich will act to tight the ship whenthe exlernalforce is

A typicalculve of stalicalstabilityfor a stableship is depicledin fgure 15.2wherediagrams(1)


and (2) of fgure 15.'1are relatedlo ihe qlrve shown.

Fiq.15.2

As the ship is heeledbeyondsmallanglesthe GZ valueswill departtiom the tengentialline of


construclionbas€don inilialGM as shown.

CraSS ZI STAAILITY- SECIION 15 Cu'B ol.lat€lsbttriy fd vsrying d{ttoN 154


L
L- 15.2 CURVEOFSTATICALSTABIUTYFORA SHIPIt{ A NEUTML CONOTIOT{

A ship is in a ,euha, condition of


L statility if, when heeled by an Gxbmal
torce in di// water to a small angh d
indinalion, it comes to rssl at an
itietetminate angle of heel wilhin
L srnallangles of inclinalion.

Consider a ship that is in a neut'el


L condition of stability b€ing
progressively heeled from ihe upright
within small angles of indination. The fl) srrp upisht - czbe (2, srr& ,hr.d lo . .m, .,,sda-
L- inilial lransverse metacentre (M) is at
the same height as G.

i.e. KM- KG = 0; GM=0


L-

L_
L_
(3)sw t'd'd wdtdFUI - cz bw
ill.6
t:
The c!rve of stalical stability for such a ship is depicted in fgure 15.4 where diagrams ( 1), (2) and
(3) are related io the curve shown.
L
!

L_ g.'

L_

l_
Fis.15.4
L
L
I
L_

L-
ctAss 2/1 sIAB[mY - s€clloN 15- cury6 ot stal€l siahlrlyfor varyingondilids 155

L-
I5.3 CURVE OF STATICAL STABIUTY FOR A SHIP IN AN UNSTABLECONDITK'N
(ANGLEOF LOLL)

A shipis in an urslableconditionif, whenheeledby an exlemalforc€in slill walerto a smallangle,


it continuesto heelfuftherwhenthe extemaltor@is rcmoved.
Consideran unstableship being progressivelyinclinedfrom the upright.The inilial lransve.se
metacentre(M)b belo G.
i.e. ICJ- KG = GM;rvhic+rhas a ,egalivevalue.

(1) Ship lpright - GZ ls zerc (Ship (2) Ship iDctined b t smatl angle - 6Z is
would not ..main uNlght, n wouE neg.aivo (.cting b capstze he shlg)
lol to eians port or 66.boa..t)

O Ship hclinad betond .ngle o,


(4 ship com.s ao rcst at angteo, lo - GZ beco,t,€s pusitive
loll - GZ ls te.o
Fig. 15.5

The curveof sialicalstabilityfor sucha ship is depicledin fgure '15.6wherediagrams


(1),(2) (3)
and (4) are relatedlo the curueshown.

FA. 15.6
- sFcTloN 15- cuc
cfAss 2/1 STABILITY d staiicd siabilltyfo. €ryno @ndhohs 156
L
L- ,I5.4 CURVEOFSIATICAL STABIL]TYFORA LISTEDSHIP

Whena shipis tisbd the centreof gravityof the ship is off th€ centrelineto porl or slarboardby a
L distanceGG"-
Considera listed ship being progressivelyindined fro.n the upright. The initial transverse
metacenfe(M)is ab,oveG so the shipis stablein termsof melacerric height(Gll).
L
L

i (1) shlp uprighl with G ofr c.ntn lin - (2) Ship l'3', - GZ ls nog.tive
I- GGs rcp'?s€,r.' . capsizlng lever
(Msetiv. GZ)

L
l

(3) Ship at angta ot hst - Gz zerc (1) shlp haela.tbeyonl engle of si


i_ Fig.15.7
- Cz ls positive

L- for sudr a ship is depictedin fgure 15.8wherediagrams(1), (2) (3)


The curveof static€lstrability
and (4) are rolatedto the curveshown.

I
L_

L
L
Fig. 15.8

L ll sholld be noted here thal lhe curves tor unstable (loll) and a listed ship wilhin small angles of
heel are similar and must not be confus€d.

L-
CLASSzi STABIITY- SCTION 15- Cures ot siaU€l slabililyror varyingdditons 157

I
I5.5 PROCEDURES
FORCORRECIING
AN ANGLEOF LOLLAt{DUST -
During the course of a voyago the slability of the ship should be closely mofliio{ed.ll is
recommended lhat a calculalionof ituid GM and a cofiespondingGZ curvebe prcducedlor tl|e
wotsla bipabd conditior.Calculalionsshouldbe donefo. bothdepartureand anlicipatedanival
conditions,these being adjusled to suit any changesthal may take place as the voyage
progresses.

An angleof loll situationcan arisein a shipfor a numberof rcasons.


(1) Shipscatryingfimberdeckcag(Es
Deck cargoeswill abso.bmdsfurelhat will c€lse G b dse.An allowanceof 15oloof the
weight of limber canied on deck should be rnade when conductng calculaiionsand
deteminingGZ valuesfor the conditionin queslion.
(2) Consumptioo of fueland waterandintodudbn of frce surtaces
Fuelandwaterwill be consumedfromlowdownin the shipraisingG dueto lhe removalof
weoht fom lo.v downin lhe ship and the introductionof free surfacesin l,anksthal may
have been initiallyfull. Even ballasttanks that are initiallyfull may be@meslack as a
voyageprogress€sdue to the consiantrollingand pitchingof the shipat seacalsing water
to escapetrom tank air pipeson d€ck.Tanksmay requireto be loppedup occ€tsionally,
particularlywhen stabilityis consideredmarginalat any slage during the eyage. Poor
cargo and ballasttank managementresultingin excessivofree surfucemomenlsis the
moslcommoncauseof loll sifualionsexceplingdamages@narios.
(3) Heavylift opeationsusingship'slifringgear
An insiantaneous lossof GM will iake placeimm€diai€lythat a weightis liftedeitheroff the
deckor fiom a posilionoverthe side.Suchlargeincreasesin KG mustbe @nsider€dprior
to any heavy lifr operationsand calcllalions should be conduc{edprior to any sucfl
operationto ensurcthat
(a) theshiphasadequate stability
at allstagesduringthelift,and;
(b) maximumlist is restricledlo an acceplablelimit-
(4) Shiftof bulkcaryo
The verlical componenlof a shfi of solid bulk c€rgo may b€ suffcientto reduce GM
sufficientyto causea loll situation,parliculadyif accompaniedby one of the above.The
larger hodzontalcomponentwill also create listing moments@mpoundingthe salualion
tudher.

Unforlunatelythings do not alwaysgo to plan and misbkes may be made in calqrlations.Any


numberof o@unoncesmighttakeplacesuchas a collisionor a fre wherewateris introducedinto
a compartment for fre fghtng purposes.Whateverlhe cause,a situationmightadsewhorobythe
shipis lyingat an urexpecledangleof inclination.
It is not alwayspossibleto ascertaineasilywhethera ship is /ist6dor /o//edand sincethe remedial -
aclionfor each case is very differentit is essentialthat the causeof lhe inclinationb€ c€refully
investigaled.
Thefollowingproceduresshouldbe carefullyobserved:

1. Aftercourseto put the ship'sheadintothepredominantwaves.


lf the ship is in a blled situationit is essentialthat the ship stayslolledtrothe sameside.
Waveactionmaycausethe shipto rollthroughthe verticalto loll on the otherside.This is a
dangeroussituaiionsincethe ship will heel from the verlicalot ifs o /n accordand the
momentumil will havein lollingoverto the otherside maybe suffcienlto capsizeit. ln any
event,the ship will infially heel beyondthe angleoI loll beforesetdingat the angleof loll
wherebycargoshifrmeyresult,whichwill worsenthe situationfurther.

ct "ss zl STABUry sEcnoN 15 cu@sofslatcarsiabirilytdv/y*E@nditons 154


t-

2. Check that poft and starboad listing momerts arc fhe same.
By verifying tank soundings and checking lbr cargo shift it should be po$sibleto accounl for
any listingrnomentsthat may causethe shiplo be in a listedsituation.lf it is calculatedthat
there are no nel lisling momentslhen a case of instability may be assumed and the ship will
L_ be ling at an angle of loll. Recalculation of the ship's effeclive KG should also be
undertrakento veriry lhe ship's GM.
L- 3. Check for slack tanks
In c€rrying out (2) above it should also be evident if there are excessive free sudace
moments c€using a loss of GM suffrcientenough to make the ship unstable. In lhis cas€ a
I
lollsituationmay be confnned-

lf a loll situalion is mnfirmed:


I
4. Take aetion to lower G (tgduce KGI
ll would be impractical to consider shifting weights on board using ship's lifting equipmenl
j at ser. lf the ship has high ballast tanks that are full lhen these may be emplied,
t_ dischalgitv balast ftom the high side tank litst - the greater veiical distarce betuteenG d
the ship and g of the weight beingdischaryed will ensue that the greatest lowering of G wil
take place in the fitst instarce. Once lhe high side tank is empty the one on lhe low side
may then be emplied.

Empty high up ballasatank on th. high slcle fitsa lo ersuE

Fig.15.9
L-
5. Minimise Frce suiaces
Having sounded all the tanks any that are slack will be idenlified. lrinimise the loss of GM due to
ftee surface effect by topping up low down ballast tanks and lransferring fuel as necessary. This
aclion alone may remedythe sifualion-

6. Ba asl tanks lon down in the ship


Select a set of suitably subdivided double bottom tanks to ballast. ldeally start with tanks thal have
the smallest free surface areas to minimisethe effects of fiee suface whilst flling. The order of
flling is as follows and must be strictly adheredto:
I (a) Start by ffling the iank on the /ow sde (No. 1) as shosttr. kcause of the intoduction d nore
L-
free sunaces whilstfrIitE the frrsttank the sltuationwiuinitialy worsen.
(b) Whenlhe frst tank is completelyfull, filllhe centretank (No.2).
(c) !ryhenlhe centretank is full,fllthe finaltank(No.3)
t- (d) lf G is lowered sufficiently then the ship should complete in an upright condition (having
initiallyverified that the port and slarboard momentswere the same)-

L_
SECTION15- Cwesof stat€lslatir'ry fdvarying Mditims
cL!.ss 21 STABTLTTY 159
I
Fill brks in oftle, shom flot sitL
Fi!J.15.10
Themovementof G aflercompl€t€lyfillingeachof lhe tanksis as depic'tedin ligure 15.11(ignodng
the upwardrnovementof G whidr arisesas a resultoI the intoducodfree surfaceat intermdiate
stagesof fillingthe tanks).

Fiq.15.11
lf the situationis not remediedthena secondset of tanksmustbe chosenforlilling,lhe processis
reoeated.

M._Once a lol situationis confirrnedonly ever fill one tankat a time. Alwayssl,tl by fi ing the
tow side tankfirsL
Theangleof kil may initiallywo6en becausethe intoducedfrce suhces wheninitialy staiing to
fill the tankmay causea grcater ise of G than the fall ot G aausedby the addedboftomweight.
Hencetheimpotknceof fr ing smal tanksfirst.
lf therc is any doubtas to whetherthe shipis lo ed or li&ed,alwaysinitialy assuneit is a blled
skuationandtakeawropriateaction,monitoingthe sifuationcatef'.tly.
Whenconectinga /ist it is sufficient1oshn a weightto lhe high side.This may be achievedby
shiflingweighlson deck or by transfeningballastfrom a listed side tank to a high side lank.
Ahematively, excessballastFomthe listedside (possiblylowdownin the ship)maybe discharged
ora lowtankonthehighsideshouldbefilled.

Totrcat a loll situationin the samewaywouldhaved/saslrorsconsequences


for reasons

CLASS?/1 STASIITY- s6TloN 15 cures of sra&.1 sr.bilily ldtsying @ndinons 160


L-

L- 9E9!9!.@!ESE9EE!A
INTRODUCIlON
I ln previous sections lhe term 'small angles of heel' has been rep€atedlymentioned.gy
co']sideralio.rof the Wall'sidedFotmulatot calcrlatingGZ lhe dislinctionwill be madebetueen
at smallandlargeanglesof heel.
stability
A wall-sidedindinationof the shipis onewherethe waterlineon bothsidesof the shipis in contad
withthe vedicalsidesof the shipi.e. the shipis not inclinedbeyondthe angleof heelat whichthe
deck€dge b€comesimmersedor an angleof heel wherethe tum of lhe bilgebecomeseposed
i abovethe walerline,
Leaming Oblecltves
l_ on complslionof this seclionthe leamerwill achievethe following:
'1. Understandthe dislinclion between stability at small and large angles of heel by
consideration of {he lvallsided Fotmula;
2. Calqiato the angleof loll and GMal the angleof loll for a shipthat is unstable;
3. Calcllaieihe angleof lisl causedby a transverseshifl of weightwhenthe GM is zero.

t_--

I
I
L-

L-
ct ss zl sTAa[rY SEcTloN16n€*€[sidedMula 16' I

I
BETWEENSTABIL]TYAT SiIALL AND LARGEANGLESOF HEEL
16.1 THE DISTINCTION
. THEWALL.SIDEOFORiIULA

16.1.1 Stabiltty et sme errgles ol heel (initial stabilify,


Figure 16.'t shows a ship heeled to a smail angle by an
extemal force. The centre of buoyancy has moved ftom B to Br,
whici is a movemenl parallel to, and in the same directon as,
lhe shift of th€ r{edge of buoyancy from b lo b .

Fiq.16.1
The lineof acton of buoyancyforceactingupwardsthroughBl
passesthroughthe in fialtansversemekcentre(M)-F.x small
anglesof heel(upto about60)it is assumedthat the movemenl
of B to the lowside{ollowsthe arc of a circle,BMbeingthe
radiusof lhe arc knownas lhe metacentnb radius.
B[41
V

where I is ihe second moment of area (or moment of inertia) of


lhe water Dlanearea. For a box-shaped vesse/:
et\,t-=!E
12V Fig.16.2
whereL and B arethe lengthand breadthof the waterplanearea respectivelyand V is the volume
of lhevessel(L x B x d).
of displacement
Forsmallangles of heeltheBMcanbeassumed sincethereis no significant
conslant, increaseor
changeof shapeof the water plane area as the ship heels,sincethe value of I must also be
Underthesecondilionsrightinglevermay be caldialed using: GZ=GMxSlne0
and lhe moment of slatical stabilily or righting moment is gavenby:

RM=(G x Sine0)xDisplacement

This measureof stabilityis refenedto as irrral slabi/ly bec€lse it is relatedto the po€ilionof the
initialtransvercemetacerfrethat is assumedlo be at a frxedpointwithinsmallanglesof heel.

16.1.2 Stabillty at lerge angles ol heel for wall-sided incllnadons


Figure16.3showsa shiplEeledto a largeangle.\ryhenheeledto
large angles it can no longer be assurnedthat the centre of
buoyancymovesin an arc. The transferof wedgeof buoyancy
from high side to low side is such that there |s an incte€sing
veltcal movementof B the verticalcomoonentof lransferof
buoyancyincreasesat a fasterratelhanthe horizontalcomponent
and B adoptsa posilionat B ratherthansomeposilionat B
whichit wouidhavehad if movingin an arc.Thewaterplanearea
at the largerangleof heelis large[ cons€quentyBMis largeras a
resultof the grealervalueof momentof inerliaof the waterplane
area 1l).This causeslhe rnelacentreto moveat largeranglesof
heel such thal it is termed the I/ometacertre' or moving
metacentre([4). Fig.16.3

CLr.sS2r1 STABIUTY SECTION16ft€ mlLsiled tc.nula 162


Therightingleveradsingfom this higherpositionof the centreof buoyancy(Bt is: GZ = GX + XZ

whichis grealorthan the leverGX that wouldhave existedif the uplhrustdue to buoyarrcyhad
I beenappliedat & and pass€dthroughM.
Theformulafor thisnewGZthat appliesfor wall-sidedinclinationsonly is:
i c Z = ( c M x S i n e o ) + { % Bx T a n b x S i n e o )
i.e. GZ= GX + xz

This simplifiesto: GZ= {GM+ %BmTanz0) Sineo

where GM and BM are the values for the ship in tl|e upright condition.

A rnore acr-uratedefinilio.r of a small angle of heel is one where XZ is a small (or negligible)value
when compared to lhe value of GX (where GX = GM x Sine 6, lhis being the value as calculaled

When using: GZ = GM x Slne 0 it should be r|oted lhat for a ship that has a large iniial G[4, the
eror in using this formula would remain small up to a larger angle of heel than for a ship having a
smallinitialGM value.

Example 1
A box-glaped vessel has ldlgth 12On, bteadth 18 m and floals on an even keel dnught of 8 0 n
in sak water. KG is 6.4 m. Caldlate the nghhp levet (GZ) whq the vessal is heeled by an
elemal fi)rce to:
h) v:
(h) w.
Solutbn
KM=KB+gM

KB*"= d@wb! = 9&: 4.000n


2 2
BMBox=E = 12ox1e = 3.375
n
12V 12x (120x 18x 8)
L_
.. KM= 4.000+ 3.375=7.375m

GM= KM-KG GM=7.375-6.400=0.975n


(a) Gz valueat 5'
Because this is a small angle of hed: GZ = GM x Sine 0

t_ GZ = 0.975 x Sine 5o = 0.Ct819768n (Ans)

Aftematively using the vldl-sided formula:


L_ cZ = (GM + t/,BM Tan' q Sine e

GZ = (0.975+ 3.3752(Tan' 5') x Sine5o = 0.@61026m (Ans)


\

L_
cr,Ass 21 STABLTY- sEc IloN 16r}le Mrr-sid€drmur. 103
l
\!@Even withinsnl€Ianglesot heel thercwi| be a difuren@in the answars,becau* the v/ater
planearcaof a vesselwil increasein F,ality.The s,na anglefotmda for Gz shouldonlybe used
for anglesof heolW tu about5" or e.
(b) GZ valueat 3e
(The walLsidedfomula mu.stbe ued for thislargeangleof heel)

Gz = rcM + %BMTai o) sine o


cZ = (0.975+ U&Z!4:3@ x Sine30 = 0,7N m (Ans)
2

Example2
A box-shapedvesse/has bryth 116n, bteadth16 m, and de4h 9.8 m and is uptightffoafngon
an ewn koaldaught ol 57m in sallwater.KG is 6.0 m. Cdculatethe momentot sldical stabilily
rvherthe v6sse/,lsheeriedto theargle of deckadgeimmercion.
Sdulkl/'
KM=KB+BM

KBBox=4849b! = !J@= 2 850n


2 2

BMao"=td = 1 1 6x 1 d = 3.743m
12V 12x(116x16 x5.7)

KM= 2.850+ 3.743= 6.593n

GM = KM- KG GM=6.593-6.000=0.593n

To calculate the angle of heel at which deck edge


mmersion takesplace. considerfigure 16.4.

Tan0 = OPP = 4l = O51250.. e = 27.14"


ADJ 8
I
cz = (GM+ %BMTai q sine0
Fit.16.4
Gz = (0.593+ 3.743x Tan'27.141x Sine27.11o=0.195m
2
RM=GZxDisplacement

RM= 0.495x (116x 16x 5.7x 1.025)= 5368t-rn(Ans)

CLASSzI STABIUTY s€cTloN 16TIE Mllsrd€d fo.mula 1U


162 ANGLEOFLOLL

16.2.1 Calculatlngthe angle of lolt ustng lhe well-sidedformula


A shipwith a negativeGlvlwill not remainupdght.lt will capsize,either1oporl or starboard,until
lhe centreof buoyancyis able lo attaina positionverticallybelolr/the cenfe of gravity(G) at B
(fgure16.5).

; 1 . Shipupnghteib nagativ. Gn; 2 Ship s.'tts aocapstzeas a resurl 3. Ship wi settleat angle ol loI
c abov6U. of the negatie G1 B tuB wiahB balowG. GZB zerc-
ouattrd.
Fig.16.5

A1lhe anole of loll GZ is zero. The acqrrate lormula for calqrlatnq GZ for wall-sided inclinationsis:
I-GZ=CFrTEn-ran'oFsi-n6-6-l
A tormula for calcrrlalinglhe angle of loll value c€n be derived from this as follows:
Expandingthe above fomula gives:
GZ = (GMx Sine0) + (%BMx Tan'o x Sine6)
At he angle of loll GZ is zero;
O= (GM x Sine0) + (%BMx Tan'ox Sine6)
- (G[4x Sine0) = (%Bl!lx Tan'ox Sine0)
Dividingbolhsidesby Sine0 gives:
- cM = %BM x Tan'o, or - GM = BM x Tan'o
2

'-IGU = Tan'o
BM
tn this eqlationthe valuesof GI\, and BMusedare the originaluptightvalues.Becausethe upright
GM is negative,the quantitywithinthe squarerootbecomesposltive.
Example3
ln theupdghtconditiala shiphasKB 4.26m,KG 7.15m andBM 2.U m. CdculaEtheangb d bn.
t_ So/utb,
KM= KB+ BM KM= 4.26+ 2.84= 7.10n
cM=KM-KG GM= 7.10- 7.15= -0.05n
Tand,^, = f-.;Eff lan a ^, = F2 " -iA'
IBM
V
lri4
Y
i
Tano,^,= fdiF =0.18765
l 2.u
otott = 10.63"(to p<tt or starboard)(Ans)
L-
CTASS 2/1 SIABIIIIY SECTlOil 16 Th€ mll-sid€d lmula 165

i
16,2,2 Calculatingthe fretiye G*t at the angle ot lo
lflhe shipis heeledbeyondtheangleof lollrighlingleversbecome posilive to acl lo dghl lhe ship
backto the angleof loll. lt followsthat the ship musthavea@uhed a new Dositive GM for this to
happenas shownin figure16.6.

fig.16.6

This new metacenhic height is the value shown as GM and is given by lhe formula:

Glt at the angb ot loll =:j4i!


Cos0

wlEre Gl\4is he inilialuprightGM whichis a negalivevalueand 0 is the angleof loll. lt shouldbe


notedthat the metacentreat this stage (M) need not be on the cenhe line and will constandy
moveas the shipis heeledfurtherbeyondthe angleof loll.

Examole4
An uptbht ship displaces12500t atd hasKG 7.84m. 500t is dischargedfom a positionon the
centroline Kg 6.00n. Calculatethe lesuftingangleof ldl giventhat KB is 3.95n and KM is 7.85
m in he finalconditionand the etrediveGMat theangleof lo .
Sohrtkm
Calculatethe KG.
GG"= y,x-C = 500xO.u-6.00) = 0.077m upwards
12500- ffiO

FinalKG= 7.U0+ 0.077=7.917m


FinalGM - KM- KG FinalGM= 7.850- 7.917= - 0.067m
BM = KM- KB BM = 7.850-3.95t)= 3.9mn

* , -1I-2^cM r* a^,,
r* a^,, - = l-2,-ooaz =0.18536
BM I "rN
oLoLL= 10-5lP (b porl ot stuboa'd, ans)

Cabulate the efreclive GM at the angle of lo .

GM at the angle of loll = - 2GM = -2 x -0.M7 = 0.136n (Ans)


Cos 0 Cos 10.50'

CLASSZI STABILITY - SECTION 16 The lallsided iodula 166


16.3 CALCULATING THE ANGLE OF LIST CAUSEO BY A TRANSVERSE SHIFT OF
WEIGHTWHENGII IS ZERO

Consider a ship that is upright in a condilion of neubal stabilitywhete GM = 0 with a weight W on


deck, The weight is moved lrensversely across the deck causing G lo move off tlle centre line to
Clr. The ship lists over and c,omeslo resl when lhe centre of buoyancy atlains a posiiion below the
l centre of gravity.

Ship upright with Gtt = O, Ship listad efter flelght on .hck


saisht on d*k. Fig. 16.1

(1)

In the listed conditjonlhe hodzontal componentof GGr is representedby GX (igure 16.8). Had the
ship been heeled by an extemal force lo the sarne angle of h€el, instead of being listed by the
movement of lhe weight, a righting lever GZ would have 6xisted, being the san€ length as GX.
l

3. For the lisH strip Gx ts 1 GX is the sal'e lengrh.s CZ


lhe hodzontat component hr ue shio ahat had been
of GGu. haela<l to the sane .ngla
L_
Fig. 16.8

I ln lriangleGGHX Cosine0 =AqJ Cosinee = 9X


HYP GGH

I GX=Co60t@H (2)

t_
- sEcTloN 16rlc Mllsited lmu|a
ct ss 21 STABILITY 167
I
(1)and(2)gives:
formulae
Combining
Gx=ggg-Q-xt!:-C
w
SinceGZ (forthe shipheeled)= GX (dreho onlalcornponentof GGH),and lhe fomula for GZ at
largeanglesof heelbeingthe wall-sidedfotmula;then:
GX= (cM + %BMTan,e)Sine0

... Cose x w x d = (cM + %BMTan,0) SineI


w
Sincethe GI\, = 0:
Q.QS_qj.!::! = %BMTan' 0 x Sine 0
w
Dividingbothsidesby Cose gives:
U& = y'BM Tan30
w
(B€cause: Tan 0 = Sj!_q )
Cos I

wxd=BMTan'0
w 2
RearEngingthe abovegiv6s:
BMrW

Therefore Tan0u5rwHErq,o=

ExamDle5
Calculate the list of a ship d6placing 10000 tonnes when a weight of 20 rcnnes ,s sh,ifed
t.ansvercely thtough 10 m given that BM is 4.80 m, GM is O.0Om.

Sohnion
mr 8r,"r"*r""-r=T@
J BMxw

Tan eu$ w.d e. . o= ll1e (Ans)

Nole
In any calcrilationthat asks for the list to be cald.rlatedand a former part of lhe calculalion (ies a
GM of exacily zero, then the above formula musl be used.

Example 6
A ship initia y upright has displacement 12500 tonrcq KB 4.2 n, BM 4.6 n and a KG of 8.7 m has
a v'lebht of 50 t slowed on deck on the centte line at Kg 4.00 m. Calcuhte the lisl when the weight
is lifted by the ship's crane, the head of whbh is 29.0 m above the keel, and then swung outboad
10 m hom the centre line.

crAss 2'1 STABIUTY- sEfiou 16TheMll-sidedfomula 1€E


L
L So*ido.l
C.hlait It?EKG edE,rdp (,ane li's dE vr4|ht.

GGv. ALd =gZ-gzL.:!&)= 0.1mm uf|vdf,'


L w 12500
FindKG= 8.7@+ o.1@= 8.W m
L ,<M=KB+BLI K =12@+4e,(n.8.80m
GM= KM- KG FhalGM=8.@0-8.@0=o.unm
FI!'aI
L C.larlab Itsf

L
L =0.259@

L 7rl Cr.ntlr*ter-0. lA5! (Arc)

t_
t_
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L CllSS 21 SIAaffY - S€CnON 16Th r*.tb lbda !0

L
CI-ASS2'1 STABiUW- SECT|ON16ft€ walfsded roouh
I

I7 - FACTORS RVE OF STATICAL

INTRODUCTION
The shape and area under the curve of stalical stability is inffuencedby how the ship is loaded; it is
essential that the person(s) responsiblefor loading lhe ship understand each of the faclors thal will
affect its shape, GZ and area values. In this section eacfl of the vadous factors are discussed
separately in detail, but il must be appreciat€d that in praclice the curve will be affected
cumulatively by a number d these factors at any one time when changes in the condition of
loadingoccur.

when loadingthe ship include:


Considerations
* The ship mustbe loadedal alltimosto satisfyminimuminlactstabilitycrjterja.
' The ship must not be unduly sliff (causing excessive stability) or tender (wherebythe ship is
stable but has insufficientsiability which c€uses it to roll to excessive angles of heel);
' The noed to understand how to improve the stability of the ship to rectify any non_
compliance with minimun intact stiabilitycriteria is esseniial.
' The @nsequencesof changes thal will take place during the voyage, such as the
consumption of fuel from lou/ down in the ship, introduction of free liquid surfaces, cargo
shift etc. must b€ fully unde6tood wlth respect to the qlrve of staiic€l stability to prevent
unacceptablestabilily loss.

This section is aimed al lhe leamer increasing his/her Iamiliarity with the curve of stalical stability
so that realisticdedslons c€n be made in order to reclify inadequate stabilily situations.

Leamit g Obj*tives
On completionof this section the leamer will achieve the follo /ing:
1. Understandthe effect of a ctange otKG on the curve of statical siabilily;
2. Understandthe effect of a trarsverse sbrll of tve&ht (/ist) on the curve of static€l stability;
3. Underslandthe efred oI a change of heeboard on the curve of stalical stability;
4. Appreciatethe differencesbelween stabilit of a ship in the light and loaded condrtions;
5. Understandthe iniuence of sh,b's beam on the curve of statical stabilily;
6. Unde6tand the effect of ldm on the curve of statical stability.

CLASS 21 SIABILITY SECTION 17 Fado6 ai'ecling Gz dre shap€ 171


,I7.,I EFFECTOF
A CHANGE
OFKG

17.1.1 Causesof a chengein KG


TheKG of a shipmaychangeas a resultof the foliowing:
1. Loading. dischargingandshifiingol generalcargoitems;
2. Loading, disdargingandtransfer ofballast,fuelandlubeoil;
3. Increasein KG dueto suspensionof a weightduringlifringoperationswi$| ship'sgearand
subsequentload,disehargeor shiftof lhat cargo;
4. Changesdudnglhe @urseof a voyag€
. consumption of fuel,freshwaterand stores;
. introductionoffree surfacemomentscausedby lanksbecomingslack;
. absorplion of moisture by timberor similardeckcargoes;
. ice accrelionon decks;
. accumulalion of shippedwateron deckandwaterenlrapmentin deckcargo;
. verticalcomponent(upward)of a shiftof solidbulkcargosuchas grain.
5. Ingressof waterdueto damagesituations.
The effeclsof the abovecan be ouanlifiedin termsof a reduclionor increas€in lhe valueof the
rightinglever(GZ)as detarledIn s€ction17.1.2.

17.1.2 ln GZes e rcsult of a changeol KG


Calculatingthe incrcase/alecrease
Consadera ship heeled by an extemal force lo some angle
(largeor srnall)(fgure 17.1).

ff G was rair€d (KG increased),GZ would decrsase and the sf p


wo.jd becorne,ess sirbre.
I c was bracrBd(Kc decreased),GZ u/orid t cEase ard tte ship
r /ouldbeconE,ndr srabb.

The increase or dedease in GZ et a partcular angle of heel


can b @sily calculabd.

Considerligure17.2.

lf G is raised to G and the shio heeled io the


sameangle:
GX= loss of rightinglever. ,{
i1
IntdangleGGIX Sine0 = gee = gI ,',1
, ]
HYP GGl . 1
.. cx= GGrxSine0
,.. :
lf G is loweredto q and lhe shipheeledto the .gz
sameangle: :.
GrY= trcrease in righlinglever

Intriangle
GG,Y Sine0 = QPe = GY
,a; i
HYP Gq Fig.17.2
' G,Y= GGzxSineo

lf KGchangesthe effecton GZ at anyangleof heelcan be determinedby:

tN GZ= cc"x Sine0


LOSS/|NCREASE

where0 is the angleof heelforwhichthe lossor increasein GZ is b€ingc€lculated.


XgEr Alwaysdleck trd tre co.reclionis bdng appliedto the originalGZ val(€ h t|e corcd wEyl

CLASS21 STABIUTY- sEcTloN 17Fadoc aftectngGz @@ sfepe 172


t_

17.1-3 Efhct on the cuve of sblicel stabilityof a changeof KG


For the purposeof explamton only, assumea ship has a rarge of stabilty of 90" and KG is
lncrsasedby a weightbeingshiftedupwardswithinthe ship.
lf G is raised(KGincreas€d) the lossof GZat anyparticularangleof heelcanbefoundby:
Loss of GZ = GGvx Sineo

Sinc€Sine0o= 0.00andSine9f = 1.00it followsthat:


LOSSOF GZ WILLINCREASEAS THEANGLEOFHEEL"{CREASES-
Theeffecton lhe curveof stalicalstabilityis sho!r,n.

The effed of in6reasrrg XG is as tollows:


' lnitial GM is reduced (by an amount equal to GGv);
' AII GZ valrE6 across the ratEe of stabilityate rcduced, padiculaiy at the larger angles of
' Dynamical itability (area under the cuNe) is reduced making the ship /ess able to /esisl
heelhg by extemal forces;
" Range of stabiliv is reduced;
' The angle at which deck edge imneBion occurs (point of inflexion of the cuNe - nol
shown)ranains unchangedas fteeboard hasnd changed.

In effecl, mosl asp€cls of stabil y are worsened!

L- lf G were ,owered causing ,(G to t€duce then all values of Gz would be ircteas€d. Initial GM
would be increased. lvlostaspects of stabilitywould be improved!
I Example 1
M.V. Almar has a displacementot 230N tonnes and KG 8.34 m-

(a) Plot the cuNe of statbal stabilityfor this condition.


t_
(b) 1240 tonnes of caryo is shifted hom a hold position (Kg 3.70 n) to a positionon deck (Kg
16.70 n). By @recting the original GZ vahEs pld the cuNe of staticalstadlity fot the new
I condition and detetmine the changesin the values of the folowing:
(i) GM;
(ii) range of slability:
(iii) maximum GZ and angelof heel at whbh maximum GZ occurs.
CTASS 2/1 STABIIITY SECTION 17 FsdGafielinq GZd@ shape 173

L
Solutictl
dEi-hydrostatic data with disptacement23ooo tonnes and obtain value for KM. CalculaE
effactiveGM.

Using KN values calculate the values of GZ for the loaded conditton.


10 30 60 80

2452 4170 5.36! 7.223 a 213


GZ 0.242 0,aaa 0.94o 1.359 t.ottt o.007

Plot the cuNe ol statical stability(shown in figure 17-4)

Calculate GGv caused by shiftingthe caqo.

GGv= y.4_4 GGv= 1240x (16.70- 3.701= 0.701m upwar.ts


w noN
Using: Loss of GZ = GGv x Sitt€e cabdate the @trcctbns to apply to the initial GZ values and
hence calcllate the final GZ values. Plot the cu.e of statical stabilityfor the tinal conclilion.
20 30
0m2
0 350
oga It,| 0.6it 0.dta 0,4d, {r5E:l

futh cuves arc shownin frgure17.4-

(b) (t lnitialGM 1.058m


GGv@d 0.701n
FINALGM 0.357m Final GM 0.357 m

(n) Fromthe tuNgs dnvn, the nnge of stabiliy has reducrd fron e b W, b, e b
67 aw@\imady.
(iii) lnitial n@ximumGZ was apryximately 1.48 n at 48. Final taximum GZ is
apprcximately0.97m at 47'.

cfAss 2/1 srABruTY sEcTloN 17 F&bEafiec{ng Gzcu@ shaf2 174


t_

17.2 EFFECT SHIFTOFWEIGHT(LFT)


OFA TRANSVERSE

17.21 Causesof a ,isl


A list mightarisein a shipas a resultof lhe following:
1- Loading,discharging andshifting of generalcargoitomsaboutthecenlreline;
2- Loading,dischargingandtransferof ballast,fuel andlubeoil abouthe centreline;
3. Transvers€shift of G due to suspensionof a weightoutboardduringliftingoperalionswith
ship'sgearand subs€quent load,discfiaqeor shiftof the weighlaboutthe centreline;
4. Changesduringthe courseof a voyage:
. consumplion of fuel,freshwalerandstoaesfromofl centreline localions;
. absorptionof moisfureby timb€ror similardeckcargoeslocatedoff thecentreline;
. unsymmetaical ice accrclionon decks;
. accumulalion of shippedwateron deckandwaterent€pmentin deckcargoin localions
offthe centrelinei
. horizontal@mponentof a shifr of solid bulk cargo such as grain or the transverse
shningof anycargoin heaw weather.
5. Ingressof waterduelo damagesiluations.

17.22 Carculaungthe decraasein GZas a aesukof e bansverseshlft of weight


Considera ship, initiallyuprightwilh G on the centre line,
heeled by an extemal force 1osome angle 0 (large or small) J
wjlh a weight'w'on one side(figure17.5).The dghtinglever
b Gz. / l=-
The weight is lhen moved acmss the deck to the other side
causingG lo move parallelto and in the same direclionas
the shifr of weighl to qr. t , ;
Figure'17.6showsthe ship now heeledto the same angle '---*l
of heel as before.

Fig.17.5
The dghling lever has been reduced from GZ
to Cl]Z as a result of the transverse shiff of
weight.

The decrease in GZ at a pattlcular angte ot


heel can b easily calculad,

GX = loss of dghting lever.

In triangleGGHX cosine0=ApJ=9X
HYP GGH
.. GX=Gq x Cosineo
Fig.17.6
lf the ship is listed the loss of GZ at any angle of heel can be determinedby:

LOSSOFGZ= GG"x Goslneo

whereI is the angleof heelforwhichthe bss ofGZ is beingcalculated.

L_
CL,€S 2/1 STABILITY - SEC-flON 17 F*loF anedrE GZ dre shap. 175
17.2.3 Efrecton the curve of statical stablllty ol lrst
Forthe purposeof explanaliononly,assumea shiphasa rarge otstabi',{yof 90".

lf G is caused to move off the cenfe line to qr the loss of GZ at any parlicular angle of heel can be
found by:
Loss ot GZ = GG"x Co3ine0

sinceCosinef = 1.0oand Cosine9f = 0.00it followsthat:

tlrE IOSS OF Gz wrLL DE6REASEAS IHE ANGLE oF HEEL NGREASESi.e. THE


GREAIESI IOSS OF GZ WILLBE WHEII THESHIPlS UPRIGHT(Th. shtp v t cottreio t€st
at t re arryleo, list in sti water conditlons where GGflwil, reprcse'rta negativevalue of CZ
when tl'€ ship is uprlght,

The effecl on the oJrve of statical stability is shown.

The efiect of list is as follo\ /s:


' lnitial GM is unchanged (sinceonly vertical movementsof G will cause this to change);
" All GZ values across the range of stabilityare rcduced, pafticulady al lhe smallesl anglesof
heel (when the ship is upright GGHacts as a capsiing lever cattsing the ship to heel over
to the angle of list):
' Dynamical stabilily (area undet the dnve) is rcduced. Since the shh is afeady ,sfed, /ess
wo* is requircd by the extemalforces to heel the ship over to dangercus angles of heel on
the |iste<!side!
' Rangeof stabilityis rcdu@d (at both ends of the ratge for a ship having an hitial range of
stabilry less than 90o).
' The angle of heel at \.thich deck edge innerskm occurs rcnains urohanged but there is
less W< requied by the extemal forces to @achit on the listed side.

Note
TE IMO atld M.S. (Load Line) Rogt-ldions intact stability criteria do not sp€cify that the ship must
be upright at all times at sea. ll should be evidenl that list has a detrimental efieci on the slability of
the ship whereby area under the GZ oJrve at the smallesl angles of heel c€n be substantially
reduced; lhis might resutt in the ship being heeled to dangerous angles of heel on the listed side.
'fhe
lntemational Grain Code (/MO) recognises this fact and to minimise the adverse effects of
grain shift it is a requirement that the Master ensures lhal the ship is upright prior to sailing. 1l
should always be bome in mind that in extreme circumstanceslhere may be a potential for cargo
shiff, which may further signmcan{y reduce the stability of an already listed ship.
Cfr.ss Z1 STABTLITYSECTION17 Fsclqs altedingGZ cu@ shape t76
I

l- Example2
M.V.Hmar hasa disdacement26000tonnesand KG 8.86m.

L @) PlotthecuNeof staticalskbw brthis c.ndilion.


(b) 324 tonnesof cleckcargoshiftsthrougha distanceof 6.0m transveEelyin bac!weather.By
coftedingthe originalGZvalrEsplot the cuNeof staticalstabilityfor the new conditionand
cletermine the folIowing:
(i) fie angb of list:
. (il the changen thennge of skbility:
L- \iD tE dange nthe vdLEofnaximnnGZdn aryq dM atvffit naxin)m GZ@ns.
(c) Conparc the initialand frnal values of ightittg noment availableat an angle of heel 2e.
L Solttion
Enter hydroslatic data with displacement 26000 tomes and dtain value for KM. Calculate
etrective
GM.
L 9310

L o"a!o

Using KN values calculate the values ot GZ for the loaded condition.


ao
L <N
10
1 640
20
3 300
30
5.040
40
6.500
60

I 539 3.030 4.43) 5.695 7.673


ot0t 0.2m ltr0 0rlr5 0347 {t.585
L
Plotthe cuNeof statiralstabilty(seefuure 17.8).

L cabulate GGHcausedby the t'ansve.seshiftof thedeckcaryo

GGH=|uxd GGp=&zj= 0.075m


L- w 26000

Usingr toss of GZ = 66666GEx Cosine e cabulate the (tunections to apply to the initial GZ values
and hence calculab the final GZ values.
L_
nitialGZ 0 610 o 405 o 347 -0 585

0,ttzl 0.ttt 0.t45 0.718 o3liD .t}.504

L- Plotthe cuNeof staticalslabilityfor the frnalcondition.


Rememberthat the lossof GZ at e heel= GGH= 0.075m, thereforethe new GZ valueat 0 will
rfiw be4.075 m.
L
L_

L- '7 F€doEar€dingGZ o@ <h+


CLASS2I $ABn nY SaCTION

L
--r'r!r ft!!
-*'17.8

AnswaB
(b) (i) Aryoxinde aryb of lisi as a .€s.* olc€r90 shiftis7%'
(ii) Ratl@ot sability lrasrdncd tuto e b g,6,7%'b 67 .Wvhr.f,rf.
(ii) lnl,d naximumGZ ws 0.82n al4g awox@. Fitd ndxinum GZ b 0.n m
at 44oapqoximably.
(c) = 26AA0tunes
Displacaanbd
At 2A hpelinilialGZ = 0.270n

lnitialighl*E n@r@nat 2e heel= 0.270x 2@40= TUXta-'''

A,lrr,E sr,?rseshfi ofc€rgfoGZat 20 heel= 0.199m


Find rightlngnoftte at 2e heel= 0.199x 26000= 5171,an

(fhis is thenee valrEof tE niry rtutrEnt avalbbloil t& srtipwhdreb


bo haeld tuWfr tE aryle of id of 7W dt tb lis'M eid€')

CIASS 2/1 SIABNITY-SECllOf{ 17F&b.Bdbcinq GZclm!i.pe 178


L

L- OFA CHANGE
17.3 EFFECT IN FREEBOARD

17.3.1 Causes of a change in frceboard


I A change in freeboard might arise in a ship as a result of the following:

t. Loading anddischarging of c€rgocausing a changein draught;


2. Loading anddischarging of ballast,fuelandlubeoilas (2);
L 3. lce accretion(particularlyon smallvessels)andabsorptionof moistureby deckc€rgoes;
4. lngressof walerin a damagesituation.
5. Shipping heavyseasondeck.
L
17.3.2E tecl ot a changein frceboardtot conslant t€em, dnught and KG
Consider two ships of similar
characieristics having the same beam,
L draught and KG but one having a
greater freeboard as shown.

L. At angles of heel up to the angle of


deck edge immersion of the smaller
freeboard ship the curve of stalical
L stabilitywill b€ exactly lhe same.
Fiq.17.9
At anglesof heelteyondthe angleof deckedgeimmersionof the smallerfreeboardship,valuesof
GZwill be grealerfor the largerfreeboardshipsince6urvesteepnesscofllinuesto increaseup to a
L largerangleof heeli.e.angleof infexbnwhichcoincides withdeckedgeimmersion willoccural a
planearea
largerangb of he€|.This is a result
of the conlinuingincrease in size of the water
in a largerBl/ value- seewalFsided
resulling fo.mulain seciion16.
L
17.3.3 Efrecton lhe cuve of staticel staulity of increaseln M

t_
L
L-
L
Fij.17.1o
L The effect of an increase in freeboard is as follows:

L tnitiatGM is unchangod(since only venical movementsof G will cause this to change):

GZ values wilt be incrcasedat angles of heel byond the angle of heel at which deck edge
immersiontal@splace for the smaller lrceboard ship;
L
Dynanical skbility (area under the cu|e) is inoeased at atules of heel beyond the angie
of heelat which de* edge imnercion takes place.
L Range of sbbility is incrcased.
lf freeboard where to be redu@dlhen GZ values would be similady reduced
L_
CTASS 21 STABILITY SECTION 17 F&ioEaneciing GZ@@ shap€ '179

L
17.4 COIIPARISONOF STABIUTYOF A SHIP IN THE LIGHTAND FULLYLOADED
coNomoNs
tu ,J-t|f ElacEffrc o,'gR v
Figwe 17.11 shows the metacentricdiagram
for M.V. Almar. As il|e ship is progressively
loaded from the light condition (draugtlt 2.33
m) to lhe summer load condilion (draught
10.20 m) KM decreases (with a slight
increase ocdining for draughts 8.60 m

K =KB+BI,
&BM

3 4 5 6 7 4 9 10
urrugft (m)
'1::'!! -E

Fi,.17.11
KB obviouslyincreaseswith draughtwhereasBM rcduces6
explained
below- Conside(i,gurc17.12.

The rnovemenl of B for any angle of heel can be calculated


u9ng:
BBt=y.t!.bbr

v is the volume o{ the transfered wedge;


6br is lhe distance lhrough whidr the centroid of the
wedge h€s moved, and;
yis the volumeof disDlacement of the shiD. Fiq.17.12

N nE loaddraught(disp/acemerfJ the volumeof the transfenedwedgeof buoyancy(v) represenls


a stnalletpatTot lhe total wlume of displa.Emenlot the ship(V)than it wouldalthe light draught
(displacement).

Thus:8M deseasesas dnught increases.For the nonnalrangeoI openti.nal dnughE of a ship


KM wil generallydecreaseas draught increaseswith a slight increaseagain at the deepest
dnughtsas evidencedby the metacentricdiagramfor M.V.Alnar (figure17.11).

- SECTION17 FacLts afieding GZ (re


CIISS ?/1 STABILITY shape 180
i

L- Figure17.'13makesa comparison
of the curvesof slaticalstabilityfor
L_ M.VAlmarin thelightcondition
fully loadedcooditionassuminga
and

constrantvalueof KG (bluecurves).
The red qrve is for a lesservalue
L- of KG hat would Drovidea rnore
;il

suitable coodfion of loading (as


rgcoanmended in a loading
L conditionin the stability book on
whichM-V.Almarwasbased).
I :!i_FDr
!-
Fig.17.13
In termsof GZ valuesalone,for a givenKG valuethe ship will becomeless stablethe moreit is
L-
RIGHTINGIIOMENTG{n) = GZ(m)x DISPLACE ENT(t)
L- The dghling moment curves show
thal the exta r€ilrf of the loaded
ship will require more'work by the
L extemalforces to heel the ship lo a
partidrlar angle of heel (fgure
17.14).
L fn terms of rightjng noment,
provided that the ship has a
L suitable value of KG in the loaded
conditionthen in reality the ship will
have grealer stability as more
'work' will be requhedto heel the
L vessel to a padicularangle of heel
as a consequenceof the ,'hct€ased

L Fitr 17 lrl

L
L

L
L
L
r-
CLASS 21 STABILITY SECTION 17 FeioFafedjng GZdmshap€ 181

L-
17.5 EFFECTOFBEAi'

17-5.1 Efrectof increasirtgbeamfor constantdnught ard /'€€boa'd


Figure 17.15 shows two box-shaped
vessels, one nanow and the other
broad, having the same draught and
KG heeledto a smallangle.

As each vessel is heeled the outward


movement of lhe centre of buoyancy
may be caldialed by:

BB,=y_x_pg'
Fig.17.15
where:v is lhe volumeof the transfenedwedgeof buoyancy;
b4 is th6 distancethroughwhidr the centroidof the transtefiedwedgeof buoyancy
haslravelled.and:
y is the voluaneof disolacement
of lhe vessel.

Becausethe volumeof ihe wedgeof buoyancy(v) and the distancelhroughwhichit is tansfened


lbbi is greatetfor the brcadervesse/the outwardmovementof B to B is mlch greater-This
createsa largervalue of KM (and GM), so initial stabilityis grealerfor lhe broadervessel.The
in depthin seclion8.
effectof beamis investigated

This increase in initial stabjlityis


offset by the earlier angle of heel at
which deck edge immersion takes
place for the broadervessel.

FO.17.16

17.5.2 EfLct on tre curve ol steticel slabilily of an increase in beem

;"

Fiq.17.17
The effecl of an increase in beam is as follows
* Initial GM is increased as a rcsunof the increasing BM.
" GZ values will be incrcased initially.
' Dynamical stabilily (arca underthe cuNe) is increased initially.
' Angle at which deck edge immersion takes place is ecluced.

ct ss z1 sTAalL[Y - sEcTloN 17 FaclotsanenlE GZ cure sh3pe 142


L*

L_ ' Range of stabilitymay indease not decrease. This wil de@nd on the initial freeboard ancl
incrcase in beam for that fteeboatd being considercd. The small'erthe frceboard aN the
IL- greater the inqease in the beam. the futther the pduction in he angle of heel at which
deck edge immersion takes place; this may cause rcnge to reduce. It the frcoboatd is
substantial,any noderate incrcase in beam will result in the range of stabilityincreasing.

L 17.5.3 Ship conveEion - o'rctical application of lncreasing effecfrve beam


Modifcalions to improve a ship's stability may be requirod to allow the addition of top weight in a
conversion or as a way of compensaling for inadequate stabilily when a ship is inclined on
L complelion.The improvementmight be to:
' incteaseKM;
j ' increase large angle dghting lever values;
' increasethe range of positivestability, or;

all of these in order to improve intacl stability. lmprcvements might be required with respect to
L damaged stability, possibly as result of introducedlegislativechanges.

When a major improvement in stability is necessary the ftting of sporso, larks is an option
L- consideredfrequently by naval architects.Such tanks are fitted lo increasethe effective beam (and
water dane area) for the renge of operationaldraughts of lhe ship in order to increase BM (and
KM) as already descdbed. In order that sudden stability loss is avoided at larger angles of heel, the
/ower edges of the sponson lanks should be some dislance below the lowest operational waterline.
This ensures lhat the sponson does not @me out of lhe water when the ship is heeled (as the
benefts of their fitiing would immedialely be losl). A design criterion might be to ensure that t|e
sponson remains immersedwhen the ship is at its minimum design operating draught and rolled to
L at least5-10P.

Locationof the upper edge of tlle sponsonwill be govemed by whether the sponsons are frttedto
I providean increasein GM or whelher an increasein the range of stability(as well as GM) is required.
Figure 17.18shovvsa sponsonarangement that mighl be fitled to an offshore supportvessel where
tlEre is a need to operaleeqliprnent over the shiCs side or lhe addilionof a deck crane thal must be
t_ operaiedat s€a,wfEreby stabilityproblemsaroseas a resultof suspendedweiohts,

t_

L_

L
L
Sporsons ,tlted to an ofrsho€ suppott vesser. Tne tow6. hnk
in.'eases KM and inttial staunny;he smaller uqpar tttt ircteas€s
L Gz v.lug{;at la.oe! anctlesot heelaN tup'oves tha @qa ot s.ablliv.
Fiq.17.18

L
CLASS2/1 STAAUY SECTION17FeioEsteclins GZ@re shape 183
OFSTERNTRlltl
17.6 EFFECT

17.6.1 Cofiparison of evenkd and swn dmmed s''ulity characteristics


ln still water a ship trimmed by the stem
can be expecled to have a great€aGI\/
than when on an even keel. This is a
result of K[,] being normally grealer in
the trimmed conditiofl. This greater
value of KM arises in parl from an
increesed KB and an increased BM lncnzse in futns@Be KM cetse.t
(caused by an incaeasein lhe effective
Fig.17.19
length of the waler plane area).

For the tdmmed condilion KB is slighty higher bec€us€ of the shape of the underualer volume and
BM is higherbecauseof the jncaeas€d momentof inertia(l) ofthe waterplanearea Consequendy,
KM is increasedand for any givenvalueof KG lhe valles of GI\, and GZ at smallanglesof heel
are ncre€s€d.

The improved initial stability (at small angles of heel) is however more than offs€t againsl the fact
thal the freeboard aff is reduced. When on an even keel and heeled to the angle al which deck
edge immelsion occurs, slrch immeGion occtrs simullaneously all along the length of the ship
(ignoringthe effect of sheer and superstructurethat is considered .eserve buoyancy). lf the ship is
fimmed by the stem and then heeled the afler deck becomes immersedilst (at a smaller angle ol
heel) resultingin reduced GZ values mid- range in lhe GZ curve.

17.6.2 Efreclon the cule ot staical stability of a trim W the s'€m


Theeffeclis shownin tigure17.20whichis somewhatexaggerated for the purposesof illustration.

Fig 17.20

The effect of a trim by the stem is as follows:


. lnitialGMis increasedas a rcsu/ftof the increasingKB and BM.
. GZ valueswillbe incteasedinitially.
. Dynamicalstability(areaunderthecu.e) is indeasedinitially.
. Angleat whichdeckedge immersiontakesdace is rcduceddueto ealiet immeGionaft.
. Rangeof stabilitywi| pt$ably reduceas the incteasein initialGMand GZ valuesat small
anglesof heelwillbe minimal

The erelanaion given so far is somewhatowr simdifred,but might probablysuffice for any
generalqrcstionthat mightbe askedon thistopic.A rnoredetailedexplanationis givenin sedion
26 wherethe effectsof sternirim can seiously affectthe stabilityof offshoresupPlyvesselsand
tugs,wherethe lowafferdeckcharacteristicsof the hullarc a feafureof suchvessels.

CLASS 21 STABILITY SECTION 17 Facto6af,e.tngGZcufre shaps 1U


L
I @
titTRooucTtoN
I When loadingsolid bulk cargoesof eny lype it is recognisedthat they will have a potentialfor
shiffingdependingfor the mainparton:
* is andtheavailablevoidspaceremaining;
howfull a comparhnenl
L* ' the 'easeof fo\ /' of the individualparticlesof the cargo(evidencedby lne angleof repose
of the cargo),and;
I
' the efent to whichthe shiorollsat sea.
I
A bulk cargoto a certaindegreebehavesas if it werea tiee liquidsurfacein a slacklank. lf the
L_
ship rolls to sucha degreethat the cargoshiflsthen lhe dErac{eristicnatureot liquidb€haviour
becoll|esevidentbul oncethe shrfl has tiakenplacethe similariv ends,sincethe bulk c€rgowill
stayto one side,resultingin lisl. Wth the shipnowrollingaboutthe angl€of list,any furthershittof
L- bulkcaBo in the samedireclionas beto.ewouldresultin a progressiv€{y worseningsituaiionthat
mightleadto the ullimatelossof the ship.

t__ The stabilityproblemsassociatedwiththe cariage of bulkgraincargoesa.e equallyvalidfor other


cargolypes, however,it is the aim of this sectionto look specificallyat lhe characteristicsand
camagerequirernents for bulk grain cargoesas detailedin the lntematonalCode for he Safe
L Cani8e of Gnin in Bulk(lntemationalGrainCode)(lMO).
fn lhis seclionexlensivereferenceis madeto lhe regulalionscontainedwilhin lhe Intemalional
Gnin Code and also the Code of Safe Praclice fot Sdid Bulk Caryoes(BC Cdo) where
L appropnae-
will be usedto signifythe Codeto
Wheresuch referencesare madelhe followingabbreviations
L whichthe regulation
belongsas follows:
' lccode - lfiemationd GrainCode
L- ' BC Code - Codeof SafePndi@ for SolidBulkCarg<Es

L Lea nng Objecltves


On completionof this section,the leamerwill achievethefollowing:
1. lJnderstandthe efiect on the curveof staticalstabilityof a shiff of a solid bulk cargoin
gen€ral.
L 2. Knowthe GrdinCodeassumptions withrespec{to an anticipatedshifrof a bulkgraincargo.
3- Knowthe grainloadinginfotmationto be supplied.
4. Knowthe intaclstabilitycriteriafor a ship wilh a Documentof Authonsarb,canyingbulk
o€in.
5. Understandhow compensationlot lhe hotizmtal compotert of asslrned grain shifris
determined(derivationof the heelingarmcurve).
for the velrcal corrporentof assumedgrainshifl is applied
L 6.

7.
Understandhowcompensation
(assumplions withrespectto Kg of the bulkgraincargowithina compartnent).
Understandthe procedurelo checkcomplian@wilh lhe intactslabilityrequhementsof the
Code-
L 8. Methodsof improvingstabihtywhenthe minimumlntemationalGrcin Codec{iteriais not
mel.
9. Understandthe mainoptionalstabilityrequirements to be met by shipswithoutDocuments
L of Authorisation
10. Understand
carryingpadialc€rgoesof bulkgrain.
the useof simplifiedstabilitydatarequired for ship'sc€ryingg.ainbuilton or
afrer l't January1994 (on or afrerthe dale lhal the lntematlonalGnin Code cameinlo
L force).
CLASS Zi STABILITY- SECION 13 hlerElid.lqmin cod€ (DrO) 185

L
18.1 THEEFFECTOF A SHIFTOF SOLIDBULKCARGOON THE CURVEOF STATICAL
STABILITY

The requirements for safestowageand shipmentof bulk cargo€sare lo be foundin lhe Codeof
SafePnclice fot SolidBulk Caryoes(BCCode).
Whenloadingsolidbrilk cago€s,the cargoshouldbe lrimm€dlevelin eadt comparlmontto limit
tho adverseetfeclsof a shit of the cargoduringlhe voyage.
Theeasewithwhichsucha c€rgowill shaftis dependanton theargle ofr9poseof the cargo
18-1.1Angle of Repose
Whensolidbulkcargoessuchas grainare loadedthey
are usually pouredinlo the ship's hold. f they are
pouredonto one spot a conicalshapedpile rvill form
which will have a cerlain slope profilo.The attgle of
reposeis the m€ximumslope angle of non-anhesive
(fre€flowing)granularmaterial.lt is lhe anglebetween
a horizontalplane and the cone slope of such a
material. Fig.18.1

Theangleof reposeis govemedby the shapeand surfaceot the individualparticlesof cargowthin


a parliorlarstorvaM cargomoisfurecontenl.
The less the angle of repose of the cargo; the grealer the ease wit which il1e cetgo will
shird

The BC Code caiegorisesbulk cargoesfor trimmingpurposesas cohesiveand nolt{ohesive.


Cohesivecargoesare generallyall dalnp maledalsthat whenpouredhavehighanglesof repose.
Some dry cargo€salso display cohesiveprop€rties.Non-cohesivecargoesare free iowing
materialslakegrainf|at havesrmll anglesof rcpose.
Bulkcargoesarealsoclassedby angleof repose.
18-1.2 Non'cohesivebuk ceryo$ hevi ry an arryb ol r!p,o.3etess tt,E,n.nquat b 3e.
Materialswhichiow fre€lylikegrainmustbe caniedin accordancewiththe provisionslaiddownin
theIntemationalCodefor tlrP-SafeCafiiageof G|ainin Bulk(lntemationalGninfue)(lMo). Such
cargoeshavea highpotentialfor shiftingand tlle effecton stabilityis a majorconsid€ralion.
Theterm grah indudeswheat,maize(com),oats,rye, barley,rice, pulses,seedsand processed
formsof the aforementioned whosebehaviourassimilarto lhat of grain in its naturalstate.Grain
seedsare well roundedand havean alrnostpoiishedsurfacein manycasescausinglhemto have
a typicalangleof reposeof aboul23'.
Non-grain caryoes that possess noD-cohesivcpropedi* emilar to grain as clefineclabove
must also be canied in accordadcewith the prcvisions of the ln enationat Gnin Code(BC
Code- Regulation5.2.4-2).

CLASS21 STABILITY'SECnON18 Inlem.litd g"in @d€ (|lrc) 186


i

L 18-1-3 Non-cotEsivebulk catgoeshaving an angle ot l€po,seftom 3C b 35",


TheBC Codecriteriafor the timming ot thesecargoesare shown

l,-

'h' must not exced B/10 wherc B ls tha bean ot the 6hlp in
i lmat/,as bul'h' musa novar .xceed 1.5 m. f h cannot be
deteminalt then toading must be canle.t out vith .Wrcved
timmino eoui0ment BC Cocle - Reoultlion 5.2.1.3t.
I Fiq.18.2

18.1.1 Non-cohsive bu|^ cargoeshaving an angleof |s.,o,segreabr then 3|j!.


1 The aim wjth these c€rgoes is to dislibute the material in such a way as to avoid the fomation of
wide, steeply sloped voids beyond the tlimmed surface within lhe boundades of the c€rgo space.
The material should be timmed to an angle sE ,frcarrly /ess than tlle angle of r€pose (BC Code _
Regulation 5.2.4.4).

18.1.5 The im,oDr''nceot timmirrg t vel thebutk cetgo su ace


Consider a ship loaded with a bulk grain cargo that has a typical angle of repose value of 23'. lf the
i ship is inclined lo an angte of heel that is g@afer than the angle of repose the stow will beclme
unstable and shift of cargo will occur.

I lf the shiffoccursas shown (figure18.3)then the ship will retumto an angleof list and will now roll
aboutthe angleof list.

Subsequentrollingwill rosultin the ship being heeledlo greateranglesof heel on the listedside
t_ that will lead to furlher shiffs of c€rgo and increased angles of list if the angle of repose is
exceeded a furlher lime.

t_ Ship tlste.latbr caqo sh.fr.

L-

t--

L
Fig.18.3 Fig.18.4
L
L
L
CI,!"SS 21 STABIUrY SECrON 13 lr'lemtdslqF c.de (lMO) 147

L
Ship .o s 6 incteased .ngles ot hael on tha lislect stcta.r tutrhar ctrgo shtft tz,oa place lhe tist vitl be
increts.d futrhet as shovn below.
Fig.18.5

lf lhese effeclscontinuethe ship could ullirnatelycapsize.Holvever,providedthat the ship has


sufficientstabilityil should rernainin a listed, yet stable. condilion-In order to minimis€the
likelihoodof excessivelist it is essentialthat bulkcargoeswith smallanglesof reposeare trimmed
levelbeforesailing.

18.1.6 lhe efre€ccccct


on the cutue o, sla{cal s., llty of a shift of
solid buk catgo.
Of particularimporlanceis the effectof a shifrof solidbulk cargo
on the ship's transveFestability.Considerthe vesselin fgure
'18.6wherea shiflof cargohastakenplacewithina hold.

Effeclively,a wedge of grain has moved from g to 91. This


movement hastwo@mponenls:
' a smallvstical conponentwhichcausesihe ship'scentre
of gravity to rise (GG"), causing an increase in Fi9.18.6
Kc/deseasein GM;
' a largerhorizontalcomponentwhi(/|,causeslhe ship's cenlre of gravity to move off the
centreline(GGh), causinglist.

In section 17 the effecls of these individual components of shifr was described. The original GZ
values will be reduced as a result of both componentsof the shift of the ship's cenfe c, gravity to
give the flnal conditionafrer the shift of cargo has taken place-

Loss of GZ due to veftical component upwaftls = GGv x Sine e;

Loss of GZ due to horizontal component = GGt x Cosine A.

clrss sTAatL[Y , sEcJtoN 13- hieinartrd g@ @de{Mo)


2r?1 '188
t_
I
t-- As way of an example conslder the
situaton where MV Almar at a
displacementof 20000lonnesis initially
L_ uprightrvithKG 9.200m and initial GM
0.260m. 18Oionnesof sdid bulk cargo
in one ot the holdssubs€quently shifls 5
rnelres uoward and 18 melres
L_ lEnwersely. The effgc{sof the shift of ;{..
cargoon tl|6 curveof stalicalstabilityare
seenin fgure 18.7.
L
L

L An ahemaiive representalionot the


lossesof Gz is shom in fgure 18.8.The
Fis.18.7

valugsof lossof GZdueto lhe horizontal


L componenl(GGHx Co€ine8) are plotted
as a heeling anr cur!/8,wherebythey
are pfotted fiom lhe graph baseline
L upl €ds insleadd lrcm lhe GZ cuNe
cbwrwads.

L This is the method of representation


ado4tedby the lntemalionalGrainCode
as il rmkes calculaiionof the residual
L areaeager.

L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L CLASS21 SfAEIUTY- SECTION13- kne@krol gEin cod. (lMO) 't69

L
18,2 ASSUIIPTIONS OF THE 'AIIER'{A77OA'TLGRA'N CODE wlTH RESPEGTTO
ANTICIPATEDSHIFTOFGRANCARGO

18.2.1GenemlNitrciples ot flre lntematioiat Gtain Code


The crain Codeis bas6don the recognitionthat in a comparlrnent nominallyfilledwith grainvoid
spaceswill exist betweenlhe surfaceof the grainand the upperboundariesof the mmparlrnent
and that,due to the ships rollingmotionin a seaw€y,a possibilitywill alwaysexistfor the grainto
shifttransverselyinto suchvoidscausingloss of stabilitydue to list effect.The Codeaimsto limit
lhis possibilityby requiringthat the grainsurfacebe trimmedl€velto ensurethat a laee angleof
heelbe requiredto causethe grain surfaceto shifl or, aliematively,by physicallyreslrainingthe
gminsurfaceagainstsuchmovemenl,

TheCoderecognises thattheslability of theshipis a cdlic€lconsideralion


al alllimesandas such,
it requiresdemonslrationby calclJlationlhat at all tirnes during a voyage the ship will have
sufficientintractsl,abilityto provideadequateresidualdynamicstabilityaflertakinginto accounlthe
adverseeffectof a grainshift,shouldit occur.The magniludeof anygrainshiffcannotb€ precisely
anticipated,since it will dependupon variousdynamicfaclors,so the Code assumesanglesof
grain shifr from the horizontal(trimmed)stale. lt lhen specifiesa minimumlevel of acceptable
stabilityfor the caniageof grain basedin tems of the resultariengleof list due to the assumed
grainshift,the requiredresidualdynamicalstabilatyafter suchshift and initial metacentricheight
lcur. lt shouldbe notedthat the assumedpattemd gnin movenentprescibe.lin the Codeis not
intendedfu poftny the actual movenentof the gnin sudacesas tho ship movesin a seaway-
However,it is intendedthat the calculatedheelingnoment basedon this proscibadpaftem of
g@inmovementadequatelyrepresenttheactualeffecbthatmaybe ereeienced.

I 8.22 Specilic assurnptions


involving
Calculations shiffsofbulkgraincargoes
arebasedonthefollowing
assumptions:
(a) In full compartmentstherewillbe a voidspaceunderall upperboundary surfaceshaving
an inclinalionof less than 30' to the horizontal(30pbeing a figure based on lhe non-
cohesiveblllk cargocategoryfor c€rgoeshavingan angleof reposelessthan or equalto
30' detailedinthe BCCode- seesection18.1.2). (lGCode- Regulation B '1.1.1)

lG Cocla- Rogulation B 1.1.1


FU. 18.9
(b) In flledandfimmedhatchways thevoidisto betakenas l50 mmbelowlhe loweslpoinlof
the hatchor the lop of the hatchsidecoaming,whicheveris lower.Thevolurneof any open
voidwithinthe hatchcoveris to beadded(lG Code- RegulalionB 1.1.2).

ctAss 2/1sraaLtTY sEcnoN 13- Inisnabnda6in @de{rMo) 190


t_
L
L ,,.--,_r..

l_
tG Co<te- R.gulrtion
L A 112
Fig.18.10

L (c, In the voidspacesof furlcomF,artments


-
the grainsurtaceis assumedio shiff 15ofrom the
hodzontal (lG Code Regulation
B 2.3).

L ln patliaw frlbd @mpefirentsthe grainsurfaceis assurnedto shiff25otromthe horizontal


(lGCode- Rogulation B 5.1).
I (A co.npartnentmaybs cmsideredfull if it is flied io a levelwithinthe vorlicalsidesof the
L_ coaming.)

L-
L
L
L lG Co.tc - Ragu/.ai.n. A 23 & B 5 1

L Fiq.18.11
(d) Manybulkcargoeswill settleas lhe voyageprogressesso it is assumedlhat vod spaces
will a/M/aysexist,even in full compartments,so it is anticipaiedthet any cargo will have
L sonE polcntialtoshifrshouldlhe ship h€elGxcessively.

L
L
L
L
L CfASS 2/1 STAAILIY - SECTION 13 - lrietrEij@l g6in @de ([tio) 191

L-
18.3 GRAINLOADING
INFORiIATION
TO BESUPPUEO

18.3.1Docunt€,tld of euthodsetionb cetry grain cetgoes


Oneof the Drincioles of the SOIAS convenlionsis that rnembermtions will be r€sponsiblefor the
detailsof compliancewith the requirementsof the appropriateIMO Codesand that othernalions
will accept on good faith, that the detailscontainedwithinsudr Codesare propedyobserved.
However,eachnalionretainsthe rightto ascertainthat any shipwhichconductscommercefrom
ifs portshas,in fact, beensutjectedto regulatorychecksby it's homeAdminislration.In th€ c€se
of ships carryinggrain in bulk, the mecianism for accomplishingthis is the Docurnentof
Auttoisaton descdbedin lG Code- RegulalionA 3.
the Docunetnof Authorisalionis a certifcatim madeby an Administration whichis signatoryto
the Convenlionor by an agencyauthorizedto act on behalfof that Adminislration(suchas the
MCA),that a specificship under it's registryis capableof carryinggrain in bulk and that the
info.mationin the Grain LoadingManual defrningsuch capability,has been reviewedand is
approvedas beingin compliancewith lhe requirements of the Code.Sinceso rnanynalionsare
signatoryto the Convontion,this meansthat the DocunEntof Authorisatio,will be accepledat
alnosl everyport\roddwide.
18.3.2tn ormelion ngarding ship's srabiry and grain loadlng
lG Code- RegulalionA 6lisls lhe specificdataand informationwhic+ris to be includedin the Gra,h
LoadingManual.

Thisinfomalionsfrallindude:
6.2.1 ship'sparticulars:
6.2.2 light shipdisplacement and KG;
6.2.3 table of liauidfree suface fioments (or I varues)for shrp'starks lo allow a free siace
corecl'on to be calculateal:
6.2.4 capacitiesand centes of g@vitbsof compaftmenE:
6.2.5 cuNeor tableof angleof fl@ding,wtterclessthan4e, at all petmissibledisplacements;
6.2.6 hydroslaticdata curyesor tablessuitauefor the 6nge of opera{nEdnughts;and
6.2.7 ctosscuNeso{ stability(KN cuNes)that arc sufrcientin numberto verify stabilitycriteia
complianceandto irrcludecuNesfor 17 and 4e heel.
ln additionto the above:

6.3.1 cuNes or tablesof volumes,verticalcentresof volunes,and assumadwlumetricheeling


mdnenE for everycomparLnent, fiIed or patlly fiIed, or combination
thereof,includingthe
effec{sof temponrylittings:
6.3.2 tablesor cuNesot maxinum pinissible gain heelingmomentsfor varyingdisplacenrF-nts
and ship'sKG valuesto allow the maiter to demonstatacompliancewith the minimum
stabililycriteia (thisequiement only appliesto shipsbuifton or afterthe enw into torceoI
the Cde - for UK ship's the Ne is enfdced by the M.S. (Caffiageof Caryoes)
Rqulalials 1999whichcameintolorceM the 15' March1999);
6.3.3 detailsof the scantlingsof any tenpaaty fittingsand, whereapplicable,the prowsions
necessaryto meet the requircnentsof the Code(includingthe requiretnents for shipsnot
issuedwitha documentof adhoisation carryingpanial caryoesof bulkgnin);
6.3.4 loadinginstructions in the fotmof notessummaisingthercquiremenEof the Code;
6.3.5 a wo*ed exempleof the gnin loadingcalculations k r theguidanced the mastet;and
6.3.6 typicAlbaded sevice depaftue and anival conditionsand whe'e necessaryintetmediate
worst seNice@tfritions basedon threercWsentative valuesof gnin stowagefactore.g.
1.25.1.50aN 1.75n3/t.

C[-!'sS 21 STABILITY- SECnON 13 l.istrElbmlmin 6de llMO) 192


L_ 18.4 |]'TACTSTABILITYCRITERIAFOR SHIPSCARRY|NGGMIN ISSUEDw|IH A
DOCUMENT OFAUTHORISATION

A documentof authorisalionis issuedto manyshipsand is acceptedas evidencethat the ship is


capableof compling wilhthe requhemenls GrainCode.Thespecificconlentof
of the Intemational
thisdocumenthasalreadybeendetailed.

The intad stabilityrcquienents that mustbe met throughod the voyagefor any *ip carrying
Win issuedwith sucha docum$t arc detailedin lG Cde - RegLtalbnA 7 bebw:
I 7.1-1 the angteof heeldue to the shiftof gnin shall nd be gEater than 12, or in the caseof
slrips corstructed on or aftet lt January 199/. the angle at which the deck edge is
immarsed.whicheveris the lesser:
i 7.1.2 in the slatbal stabililydiagtam,tle net or residualatea belweenthe heelingatm cuve and
the ighting arm (GZ) drNe up to the angle of heel of naximum differencebotweenthe
odinatesof lhe two cuves, ot 4U' or lhe angleof flooditE@), wlticheveris the least,shal
in a conditionsof badig be not lessthan0.075nete-Edians; and
7.1.3 the inittalmatacenticlEight (GM),after canectionfot the ftee suface effecb of liquiclsin
tank, shallbe not lessthan0.30metrcs.
7.2 Beforeloadhgbt-tkgrainthe mastershall,if so requied by tha ConfiadingGovemment of
the @unttyof the pl d loaditg, demonstratethe abilityd the shipat a stagesof any
voBge to condy withthe slabililyuiteria requied by this section.
7.3 Afterloading,themastershallen re that tlr€ shipis uptightbeforeproceediryto sea.
with respeclto the curveof stalicalstability.
Figure18.12dotailsthe stabililyrequirements

L
i

Fi9.18.12.

Becausethe maximumpemittedlist afterassumedgrainshift is 12 (or SEr),the curveof statical


stabililymustbe derivedfromcross-curves(KN curves)thal are sufficientin numberlo accurately
defne the curve for the purposeof lhese requirements,and, sh€ll includecross{urvesfor the
valuesof heel 12 and40P.

t--
- S{CTIONr3 - lrrob€r
CLASSZr s]IABTUTY gE n 6d. (rMO) 193

i-
I8.5 DERIVATIONOF THE HEELINGARM

The heeling am represents the loss of GZ at various angles of


heel as a result of lhe assulrt€,dhoizontal componentof the shift of
grain.

The dedvation of lhis drrve is as tollows:

Figure18.13shows an uprightship with a weighl w on one side


heeled to some angle by an exlemal force where lhe righting lever
is GZ.

The weight is shifred transversely across the deck calsing G to


move off the cenlre line 10 G. and the ship is again heeled to the
same angle as before.
Fig.18.13

The dghtinglever has been reducedfrom GZ lo


q'Z as a resultof thetransverseshiffof weighl.

cX = loss of rightinglever.
Intriangle
GGHX Cosine0 = AQJ=.9X
FTYP GGH
.. Gx= Gqr x cosineo

lf the ship is listed the loss of GZ at any angle of


heel is determined by:

Loss oF GZ= GG"x Cosine0 Fi9.18.14

wheree is the angleof heelfor whichthe lossofGZ is beingcalculaled.

The loss of GZ et 0 heel = GGH/6ince Cosine af = Ldn)

The loss of GZat 40 heel= GGHx Cosine4f

ThelntemationalGnin Code(IMO)substitutesthenotationGGHfortheswbol L
Therefore,for the horizontalcomponentof a shiftof grain:
The loss of cZ at e hd = 1a
The loss of GZ at 1(P heel = ^a

whereL and Lo are the valles lhat createthe heelingarm to be plottedon the curveof slalical
(s€efgure '18.12).
stability
fo calculatek
SinceL = GGH and; GGH=wxd itfollows
lhat la=wxd
W W
Sincethe stowagefactorof the graincargois not knownunlil anivalat the loadingportthe aclual
weight of cargo loadedis not known. Consequefllly,lhe weight of the wedgeof grain that is
assumedto shiffis notknowneilher.

since: mass{t) = volurne


(mr}
3ilm-ti)
)q = volumexd
SFxW

ctAss2lslAauft sEcnoN 13 hFFErffilqBh 6de (lMo) 194


L_

(m') x disance(m))givesa valueof volumettbHeelingMonents(m')


vi\erc: (volLlme

i values of VolumetricHeelingMoments
(yHM's) are calculatedfor each hold or
compartrnent designatedfor the caniage
of grain by ihe naval archilectand are
l-_ basedon the movementof a volunv of
grain in cubb netes through a
hoizontal distancein mefes asoss lhe
t__ hold. The volume of grain shned is
basedon the assumed15' and 25oshifr
of grain srrface (dependingon whether
L_ a compartneris fullorpartfull).

VHMvalueswill be givenin the ship's


l Grain LoadingManual,eilher in labular
L_ fonmt (as in the siabilit data book for Fig.18.15
M.V Almar. or. in the form of curvesas
depicledin fgur€18.15.
L-
I nus: r"=u!!5
SFxW
L- To cdcute'€ La: l{=fuxCosine/{P
I
whereCosine40 = 0.766044.
....
L-
tho lntemalional Gan Code allolrs an approximalionof Cosine 40oof 0.8; lhe@forelhe othe. end
I of lhe heeling arm to be plotted at,l0o is found by:

A straightline is usedto join the two pdr s of the heelingarm {the Codeignoresthe fact that it
t- shouldreallybea cosin€C|lrve).

i
l,_

I
I
L-

I
t_

CTASS 2/1 STAAILfY SECIION 13 - Intwli(tu| qd @de (lMO) '195

I
'18.6 COIIPENSATION OFSHIFTOFGRAIN
CO PONEIIT
FORTHEVERTICAL

Paft B - Calculationof assrmedheeling


monentsanc!geneal assumptonsin ltle
Codedetailsthe methodfor compensaling
for the adverse effect of the verfical
comqent ot lhe shifr of grain. This is
baseduponthe assumptions of lhe shifi of
ihe grain surface in a full compartnant
(15o)anda pardyflledcompartrnent (25o).

18.16.
Considerfgure

Fig.18.16
of the ship'seffectiveKG (and GM) it is commonlo use the heightof the
In the calculation
geomehiccentreof the total\olumeof the hold(whichalsotakesaccountof the spacewithinlhe
6atdf coaming).Thiswill lre hqher than the actualf\g ol thecarypiI anyvoldspacesal t1etop of
the grainstoware alsoconsidered.
ff this high* ggomet'lc cenbe Fsition is us€d |ten arry adv€'se efuct of lhe veftical
componentof lhe shin ol Win can be ignored-

However,if the /esservalueof the Kg of the aclualgraincargois usedfor the calculalionof the
ship'seffecliveKG (andGI\r)thenthe volumetricheelingrnomentsfor that @mpartmentmusl be
increasedby a factoras follows:
l^ a full compatunentlhe VHMs are increased VHM'Sx 1.06 (lG de - RegulationB'1.3)

ln a Dart full comDaftmenllhe VHM'Sare increased VHl,'s x t.l2 (iG Code - RegulationB
1.5)
The reasoningbehindthis is as followsl
Figure18.17(a) showsthe basiclistliangle GGHMwt|ere: Tanous = Sr
Gll
(a) Basic tist tiangle

(b) tncreasirg list by nising G


(vadtc.t compon nt ot gtatn
shn)
(c) tncreasins tist by inqaasins
GGH@cftasins VHtt's tor
hotctconcdne.t)

lhstara in

F4.18.17

cl ss 21 Sr Aarr |T} srcloN 13- lrllearrD€lg@ @de(|r,lo) 196


For a given value ot GGH(caus€d by an excess o{ listing rnoments to one side) lhe list may be
I caused to indease in one of two ways:

(1) Shiffinga weightupwardscausingG to rise to GJ(this beinglhe lrue effectot the vertical
I
j.-._ componentof the shii of grainas depicledin figure| 8.17(b)),or;
e\ hcreasingthe lislingmomentsfurher to give a greatervalueof Gq (theeffectis realised
by increasingthe valueof the VHM'Sof the grainto givea greatervalueot 1"d,sinc€:

la = t vHM's
S Fx W

in figure18.17(c))
as depicted

The factors1.06 (for full compartments) and 1.12(for pad full compartnents)are suchthat they
will createan increasein the lisi ot the shipthat is equivalentto the effectof the verticalcoriponent
ot the shii ol the wedgeot grain,shouldlhe grainsurfaceshift as assumedby the code i.e. 15o
and25ofor partfull andfull compartments respeclively.
L- In practice il is nomal to use the Kg of lhe hold (the volurnetdc centre of the hold) when the
comparlmentis full and to use the Kg of the actual grain as ot{iainedftom the hold data for
conparlm€nts that are only partially filled. lt is essedtialthal these conection factoF are
t understoodand appliedas appropiatesincevaluablema*s for a questionwill be lost otherwse.
L-
Thisaspectof the Codeis widelymisunderstood!

I Under no circumstancesmust the Kg of the grain catgo be increased by these factot - a common
mistakemade by many!

L
L
L-
l

L_

L-
L
L
L
CLASS 21 S I Aall |TY . SaCTION 13 - lnle@t .al O€h cdc (rtro) 197

L_
18.7 PROCEDURE TO VERIFYCOMPL|AI,ICE OF A SHIP'SLOADEDCONDTTION
WTH
TIINIMUMT,TER,I,T',OA,ALGRT,,I,CODECRITERIA"

The followingwo*ed examplewill demonsfalethe prccedurclo be followedfor veriryingthe


complianceof a ship'sloadedcondition.Eachstageshouldbe carefullystudiedand the exarnple
represenlslhe melhodlhat shouldbe adoptedin practce-
ExamDle1
Piot to loadinga gmin catgoM.V.Almat hasa displacementof 8420t and solidKG of 10.46m.
Fteesuiace nomentsdue to slacktankson boardamountto 860trn-
Grainof SF 1.36m'rt is baded into the holdsa6 folbe/s:
Hold No.1 Ulrage0.Om (Futl)
HoldNo.2 Utage0.0m (FuI)
HoUNo.S UrlageO.0m (Full)
,lold No.l Utlage6.0 m (Parttu )
Hdd No.5 Ulage 2,5 tu (Patt tull)
Hdd No.6 Urlagc0.0 n (Fu )

KG assumptions: Full comparttnenb- use the Xg of lhe acutal hold space;


Parl htu com!€ttn ents- use lhe KG ol ,he actuatgnin cergo-

Detetmine the fonowing:

(a) weighl otgtain loacleclin tonnes:

(b) the lolal wlumekic heeling moments:

(c) the final solid and etrectiveKG and final displacement;

(d) values k and 24a(he heelng am);

Patl B
91 ey carcuUting the GZ vatues for the ships loaded conditbn plot the cuNe of slatical
slabilty and the heeling ann due to gtain shift (using values calculated in Patl A (d)).

0 Vetity that the ship's loaded condition meets the intact stabiltty requiremenE specifredin
lhe IntemationalGnin Code.

Soluton - Part A
A labulat approachis adopled.

(1) Enter the caryo hold data tables with ullage given and obtain values for gnin volume, VCG

(2, ' nass (t, = uolume @')


The we4h! d gtain in each compartmenl is calculated by:
EFTnltt)
(3) fhe tabulated VHM'Sarc nultiplied by the conection factot wherc apqopiate to give the
actual VHM'S(Holds 4 and 5 arc patTfull atd the Kg used is that of the aclual g@in caQo in

crass 21 sTABlLfi - sEcTloN 13 ftemaronar g6m c.de (rMo) 198


L
l the hold; for aI other holds the Kg of the actualhold spaceis used,so no coffeclionis
L_
applied).

t- Ullag.
lll
0.0 5010 s.2m 370 1.00 370
2 0.0 5490 4!t5 7.650 341 't.m 341
i
l_- 3 0.0 5350 3!t!4 7.650 371 1.(re 371
5&n 2730 't.t2
3250 7 050 565 '1.12
5640 4176 408 'l_00 4{6
00
l__ 6
z'tft5
7.7Q
* :

Ans (a) weighl of Win loadedls 21735'onn€^s

Ans(b) lotat y'ln's 5221m'

L_ (4) aboutthe kaelto calculatethefinalKG anddisplacement.


Takemone:€nts

8/20 10.46 88073 0.029


3684
4015 7 650 30715
7 650 30095
l 2676 5.800 15521
3250 a 2aa
32322 FSE{ml 0 029
'
.|r!55 !-?t
L-
Note: FSE(m) = Freesulace moments(t-n) = a6o =0.029m
Dsdacement 30155
I
Ans (c) Final dlsdac@nent30155fonnes
Soli.t KG 8.288m
I
L- Efiective (f,uld) KG 8.316m
(5) Calculatethe heelingam values
i = 0.127n
h= t VHrIs h= 5221
SFxW 1.36x 30155
,* =olmm6ns.(d))
0.8x )a La= 0.8x0.127
L1o=

Solulkm- PaftB
(6) and calculatevahresof GZ (usingthe
ObtainKN valuesfor the ship'sloadeddisplacement
etrectiveKG!).
Heel 10 20 30 40 SJ 80
405
L_ <N
(G'Sin H€€l
165
1.44
331
2.U
4.84
4.'t6
6.2'1
535 7.20 E19
GZ o.21 ol7 o.72 0.66 0.59 -0.14

t-- (7) GM.


datawith displacenentvalueand obtainKM;calculateetrocTive
Enterhyclrostatic
(M 9.423
8.31€
iI

cLAsS 2/1 STABIIITY- s€cTloN 1a- rnemlirol gdih code(Irrc] 199

L
(8) Ptotthe cutueot staticalslabilityandheelingarm(frgure18.18).

Fig.18.18

Fromthe cuNe it can be seenthat the angleof heelif gnin shift takesplace as assumedby the
Cdo wi be apryximately e.
(9) Veily 6mplian@ withthe Code

Tocalcuktethe rcsidualarea(whichmuslb not lessthan0.075m'4 the aea unclerthe GZcuve


frotu the angle of list (e in this instance)to 40 mustbe frrctcalculated.ln thh aase4e is the
upperlimt, sincethe atple of heelat whichmaximumditrerfficebelweenthe odinatesof the lwo
cuNes occursis greaterthan 40. Sincetherc are no cvves of floodingangie then it mustbe
assuned that at all oprctbnal drat&htsthe angle of heel at whbh pogressivefl@dingtakes
placewillalwaysbe greaterthan4e-

ft is re@mmen<ledthat odinates (GZ values)be taken frcm the curye to allow simpson's
muftiplieEol 14241to be used.

ThecomnoninteNalh = g:_A = 8%'

Gz valuesare takenhom the cuNeploftedfor anglesof heel e, 14%",23, and 31%' as shownin
figurc 18.19.Thevaluefor 4e hasalreadybeencalculatedusingthe KN vatueWen-

Oncethe areautdor the GZ cuNe has fuen deteminedhelween 60aM 4e) the arca undetthe
tnpeziumboundedby the GZ valueat 60,the heelingatm and )aais thencalculated.Thisis taken
away {rdn the area unalerthe GZ cuNe to give the residualarea value b be comparcdfor

Shtdyfrgure18.19and reisit frgure18.12 in seclion18.4 for clarifrcation.

ct tss zI STAaUTY SECTlo|{ 18 Inbrldi&d gi:in code(n o) 200


i

.\

"""1
li
A i

*C-L''r-

Fig.18.19

CalculatearcaundetGz cuNehom e b 4e.

L-

L- Area= ? xhxSum Area= ? xgz.x6.36=0.314m+


57.3
Calculateareauder trapezium
i
Notethatareaundertmpezium= GlD x base a
2
Bese
is dividedby 57.3"to givea measuein radians.
wherc the basein degaees

Areaundertrapetum= (g:!4L]L!g) xle = 0.070m+


2 57.!

Residualarea= 0.314- 0.070= 0.2u mr (0.075na)


l
EtrectiveGM= 1.107m (o.3on)

I Angleot ti$ = e (17)

l'he shlp's loededcondition complles wlth the minimum lnbct statiry of ah. InfunaUonat
G'?in Cde.

clAss 2/1 s-rralLllY SECfOn 13 Inl€mliml g€in €od€(lMo) ml


{8.8 TIETHODSOF IIiPROVING STABILITY WHEN THE T'II{ITIUM IA'TERTVATK'NALGRAIN
CODE CRITERIA IS NOT SATISFIED

In the event that stability calculalions for a proposed loading condition do not meet the stability
requirements of lG Code - Rogulation A 7, altemative stowage arangernents should be
considered. lf this is not successful, other, usually more cosl efective ahemalives te available as
follows:

18.8.1Bauastng
loadlinedraught
andthe shipis not at the respective
lf thereis sufficientreservedeadweight
taking on ballast will be helpful. Double bottom tanks should be flled to eliminate tree surface
effects. The added low weight will increasethe displacem€ntand reduce the KG.

t8.&2 Srucers

The grain heelingmomenlscan be significandyreducedin a filled


cofiparlrnentby constructinga sau@r as descdbedin lG Code -
RegulalionA '14in the squareof the halciway.This deviceh€s the
sameeffectas a cerireline,grain-tghtbulkheadin that it prevenlsthe ,l ,-.
grainfrom shiftingacrossthe entirebreadthof the comparlmentas
illustratedin fgure 18.20.

Unlessthereare grain-lighldivisbnsforwardand afr of the hatchway,


the effect is limited to the longitudinallenglh of the saucer. The
volumetricheeling momentslhat apply in a specifc compartment Gtuin condition after
when a saucer is fitted must be induded in the approvedGraitt shift.
LoadingManualit lhis oplionis lo be availableto the ship. Fiq.18.20
relalingto the useandconslructionof saucersare givenin lG Code-
Thespecifrcrequirements
Regulation
A 14as follows:

14.1 For the pupose of rcducingthe heelingmomenta saucer may be used i1 place of a
bngnudinaldiision in way of a hatch openingMly in a fi ed, timmed, conpattnent as
defrnedin A 2.2, exceptin the caseof linseedand dlEt seedshavingsinilar propefties,
wherca sauer may not be substlutedfor a longitudinaldivision.lt a longitudinaldiision is
of A 10.9.
it shallmeetthe rcauirements
Droviclec!.

14.2 Thedepthof the saucer,n'c'asuedfromthe bdtc,n of the saucetto the deckline, shdl be

.1 For shipswkha nwided breadthof up to 9.1m, not lessthan 1.2n.


.2 For shipswitha mouldedbrcadthof 18.3m ot more,not lessthan
1 . 8m .
.3 For shifrswitha mouldedbreadthbetween9.1m and 18.3 m, the minimumclepthof
the saucershallbe calculatedby interpolation.

14.3 The top (ntouth)of the saucershall be fotmedby the underdecksttucturein way of the
hatdway, i.e. hatch side gitde6 or coamitrysand hatch end beamg The saucerand
hatchwayabove shallbe completelyftled with baggedgnin ot other suiktle cargolaid
down on a separafrcnclothot its equivalentand slowedlightly againsladjacentstructure
so as to havea beaing contactwithsuch sttuctu/eto a dedh equalto or $eater thanone
haf of thedepth specifiedin A 14.2.If hull structue to Wvide suchbearingsulace is not
available,the saucer sha be tixed in positbnby steelwire rope, chain,or double steel
straryingas spcifred in A 17.4and spacednot morethan2.4 m apatt.

- sEcTloN l3 - rr emaroB grr cod. ( rc)


CLASSz r STABTUTY m2
L_ 18,8.3Burding ol bulk galn
Iryhereasa seuceris fofiled by a volumeof baggedgrainor similadyresttainedcargo,lhe same
resultof preventinga transverseshift of g€in acrossthe entirebreadlhof the comparbnent,as
illustratedin fgure 18.20,may be achievedby constuctinga single,larg€bagof bulkgrainwhich
flls the hatdrwayand whici is frxedin positionby the slnrcturalboundariesof lhe hatchway.This
is tenned bundlingof bulkgrain'and is an acceptablealtemativeto a saucer.
The volumetricheelingmomontwhich applieswhen bundlingot bulk grain is used in a specific
compartmentis th6 sameas thatwhidl appliesfor a sauc€rusedin lhe samelocation,and it must
LoadirgMarua,if this oplionis to be availablefor use by the vessel.
be listedin lhe Gra,'14
L- pertainingto the rnethodof'bundlingof bulkgrain'are givenin lG Code
Thespecificrequirements
- RegulationA 15, as listedbelor{.lt is to be notedthat the limitalionson ib use are lhe sameas
ihosethat applyto a saucerandare specifedin lG fue - RogulationA 14.1.
with baggedgain or other
As an aftemaliveto filling the saucs in a fr ed, timned atumpaftment
sutablecaryoa bundleof bulkgrainmaybe usedptovidedlhat:
15.1 The dinenstonsand meansfor secuing thebuncllein plac€arethe sa/neas specinedfor a
saucerin A 14.2andA 14.3.
L-
15-2 The sarcet is lined with a mateial acceptabbto the Administatiotthaving a tensib
strengthol nol lessthan 2687N per 5 cn stdpaN whichis Wvided wi{hsuitablemeans
tor securingat the top-
15.3 As an altemativeto A 15.2,a materialacceptableto the Administatkmhaing a tensile
stenglh of not lessthan 1U4 N per5 cn stdpmay be usedif the sauceris conslructedas
L_
.3.1 Athwaftshipleshingsacceptableto the Aalministratbnshall be placed insialethe
L- saucerfonnedk the bulk gnin at intevals of Nt morethan2.4 m. Ihese /ashtgs
l4ngthto pmit beingdrawl W tightand securcdat the topof
shal be of sutr/.;ient
me saucer,
l
.3.2 Dunnagerol /ess fhan 25 mm in thicktess or other suitablematerialof equal
slrengthaN between150 mm and 30Omm in widthshanbe placedfo@and an
over theselashingsto pevenl the cuftingor chafingot the naterial whichsha be
placedtherconto line the saucer.

15-4 The saucetshal be ed with b!.tkWin anc!secued at the top exceptthat when usitu
mateial awrovetl undarA 15.3 fufther dunnageshall t)e laid on top afler lawing tha
mateial befoe the sauceris securedby seftingup the lashings.

15.5 lf norc lhan one sheetof materialis used to line the saucerthey shal be binod at the
bottomeiher by sewingu by a doublelap.

15.6 TheW of the saucetshanbe coincidental wilhthe bltom of Ale bedns whentheseare in
placeand suitablegeneralcargoot bulkgrainmay be placedbetweenthe boamson top of
L-
fgure 18.21.
Consider
I
L
l
ctass 2y1sTAaLrry- sEcroN 13 InleirElimlgBin @d€(lilo) m3
SAUCER SECUREDBY BUNDUNG OF aULK GFlAlt'l (lG Code - Regulation A 15)

ttc(

t'9!!@.349&lb3!-tbiz 09ldA-9f.'t!!gs
aalwean9.1 m .n 118.3m

Ba.dng contact ot .aucer ag.intt ship's sttucturc:


At leasaone h.lt ofclimansion A, O&
Sscur.d in place by lr.nsvette l.shings sp'ced not mue th.n 2.1m aPart-

fo retain bulk gnin within the s.uce.:


Linlv mat€'ial (shEngth 2687 N per 5 cn st td ioine.t by sev,ng or double
lap, OR;
Lining mtt .ial (stength 134 N per 5 cn sand bined by sewing or tuuda
Iap, rcst aine.t by tr.nsvabe lashings spaced not morc than 2.1 m aPtrt aN
ttroa*ta.t Lon chatfing by dunnage,25 nm thick miDinum and ttaart en 150
mm an.l 3(N mn in ei.M, ptaca.t tongitutdinalty betveen thQ bshings .ncl the

Fig.18.21
18.8.1 Ove's.ow ing eriange menE
lf one or more of the grain compartments is parfly flled, the grain heeling momenls tor such
compartmentsis much greater than it is for the filled compartm€nts.The grain heeling momer for
a paaty filled compartnenl can be eliminated, i.e-, reduced to zero by sec ring the slack surface
against shifling by overstowing it with bagged grain or with olher cargo which will have the similar
effecl of restrainingthe g€in surface against any movemenl. A rcducfon in the total grain heeling
moment, adieved by this rneans, may be suffcied to bring the proposed stowage anangemenl
within acceptable limits.

This option does not require any special infomation or endorsemeri in lhe Gftin Loading Manual.
The specifc requirementsfor overstowingare given in lG Code - RegulationA 16, as follows:

16.1 Whore bqged grain or other suita e catgo is utilized for the pupose of secuing paftly
frlled Mnpaftment' the free gnin suiace shall be level and shall be covered with a
sepa.ation cloth or equivalent or by a suikble platform. Such pletfom shall consist of
bearcrsspaced not n:&,relhan 1.2 m apatl and 25 mm boardslatCthercon spaced not morc
than 100 mm apai. Platfoms rnay tE construcEd of dher mateials $ovided they are
deemed by the Administrationto be equivalent.

16.2 The plattdn or separatidl cloth shall be toppd otr wik bagged grain MW stowed and
extending to a height ol not less than one sixteenth of the naximum breadth of the fiee
gtain suface or 1.2 m, whicheveris the greaEr,

16.3 The baggedWin slr6' be canied k sourrdbagswhich shdl bewel finedaN *cuely dosed.

ctAss 2/1 sTAauY sEcTloN 1a- hsmalkmlgra @d€ (Mo)


16.4 lnsted of baggedg6in, <tthersuitablecaryo tightlystowedand exeftingat leastthesame
Wssure as baggedgrainstowedin accotdancewilhA 16.2maybe used.
18.8.5Straping ot lashlng
Partlyfilled compartments have lhe greatestvolurnetriche€lingmomentsb€causethey have a
larg6 volumeof open space aboveihe grain suafaceinto which lhe grain c€n shifl and, also,
becausethe regulationsassumea 25o shiff insteadof the 15oshift which applieswhen the
compartmentis flled. Consequently, a signifcant reduclionin grain he€lingmomenlsc€n be
achieved by totally preventinga grain shifl in a pardy filled compartment.This m€y be
accomplished by fabricatinga somewhatcosllyconsiructionthat completelycoversthe slackgrain
surfaceand physic€llyresbainsil againslany rnovementthat may be generatedby the motionsof
theshipat sea.

The use of lhis option does nol requireany specialinformationor endorsementin lhe 6ra,h
Loadingttanual fhe specificrequirernentsperlaininglo ihe detailsof coistrucion are givenin lG
fue - RegulatonA 'l7, as givenbelo$,:
When,in orderto diminateheelingmomenBin pa y frlled@npaftnen|s, stapping ot lashingis
utilized,the secudngshallbe accomplished
as bllows:

17.1 Thegnin shal be tifitme.l ancllewlled to the extentthat it is very slighw qowned and
covercdt/t/ithbulap separationcloths,Eryaulinsorthe equivalent.

17.2 Thesepa?tic,l clc/hsa!fi/or kryaulinsshallovedapby at basl 1.8m.


17.3 Two sdid ffoorsof tough25 nm x 150mm to 300 mmlumbershallbe laid withthe top floor
runninglongittdinaly aN nailedto an athwaftshipsbottomfloot. Altematively,one solid
ffoorof 50 nm lumber,runninglotpitudinallyand nailedover the bp of a 50 mm botton
beaternot &'ssthen 150mm wide,may be used.Theboftombearersshallexted the fu
bteadthof the canpaftnatt and sha be spacednot nore than2.4 m apat AfiangenenE
utiliiN othetmateialsand deenedby theAdministationto be equivalentto tl€ forcgoir,g
maYba accePted.

17.4 Steelwire rcpe(19 mm diameteror equivalent),doublesteelstapping (50 mm x 1.3mm


andhavinga breakinglod of at least49 kN),or chainof equivalentstrength,eachof wllich
sha be *t tighv by neans of a 32 mm tumbrclde,may be usec!for lashings.A winch
tghteneL used in conjunctionwith a locking atm, may be substitutedfor the 32 mm
tumbu*b when steelstrappingis u*d, ptovided suitablewrenchesare avatlablefor
seftingup as necessary.Whensteelst'6ppit]4is usec!,not lessthanthreecimp seab shall
be usedfor secwitg the ends.Whenwireis used,not lessthanfour clipsshallbe usedfor
formingeyesin the lashings-
17.5 Ptbt to the cdnpletionof loadingthe lashingshallbe positivelyatEchedto the fmmingat a
pointapprcximately 450 mm belowthe anticipatedfinalWin sudaceby meansof eitheta
25mm shackleor boamclampof equivalentstrength.
17.6 Thelashingssha be spacednot rnorethan2.4 m apartand each shallbe supportedby a
beatetnailedoverthe top of theforeandaft ffoor.Thisbearetshallconsigof lumberof not
bss than 25 mm x 150 mm ot s eauivalentand shall extendthe n breadthofthe
cotnpamnent

17.7 Duing (havoyagethegnpping shal be rcguladyinspecbdand setup whe@necessary-

CTASS ?]1 STAAUTy SECTION 13 - lnl€rn€tjq.l gBin @d€ (lMO) m5


I
Figure18.22illustrates
detailsof lheseanangemenls.

SECU&NG OF PARTLY F'LLED COUPARi''EN| BY STRAPPINGOR LASI'ING


(lG Co.le - Regulaaion A 17)

toat6
?jhrlltObSrd
lLal

-:=
* , . . o i r ^ r *\ \ +l l83M.e
\ i ct/tElt I

:
IUtI GIIIIN )t lcN,aJsl t€
Ct6O!vl€.a
lwan !Ec( a
'ATNYruD
TTANVANSE$ICTION

i ' i .t
loarcrluo,
' I
; ' 1 t .. j
\---\.-\l-lj

r N^rttD: |. r .

i l ' l ' l - '

Ptt${ vtElY
Fb. 18.22

18.8.6 Secudttgviah wire mesh


This methodof prevenlinga slack grain surfac€ftom shifling and therebyreducingthe grain
heelingmomentto zero,is essenliallythe sameas 'Strappingor Lashing'exceptthat the principal
reslrainingforce of the transversecablesspacedevery2.4 meterstor the lengtho{ the hold, is

ctAss 2]1 sIABlLlw- sEcnoN 1s lrltotrrdirmls6in cod€( o) 206


L
I
L- surfaceof the grainby rneansd a stff, wire rneshot the
t'ansmittedto the overall,fabdc-cover€d
typeusedto reinforceconcreteinsteadof througha deckconstrucledof dunnage.

L The use of this option cloesnot requireany specialinformalionor endorsernentin the Gra,h
LoadingManualfhe so€cificrequirements pertainingto the detailsof construclionare givenin lG
de - Regulation A 18,as giv6nbelow:
L when, in order to eliminategrain heelingmonents in paftly frlled comparlments,strappingor
la$ing is ulilized,the secuing nay, as an af.bmativeto the nEthod des.'ibgd in A 17, be
accomplished as follows:

18.1 Thegrain sha b timmed atfr levelledto the extentthatit is very slighw ctowned along
the fo@aN aft cantrelineof the compaftment,
L- 18.2 Theentitesuface ot the gaainshallbe covetedwilhbudapsepafttioncloths,taryEulns,or
the equivalent.ThecgveitE matetialshalllBve a tensilesttengtllof not lessthan 1344N
t_ per5 cm strip.

18.3 Two layercof wirc rcinforcenentn:FJsh sha be laid ot1top of the bulap or olher covering.
Thebottomlayetis to be laid athwartships and the top layeris to be laidlongitudinaly.The
L lengthsot wirc nesh are to b ovedappd at least75 mm. Thetop layerof.nesh ,s to be
positionedoverthe botton layerin slrcha mamer that the squarcsfotmedby the allomato
laye|sneasure approximately 75 nm x 75 mn. The wirc reinforcenEntmedl is the type
useclin rcinforcedcduete constuction.lt is labicatedof 3 mm diametersteelwitehaving
a brcakingslenglh of not tessthan52 kMcm' weldedin 150mm x 150mm s{t]€'rcs.Wie
meshhavingmill scalemaybe usedbut meshhavingloose,flakingrustmaynot be used.
L- 18.4 Theboundaiesof tlp wire nesh, at the pft and statboa'dsideof the comparbnentshall
be retainedby woodplanks150 mmx 50 mm.

L_ 18.5 Hdd-dowt hshings,runningfrom sideto sideacrossthe comwrtmenLshallbe spacednot


n]orethan 2.4 m apaftexceptthat the fi,lslaN the lastlashingsha notbe more than30O
mn lrom the fotwad or afterbulkhead,rcspeclively. Ptior to the conpletjonof the loading,
t_ eachlashingshal be positivelyaftehed to the framig at a pointapwximately 450mn
below the atticipatedfinal grain sulace by neans of eithera 25 mm shacldeor beam
ckmp ot equivdentstret]{th.Thelashingshal be bd frcm thb pointover the bp ot the
boundaryplank desdibedin A 18.4,which has the fundion of distributingthe downward
ptessue exefted by the lashitu. Two layers of 150 mm x 25 nm planks sha be laid
athwanshipscentred beneath each lashing aN enending the fuI brcadth d the
conpamnenL

18.6 TI1@ hdd4own lash,i"gssha//co,s,st of stee/ wirc rope (19 mm dianeEr or equivalent),
doublesteelstrappit:g(50 mm x 1.3tnm and havinga breakingbad of at least49 kN),or
L- chain of equivalentstretvth, each of which shall be sot tight by meansof a 32 mm
tumbuckle.A winchtightener usedin conjunctionwith a loakingatm, mq/ be substituted
for the 32 nm tumbucklewhen st*l staff'ing is used,providedsoitablewronchesare
availabb for seftingup as /tecossary.Wh@nsteelstapping is used,not less than three
L dimp sealsshallbe usedfor secudngtheends.Whenwite ropeis usea!,not lessthanfour
clipsshallbe usedftt foming eyesin the |ashngs.

L 18.7 Duing the wyage the hold-downlashingsshal be egulady inspectedand set up where
/)ecessary.

L
L CIASS 21 STABIUTY- SECTION13- Inlsruttml g€in @de(lilo) m7

L
Figure'18.23
ilbstrates
thes€anangemenb.

SECUR'NG OF PARTLY F'LLED COMPARTNENTWTH WRE UESH


(tG Code - Resui'aon A 18)

1. Grain slghty c.own d along h...nd aft cana€ ne otcaryo hoLr.


One larcr of burlap ot canvts tarpaunn Gectias ldppetl 1.8 n nlnlmun).
Tw layets ot wirc rcintorcenent nesh (3 nn wirc walded in tso mm x 15Omn

W mm lumbar bdarcts agarrsl r?a'|6s or stell ao distribute the ctowntoa.t tttust


of vt.e rcpa lashings at sides.
Two layaElsot 25 mn lumbet bc..ers .lirccgy banoath lhe wte .opa lashings.
6. Steet fi.a rcpa ltshinge, 19 mm diam.ter, spacecl 2.1m maximum ,nd .ta.chan
b the Aaming about 150 mn botow the Vain sudace.
7. FiBt dnd last tansyarse hshlng to be closa to ,owtrd aDd afte. bukhea&.
& 32 mm tumbuchla to tansion

Fig. 18.23

CLASS2l STABIUTY SFCTIO Ia Inbm.ls.lgEin od€ 0MO) ma


I8.9 OMONAL STABIL]TY REQUIRE}IENTSTO BE I{ET BY SHIPS WTHOUT
CARRYNGPARTIALCARGOESOFBULKGRAIN
OFAUTHORISATIOI'I
DOCUMETITS

ft is not a requirementlhal every cargo ship have a Documentof AuthorisalionInsteadthis


Docurnentis optionalfor ships,usuallyb!,k canie.s,tor whichit grea{yfacjlitatestheiroperalions.
The Code providestwo options under whic+t,subjeclto c€rlain limitations,a ship without a
DocumentofAuthorisalionmayloadgrainin bulk.
]
(a) UnderlG Code- Regulation
A 3.5:

The mastermusl pmvideto its horneAdminislration, plansand caldrlalionsthat dernonstrdte ihal


lhe proposedstowagearrangements and loadingconditioncomplieswith the requireftentsot the
Code.ThecalculalionsmustindudededvalionoI the vobmetticheelingmomenlslhat are usedas
\rell as the cal@lationsdernonstratingcompliancewith regulationA 7.1. When the home
Administrationapprovosthe calculalions,the mastermust presentthe approvalat the port of
loading.Altematively,and or y if the horneAdminisl€tionso authorises,the authoritiesal the poft
of loading may revie$/and approve lhe calollations prior to pemitting loading
I
(b) UnderlG Code- Regulation9:

A ship withoot a Documentof Authorisationmay cany a partial cargo d bulk grain without
performingall the delailedcalculationsrequiredunderoplion(a) above,by utilisingthe provisions
of lG fue - RegulationA I quotedbelo$'.Authorilyio usethis optionmustbe obtainedfromthe

9.1 A ship nothavingon boatd a documentof authodsatbnissuedin accordancewithA 3 of

.1 the totalweightof the bulkgrainshal not exeed one thirdof the deadweightot the
shtp;

.2 all filled compartments,titmme<Lshal b fitted with cgntreline divisions extending,


tor the full bnglh ot such compaftment' downwards hom the unde$ide of the deck
or hatch covers to a distance bolow the deck line of aI least one eighth of the
naximum breadth of he compattnent or 2.4 m, whichever is the greatel except
lhat saucerc constructed in accodance with A 14 may be ac,ceptedin lieu of a
cenleline clivisionin and beneath a hatchway except in the case of linseed and
other seeds haing similar prcpefties;

.3 all hatches to filled compaftments,ttimmed, shall be cl'.sed and covers secure.l in


place:

-4 all free gain sufaces in paftly fiIed carga space shallbe timmed level anc! secured
in accodance with A 16.A 17 or A 18:

.5 throghout the voyage the metacentic height after cotrection for the frce suiace
etrects of liquids in tanks shall be 0.3 m ot that given by the following fomula,
L- whicheveris the greater

GMR=L BVd 0.258- 0.A5l VdB)


I SF x a x0.0875

l- wnete:
L = totalnnbined lensthof all full comparnents(me0es)
B = mouldedbreadthof the vessel(netres)
SF = stowagefacto.(cubicmetrespertonne)
crass zl sTABlLlTY' sEcTroN 13 Inramrio.lgmin code(li,lo) 209
Vd = caldiated aveage wid dapthcahulatedin accoadance
with rcgulationB 1
(metes- Not6:not millimetres)
a = displacenent(tonnes):anc!

.6 tha mastetd$lr,nstates to the disfaction d the Adminidntkmor the Contrac:ting


Govemnentof the pon of loadingon behdl of tha Adminislationthat the ship wi
complywih the requircnentsoftt,s secl,or.

The tacbr Vd, averagevoid depth,neededfor the calc-liationrequiredby this optjonnecessitales


referenceto Part B of th€ Code.whichcontainsthe detailsneededby navalarchiteclsto prepare
G'ainLoadingManuds.
Intepretationot this regulationimplies a permittedloadedconditio.rrvherebyno grain stability
calculationsare rcquircd.ll in accordancewilh lG Code - RegulationA 9.1.4 all the bulk grain
c€rgois caniedin paldy,t/ed holdsand secur6d,and the tol,alweightof g€in is limiledas per G
Code - RegulationA 9.'1.1 then thee is no g€in stability requirernent-|lowever, if the
Administrationimposesa cargoship slabilityrequirernentthen lG de - RegllationA I woold
stillapply.

CLASS2/1 STAa[rv, S€CION 13- hbmatond a@ ..de ([tO) 210


I8.IO SI PUFI€DSTABILITYOATAFORSHIPSCARRYNGGRAINBUILTON OR AFTER
19 JANUARY1994(ON ORAFTERDATETHATfHE IMERNATIONALGRAN CODE
TAKESEFFECT},

18.10.1 Presen'ationot sitnplrfiedgraln deta


The requirementto constucl a curveof staticalstabilityand to vedrycompliancewith the Code
cdledaas detailedin secton 18.7has beengrea{y simdmedby the use of Tat$estr Cu|vesof
MavimumPennissibleGrainHeelitryMonents (tonnes-metrcs/. lG Code - RegulationA 6.3 2
requirossuchdatato be prcvidedfor al ship'sbuilt on or afterthe dale of enty into force of the
Code{1'' January1994).

Insteadof calculatingthe fluidGM, assunea!angleof listandresidudarea,the etrectiveKG for the


dispkcementbentgconsidered(includingthe grain)is calculatedalongwith the actualtotal qain
heelingmomenL

Theactualgrainheelingmomentcalculatedis thencomparedwiththe maximumpermissiblevalue


obtainedfrom the table or cu es lhal are enteredwith argumentsof displacement
and effeclive
KG.
An extractftoma tableof maximumpermissiblegrainheelingmomentsis illustratedbelom.

L_ ttsPtacElflft
650 6..|| G7t 6.E0 6.gl 7-lo 72n t.:tt
5420 5499 517S 4a5a 3255
L
4132 3a34
5359 tu72 ,1209
L
4630 12ffi 39Sg

L- 5701 545f 5211 3755


5944 5716 t555 1323 3S58

L-_ qn 5961 5751 5541 5331 1241 44T1


6021 5a2a 42fi
'|m
5679 5502 5325 51,|8

L- 5724 5569 5415 52m


6406 6262 61ta 5S75 5831 5687

7120 699S 6264 6117 6025

These tables (or cuNes) are produced by the naval archilect. Pmvidedthat the actual grain heeling
momentsare lesslhen the maximumpermissibleas tabulated,thenthe shipwill meetall the intact
stability criteria specifed in the Code. The values given in the tables are based on the same
essumptionswith respect lo grain movemenl as prcviously discus.sed.

Simplifieddata is not requircdto be caried by ships buih before1'' January1994however,most


ships will be providedwith il becauseof the time saved by ib use.

CLASSz'STAaUTY SFCT|oN 13 InlamtdElS€in cod€ (lMO) 211


18.10-2 llsing slmdfiled grein dete
ActualGrainHeelingMomenls(AGHM'S)(tm) may be calculatedu A(jnru's${n) =zvn 3
SF

(the term 'displacemenf is simply removedftom the formula for calculaling lhe value of L0).

Fdlow the example that iffuslrates thoir use- Noie that the table of maximum permissiblegratn
heel,]agmomenls used is not that for the ship [r.V. Almar, such data was not available for lhe ship
on whici the datiabooklet providedwas based.

Example 2
A ship displaces4200 tomes and l]6'seffective KG 71m m. GEk of SF 1.42 ttf/t is loded as

EgE Vol.lm') Kolml IgbtlawwsJn')


,lo. 1 Eun) 14n 6.9:2 34)
No.2 (Fu) 22At 6.U 402
No.3 (Fulr) 8An 6.U 16t)
No.lPertfut 6&, 3.82 21m
No.SlFu,lt 2621 6.8t) 530

KG assumptions: Full comp€,rtnen's,the Kg of lhe volume o, the hold is given;


Partfull compartnenls.,the Kg of the actualcaryo is given.

An exfiacttromthe Tableof MaximumPemissibleGrainHeelingMoments(t-n) is given:

(a) the final displacementand KG ofthe ship;


(b) the actual gnin heeling momenb (un)
(c) whether the shk's loaded condition conplbs Mh the stability rcquirements of the
lntemational Grain Code;
(d) the apprcximateangle of list should the gtain shift as assumed by the Code.

Solution
A tabular approachis adopted. Calculate lhe aclual weight of gain in each hold and take momenE
about the keel to detennine the final clispkcement and KG.

O Ass 21 sTABlLl-lY' sEcTloN 13- hienattral g€in @de{l[,rJ) 212


lm3l
'l1to6 990 6 920 6451
2 2220 100
3 1349 460 1.00 460
680 479 3.820 1830 2420 112 27lO
2624 1848 6.800 12566 530 'l.00 530
4200 7.420 31164
't11:l
TqIALA ] 107t5 6r33 7!a9t

(a) = 10715flonnesjfrnalKG= 6.933m (Ans).


Finaldlsplacement
(b) Enterthe VHM'Sas givenanc!cotrcctas necAsary:in this casethosegivenfot No.4 Hold.
Sumthe VHM'Sto givea totatvalue(4442no).

Calcuktethe actualgrainheelngmonents(AGHM'S)(t-m).

AGHM'9(t-m)=zVHMb
SF

AGHM'S(t-n) = 4442 = 31?at4n (Ans)


1.42

(c) KG andaclualgrainheelngmomentvalues.
EntertablewithDisplacemenL
'.,r: ' (trl -_-
taBLEoF l^innrt GR ll fiEgrt*tfolELTs

DISPLACEXE'{t
6.3' 5.6t1 6.70 6.80 6.90
'r.00 7,r0 720 7,9
5491 5614 $34 5062 4745 4509
l2i0
r$40 5891 5639 4622 4113 3459 3605
5457 5214 4T2A 4241
10300 5716 5251
ltto|to
5951 5751 55,11 5331 5121
5A2A

Given hat Displacement= 10745 tonnes:


KG = 6.933m: and
AGHM s = 3128 t-m, the ship cotrrplies wlth the requit?,',,en's.

(d) To calculate the apprcximate angle of list should assumed grain shift takes place
tnlerDolaton is reoured. The fotmula is

Approximatelist = ActualGrain HeelinqMoments(tfi) x1?


Max. PermissibleGrain Heelingiromenis (t-m)

To detemine the AGHM'S value consder the table:


L-

- sEcrON 13 hlerobonar gEm 6de 0Mo)


CLAss 21 STABILITY 213
6p|.AtlExr
a,5tt 6.40 6_70 6.80 6.9{l ?-00 f.ltu
ttsd
3999 3TU 3464
alsl 5493 5639 $45 5130 4 8 7 6 4622 ,1368 4 1 r 3 3859 3605

105{to 5944 4716 548/ 5251 5019 4555 4323 ,1090 3854
ltnD
5751 5541 5331 5121 4911 4241
5l)32 1|a3 4236

(1) lnteryolatefot actud disdacementof 10745t to obtainMPGHMvaluesfor KG 6.90m and


KG 7.00m.
Displ. 6.90 7.0t)
11Un 4971 4728
10f15 4995 1754
10504 5019 4787

(2) Interyolatefor theactualKG valueof 6.933m to obtainMPGHMvalue.


Dlspl. 6.90 6.933 7.N
10715 4995 4921 4758

.. Approximatelist= gla x 1? = 7.e 6ns.)


4924

ln Naciice it is sufficientto vetily that the aclual grain heeling momenb are within
accaptablelimits,howevertheapp@ximate angleof Ist hasbeenaskedin examinations
on
pasl occas,brs,

Note
of the Codeat arl
It mustbe emphasis€dthat the ship mustcomplywith the stabilityrequirements
stagesof the voyageand nol just on departure.Complianceshouldbe testedfor the ship'sworst
anticipatedconditionand recheckedas circumslances
dicbte duringthe voyage.

' sEcnoN 13 hienalbnal Ean ode 0rJo)


ct ss ?11STABILITY 214
I
L_

L SECTIOI t9 - INCUNINGEXPERIflENT
INTRODUCNON
L_ Chapter2 of the Codeo,nhtact Stabililyfot a Typesof ShipsCovercdby IMO lnslrumenb(lMO),
hereafrerbeingrefered to as the fue, detailsthe informalionthat mustbe p.ovidedb the master
of all shipsin oder that stabilitycalculationsmay be acqJratolyconducledto ensurethe 6hip's
I sale op€ralion.A key elementof lhis infonr€lion is the Inclininglesl Reporlthat detaib the
L_ calculatonprocedureconducledto deteminethe ship'slightKGand displacement.
Leamlrv ftjeclives
IL_ On completionof this seclion,ihe l€amerwill achievethe tollowing:
1. Knowthe stabilaty info.mationtfut mustbe providedfor the master.
2. Understandthe co.reclprocadures tor conduclingan indiningexp€riment.
L_

L_

L
L
L

L
L-
I

L_

L-
L
l_
t_ CLASS2/1 STABIUTY- SECTION19- Indhr\O Erpeh@l 215

L
TOBEPROVIDED
I9.1 STABIUWINFORMATION TOTHEIASTER

as follows:
Therogulationsin Chapter2 of the Codedetailsthe stabilityinformationrequirements

2.1.1 Slabilitydataand ass@iatedplansshouldbe drawnup in the wo*ing languageofthe ship


aN atry other latBuqe the Adnini&ntkm may tequrc. Refercnceis also made to the
lfiemational Safdy Managenent(ISM)Code,dopbd by tle Otganizationby rcsoLttion
A.741(18).AI tnnslatiotrsof the stabililybookletshouldbe approved.

2.1.2 Each ship shotld be provided with a stabilitybooklet,approvedby the Administation,


whichcontainssufficientintoinatan to errablethe masterto opente the shipin compliance
with the apdicabb equircnbfts cgntainedin tllP-Code. The Adminislration may have
additionalrequitements.On a mobile offshorediling unit, the stabilitybooldotmay be
rcfened to as an openting manual. The stabilitybooldetmay include intomation on
bngitudinal*eryth. ThisCoaleaddrcssesonly thestability-relaledcontentsof thebooklet.

2.1.3 Thefotmatof the stabilityboonet and the infomationincludedwinvarydependenton the


shiptypeand opention. ln developitqthe stabilitybd4et, considerationshouldbe given
to includingthefolloMnghtomation:
.1 a gercal descdptionofthe ship;
.2 insttuctions on the useof theb@y,let:
.3 geM.al anatgenent dans showing wate ight @npafunenE, c/osures,venlq
downfloodingangles,ptmanent balasi alowable deck loadingsand fteeboard
cliagftms;
.4 hydtostaticcuves ot tables and ctoss<utvesof itabiltty cabulatedon a frce-
timning basis, for the nnges of displacdnentand trin anticipatedin notmal
opetutingconahfrons:
.5 capacilydan ot tablesshowingcapacitiesand cen[es of gravityfor each cargo
sic$€ge9ac€;
.6 tank soundingtablesshowingcapacities,centrcsof graviy, and ftee snlace dak
lor eachlank:
.7 infotmationon loadingrestictions,suchas naximumKG or minimumGM cuve or
tablethatcanbe usedto detetminecompliancewiththeapplicableslabilitycrftena:
.8 \tandard operating conditionsand examples fot developingother acceptable
loaditEcAtikions rr,sing theinfon ationcontainedin the gabilitybooklet
.9 a btiel desciptionof the stabililycalculationsdone,includingassumption':
.10 genetal ecautionsfur preventingunintentional flooding;
.11 infomation conceming the use of any spectal ./oss-flooding fiftings wik
descifii'.ns of damageconditionswhichmay'equirc cross-ff@ding;
.12 any other necessatyguidancefor the safeopefttion of the shipundernotmaland
eneeency conditions:
.13 a tableof contenlsand indexfor eachb(nklet
.14 incliningtest rcpotlfor the ship,oE
.14.1 wherethe stabilitydataare basedon a sistership,the incliningtest @portof
that si'ter shipalong wnhthe light-shipmeasurementrepoi for the ship in
quesbn;or
.14.2 wlEt€re lL)ht-shippatlicularsare detemined by other nethocls than from
incliningof the shipot its ststet a summaryofthe methodusedto aletetmine
thoseDarticulars:
.15 recommendation for detetminationof ship's $ability by means of an in-seNice
ncliningtest.

Regulation2.2 allowsfor the provisionof an approvedstability-cabulating programto supplement


he aboveinformationrequirements bul il is nol compulsorythat one be provided.
Schedufe6 of MSN 1752 (M) (which accoryrpanies the M.S. (Load Line) Regulalions1998\,
applicableto UK registeredships, shotid be consulled by studentssfudyingfor the MCA
examinalions,
CLASS21 STABIUTY- SECnON19- lndining E peirenl 216
,I9.2 THEINCLINING
EXPERIMENT

19.21 Purpose
Chapter7 Regulation7.1.'1of the de requiresthal everypassengership regiardless of sizeand
everycargoship of 24 m or over be inclinedon @mpletionin orderto determinethe valueof the
KG in the light condition.thb must be detemined accuratelybec€usetrle light KG and
valuesare the basisfromwhichthe KG is deleminedfor everyolher condilion.An
displacernent
enor in the KG calculatedfor any conditionof loadingwill resuh in all sliabilrtyparam€ters
dependanton this value being incorect also i.e. GM, GZ valles and dynamicalsLability
pararn€ters
will be in enor.

Duringlhe experimentthe longitudinalposilionof the centreof gravity(LCG)for the lightconditio.l


will alsobe determined.
L- 19.2.2Cdculation of KG in the inclined condition
wheninclin€d.
condition
It is unlikelythallhe shipwill be in the truelightdisplacem€nt Ofrenthe
experiment will be conducted whenthe shipis nearcompletion. usuallytowardsthe end ot the
fttjng out stage.Oncethe KG and displa@menthas beendeteminedfor the inclinedcondilion,
any weighlsthat rermin still to comeon board,oabe r€rnoved,musi lhen be accounledfor and
alsothe effecb of anyfree liquidsurfacesmustbe consideredfor slacktankspresentat the lime of
lhe expeiment.

19.2.2.1 Dedyatlonof dE inclining experimentformula


Priorto startrngthe exp€rimentthe shipmustbe
exacty updght to ensure that the centre of
g€viv, G, is on lhe cenfe line. Figure19.'1
l shows that f a known weight is then shifred
l€nsverselyacrosslhe deckthrougha c€rtain
distancein metres.G will move off the centre
lineto Gr,causingtheshipto list.
l
ThedistanceGGNis calculatedby the formula:
j GGH=g.q (1)
w
Fig.19.1
lf a plumbline is suspendedat O sucfi that il
crossesa battenal X, then as the ship lists a
deieclion XY will be observed and can be
measured (figure19.2).

TianglesMGGHand OXYare similat.

!-
In tiangle MGGr: Tane = qeP = @"
ADJ GM
1 In triangleOXY: Tan€ = qPP = &
l_ ADJ OX
I Therefore 998 = xY
L- GM OX
Fi1.19.2
so: GGH= Deflectionofthe pendulum
Gl\4 Pendulum length
thisgives:
Rearranging (21
Dofec{ion of the pendulum
class zl STABILITY sEcnoN 19 IndiningE4.nm€nl 217
lormulae(1)and(2)gives:
Combining
W x Deflection

The GM in the inclined condilion will be a talid 6M as it will include the etfecb ot any free liquid
surfacesin slackianks.

Having calculatedth€ efiective GM as inclined: KG-K[-G

whereKM is obtainedfiom the ship'shydrostaticdatafor the lrue meandraughtas c€lculatsdftom


the observeddraughts(Calculation
of the t/rreaEan drauglt is discussedin Section20).
Examote1
A shipinitialy upt4ththasa clisplacement of U20 tonnesand KM of 7.42m as asceftainedftom
the ship'shdroslatic pafticulars.An incliningweightof 10bnnes is movedtransversery
acrosslhe
deckthrougha disknce of 12-4n- Deflectionin a pgndLum 8.0 netes in lengthis obseNedto be
14.2cm. CelculatetheeffectiveKG of the shipin the inclinedcondilion.

Sorutirn
CalculatecM as inclined: GM =wxd x Pendulumlenqth GM = 19_4J24_4-9!= 1.088n
W x Deflecti<rn Um x 0.142

CalculateKG as inctined:
KG = KM- GM; KG = 7.420- 1.088= 6.332m&es (Ans)

In Factice,morethan one pendulumwill be us€dwherebymeandefectionvalueswill be usedfor


the calculationof the GM.
19.2.2.2 Calcu/Etionof the ship's aclueltight KG aN dlsplacement --
Chapier7 Regulation7.2.4of the Codedefinesthe lighlshipconditionas being:
the ship completein all respects,bul withoutconsumabrigs,
sfores,cargo,crewand effects.and
withoutany lquids oo board except that nachinery and pipingffuids, such as lubricantsand
hydnulbs are at operatinglevels.
Carefulnote shouldbe rnadeof this definitionas itemssuchas 'waterin the bdler at operating
level'and its associatedfree surfacemomentsare ofrenmistakenlyrernovedin the KG calqrlalion
when reducing the indined conditionto the true light displacementvalues in examinalion
questions.

Example2
A Ro-Royesse/,blo be lrclh@dat a displacenenlof 11100t, KM 11.70n. Duing the expeiment
Iiquidin the tanksare as follows:

tlo.3 DB (sreht cont'Ir's 1101SWbdl'6a (RD1.O2qfte s/,,'f'Gcnto'r'e gna-n b6b FW)


llo. l DB (slack) contatns38 t or ruel oil (RD0.8q (frE€ sutte,cemdn6 670t+n, basls FW

Thenovementof 14t througha ?ansve6edistanceof 22.2m causesa 15.2cmdeflectionof a 12


m longpenalulum-
hl Calanlatethe etrectiveKG as indined.
(b) Thefoll'tt/ingchangesare requiredto bringthe shipto the lightcondition:
Discharye: 28t incliningweithb, Kg 16.0n
41 t equipnBnt,Kg 9.0m
110t Sw ba ast,Kg 1.1m
38 t firelon,Kg 0.9n
Load: 19t machinery,l<g5.5m
Calculatethe lighbhipdisplacement and liflhtshipKG.
CLASS21 STAA|LITY- SECnON1S- lmlinnE Experimnl Z1A
I
L-

t-- Soruton
(a) CalculateGMas idined: GM = yZ!!]j29@4!PJeM GM = 1!Z-422129= 2 211n
W xDefredion 11100x0.152
I CabulateKG as inclined:
KG = KM- GM; KG= 11.700-2.211= 9.189m (A^.)

(b) The free sLnfa@nlomentsas givenare basrsFry. Thesemustfrrslbe coffectedto give


vahEsapprcpiateto theaclualdensv of theliquidin the slacktanks.

SW balkstIRD1.02d = 800x 1.025= gntun


ActualFSM'S
I
1.0@

Fueloil (RD0.88) ActualFSM'S= 670x g&= 590trn


1.000

Take momentsabout the keel to cahulate the lightshipKG and displa.Emenl.

| 110l) 105324

L-

i
L__ -5SO
105
to{o2 9l5l 10:1051
L_
Lightshipdisplacenant= 10902a(Ans)
LightshipKG = 9.152m (Ans)
L-
lgQ The ftee surfacernomenlsmust also be removed,since in tho lightshipconditjon,if all the
ianksare empty.nofreesurfacernomenlscanexist!
I
19.23 Prcpa,atiots for he inclining @t
Beforethe indiningtesl can be donethe ship'spersonnelrnaybe requiredto assistin the follo\a/ing
preparalions:
L_
(1) The ship shouldbe mooredin quiel shelteredwalers free from the effectsof passing
vessels.Theremustbe adequatedepthof $/aterto ensurelhat the shipwill not contactlhe
botlomduringthe inclinalion.
(2') Mooringsshould be slack and any shore side gangwayshndedto allow unreslricted
heeling.
(3) All temporarymal€daland €quipnEntsuchas toolbox€s,staging,weldingequiprnentetc.
I should be redlced to an absoluteminimum.Excesscrew and personnelnot directly
t- involvedin lhe testshouldbe sentashore.
(4) All fittingsand equipmenlsuchas accommodalion ladders,lifeboatsand denickdcranes
shor,rld positions.
be stor/edin theirnormalseagoing

(5) All tanksshouldbe veffed as beingcomdetelyemptyor full. The numberof slacktanks


shouldbe keptto an absoluteminimum.ldeallytankswith ec{arEularfiee surfacesshould
onlyb€ slackso thatthe freesurfaceeffectcan be accuratelydetermin€d.Slacktanksmusl
hav6lhe conlenbacdrratelydetermin€d withrespeclto liquidmassand Kg.

l_
CTASS2t1 STABIUIY SECTIOiI19 IndiningExp.riMl 219
!
L-
(6) Decksshouldbe free of waler.Any waler trappedon deckwill move duringthe test and
reducethe acdracy of lhe resuh.Snor and ice muslalsobe removed.
l7l Thefollowinginformationmustbeprovidedto lhe personin chargeof the incliningtest:
(a) linesplan;
(b) hydrostaticcuNesor hydrostatic data;
(c) generalarrangement plan;
(d) capacityplanshorringthe VCGand LCGof all cargospaces,tanksetc. Whenthe
ship is to be inclinedusingballaslwaiertransferlh€ lransverseand verticalceilres
ot gravityfor the applicabletanks,tor eacl,angleof inclination,mustbe available;
(e) tanksounding tables;
(f) draughlmarkloc€lionsiand
(S) dockingdrawingwith keelprofleand draughtmaft conections(if available).
(8) Effcient two-waycomnunicalionmustbe establishedb€tweena personin cfiargeof lhe
operalionat the cenlralcontrolsiation,tho w€ighlhandlersand eachpendulumslaton.
19.2.1Prccaullonsbken by 8E surveyor b ensurc .ccuracy of rhe calcuta$on
Annex1 of the Codeprovidesdetailedguidancelor the conductot an indiningtest and lhis should
to ensurean accuEteresullare summadsedas follows:
be refenedto. Therequiremenls
1) The ship shouldbe as completeas possibleat the tirneof the test. The massand Kg of
itemsrerminingto be fitted mustbe accuratelyknown,if this is nol the casefor any item,
the testshouldbe conductedafterthe itemin ouestionhas beenftted-
2) Theshipmustbe as uprightas poGsible and havesufficientdraughtlo avoidanysignificanl
changesin walef planeareaas the ship is listed.A deviatioflfrom designlnm of up to 1%
of LBP is normallyacceptablewhen using hydroGtatcdat€ caldiated for a dqsigntim.
Othe{wise,the hydrostaticdata shouldbe calculatedfor the actuallrim oI he shipdudng
lhc cxDedment

3) The massofthe incliningweight(s)used shouldbe sufficientto providea minimumlistof 10


and a maximum lisl of 40 lo eadr side. This is to ensure that the formula: Tan 0rr = 9.9r
GM
rernains valid, being applic€ble lo small angles of inclination oaly. The inclining w€ights
themselves musl be marked with an identification number and their mass. Re-certifcation
of the test weights should be canied out pdor to the inclining-
As an allemalive to the use of indining weights, wat€r ballast transter may be canied out, if
acceptableto the Administration.This method will be more appropdateon very large ships.

4) The us€ of three pendulums (but no less than two) is recommendedlo allow bad rcadings
at any one staton to be idenlifred.The pendulum weighl should be suspended in a trough
of hydraulicoil to dampen movement.The pendullms should be long enoughto give a
rneasurcd defeclion to each side of updght of at least '15cm. This will require a pendulum
length of at least 3 metes. Usually,the longer the pendulumthe grealer the accuracy of the
tesl; however,if excessivelylong pendulumsare usedon a tendership the pendulumsmay
nol setde down and the accuracy of the readings will be queslionable. On large ships with a
high GM, pendulum ler€lhs in ex@ss of lhe abov6. recommendd lenglh rnay be requhed
lo obiain the minimum deflection. ln such cases the lrough should be flled with a high-
viscosityoil.
The pendulum wire should be piancwire and the top conneclion sholld allow unreslticled
rotation at the pivot point (a washer with the pendulumwire altad|ed suspended from a nail
would suffice).

5) Battens should be smooth, light coloured wood, '1-2crn thick, and should be seqrely fxed
in position to prevent inadverlent movement by the pe6on making the measurerpnts. The
batten should b€ aligned dose to the pendllum wirc but not in contact with it. A suitable
anangementis shownin figure 19.3,

CTASS2/1 STABIrY- SECTION19- Indinjio EqE@d 2m


l
I

-. !.

Fi9.19.3
6) It is recomrnended that at least fve fieetoad readings approximatelyequally spaced on
each side of the ship be taken or thal all draught rnarks (forward, aft and amidships) be
read on each side of the ship. Draught rnark readings should be taken to assrsl in
determiningthe watedine defined by freeboard readings. or to verit the vertical location of
draught marks on ships where lheir location has nol been confrmed. A small boat should
be avaiiablefor this purpose. Such eadings allo / determinalionof the displacem€ntof the
ship immediately prior to the test- Dock water denslty readings will also be taken from
sufficient deDth (not lhe surface as this may be affecbd by rain run-off) to allow the
displacemeniobtiined from the hydrostaticdaia to be conected for the actual waler density
oDseryeo.

7J The rnean draught (average of port and starboard readings taken in (6) above) should b€
calculatedfor eacfr of the localions where the freeboad and draught readingswhere taken
l and plotied on the ship's line drawings or outboard profle io ensure thal all readings are
consistent and together defne lhe conect waterline. The plot should give a straight line or a
waterline that is hogged or sagged whereby a hog/sag conecton must be determined and
applied. lf inconsistentreadingsare obtained, the freeboardsrdraughtsshould be retaken.

8) The standard test employs eight distinct weight movements whereby a straightljne plot
must be achieved as illusfated in fgure 19.4. lf a straight-lineplot is nol achieved, lhose
weight movem€ntsthat did not give an acceptableplot lnusl be repeated.

As well as calculating lhe lightship


disdacement and KG, draught and trim
readingsat the lime oflhe expefmentwillbe
us€d to determinethe ship's longitudinal
centre of gravity for the inclining condilion.
This will then be conecled by calculation to
obtainthe true lightshipLCG.

On complelion of the test a report will be


written and included as part of the ship's
stability data book.
ll-',-=f
tl I D€tted,or I
l -

FA. 19.4

CTASSZl STABILITYSECT|oN19 lndinhg Exp€drHt 21

t-
19.2.5The @casions when an inc nlng exprime aN lighfuielght sudett must be
conducted.
Chapter 7 - Regulations on whidra shipmustbe indinedand
7.1.1to 7.1.6detailstheocc€sions
is as follows:

7.1.1 Every passengershipregardlessof sizeand evorycaryq shiphaing a length,as defined


in the lntemationalConventionon Load Unes, 1966,of 24 m and upwads shouldbe
inclned upon itscompletionand the ele'rentsof its stabilitydetermined.
7.1.2 Whercany akerationsaE made to a shipsa as to mateially atrectthe slability,the $ip
shouldbe re-inctined.

7.1.3 At periodicini€valsnot exceedingfiveyears,a light-weightsurveyshouldbe carriedoul on


arlpassengersfiips lo veify any changesin luhtshipdisplacengntand longitudinalcentre
of gtavity. The ship shoud be rc-inclinedwhenever,in @nwison with the approved
stabilityinfomation, a deviatbn f@m the light-shipdisplacementexceeding20/6or a
deviationof thelongittdinal centrcof gnvity exceeding1%of L is found,or aiticipded-

7.1.4 The Adninistalion may allow the inclining test of an indlvidualship as rcquhed by
paragnph 7.1.1to be dispensedwith providedba$c stabw data ae availablefom the
incliningtesl of a sislet ship and it is shownto the satisfadionof the Administmtionthat
reliablestabilv kfomation for theexemptedshipcanbe obtainedftom suchbasicdata.
7.1.5 Th6 Administrafion may allow lle hblining test of an indivklualship or c/ass of slt,ios
especiay designedtot the catriageof liquidsor ore h bulk to be dispensd with whon
refercnce to existingdata for similar ships cleady indicatesthat, due to the ship's
propotlionsand affangement' more thansufrcfutt metacentticheoft wi be availablein
aI probableloadingconditions.

7-1.6 The indinhv test prcscibed is adapta e fot shipswith a leng[l below 24 n it sftecid
precaulionsare lakento ensurethe accuracyd the testproceclure.

Annex3 of the Codedetailsa meansof approximalely determiningthe initialstability(GM)of small


shipsupto 70 m in lenglhby consideralionof the rollingpedod.

CTASS 21 STABIIIY- SECTION 19 - Indini€ ElqEri@nl 222


SECTION20 - TRIMUSINGHYDROSTATIC
DATA

INTRODUCNON
Thisseclioninfoduc€sthe methodsusedfor calcltlatinglrim in realsituations.Useis r|ade of the
hydroslalicparticufars
foundanthe stabilitydaLabooklor M.V. Almarp'or'ided-

i Sludentsare ofren unsureas to the level of accuracyrequiredwhen using hydrostatcdala.


Considerthe exlractfromth€ hydrostaticparticularslot M.V.AlmeL

DRAUGIIT DlsPt,. TPC MCIC I,cB IS KA XML KMT

l l5
l l0l 81.26 1.60 14.58
1.20 l 8171 14)3
l 8?33 LJI 5ll 11.92
't3.62
3 37.:12 37.11
87.t2 t.3l 11.32

For consistencythe acdracy used when intelpolating tor hydrostaticvalues in lhis seclion shall be
as follows:
' DraLghts wi be cdculated to three decimal places e.g. 7.236 n.
' A other hydtostatb data vahtes wil be calculatedto the samenumbet of decimal places as
adopted in the table.
' Wtten cahLlating noment' values will be rcunded to the nearestwhole number
I

Leamirrg Obl*tiv*
On complelionof this sectionthe leamer will ad eve the follot /ing:
l_ 1. Underslandthe termsArilhnetb ,tean Drawht (AMD)and TrueMeanDraught(TMD)and
recognisethe importanceof usinglhe true meandraughtfor oblaininglhe ship'saclual
displacement whentrimmed.
i 2.
3.
Calculatethe truemeandraughtfor a trimmedship.
Calculalelhe inal draughtstor a ship when loadingand/ordisdrargingweightsby taking
monentsaboulthe meanLCFusinghydroslalicdata.
4. Calcirlalelhe final draughts for a ship when loading and/or dischargingweights by
L-- consideration of the relativepositionsof the longifudinalcentreof buoyancy(LCB)and the
longiludinalcentreof gravity(LCG)usinghydrostalicdata.
5. conducta vadetyof calculalionsthat mightbe encountered in examinalionsitualions.
L 6. Caldiate the changeof draughtandtrimdueto changein waterdensity.

L
L
L
L CLASS2y' SIAAUTY SEC]lo,,l20 Tnmusg hldosd"daL 223

L
- DISPLACEMENT
20.1 TRUEMEANDRAUGHT WHENTRII{IIED

m.1.1 True meanatraughawhen LCFis amidships


A ship'shydrostalicparticularswill only be accuratefor lhe condrironof idm assumed.Thiswill be
the casefor tho6eprovidedloaM,V. Almarwherelhe cautjonarynotegivenstates:
'Thesehydrostaticshavebeendevelopedwiththe vesselfloatingon an evenkeel'.

lf the LCF is amidsripslhe displacementgivenwhenenteringthe hydostalic particularswith the


Afthneth MeanDraught(AMD)will alwaysbe corect, wher€:
A D = Drauohtat FE + Drauohtat AP

Considerthe shipsholvnioating on
an even keel with lhe longitudinal
centre of iotation (F) amidships
where a weighl is mov€d along the
oecK.

The waledine will rotate about F


wherethe draughtamidships,being
the anlhrnelic mean draught
(Al\4D), will be lhe same as the Fig.m.1
drdught al F, known as the Irue
Mean Dnught (TMD).

Whenthe LCF is amidships: T D=A D

mi2 fnte meendreught whenLCF is not dnidships


Considerationof the hydrostalic
parliculars shows that the
posilionof the LCF cianges wilh
draughl-The positionof the LCF
is seldomamidships.

Figure20.2 showsa ship where


the LCFis a,?of amdsh,,;Ds. o

Fig.m2
lf the weight is rnoved aft the
walerlinewill mtate about F as
shown.In this c€se th€ draught
amidships, being the AMD,
reduces.Entedngthe hydroslatc
particularswif| this reducedAMD
will resull in a /esser
displacementvaluelhal will be in

Fig.2O.3
The enor jn the displacem€ntwill be equivalent to the \Neightof the slice or /ayer of waler shaded.

For this rcason the displacement value should alway, be obtained using the True Mean Draught,
being the draught al the position of the longttudinalcentre ol flotation.

The difference between the displacement obtained for the Arithmetic Mean Draught and that
obtained for lhe True Mean Draught is termed lhe layet coffection and will be addilive or
sublractrvefrom the Arithmetic Mean Draught displacementdep€nding on whelher the LCF is afl
or forward of amidshipsand whelher lhe ship is trimmed by the head or by the stem.

CLAss zl STABILITY-sEcTlON20 lm cinq hydGiali. daia 224


N1.3 CetculatingAE True MeenDraughl
The True MeanDraught(TMD)is r
easily calculated. Figure 20.4
shows a ship trimmed by the stem
with LCF a,?of amidships.

Here a conection musl be added to


the AMD to obtain lhe TMD al the t

Consider the similar fiangles Fiq.20.4

Con€ctionto AMD = Tdm


LCFfromamidships LBP
Distance
It follorvsthal: CoFection toA D=

Examole1
AshipLEP148nfroatsatdnughtsF4.60mA5.8OmandhasLCF69.0mfoap.Calculatethe
TtueMeanDnught.

Sohrtbn
ddiTsimple s*etchl
fMD=AMD+Corection

AMD= 4.60+ 5.80 = 5.20n


2

Conectionto AMD
! Timrd = 1.20xft4.0- 69.014.41m
IBP 148
Fig.m.5
I Thercfore;TnE MeanDnLqht = 5.m0 + 0.U1 = 5.U1 m (Ans)

ln all cas6s the coreclion to the ALilDwill be addedor srbfracted depending on lwo factors:
I
(1) whetherthe ship is timned by the head ot bythe stem;
(2) whethet LCF is foNard or aft of amidships.

Considerthe fourpossibilitesshol ,n in figure20.6.

r*
0 {
(1) Ship tinme<l by stem, LCF afl (2) Ship Limned by stem, LCF
tol1,/ento, amidshlps:

fttD=AUD+Corectton ftD=AtlD-Corection

CLASS2/1 STAaTTY SECTIONm - Tnm usinohydDslatcr,ala u5


d

(E ship trinned by haad, LCF ah 0 shlp rrimmed by t'€ad, LcF


ot amidships: lofla..l of amidships:

fllD=AUD-Cot'€ction fnD=AnD+Coflection

Fig.m .6
Exan Dle2
A shipLBF 120n floatsat drarghtsF 4.62 m A 5.40m. Calculatetl?€true meandnught if tlre
LCFis 66mfoap.
glution
TMD=AMD-Conection
,l--r.r--.--..-
AMD= 4.62+ 5.40 = 5.01n
";-'---------#;=_==
Cbrrectionto AMD= EnJ!.
LgP I
qf,gjJ@9lAgP) = 0.0sen
1m Fig. 20.7

Thetefore; TrrEMeanDraugllt= 5.010- 0.039 = 1.971 m (Ans)


Example3
A ship LBF 166 m floats at draughE F 7.32 m A 6.84 m. Calculate lhe hE mean daught if the
LCF is 80 m foap.

So/uton
fMD = AMD'Coftection

AMD=z32:_93!= 7.08
n
2

Conectbnto AMD= I4LL{


LBP

0.48x (83.0- 80.0 = 0.009n Fi,.20.8


166
Theteforc; Ttue Mean Dnught = 7.080 - 0.009 = 7.071 m (Ans)

Provided that a simple sketch is made lhis method shown for caloiating the true mean draughl is
very useful because the formula can be easily dedved. Ho,ever, lhe following formula may be
us€d as an allemative providedthat it is applied exactly in the form in which it is stated b€low:

T M D = d a - f t d a - d H r L c Ft o a DI
L--EBF )
cfrss - sEcTloN 20- Tnm6Dg hyaGiatc dala
2/1 STABILITY
l
t-

where: dA is lhe draught aff;


dF is the draught forwad;
LCF foap is the positio.rol lhe LCF expressed as being so many metres foMard of the afl
perrrendiculaI
LBP is the length betweenperpendiculars.

It is importar thal lhe epression (dA - dF) is lefr as it is and not reversed. lf lhe lrim is by the
head then (dA - dF) will give a tegalive value

Considerlhe previous examples(2 & 3) calculatedusing this formula.

Example 4
A shh LBP lm n floats at draugltts F 4.62 m A 5.40 m. Calculate the hue nean dnught if the
LCF is 66 m foao.

( ue-an 'tcrwp )
LrBP )
TMD=5.40-( rc.aO
- t.AZt" aA]|
l l n l
TMD=5.40-| 0.78'66 |
l1n )
ThlD=1.971m(Ans)

Example5
A *ip LBP 166m floab at dtaughtsF 7.32m A 6.U m. Calculatethe tnle meandftught if the
LCFis 80 m foap.
L
Solution
To = ae - | MA - dH, LcF roap I
I LBP I
! -,/
TMD= 6.84- ( 6.A-t.SZ .eO]|
166
L l
!
l
_,/
TMo=6.u-(-0.c8" ao]|
I t66 |
L TMD=6.84-C0.231)
l - /

TMD=6.84+0.231
L TUD=7.071m(Ans)
formulawill be usedfor calculatjngthe lrue meandraughtin all the following
The aforemenlion€d
L examplesthat appear in this section.If you prefer the previousmelhod then use that, but
rememberto drawa sketchto ensurethatlhe coneciionis appliedlhe conectwayl

L
L
L GLASS 2l1 STAATLIY - SECTION 20 - Tim cinq hydGrdic dar. 227

L
m2 DATA - TAKll,lG ]{OMENTSABOUT
TRIM CALCULATIONSUSINGHYDROSTATIC
THEMEANLCF
'fiE
hydrostaticpafticulaBin the trim and stabiliv bcc,u<let
fot M.V.Almarwill be usedthroughout
the remaind€rof this section.Whenloadingand dischargingweights,if the differencebetweenthe
initialdraughtand finaldraughtis substantial,it is ess€ntialthat mea, hJdtostalicvaruesare used
io ensureas ac.uate an answgras pGsible is obtainedfor the fnal draughts.Intemolaiionwill
alsobe necessaryfor exhaclinginlermediatedalavaluesnottabulated.
The frst approachto sofuingfim problemsis by the rn€thodusedin Section12 - lntroductionto
hi?r, \ /heremornentsarc takenabod th€ LCF

The scenariolo be consideredis as follows- M.V. Almar amvesin pod with cerlaindraughts
foMard and afr. Cargois $/orked,beingdischargedand/orloaded.The anticipatsddralghts on
completionof caBo must be caldlated and if necessary.ballastmay haveto tte transferredto
ensurea suitabletim for deparlure.
The procedurefor calculationby takingmomentsaboutthe meanLCFis as follows:
'1. CafoJfate the irdralttue meandraught(TMD).
2. Enierlhe hydrostaticparticularswith the initialTMD and oblainva|J6 fo( Displacement,
MCTCandLCF position,interpolatingas necessary-
3. Cafo.ialethe rinaldisplacenent.
4. Enterthe hydrostaticparlidlars wltn the final displacementvalue and obtainvaluesfor
TMD,MCTCand LCFposilion,interpolating as necessary-
5. Calcufalethe meanMCTCandmeanLCFposrfirnvalues.
6. Take mornentsaboutthe mea, LCF posiltonto detenninethe net fimming momenb(by
the heador by the stem).
7. Usinglhe rn€anMCIC value,caldiate the changeof tim (COl).
8. Applythe COTcalculatedin (7)to the t tL'allim and caldiale the ,ital t im of the ship.
9. Calculatethe changeof draughtsaff and forwarddue to trim (Ta and Tf) by apMior ng
the ,iral tnimin accordancewiththe posilionottlre LCFfot thefnal watedine. -
10. ApplyTa and Tf to the fnal TMD that was obtainedin (4) to obtainthe fnal antidpated
draughts.
11. lf necessarycalculatethe changeof lrim requiredto bdngthe shipto the desireddepa.lure
trim,andusingthe formuta: COT= ql_d
MCTC
catculalethe weightof ballastto be transfenedbetweenthe ciossn tanks.
Followexample6 refeningto the hydrostaticpanicula6wherenecessary.

Examph6
M.V.Almarafiivesin port wilhdraughtsF 4.@ m A 4.20m.
Caryois to be loadedas bllows:
Holdl,lo. 1 1400t at lcg 144.94n foap:
Hold No.3 t300 t at lcg 103.94n toap:
Hold No.5 31M t at kg 62.05n foap;
Hold No.6 3285t at lq 42.31m foap;
(a) Calculatethefrnaldraughts.
(b) Calculatethe vlei!)htof bdtastto transferftom 6 P+S DB batlasttank(bg 42.19m foap)to
the torc peak tank(bg 162.U m foap)to ensurethat the shipsailswitha trim of 0.60m by
the stem.
- seegeneralpaiicularcin slabilitydatabook.)
(LBPis 167.87mfor a calculations

ctass 21 sTra[|TY - SECIDN 20- Tdm usinghydbsrar. dat]a 2a


Solutknh]
(1) CalculateinitialTMD AMD=4g:14 = 4.10m
2
Enter data wtth AMD and ohtain awrcximate LCF posilion.
AMD 4.1o m: LCF = 86.78 m foap. Use lhis to calculate the TMD.

T M D= d A -( H A - d F ) , r c F f o a p l
I L B P I
I -,/
ruo=t.zo-( o.2o' e6.78]|
I tat.et l
I - /
TMD= 4.2(n- 0.103= +N7 m
(2) EnterdatawithTMD4.097m
= 11930+ (310x QIDI = 12231t
lnitialdisplacement

MCTC= 308t-n (nointeryolationneedod)

LCF = B6.86+ (-0 08 x 9@Z) = 86.78m foap


0.1
(3) Calculatethelinal displacement

3285
ztltb

(4) Enterdatawilhfinaldisplacenenl22920t
TMD= 7.4oam; MCTC=343ta; LCF= 85.19mfoap.
(Noinbtpolationneeded)

(5) CalculatemeanMCTCand meanLCF

MeanMCTC= 3991,3!3 = 325.5t-m.Use326 t-m


2
MeanLCF = 99Zgl@L9= 85.985n firap.Use85.99m toap
2
(6) Takemomentsabautthe meanLCF positiontatdetetmnenet tnmmngmornents

85.99

a5so 6205 23.94


3245 85.99 4231 43.64 143489
134545

at211
(7) Calculatethe changeof lim usingthemeanMCTC
COT(cms)= TdmminsnomenE = 9324 = 2553 cns
MCTCTaN 326
COT .2553 m by lhe stem
Ct ss zl sTABlLlry SECTON20 Tnm Ginq hldbslrlic dara 2n
L_
18) Calculatethe finaltnm

lnitialtrim 0.m0m bythestem


COT(bythe 61en) 2.553m
FINALTRIM 2.753m bythestem
(9) Apponionthe tinaltim usingthe LCFpositionfot thefinal watedine.

Ta= COTx jTa = 2.753x 85.19 = 1.397n


LBP 167.87

Tf = COT- Ta fi = 2.753- 1.397 =1.356m

(10) AWIy Taand Tt to the finalTMDto ohkin frnaldtaughts.

1.356 1 397
6r',,. t.ttt

Solutionb)
Trimon conMion ot caeo 2.753m by the sr€.m
ReSui.Bd
cOT.equired 2.153m bv theHEAD

COT(cns) = Y4 215.3=wx (16204- 42.19)


MCTC u3
215.3=wx 119.85 w = 616,2bnnes b tansrer (An3)
u3

CLASSZ I STAB||rv . SECTION20 - Idn ciE hydGi.tc d# 230


I OATA - TNT BY CONSIDERAT}ON
USINGHYOROSTATIC OF
20.3 TRIII CALCULATIONS
THERELATIVE POSMONSOFTHELCBANDLCG

l-
Usingmeanvaluesof MCTCand the LCF positioncertainlyimprovesaccuracy\flhencalculaling
whenusinglhe mea, valuesof MCTCand LCFposton il is assumed
tlle fnal draughts.Horvever,
that their vafueswill changelinealy betweenlhe draughtsconcemed.This is rarely the case
I becausethe shapeof a slip's hullseldomchangeslin€adywithdraught- the hull is curvedin form,
especiallyat the ends.
Anotherploblemwith takingmomers aboutlhe positimof the LCF is that it is easyto mistakenly
applythe momentsof individualweightsin the tablethe wrongway.We haveall doneit and it c€n
be veryfrustating.

An altemaliveapproachto trim problemsis to consklerthe relalivepo6itionsof the LCBand LCG


whenlhe shipis momentarily 'held'in the 6venkeelcondition.Thehorizontaldistancebetwe€nlhe
LcB and LCG representsa timming bver whid\, whenmultipliedby the disdacementgives a
ualtf-d timming momenf.Kno /ledgeof this andthe MCTCfor the evenkeelwaterlinein question
will allofl the changeof trimfromihe €venkeel,the acfual/r,rr, lo bedetermined.
This apwach is always adofied when
dealing with tnm calculationsin real
sifuatkms,wth a few exceptbnswhere
thepreviousmethodmightbe considered

Let us now considerihis easierand more


accurateapproacil.

Figure20.9illusl€tes a shipfloatingon an
eve, keelwitha weighton deck.

Fb.20.9
For the ship to ioat at ev6n keel it c€n be seen that the longitudinalposrtionsof the centreof
gravity(LCG)andthe centreof buoyancy(LCB)mustbeihe same

Theweighlis movedaff causinga movemsntof G to q GCG movesafr). GC, = Wl-d


L- w
Therefore: GG.xW=wxd
where: GG,xW=Trimmingmoment=wxd

GGj is the horizontal distance between the LCB and the LCG. reptesenting a trimming leverthal
will act to trim the ship by the slem.

Since: COT(cms)= Trimminomoment


MCTC
tnechangeof tim fromeve, kee,maybe calculatedusing:
cor'*e"r'** =El!9g:Sl
t{cTc
where:'yf is the displacemenl
of the ship;
'([GB-LCGI is tle horizontaldistancebelweenthe LCB and fhe LCG that exists
whentheshipis'heldal evenkeel;
ATCIC'istheMCTCvalueforthecunentdraught.

ctAss 2l STAaUTY SEcIloN 20- Tnmusinghydcialic dala 231


i
L_
In orderto calculatethe positionof the LCGfor lhe fnal loadedcondilionmomenlsare takenaboul
the aft perpendicdarin exacdythe sameway as they would b€ taken aboutthe keel lo fnd the
inal KG.

Considerexample7 whereM-y. A/maris iniliallyon an evenkeelp.iorto loadingcargo.

m3.1 Calculaainglhe finatd,eught- ship iniaialtyon an evenkd

Example7
M.V.Almarhasan evenl<eddraughtof 5.10n. Cargois wo*ed as follows:
Discharge356t homlcg 148m toap;
Discharge4A t fromlcg 59 n foap;
Load566t at lcg 120m foap;
Load800t aI lcg 102m foap;
Load2@ t at LA 81 m foap;
Lod 16@t at lcg 44 n toap.
CalculatethefrnaldraughE.
Soll/iion
(1) CalculatetheinitialTMD
Becausethe shipis on an ewn kol:AMD = TMD= 5.100m
(2) Entetdatawith TMDandobtainDisplacement and LCBvalues
lnitialdisplacement
is 1*40 t
LCBis 87.09m foap.
Becausethe shipis on an evenkeelthe positionsd the LCBatfi LCGwi be the same.

Therebre:
lnitialLCG position= LCBposilion= 87.09m toap
(3) TakemomentsabouttheAP to findthe frnalLCG position.
l€

1600 44 00 7040t)
lt6a6 1511266

(4) Enter data with final displacementand obtajn TMD, MCTC. LCB and LCF posilions.
Finat TMD = 5 80 + (0.1 x 1!9) = 5.847 m
fia
MC|C=319t-n LCB=86.98mfoap

LCF = 86.12+ (0.43 x 11j) = 86.11 m foap


330

(5) Calculatethe change of tim from even keel for the final condntan.
= w I LCB-LCG)
coTFRoNEw (EEL
MCTC

COTFRNEw xEE= 17846 | (86.98 -U.29) = 150.5 cms


319

CtaSS2'STABIITY SFCTIOiIm Tnn us'nghydcblt dst 232


i_

Asimple sketchwi indicate whether the COT is by the head or by the stem-

L. aP

F- 86eEm
i_ Thc shtpwi ttin by ahesrem.

|<- E4.29m

Fig.m.l0
L-
(6) Appoidbnthe changeof trim from even keelto the forwad and aft d6ughls, applyingTa
and fl to lhe finalevenkeeldraught(TMD).
Ta=COTxB Ta= 150.5x Eg11 =77.2cms=0.772m
LBP 167.87
-77.2 = 73.3cms= 0.733m
Tf = COT- Ta n = 150.5

o772
5.fi4 6.61S

m32 Celculs'dngtt e frnetdnught - shiP initia y trimmed


lf the ship is initiallylrimmedthenthe LCBand LCGmustbe in difierentposilionslo causelhe ship
to trim from the eien keel condition.In this situationthe initial true meandraughtmust frst be
calculatedand the hydrostalicdaiaenteredto determineinital valuesof disdacenrent,MCTCand
, the LCBposition.Obviouslythe directionof trim,lvhetherby lhe heador slem,will be known

Usngthe formula:
COTFrcMEK=wx(LCB-LCG)
MCTC

, willallowthe initialtrimminglevercausingthe trim,(LCB-LCG),to be calculated.Knowledgeof the


L- direction of tim will allow the value of (LCB-LCG) to be applied to the initial LCB to obtain an initial
value of the oositionof LCG.

I To allow comoarison of the two differenl methods, example 6 will be reworked using the
(LCB-LCG)rnelhod.

ExampleI (sameas examole6)


M.V.Almaranivesin pft withdtaughEF 4.00m A 4.20m.
Camois to be loadedas bllows:
l- HoldNo.1 1400t at lcg 144.94m foap:
Holdl,lo.3 2900t at lcg 103.94m foap:
Holdl,lo.5 3104t at k4 62.05m foaq:
l_ Holdl,lo.6 3285t at lcg 42.31n foap:
(a) Calalale thefrnaldnughts.

CLASS21 STABILITY SECTIo|I20 Tnm usinshldoslabc daia 233


(b) Calculate the weight of ballastto transfer ftun 6 P+S DB bdlast tdlk (lcg 42.19 n foap) to
the forc peak tank (lq 162.04n foap) to ensure that the ship sails with a bim of 0.N n by
the stem.

Sol,]fionh)
0) Calculateinilial TMD

AMO = 4.10n
Enter data wlh AMD and obtain LCF poskion.
LCF = 86.78m foap.
Use this to calculate the TMD. -)
TMD = dA - ( tdA - dH ' lcF toaD
I LBP I
o.2o/06.78Y
TMD=4.20\(
I rant I
TMD= 1.N7 i
(21 tuner datawithTMD4.097n
lnitialAsplacement= 11930+ (310x 9:1p9?J
= 12231t
0.1
MCTC= 308t+n LCB=87.27mfoap

(3) Calculatetheinitialtimminglevet(LCB-LCG)
CoTrew*u net= W' LCB-LCG) 20.0= 12231\LCB-LCG)
MCTC 308

(LCB'LCG)= n.0 x me = 0.50m


12231
(4) Calculateinilial LCG posttion.
The ship is trinmed by the stern.LCB h 87.27 m foap.
(LCB-LCG)is 0.50n.
AP
'l- Fv lhe ship b b4 t inne.t by Ae stem
87.27m
LcG must E att ot LcB, the.etore:

Initj:t LcG = LcB - (LC*LCG)


B
i<- Lcc toap
Fig.n.11

lnitialLCG= 87.27- 0.50= 86.77n foap


Takemomentsabolll theAP to frndthennalLCG.

3245 4231 1349€a


1807:t7

ctAss 2/1 STABLITY- sEcTloN 20- TnmusinghydGLlic d3ra 2X4


L
L- @ Enter data wkh final displacementand obtain TMD, MCTC, LCB and LCF positlons-
Final TMD = 7.400 n MCTC = 343t-n
, LCB= 86.70m foap LCF = 85.19mfoaq

t7) Calculale lhp chartse of tim from even keel for the final conddion.

1 cornoBeENKEa=wx(LcB-LCG)
r_ MCTC

\' COTfuMMKEa=22920',,86.70-82.7&=261-gcms
343
A sinple sketch wi indicate whethe.lt e COT is by the head or by lhe stem
AP

F- 86.70m
Ship eiI trim try ttta ste.n

k- -
sz.zg
F4.20.12

(8) Appoftion lhe change of tim f@m even keel to the forward and aft draughts, applyiE Ta
and Tf to the final even keel draught (TMD).

L- Ta=COTx a fa= 261.9x85.19 =132.9cms


taP lfr.ez
L- Tf= COT-TaTf=261.9-132.9 =129.0cms

t- 1290 1.329
6.ito cta
I Solu/ionh)
Tim on compbtitmof cargo 2.619m by the stem
Requied 0.600m bv the stem
L COTrequired 2.019m bv the HEAD

coT (cns) = y:!! 201.9= g-*-gg_7219


343
L MCTC
201.9= w x 119.85 w = 577.8tonnesto tnnsfer (Ans)
t u3
Note
, Theanswersobtainedusingthe previousmethodwhere:
I (a) F 6.0,{4m A 8.797m
(b) 616.2tonnes
inaccuracyin lhese answeF is c€used by the assumptionthat the hydrostaticdata changed
|'- finearlybetwe€nthe rangeof d€ughts concemedwhenmeanvaluqsof [4CTCand LCFare used
to calculatethe changeof trim. Sinceno meanvaluesare used in the (LCB-LCG)melhodthe
answersare mucnmofeaccurate.

L_
CLASS2/l 9TABllITY- SECIIONm Inm Ghq htsbsr.t. dats 7J5

I
Whencaldllatingthe draughlsand tfim for a proposedconditionof loadingit is usualto completea
'loadingstpet itemisinga/ itemsot deadweightand their momentsaboutthe aiter peDendicular.
Differentorcumstancaswill dic'tatethe appoach that sholld be adopt€d.When loadingand/or
discfErgingonlya few weightsto modirya baded condilionit may be appropriate lo start$/iththe
arival draughtsand modirythe 'loadingsh€et'lo fnd the departuredraughls.Onthe otherhand,if
the departurecondilionis goingto be significandydifferent,it may be mor€appropriateto redolhe
fuff ship cafdiaton. Examplesof this will be coveredin Ssciirt 30 - Pnc:tical shb loading

In the remainderof this seclion a number of different problems that cotnmonlyoccur in


are discussed.Takingrnomentsaboutthe LCFis olten the easieroptionto choose
examinations
aswillbeseen.

clrss 21slAB[m SECnONZ) Tnm dtrg hdmsLlic d& 26


t__ 20,4 STYLEPROBLEIISINVOLVING
VARIOUSEXATIINATION TRIM

m.41 ,taxtmum cargo to load in each space for the ship to cofideb at alremaximum
draught
L_ ExamoleI
M.V. Ahnat is loading a bulk cdgo in poi and has draughts F 7.36 n A 8.24 m in saft water.
Calculate the maximum amount of cargp to load in each of the spaces available so that the
L maximum draughl on depanute will be 8/n n. Space is available as follows:
No. 2 tlold, Icg 124.38m foap:
No. 6 ,|old, Icg 42.31 m foap.
(Note: the tequirement is that the maximum amount of cargo be loaded and the draught is not to
exceed 8.40 m. This means that the ship must compleE an even keel dnught ot 8.40 m.)

L Sdution (al - Takhmmoments about the nean LCF


(11 Calculateinitial TMD
AMD=7.80n
Entet data wilh AMD and obtain LCF position.
L_ LCF=84.82nfoap.
Use this to calculate the TMD.

L- TMD=dA-( tdA-dF) x LcF foaq-l


I LBP 'I
TMD= 8.24: ( 0.88 x 84.82 )
i lrct.et I
L- TMD= 7.795,i

(2) EnterdatawithfMD 7.795m


lnitialDisplacement= 23920+ (330x 9:!J9J = 24234t
o.1
MCTC= 351t-n
LCF = 84.92+ (-0.1x 9!099 = 84.83n foap
01
(4 Enterdatawithrcquied evenkeeldraught(FinalTMD)8.40m
L- Final displacement= 26270 t
LCF 84.17n foap
MCTC365t-n

(41 Calculatecaryo to load


L - lnitlaldisplacement
Cargoto load= Finaldisplacement
Cargoto load= 26270- 24234= 2036t
(5) CalculatemeanMCTCandmeanLCF

MeanMCTC= 9EL!&5 = 354Lm


2
uean LCF = gLg3l_9411- 84.50foap
2
(6) CaiculateCOTrequired
lnitialtin 0.88m by the slem
Requiredtnm 0.00m evenkeel
COTrequhed 0.88m by thehead

{7) Calculatethe requiredtrimmingmomentsto achieve this


coT= vz-!= momenE
Timmina
L_ MCTCW MCTC@N
88 = Timminq momeftts
358
Timming moments = 3150{ t m by the he.d
CTASS?]1 STAAIUTY SECTION20-Tnm usinghydrcslalEdai, 237
{d Take montentsaboutthe mean LCF
Let x = cargp to load in No.2Hold; (2036 - x) caryo to loadin |lo. 6 Hold

u.9 42.31

Requiredheadnoments(31504t-n) = lle66 nomerls - Stgmr'Drnsnls


.. 31504= 39.88x-(85899- 42.19x)
.. 31504= 39.88x-85899+ 42.19x
.. 31504+85899=39.88x+ 42.19x
.'. 117403= 82.07x
.'. x = 1131(o,nnesin l,lo.2 tlold;
(2036- 1431)= N5 tonnesln No.6 Hold (Ans)

sdution h) - Bv (LCglCG) mothodtakinoi/ronentsaboutAP


(1) Calculateinitiat7MD
AMD = 7.80m
EnterdatawilhAMDand obtainLCF position.
LCF= 84.82m foap.
Usethisto cabulatethe TMD.
fMD=dA- ( tdA-dH 'LCFfoaDil
I LBP
TMD=8.24:( O.gBt B4.O21 ,
lazat I
TMD = 7.795i

(2) Enter data with TMD 7.795 m


lnitial Displacement= 23920 + (330 x 9l!)0 = 24234 t
0.1
LCB= 86.61m foap
MCTC = 351t-n

(3) Calculatelhe initiat timming lever (LCB-LCG)


Tim = 88 cms by the stem
COTtu d4 s'€L= W, LCB-LCG) 88 = 24234 ' (LCB-LCG)
MCfC 351
(LCB-LCG)= 88 \ 351 = 1.27m
242U
(4) CalculateinitialLCG posrtton.
The shipis trimmedby the slem.LCBis 86-61m foap.
(LCB-LCG) is 1.27n.
AP

t - 86.61m Fot ship to be Mmmect by the stem LCG


nust be aft of LCB, thetetorc:

tnitiat LcG = LCB - (LCC-LCB)

Fi- LCG toap

Fig.m 13

lnitid LCG = 86.61-1.27 = 85.31 m foaD


sEcnoN20 Tnm@rcll)/d@rara
ct "ssz1STAB|LTY daia 2X
I

L- 6) Enterdatawithrequiredevenkeeldnught (FinalTMD)8.40n
Finaldisplacenent= 26270t MCTC365trn
, LCB =86.44 n foap LCF U.17 n foap
L-
n calcutate cargoto ,rad
Caqo to load = Final displacenent- lnilial clisplacement
Cago to load = 26270 - 24X4 = m36 t
|_-
(7) Determinercguied frnalLCG
To completeon even keel LCG = LCB = 86.44 n foap

f8l Takenamenls ahod lhe AP

l Let x = cargo to loac!h No.2 Hold; (20B6- x) caryo to bad in No. 6 Hold

1
42.31
26t270

Note that the final displacementand final LCG are already known-

I ''. e644= S!4-4-fr9-49a9!EJ@)


L- (t)
Finaldisplacement

.. 86.44= 2068130
+ 124.3U+ 86143-42.31x
26270

... = 2068130
2270779 + 124.38x
+ 86143-42.31x

.. 2270n9- 2068130
- 86143= 124.38x42.31x

x = 1120tu7mesin No.2 Hold;


I (2036- 1420)= 616bnnes in No.6 tlold (Ans)

Nge Againit is seenthat thereis a differencein the arswersobtainedby the difierentmethodsof


i cafcufation;t43t tor,tes in No.2 tlold and 605tonnesin No.6 Holdby Ihe previousmethodwhich
is lessaccurate.
m.42 ttaximum cargo to loaat in eech space ,or ahe ship to conplete aa tE loaat
', drsolece|'/ent wM a desired lrim

Exartple 10
1 M.V-Hmar has draryhts F 9.46 n A 10.14m in salt watet atfi is to completeloadingto the
summetdiqla@menl Thercmainitrycargois to be baded into hold no. 2 and hold no. 5. How
muchol theremainingcargomustbe loadednto aachhold fot the shipto completecaryo witha
\ trim of 0-2 m by the stem.

Sdutim (al - Takino firoments about the mean LCF


A) CalculateinitialTMD
L_
AMD =9.80n
Enter data with AMD and obtain LCF posilion
LCF = 82.70m foap.
CLASS2]1 STABILITY-SECIIONm Tdm usinqhydbsiancdai. 239
I
I
Usethisto calculatethe TMD.
TMD=dA-( HA-dFt x LcF toaD)
I LBP I
T M D = 1 0 . 1 i (- 0 . 6 8 . 8 2 . 7 0) '
l$i.a:7 I
TMD= 9.8!Em'

{2) EnterdatawithTMD9.845m
= 31090+ (350x 9p9!} = 31108t
InitialDisplacement
o.1
MCTC= 401 + (3 x 9@9 = 401 t-n
01
LCF= 82.70+(-0.1xE@9 = 82.70m foap
o.1

(3) Cahulatecargpto loa.l


Catgoto lod = Summerdispla@nent- lnitialdisplacement
Frqn shippafticdarsSunmerdisptacement= 32485t
Caryoto load= 324&5- 31108= 1377t
(4) EnterdatawithSummerdraugfu1A.24m
MCTC= 411 t-n LCF= 82.32m foap

(5) CalculatemeanMCTCandmeanLCF
MeanMcTc = 4E!:itU = 406 t-m
2
MeanLCF = 922!l_9232 = 82.51m foap
2
(6) CalculateCOI rcquhed
lnitialtim 0.68m by the stem
Requitecl trim 0.m m bv the stem
COTrcquired 0.48m by the head

O) Calculatethe requircd bimming moments ta achieve this


coT= vz-d= Tdnminqmoments
MCTCM MCTCUL4N

48 = Timminqnoments
406

Tinming moments= 7!y88 tan by the head


(8) Takemomen|.s
aboutthemeanLCF

Letx = caryoto loadin No.2Hdd; (1377- x) cargoto loadin No.5 Hoa


databook:
Fron stabih:ty lcg No.2 Hold= 124.38m foap;
lcq l,lo. 5 Hold = 62.05 n loap.

32.51
(2a173-m.46tl

CLASS2r STAB||lw sFcTloN 20 Ta Ging hydGlaticdsta 240


t_
Requircdhead mo'rents(19488t'm) = Headmoments- slem motnettts
.. 19488= 41.87x- (28173- 20.46x)
L-
.'. 19488= 41.87x- 28173+ 20.46x
.'. 19488+ 28173= 41.87x+ 20.46x
.. 47661=6233x
.- x = 765lonnes ln ^1o.2 Hold;
L (1377- 765)= 612lonnesin No.5 Hold (Ans)

Sohttionb) - Bv (LCB^LCG)methodtakinsnonenE aboutAP


t- (1) CalculateinitialTMD

AMD= 9.80m
EntetdatawithAMDandobtainLCFposilion.
LCF= 82.74nfoap.
I Usethisto cahulatethe fMD.

TMD=dA-( tdA-dfl x LCFfoap]l


I LBP I
L rMD=10.1t-( o.6s' s2.70) '
g.NS
| 1d77 I
TMD= m'

(2) EntetdatawithTMD9.805m
= 31090+ (350x 9-@.) = 31108t
lnrtialDisplacement
4.1
MCTC= 401 + (3 x 9!@9 = 4o1t-n
o.1
LCB = 85.97+ (0.M x 9.1@9= 85.97n foap
L- 0.1

(3) Calculatethe initialtrimminglever(LCB'LCG)


L Tim = 68 cmstry the stem
= W x ILCB-LCG)
COTFRaMEVENTtu 68 = 31108 x (LCB"LCG)
j MCTC 401

(LCB-LCG)=N'101 = 0-88
m
31108
(4) CalculateintttalLCGposttion.
The shipis tintmed by the stem.LCBis 85.97m foap-
L- (LCB-LCG)is 0.88n.
AP
L_ ,l+ as.gz-
Fot ship to E timnect by tlte stoft ICG
must ba an ol LCB,aherctde:

tnitiat LcG = LcB - (LcG-Lca)


L_ i

K- LCGfoae
t_
Fig.20.14

I Initial LCG = 85.974.88 = 85.0!, n Joap


ctass 2r1 sTABtLtrY sEcToN 20- Tnm usinghyd6lalE d.lt 241
(5) Calculatecaryotoloacl
Caryoto load= Summerdisplacement- lnitialdisplacement
= 32485t
Frcm shippartictiarsSummerdisplacement
Catgoto load= 32485- 31108 = 1377t
(€) EnterdatawithSummetdrarytu 14.24m
MCTC= 411 t-n LCB= 85.82m foap LCF=82.32mIoap

(7) Calculatercquired finalLCG to desired trin of 0.20 m by the stem

COTFRNtuENreEL= W t (LCB-LCG) 20 = 32485 \ (LCB-LCGI


MCTC 411

(LCB-LCG)= 20 ' 411 = 0.8 m


32485
AP

i<- 85.82 m Fq the ship to um by thQ sten LCG


nust ba zft of ahe LCB, thaftlorc:

LCG- LCB - (LcB-LcG)


B
i+ lcc roap
Fiq.20.15
Requiredfrnal LCG = 85.82- 0.25 = 85.5? n foap

(8) Takemomenbaboilhe AP
Let x = caryo to l,5adin No.2 Hold: (1377 - x) cargo to load in No. 5 tlold
From stabilv data b@k: lcg No.2 Hold = 124.38m foap;
lcg No. 5 Hold = 62.05 m f@p.
lcg

62.O5 {45443- 62 05x)


3245 t6.5'

Notethatthe fhal displacement


andfrnalLCGare alreadyknown.

.. 85.57= Sumof the momenE(tnl


(t)
Finaldisplacement

.. + 124.38x+85443- 62.05x
85.57= 2646980
32485
+ 85443- 62.05x
- 2U6980+ 124.38x
2779741
- 85443= 124.38x-62.05x
- 2646980
2779741

47318= 62.33x

x = 759fo,nn6sin No,2 Hold;


(1377- 759)= 618tonnes in No.5 Hold (Ans)

CLASSzl sTABrrlw sFcTloN 20 T n us'nghydosblt daL 242


!@ Again it is seen that lh€re is a difference in the answers obtained by the difierent methods of
cafculation;765 forres,;n No.2 Hdd; 612 tonnes in No. 5 Hold by taking moments about lhe mean
LCFwhich is lessacdiate.
I
L- b load a siryle *elght b keep the afl draught constant
m.1.3 Ulhenl.€

i Example11
L- M.V. Alnar has draughts F 4.24 n A 4.98 n and 436 tonnes of deck caryo rcmains to be k aded.
Calculate:
(a) the positionfoap to load the weight in oder that the aft draught ren ains constant
(b) the final dnught toftrad.

Soll]/io/l (a)
(1) Calculate inttial fMD

AMD = 4.61m
I Enter data with AMD and obtain LCF position.

LCF = 86.41 + (-0.03 x Qql) = 86.41n foap


o.1
L_
Use this to calculate the TMD.
I
L_-
TMD= dA- ( tdA-dn 'LCFfoaD',
I taP I
TMD=4.98:(0.74 t 86.41)
l I t-azet j
L- TMD = L599 i

(21 Enter data wilh TMD 4.599 m


'!-
lnitial Displacement= 13520 + (320 x 9999 = 13837 t
o.1
TPC= 31.U MCTC=310t-m LCF- 86.41n toap
L- NqEWiththistypeol problemil is not usuallyrequiredto use rneanhydrostalicvalues.

i (3) Considerfigure20.16

lf the 436 tonnes of cargo is initially


loaded at the LCF the vessel wil
! experienceunifofin sinkage.

The cargo must then be shifted to a


pocilion foMard of the LCF in order
t-
lhat lhe ship trims by the head lo
reduce the draught aft back to ils
originalvalue.
! ='inr"g. i =r.
For the draught aft to remain constanl: ' ' lAt rlr .i.t lo..ht w'! n h! LCF pdilim
I Sinkage=Ta F4.20.16

whereTa is the changeof draughtafi dueto trim c€us€dby movingthe w€ightfolward.


Therefore: w =coTxq
TPC L
t--
CTASSZ SIABIITY SFCT]ON.2o Tnm u$E hyd@stali!dita 243

L-
Thus,to keepthe draughtafrconstantwhenloadinga kn(i /n weight:
x3
TPC L
'd' will allow lhe positionfoap to be determined.
Calculafng the distance

(4) Calculatethe positionto load the weight


v = vz-{ xe
TPC MCTC L
436= 4!16xd x 86.41
31.U 310 167.87

4&= 0.724d d = 18.91m towardof theLCF


31.U
Therefore,the weightmuslbe loaded:86.41+ 18.91= 105.32m foap (Ans)
Solutionb)
Thepositionto loadthe weightis nowkr,own.

Sinkage= y = 436 =13.7cms


Sinkage
TPC 31.84

COT= vz_d coT = 434_4:!L97=26.6cms


MCTC 310
Ta= COTx e Ta= 26.6x &1!7 = 13.7cms
L 167.87

Tf= COT-TaTf=26.6- 13.7= 12.9cms

Calculatethefinaldraughts.

o 137 o 137

0129 0 137
agt6 :l.160

Finalforwad dnught = 1.506m (Ans)

Calculalingbothdraughtsprovidesa checkon part(a) of the calculation.

m.41 Calcuhting the weight to loadto tduce the d€€pestdaught by e given amount
Example12
M.V.Alnar hasdftughtsF 5.62n A 6.48m.
(a) Calculatethe anount of ballastto pump into the forc peak tank (lq 162.04n foap) to
@ducethedraughtafl to 6.m m.
(b) Calculatethe finaldaught foMard.

Solutionhl
tl) Calculate
inftialfMD

AMD=6.05m

ctAss 2/1 sTAB[nY SECTIO.|20 T m usir]ghydGt8ic datg


L- EntetdatawithAMDandobtainLCFposition.
LCF= 86.05+(4.44x A)9 = 86.03n foap
L-
01

Usethisto calculatethe TMD.


i
TMD=dA-( MA-dF) xLcFfirapI
t @ l
L * ' )
L- TMD= 6.48- r0.86 ' 86.031
Itez pz
- I
l.' )

TMD= 6.039m
(2) EnterdatawithTMD6.039m
l = 18340+ (320x 9JI9 = 18465t
tnitialDisplacernent
0.1
TPc = 32.34+ (0.04x A!39 = 32.36
I 0.1
L- MCTC= 321t-m
LCF = 86.05+ (o.Ux 9@) = 86.03m foap
o.1
N@ Withtris typeof problemit is nol usuallyrequiredto usemeanhydrostalicvalues.
(3) Considetfigue20.lT
lf the weight (ballast) is initially
loaded al the LCF the vessel will
experienceunifom sinkage.

The woight must lhen be shifted to


the fore peak tank in order that the
L_ ship trims by the head to give the
required reductionin draughl aft.

For the draught afl 1obe reduced: I = **'c. l=r. I =rrriri.d rcddio *ldl
- ltilt t v€|lrllnE
Reduction in dA = Ta - Sinkag€ ---- trrln dtlr td#g rri8lt.t !h. LCf ldEilion
- F|||J |,|k ttE
Fiq.20.17
where Ta is the change of draught aft dueto trim causedby movingthe weight(ballast)

Therefore: in dA =
Reducrion cor ' al - w
[ LJ rpc
L_ Thus,to reducethe draughtafl: Roduction in dA =
I I r-pc

Calculatingthe !v' to determinethe weighl of bellast to be loaded in lhe fore peak.


I
(4) Calculatethe rcducttonin clraoghlaft required

Reductionin dA = 6.48 - 6.20 = 0.28 m = 28 cms


l-
ct sS ?J1STABTLIw- sEcTloN 20- Tnm ushg hydostaijcdaia 245
(5) Calculatethe weight of ballast to load
Reductionin M = (wxd xa)' - w
lI u c r c tJl rpc
r s6.03 l- w
28=(wx(162.u- 86.03)
l---
L
3x
" ' r-at
- ' 'az ) I sz-.u
-0.031w
28=0.121w

28=0.09Ow w=311.1tdn s (Ans)

Itutbn h)
Theweightof ba ad waterin the forc peakis nowknown.
=s
Sinkage = 3111 =9.6cms
Sinkage
TPC 32.36

coT =uz-d CoT=3711_z!1@g!=@99]=


7s.7cms
MC|C 321

Ta= COTx e Ta= 73.7x @!93=37.8cms


L 167.87

Tt= COT- TaTf= 73.7- 328 = 35.9cms

Cahulatethe frnaldnughE.

o 0s6

0 359 0 378

Finalfoward draught= 6.075n (AB)


Calculatingbothdraughlsprovidesa checkon part (a) of the c€lculation.The onor of 0.002m in
the afrdraughtis dueto roundingup of fgures in the calculation.

clAss zl STAaUTY SECnON20 Tnm usrc hydcLl! dair 246


i_

20.4 CHANGEI]'I DRAUGHTANOTRIMDUETO CHANGEIN WATEROENSITY

m.1.1 Causeof a chengeof lrim due b changeof wabr density


L- The centreof flotationis locatedal lhe geomeldccenbeof the waterplaneareaand lhe centreof
buoyancyis al the geomelic cenlre of lhe undeMatervolurneof lhe ship. Their longifudinal
positionswill rarelybe the same.Considerthe valuesof LCB and LCF for M.V.Almaras plotted
againstdraughtinfgure20.18.

L-
Fiq.20.18
lf LCBand LCFwereto be in the samelongiludinalposition(aswouldbe the casefor a boxshaped
vesselon anevenkeel)andthe ve*selwereto movefromwalerof onedensltyio waterof a dfie€nl
density,the changein densrtywouldresultonly in bodilysinkageor rise. WhenLCF is nol in lh€
samepositionas LCF,as is usuallylhe case. a shipwill alwaysexperiencea cflangein lim also
t_ whenpassingbetwe€nwaterof differentdensities.Thereasonforthisis explainedas dlows.
Figure20.19(a)sho\,sa shipon an evenkeelin saftwal6rat waterline WiLi-In thiscondition the
I belo,v
LcB is vedically lhe LcG. on passinginto iesh waler,beingless dense,lhe shipwill initially
W,L?(fgure20.19(b))
sinkbodilyto waterline
l
L-

L-

I (a)
l-- (b) On passing into ftesh |'rter ship etpedences bortlly sinr.ga towata lne W!L1
Fig.20.19

CLASSZl SlAalllrY SFCTION20 Tnn usinghydclatic dala 247


I
L-
Al lhe new watedine th€ position of the LCF (Fi) can be assumed to be the same as at the initial
watedine(F) sincethe draughtwillnothavesignifc€ntlychanged.

The added layer of buoyanry due to lhe sinkage will have its centoid al b i.e. al lhe same
positrons
longitudinal as F and F,.

Because a volume of buoyancy has been effectively dded, B will mov6 in a dirEclion dirsc{y
towards the centroid of the added slice of buoyancJ to B. This creates a lrimming couple that in
thiscasewill causethe ship lo idm by the head.

m.1.2 Ce/culeting ahelinel d'aughls


(1) Calculatethe bodily sinkage

This will be the fresh water allo\ /ance for the displacement in questjon if the ship passesfrom salt
water lo fiesh water, or; the dock water allowance if the ship is passing from s€lt water to dock

toa(mm)=qEp!3@94
,l x TPC*

dwe (mm) = FWA x (1025 - ROpw)


25

The abbrevialions f$/a a'ld dwa are so tremed to dislinguish belwe€n the ini€ fresh waler
allowance (and dock water allowance) values lhat would apply to the ship when d the summer
displacement.The displacement and TPC values are those conesponding lo salt water for the true
meandraughtin queslion.

(2) Calculale the weqht of the layer of buoyancy acquircd at b using:

w (tonnes) = Sinkage (cm6) x TPCIESER oExs'n ' E

TheTPCvaluemustbe for lhe fresh(or lessdense)water.


(3) Calculatethe ldmmingmoment
Considernglre20.'19(b).
Trimmingmoment(t{n) = w x horizoffaldislanceB lo b
where.Bb = BFr= (LCB,LCF)

Therefore: Trimmingmorner*(t{) =wx (LCE|-.LCF)

(4) Calculatethechangeoftim dueto density


COT(cms)=

The MCTC musl always be tor the second densily sancethe ship only trims when al the new
waledine after accounlingfor the sinkage.

(5) Apportrcnthe COT to find Ta and Tf according ta the positbn of the LCF

(6) Apply the sinkage, Ta and Tf to the intial daughts to frnd the draughts in the new water

Note thal sleps (3) and (4) may be comuned for ease of c€lculalion-

CLASS2/1 SIAB|InY SECnON20 T m 6ing hynGla|t daia 244


L_
I Exanple 13
M.V.Almar has drarehtsF 9.28m A 10.32m whenfl@tingin saftwater Cdculatethe dnughtsk
Ireshwater.

Solution
(1) CalculateinitialTMD
AMD = 9.80m
EnterdatawithAMDandobtainLCF positbn.
LCF=82.70mtoap
Usethisto calculalethe TMD-
l
TMD= dA - ( IdA. dN XLCFfoAD)
J
MD= 1032\( 1..04, a2.70)
!-
Paz-tt )
TMD= gun m
|- (2) Entetdatawith TMD9.BOB n
Displacement= 31090+ (350x g@g) = 31118t
':- 0.1
rPC= u.Bs+ (o.otx L@g = uso
o.1

MCTC= 401 + (3 x 9@9) =.401t-n


o.1
LCB = 85.97+ (-0.04x g99p) = 85.97m foap
0.1

LCF = 82.70+ (4.10 x L@) = 82.69m foap


L_ o.1

, (3) Calculatethe bodilysinkage


L- fwa (mm)= Disphcenent
4 x TPC*

i t . t . d = g 1 1 1 8 = 2 2 3m m= 2 2 . 3c m s
I t S+gO

(4) Calculatethe weightolthe layero{ buoyancy


]
w (tonnes) = Sinkage (cms) x IPCIESSR Es,ry MER

L- w=22.3x34.90xL@ = 759.3tonnes
1.025

I (5) Calculatethe change of trim due to density

coT (c,',s)= wx (Lca-LcFl


L MCfCmwsn
=Zg!49!31:=3?lj9) = 6.4c'ns
cor (c?'r,s)
L G01x 1.@01
t 1.ors
)
of fgure 20.19(b) will showlhat the ship willtim by the head
Consideration
L- ctAss 2/1 STABILITY-SECION20 Tnm cino hydMr.dc dar. 249

L
(6) Appodionthe COT to fincl 7a and Tf according to the positionof the LCF

Ta= coT xe Ta=6.4x92!Ap=3.2cms


L 167.87

Tf = COT- faTt= 6.4- 3.2= 3.2 cms

O) Applythe sinkage,fa and Tf to the intial dnughts to frndthe dtaughEin the new watel
density.

I240 10 320
o-223 o.223
9.503 10.543
Trim o.o32 0.032
s.sit5 t0.5tl

IbE
ln this examplethe shiplrimmedby the head.Hadthe LCFbeenforwardof the LCB the ship
would havetimrned by the stem! Fo( eacfi scenarioit is advisableto do a sketchto verity lhe
directimof the changeof trim in eachcase.Altematvely,usethe formulain section20.4.3-
ml3 Arwnatiye toftnula for catculadngthe changeo, tim
Havingcalculatedthe sinkag€the d|ange oI lim that arisesdue to the dlange of waterdensity
maybe calculatedusrngthe follol/ving:
=!!lBq_!q)l!gE_l!9)
cor (cms)
RDI X T{GTq

Where'l,l/ is the shrps displac€menl;


'RDr'islhe densityof thewaterfromwhichtheshipis leaving;
'RDr' is the densityof the wat€rintowhichthe shipis going;
'ffCrcr'is theMCTCforthewaterintowhi€htheshipis gdng,and;
ICF andLCB is as before.Theterm (LCF- LCB)mustalwaysbe cdculatedas ft is
andnotchanged around.Thus:

if the answeris positive it is a change of Um by the s'e'/l, anal;


il the answerk negativeil is a changeof Um by the head.

Verifyus€of thisformulaby calculalinglhe changeof trim in the previousexample.


m.1.1 Corrsidefingchangeof trim due lo charrgeol donsttywt errconducling trim prouetus
A aim questionmightincorporatechangeof liim due lo densityas in Example14.

Example14
M.V.Ahnaranivesis pott withdraughEF 8.60m A 9.10 m in saftwateLThoaft peak tankis fuu.
Calculatethe ano@t of ballastwaterto dischatgefr.rn the aft peak tank in order that the ship
aftive$at the benh with a tim by the stemof 0.20 n. TheRD of the dock waterat the bedh is
1.006.

Sohnion
tl) CabulaeinitalTMD
AMD= 8.85m
Enterdala withAMD andobtainLCF Dositton

- sEcTloN 20- Tnm 6inq hld6i.tic


Crass 2f1 STABILITY dara 2fi
+ (,0.1xL99 = 83.67
LCF= 83.72 mfoap
a1
Use thisto calculatethe TMD.

TMD=dA-ftdA-dH , LcFloap )
I tap I
!-- )

TMD=9.10( o.fi t 8s.6A


I t-atet I
I TMD = A.ASI-tn

(2) Enter data wlh TMD 8.851 m


Displacement= 27630 + (340 x 9l&1D = 27803 |
I o.1

MCTC= 375+ (3 x 9199l}= 377trn


4.1
i_
LCB= 86.32+ (0.8 x q9t7, = 86.30m foap
0.1
t- LCF - 83.72+ (A.t 0 x 9391!)- 83.67n toap
4.1

L-- P) lhechangeof tim dLteto densitywhengoingfrcm saltwatetto d@kvraterRD L006


Catculate
=WEL_LDi(&E-EE)
cor (c,'r.s)
RU x MCTC,

cor =4gEzJJ.929-1@)l&g=-@3!-
( 1.025x 377x1.006]|
| ffil

COT= 27803x 0.019x (2.69 =-3.7 cms


379.262

Becauselhe answeris negativethe changeof tim wi be 3.7 cmsby thehead.

Calculatethe changeof tim requitedby dischargingthe ballastwater


lnitialtim 50.0cmsby the stem
Raquired 20.0cmsbv the stem
COTrequired 30.0cmsby thehead
COT(density) 03.7cmsbv thehead
COT(ba astdischarye) .3 cms by tt e head

Becausethe shipwi| Iim by the head whenit g@s fron saltt/ater to the dockwatet,lha
changeof tim raquircdby dischagingbalasl fron the aft Pak tank wi be less.lv,ithlh,s
wbEm, considetthat the ballastwateris discharyedin the saltwatercausinga changeof
l tim of 26.3crnsby thehead;thefulher 3.7 r,ns is achievedon passagefrom saftwaletto

't_ Cahulatetheamountof ballastto discharyefrcmthe aft peaktank(Lcg4.66n foap)


6)
COT(clrl,s)= r'tx d 26.3= wx /83.67- 4.66)
l MCTC 377

w = 125.5bnnes (Ans)
l
CTASS2/' STABIUTY StCl Ori 20 Tnmus,nghrdrcslalicd€b 251
I
CLASS2/1 STABIIITY SECTION,0 - Tim usins hydrcsiaticdata 252
i-

l
L_ 9E9!!9!€!-&S!!!e
It{TRODUCTTON
thatall shipsbe drFdockedfo( inspectionand maintenancebelowlhe watedine.
ll is a requirement
Whena ship is beingdrldocked additionalforcesaclingat the keeltake effecl,beingthe reaction
or upthruslafiordedby the blocksmto whichthe ship is beinglanded.Theseforcescan create
undueloadson lhe stemslrudureand causelo6sof stabilityof the ship.This sectioninvestgates
L_ lhesesfiects.
L.amlng Objec,Jves
i On compl€tionof this seclionthe leemerwillacffevethe following:
1. Understandthe sequenceof eventsthattakesplacewhilsta shipis beingdrfdocked.
2. Calculatethe upthrustat the blocks(P force)at anystageduringdrfdockjng of the ship.
3. L,nderstand the loss of slabilityduringdrfdocking and calqilate the loss of stabilityas
eithera rise of the ship'scentreot gravity(indeasein KG) or as a fall of the motacentre
(reductionin KM).
4. Conducldrldockingcalculations.
L- 5. Understand the praciic€lconsideralionsduringthe drfdockingof a ship.

L-

L
l

l
- SECTpN21 - Dry dockr\o
CLASS21 STABILITY 253

l_
2l.l OFEVEiITSDURING
SEQUET{GE DRY-DOCK|],|G

Figure-s21.'l to 2'1.3iliustralewhat happensas the ship eiters the dry dock and tl|e water is
ourno€doot of the dock.
1. Theshipentarsthe drydockwitha smalltim by the stemandis foated intoposition.

2. Thegatesare closedandwateris pumpedout ot lhe dockuntilthe shiploucheslhe bloc*s


the shiptoucheslhe blocksaft this denotesthe sliarlof the criticalpenod(il
aft. fmmediately
is nowthatthe shipwill startlo experiencea lossot stability,hencethe term).

1. Stip enre's docl< wiot . st''e,l t hn by the swn.


Z Wat . k pu,i,ped out ot the.tock until the ship tottches
ahe blocts atL

F*1. 21.1

As rnorewateris pumpedout of the dockthe tue nean dtaugrl will startto reduceas the
ship e)sedencesmoreand moresupportat the stem-The upthrustaffordedby the blocks
at the stem is termedthe P forcel this continuesto incteaseas lhe buoyancyforce
redoces.Throughoutthe dockingproce$sthe ship will displacea progressively lessening
volurneof water as the ltue rm]6ndraughtreducesand the P force increaseslo provide
moresupportfor the ship (in effect,the P forcetakesoversupportingthe shipand lhe role
of the buoyancyforce in supportingthe ship reduc€s).At this stagethe aft draughtwill be
reducingat a greaterrale lhan what the forwarddraughtis increasing,the ship will be
trimmingby the head as lhe overalltrue meandraughtreduces.For reasonsdiscussed
later,the lossof stabilitywill alsobe increasingas the P forceincreases.

Eventuaffy the shipwill cometo reston the blocksalongit's entirelength,lhiscrificalinstant


denotesthe end of the criticalperiod,sincefor a fat botbm€dshipthe problemof stability
lossis no longerof coflcem.

ctAss 2?1sTAauTY- sEcIloN 21- Dryd@kng 254


L
l

i
3. Dodng ahe cftlc.l p.rlo.l P torce in.'ets's as rhe effect ot the Bt
r..tucas - ovanl fUD re.luc€6 as the ship trims by the hea.t.
1 On touching the btocb fore and an he .ughb saaft to ,.ctuce
unilornly toNaftt aN all
Fiq.21.2
Afterselting o the blocksfoMard and aft water conlinuesto be pumpedfrom the dock
and the draughtreducesal the sarie rate fo&ard and aft. The upthrustP becornes
uniformlydistributedalong lhe ship's lengh and continuesto increaseas the effeclive
buoyancyforcereduces.

6. Wh€nthe dockbecomesneadyemptyandthe shipis fullydrythe upthrustP will be equalto


theship'sdisplacernent
havingno / replacedall lhe upthruslaffordedby thebuoyancyforce.

On touchlng the blocks foward and aft (cn1cal lnsrana) &asghts


teduca unilotnly .nd P force ttacones disa.ibud along the ship's
Onca Ua ship is dry lhe P torce has conpletdy ta*en over Lom the

Fiq.21.3

ctAss 2/1STAB|UTYsEcTtoN21 Dryrlo. ng 255

t_
THEP FORCE
21.2 CALCULATING

21.21 Celcutationof P torce at any stageduring drydocking


Throughoutthe drfdocking procedlrethe lnre rnoandraughtreducesas il wouldif the shipwere
risingout of the waterdue lo we€hts beingdischarged.

Considerthe formula: Rise(c|ns)= !4!l


TPC

The P force may be considered lo have lhe sane effect on true mean draughl as if a weight had
aclually been discharged,therefore: Reduclion in Tl!!D (crns) = e&@i0
TPC
P forc€(t)= Reductionin T O (cms)x TPC

This formularnay be used to calculatelhe upthrustal the block"sat aty stage in the docking
processsincelhe lrue meandraughtis alwaysreducingas wateris takenod of the dock.

21.2,2 CelculetionoI P torfe dudt g the ctftical pedod when drydocking


In ihe pedodbetweenthe shiplouchingthe blod€ aff (startof the criticalpedod)andlouchingthe
blocksfoMard andaft (thecriticalinstant)the shipundergoesa c+range of him.

Thechangeof trim at anystageduringthe crificalperiodmay be considered1obe the sarneas the


'W
d€nge of tdm that wouldhaveoccunedhad a weight beendischargedfrom a positionat the
aft perpendicriarequivalentto the upthrustP in tonnes(if it is assumedthat the ship is on the
blocksaff al the aff perpendicriar).

considerthefomula: coT (cms)= w xd


MCTC

lf the forceP is consideredto havethe sameeffeclas a weightdischargedat the aft perp€ndicular,


then: COT(cms)= e_J
l\,lCTC

P=9!IL(E)-:-U9IS
Dist LCF foaD

This can be used to c€lculate the P force during the crittcalpeiod only-

Use of both of these fomulae will be seen in subsequentdry docking calqialion examples.

CTASSZl SIAB|LrY SECTION2l Dry-d@king 256


21.3 LOSSOFSTABIUTYWHENDRY.DOCI(NG

Lossof stabilitycommen@sas soonas lhe shiptouchesthe blocksaft andconlinuesto worsenas


I the value of the P torce increases,The maximumloss of Glrl of concemoc,qrs the instanl
immediatelypriorto the ship setdingon the blocksfoRard and afr - this trrle beingtermedthe
crilicalinstant.Oncethe ship is fat q| the blocksit will be in a safecondilionas the dskof heeling
overas a resultof be@mingunstablewill have passed(mostship'shavinga substantialareaot
fat bottom).For ships lhat have a relativelysmall percentageoI iat bottomarea addilional
measuresmuslalso b€takensuchas lsing side shoresto supportthe shipin the updghtcondition
whenin the drydock.

Eitherof lwo methodsof calculationof the lossof GM maybe used.

21.3.1 Loss of GMas a re.sultof a rise in G (inc6ase ln KG)


Considerthe up\/ard movernentof G that wouldoccurif a weight
'w'is dischargedfroma positionat the keel (Kg = 0 m). l/hen
discharginga weightthe centreof grdvityof ltle ship,G, will move
direc{yawayfromthe centreof gravityot the discha€edwdghtto Irt----'--.---
q/ as shormintigure21.4.
I
GGvwill be eoualto the lossof GMwhere: GG"-= w x d---l
F*l i
I 11.
Fig.21.4
'd' is the disbnce between the centre of gravity of the ship (G) and the centre of gravity of the
'd'
discharged\N€ightwhich was at the keel K'. Therefo.e distance is the iniiial KG of the ship.

(lt should be noted also that KM changes as a result of a reduction in the ship s dralght.)

lf the P force is consideredto have lhe same etfecl as disdtarging an equivalent weight from the
keeltf|en:
LossofGm=PxKG

The effecl on lhe ships strability is made


clearerif the availablerightingmomental a
partioiar angleof heel is considered.Figure
21.5 shows a ship duringthe critical period
whereit has iaken the blocksat the afr end
only.Duringdockingthe ship becomesheeled
1oa smallangleof inclination by an extemai
forcesuchas lhe wind,
Theforcesaclingare as follows:

lrytis the totalweighlforceactingdownwards


throughthe cenlreof gravityat G;
Fiq.21.5
or residual,buoyancyforceactng upwads throughthe geomelriccenlre
(W- P, is lhe rema{ning,
of the underwalervolumeat B,:

P is lhe uphruslof lhe blocksexertedal the keelaft.


(W - P) x GZ rcpresertsa ightjng moment,

l P x GZI representsa capsiz,ing


mofnent
CTASS?11STABIUTY SECIIo|.J2I O&do.ldng 257
Therefore the available righting rnomenl is given by: .
Availablerislrtins moment= - P) x GZJ -[ P x C,Z
[W J
tt is essentialthat the rightingmomentaffordedby the upwardaciing (remaining)buoyancyIorce
remainsgrcaterlhan lhe capsizingmo.nentaffordedby the uplhrustot the P force ac-trEat the
keel al all lirEs priorto the ship toucijng the blocksfo ard and aft. f the ship shouh becofiE
unslabledlring the critical period it will lurcfi ofi the bloc*s lo one side resullingin stuctural
damagelo lho ship,rnovementof the blocksandgreat€mbarassment!
It is for this reasonthat the lossof GM is calculaledfor the ctitic€linstant(whenthe ship touches
the blocksforwardand afr)to ensurelhal adequatestabilityis maintainedpriorto lhe ship taking
the blocksoverall.

21.3.2 Loss of Gn as a result of a latl ln ,t (de..eese h KItl)

ConskJer fuure 21.6that illuslratesihe ship hoel€d


by an extemalfor@ such as the wind dudngthe
ctiticalperiodwherethe shiphastakenthe blocksat
the afrend ollly.

The total weighlIorce of the ship acts downwards


throughG. Counleractingthis are the two upward
forces;the P force actingupwardsat the keel and
the residualbuoyancyforce(W - P) actingupwards
throughthe centreof buoyancy(8r). The resultarl
of the two upwardacling forcesacts throughthe
ne$/metacentre(M) suchthal:

Pxx=(w-P)xy (1)
Fig.21.6
MMj representsthe resultingfall of the lransversemetac€nlre(or lossof GM)-
Considerihetwosimilartriangles:
S i n e o =y therefo.e: y=SineoxMM el
MMI
S i n e 0 =I iherefo{e: x=SineoxKMl (3}
KM
Combiningformulae1, 2 and 3 abovegives:(W- P) x Sine€ x MM = P x Sine0 x Kful

Dividebothsidesby Sinee: (W- P) x MM = P x KM

thisgives:(W x [|\/lr)- (P x MM) = P x Klv]


Expanding
... (w x i[4) = (P x KM) + (P x MM)
(wx[,r])=Px(Ktu!+MU)
= P x InitialKM
(Wx M\,1,)
MU=PxlnitialKM

LossofG =e_:_EU
w
NglE In lhis fomula the KM value is that whichcorespondslo the true meandEught for the
instantthat the lossof GM is beingcalculatedand not that for lhe inital truemeandraughtthatthe
shiphas priorto docking.lt is foundby enteringthe hydrostalicdala witha displacement valuethat
conespondsto that givenby (W- P).
W in this fomula is the ship'sinilialdisplacement.
sEcTro! 21 Drydodirc
ct ess2/1STAB|LITY, 254
2,I.4 TYPICALDRY-DOCKINGPROBLEMS

In the followingexamplebolh methodsof calculalingthe lossof GM will be used.An explanationis


indudedto pmvethat bothmethodsare equallyvalid.

Examole1
Pior to eftetitv drydockM.V.Nmar hasdraughtsF 4.86n A 5.24n atfr an efreeliveKGof 9.16n.
CahulaE:
(a) the GMwlrcnthe shiptakesthe bkrcksfoMad ati aft (at thectiticalinslant);
(b) thednughtsatthe sameinstant;

Sohrtionb)
(1) CahulaleinitialfMD
AMD= 5.05m
EnterdatawilhAMD andobtainLCF position
LCF = 86.32+ (-0.02x q9!, = 86.31m foap
a_1
Usethisto calculatethe TMD.
TMD= dA - ftdA- dH' LcFtoao )
=
I r.eP '86.31 - -j
TMD 5.24--1438 I
lrct.et I
TMD= 5.(Y5d

(2) EnterdatawithTMD5.045m
Displacomont= 15120+ (320x 9-9 = 152U t
0.1
MCTC= 312t-n LCF= 86.31n foap

(3) CalculatetheP forceat thecriticalinstant


TIE initialtim of the shipis 38 cmsby the stem.Whenthe shiptouchesthe ttlocksfoMad
and aft the effedive tim wi be ae@i.e. the shipwill be on evenkeel. The ship wi have
tlBrcforeexptienced a changeof tim of 38 cmsby the head- as if a weightequalto the
P forcehadbeendischaryedfrcm theaft @ryendicular.

P = COT(cnd x MCTC P = 38 x312 = 137.4tomes (138tonnes)


Dist LCF foap 86.31
(4) Enter data with the etrectivedisplacement(W - P) at lhe ciqcal instant to obtain KM

Etrective displacement = W- P = 152&- 138 = 15126tonnes

KM = 10.70+ ("0.10xgJ = 10.698


n
320

(5) Calculate the loss of GM (both nethods used)

Loss of GM = P x KG Loss of GM = 138x 9.16 = 0.04 m


w-P (152U- 138)
Method 2
Loss of GM = P x KM Loss of GM = 139219@3=0.@7m
w 15264

CLASS2TISTABLlry SECTION21 Dry docking 259


(d Calculatethe GM at the ctitical instant
Mekod 1 Method2
(M al crilical instanl 10 698
<G 9160 <G 9.160
nirialGM 1 534
0.084 0.097
3M al crilical instant 1t{ 3M al criticalinslanl tI.l

Both answefsare cliffercntbut arc both valid sincea truemeasureot a ship's sfabi/,tyls itb
righlingmomentvalueat anygivanangieof heel.
Wtthin6na anglasof heelthe rightingntonentis givenby:
Righting moment (tfi) = Displacement x G[ x Sin€ 0
By method 1
At theditical instantthe etrectivedisdacenent= W- P = 15126t sincethe P forceactsas
a weightbeingdischargedfromthe keel.
RM = Displacenenlv GM \ Sine0
RM = 15126 x 1.454x Sineo = 21993sine0 t-m

By method2
By cAnsideingthe lossof GM asa resuftof thefa ofthe metacente:
RM = Displacement x GMx Sinee
RM = 152U x 1.441x Sinee = 219!Eslne0 arn
(Theslilht ditrerenc€aises due to roundingup of valuesin the calculation.)

Solution(bl
At the ditical inslantthe shipwillbe on an evenkee| Thednught atthe sameinslantmry
be cabulatedby one ot two mothods.

Method1
TheinitialTMDhasalrcadybeencdculatedas being5.045m.
EntetingthedatawiththisobtaintheTrc value. Trc=31.96+(004xEElg=31.98t
0.1
Reduclion in TMD(cmsl = P forc€ lr)
TPC

in TMD=1@ =4.3cms
Reduclion
31.98
.. Daught at citical instant= s.US - 0.043= 5,@2n (Ans)

Method2
If theetrectNedisplacement at the criticalinstantis (W- P)
Etrectivedisplacement W- P = 152U - 138= 15126tonnes
=
Enterthedak with fl1isdisplacenentvalueto obtainthe TMDat the criticd insbnt.
TMD= 5 00 + (0.1x 6 ) : 5.002n
320
Thereforethe dftught at the criticalinstant= 5.002m (Ans)
(Aeattymethod2 is mucheasiet!)

Duringhe docldngoperatonit is ess€nlialthal the crilicalinstanl'draughtis delerminedas both


draughlsfoMard and att will be constantlybeingread.As the ships draughtapproachesthat as
calculatedfor the criticalinsliant,alsoevidencedby the facl that the shipwill be in a nearevenkeel
conditionat thattime,the rale al whic_h the wateris pumpedout of the dockwill be slorveddownto
allowfinal adiuslmentof iho ship'sforeand aft alignmentpriorto the shiplakingthe blocksoverall.
Onceon the blocksthe rateof pumpingwill be increasedagain.

CL,SS 21 STABIIIY- SECTION21- Orydo.ring 260


t-

t- 21.5 PRACTICALCO}ISIDERATIONS DURIT{GDRY{DCKING


Themajorconside€tionsthat shouldbe bomein mindare:
(1) thatthe P torceis keptto an acceptablelevel,and;
(2) hat the ship maintainsan acceptable positjve GM dudng the critical period

21,5.1 The rquirqnent b limlt the P force


Duringthe critjcalperiodpdorto takingthe blocksfullyforwardand aft the P forcewill be aclingat
a singl€pcint on the stemframeofthe ship.The stem frameis speclallystrengthened to accept
L the forcesexertedon it duringdr)| dockingbul there will be a maximumlilnii that must not be
exceeded.lt the P force becomesloo great strucfuraldamagewill occur. lt is usualto have
acceptableneaFlightconditionsof loadingfor dr)'dockingspecifiedin lhe ship's stabilitydala
book.lf an actualP-forcevalueis nol quotedtl€n it may be approxirmtedfrornlhe recommended
condition(s)given by rearrangingthe drFdockingformulas and calculatng it. lJndernormal
circumstances societywill invesligaleany proposeddryiocking condilion
the ship'sclassification
and verit thal it is appropriate.Underexceptionalcirdmstanc€sa ship may be drfdocked in a
t- part]oadedconditionbut this will only ever be 6ne after lakng classifcalionsocietyadvice.lt
wouldoffentr€ moreprudenllo dischargeanycargoon toard p.iorto entedngdry dock

An obviousmethodto limil the P force duringthe criticalpedodis to keeptl|e initialhim by the


stemsmall,ccnsiderthe fomula for calcriatingthe P forc€dudngthe cdticalp€riod:

L-
It is dear from ihe atove that P fo.ce is direcdy proportional1othe change of bim that the ship will
undergo. Limiling the trim will llprefore limit the maximurn loads that will be experienced by the
slem frame. The grealer the displacernentof a given ship, the more important will t€ the need tro
limillhe dockingtrim.
L-
21,5.2 Limiflng the loss ot GH
Consideratjonof the formulae will indicate thal the greater the lnm of the ship when docking, lhe
greaterwill be the loss of GM.

LosBof c =q4!'
w-P w
Clearly,the greaterthe trim,the greaterthe P force;the greaterthe P force,the greaterthe lossof
L- GM!
Altematively,the ship shoolddrlidock with a greatereffectiveGM that will ensurethat stabilityis
maintained.lmprovinglhe ship'sinilialGMwill be achievedby:
(1) Lovveingthe effectiveKG by low€.ingweightswilhinthe vessel,dischargingweightsfrom
highup dr takingon an acceptableamountoI ballastin doublebottomtanks,oq
(2) Minimisingfreeslrface effectsby toppingup slacktankswhereverpossible.

I Example2
M.V. Almarabout to dry cbck rcquircsa minimumGM of 0.3 m at the time the ship takes the
are F 6.89m andA 8.47n. KG is 8.86m
btocksfoNrardand an. CurrcntdraL€,hts
Calculatethe maximumpermissible
Um by the$em on entedngthe dry dock
t*
' SECION 21 Dry-do€Lng
Ct .sS 2'1 STABILITY i61
Solrtklr't
(1) CalculateinitialTMD
AMD=7.68 m
Enterdatawitl AMDand obtainLCF po.sition.

LCF = 85.01+ (0.09 x L99 = 84.94m f<)ap


0.1

Usethisto calculaEthe TMD.


TMD= dA- ftdA - dH x LcF toaD',
I LBP 'I
TMD=8.47:( 1.58x 84.911
I tEiz I
TMD= 7.6f1 ,h
(2) Enterdak with TMD7.671m
Displacenenl= 23580+ (34Ox Q!U! = 23821t
01

MCTC= 347+ e x A9Z! = U8 t-n


01

LCF = 85 01 + C0.@x 8911 = 84.95m foap


0.1
KM- 9.37+ (0.01x AU! = 9.s63n
0'1

We mu&assumethatKMrcm ainscottstantin this case.


(3) Calculatethe allowedlossot GM
9.363
a 460
nilralGM 0.503
MinimumcriticalGM o3m
:M at crilical instant 0:!B

Calculatethe maimum albwed P force and hence the maximum intial tim

Method 1
Loss of GM - P x KG 0.203 = P x 8.8ffi
w-P (23821- P)

.. 0.203(23U1 -P)=8860P
.. 4&35.663-0.203P= 8.86OP
.. 4835.663= 8.860P+ 0.203P
.. 4835.663= 9.063P .. P = 5U t@r,€s

P=COTYMCTC 534= COTx348


d u.95
CoT=gz-995 = t3ocms(ans)
348
Ct 9sS2/1 STr!AI|TY - SECTlOl.l21- Dn/io.king 62
L
L ths{e GU of 0.3 n ls n6intaincdd ba c']lljc,l hr'''l' bc thn d ta dtip ttutli
fo €,tss/.te
nd exd 1.9 m by the&n.
I
,r|p'lod 2

I Lo6sofGM= P-:Z.IAo.N3 = P x93a?


w 23,,'21
p =9,&z&7 ... P = srdbncs
L 9.3d3
P = COTx ,/tCfC 516=gg_X-w
L d u.95
cOT= ggz-U&. = 14sft6..t
t_ 31E

L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L CIASS ?/l snI^alUTY- *Cloa / -O.'t.dd*c 2dl

L
CIT"SS21 STABILIIy- SECiON 2l Drynodjng 264
SECTION22 -BILGING

INTRODUCTION
A bilged' ship is one that has suffered a breach of the hull through grounding, collision or other
meansand waterhas beenadmittedintothe hull.Whenevera ship suffersdamageand foodingof
comparanenlstakes place there will ah/vaysbe an incease in the draught. However, it does not
always follow that the ship's inilial stabilitywill be worsened;in some instancesstabilityis
rmprovecl.

This section investigales lhe way fooding of compartments c€n affect the ship's draught and
stability for a number of differenl scenarios- Although calculations involving box-shaped vessels
are considered,the principlesdiscussedwillapplyequallytoship shapes(in facl many ship'shulls
almosl representbox-shapedvessels if the curvatureof the hull form at the ends is ignored!)
L

t--

t-

Sim anty ot high block coelf,cient hu torns to box -snaP€d vssers.


Fil.22.1

Leeming O@tives
On completionof this section the leamer will acfiieve the following:
1. Calculate the change in draught and stability of a box-shaped vessel when an empty
amidshipscompartment is bilged;
2. Calculate the effects of bilging an empty amidships compartmentwith a watertight (double
bottom);
3. Calcutalethe effectsofbilginga compartment when permeability
is lessth€n 10O%;
4. Calculatethedraughtswhen an end comparbnent becomesbilged;
5. Calculatethe lisl whenan amidshipssidecompartmenlis bilged,permeability 1000/";
6. Reviewthe principlesof bilgingto be appliedto differentflooding scenarios.

- SECTION22- BirqirE
CLASS2]1 STAAIL|TY 265
22.1 THEEFFECTSOF BILGINGAt{ EMPTYAIIIDS]IIPSCOIIPART ENT
becomesffoodeddueto damagecan be
Thecfiangesin draughtand stabilitywhena compartrnent
investigatedby eitherof 1womethods:
(1) the lostbuoyancy(constantdisplacemeri)rnethod,or;
.
(2) the addedweightmethod.

22.1.1 Cdculaling he Ktt of a box.shapa<tve4sel


In ord€rto do bilgingcalculationsinvolvingbox-shapedvesselsit will be necessaryto calculatethe
KI\4of a box.Thisis givenby: KM= KB + B
KMM =qsgs!! +

'L'and ,8'are the lengthandbreadthof the waterplanearearesp€ctively,


and;
'y' is the volumeof disdacernentof the box-shaped
vesselwhenon an evenkeel.

22.1.2 Lost buoyancy(consrantdisplacatn nt) methoat


This meihod assumeslhat when a compartnentb€comesfooded lhere is no d|ang€ in the
displacement or KG of the vess€|.The approachis to considerthat a ce.liainamounlof volumeof
buoyancyis lostwherebythe vesselmustsinkto regainthat amounlof buoyancyelsewherein the
remainingintactpartof the vessel,since,for a vesselto ffoat:
totalrEbht forcaaclittsdownwardthtotEh the ca*rc of gftW (G) muslequalthe totalbuoyancy
forceactingupwad throLghcente of buoyancy(8, beingat the centroidof the infuctundeNvater

Figure22.2 illustrateslhis approachwherc an


amidships compartment extending the full
breadthanddepthof the vesselbecornesbilged.

1. Eox-sh.ped w$al sufrerc subshntial


danage amidshhs.

2. w.ter ,loo.rs into ahe comp.rnnenL The 3. fhe etcass ol weight torce ca,rsos are vosser to
buoyancyatfo.ded by the danage.t cornpattment sink to .ogatn a volune ot buoytncy equivatent to
i6 ,o6t crcating an excess ot weight torce. Since
ahe.lamage ls subtantial the compaturcnt may
now be considercdas being 'op€n to t r€ ser'.
a. The volume of buoyancy lost = fhe volume

(Note that tha s,ic. ot wate. (sinkage) ln the b ged


comparunent is not part ot the yohtme gainecl -
tbftF'!,*,F.,qq.- since this compartment Is ofieing no suppod b ne
vessel - being efrectlvely 'open to Ua aea'.

Fig. 22.2

- S€CT|o 22-BEing
CLr€S 21 STABTLITY 266
L
L_ So it is assumedhat the sinkageof the vessel is causedby lhe redistibulionof the antact
underualervolume.Sincenolhinghas been loadedand the efiectivevolumeof displacementis
lhe same,the assumptonsof lhis approachare:
L (, Votune of displacement(and displeccmen' rcmain constanL and;
(2' KG remainsconstant
L We must now consider the change in the
vess€{sinitial stabiliv. Considerthe dtangc in
effectivewalerpianeareain fgure 22.3.
L In this casethe parl of waterplanearea of lhe
bilgedco.npartment hasbeenlost.Since:
L BM= L vessel:
andtora box-shaped = LB3
Bir$ox
v 12V
L BM n ill redlce direclly as a resull of the reduced wEter plane area. V, the volume of displacement
of lhe vessel, has not changed, since if displac€ment remains constanl; so does lhe volume of
displacement,
L- In addilion, because the draught has indeased due to the sinkage, KB will inciease.

I KB&x = Drauqht
2
'This
b slill valu br t€ b ged conditionsincef€ KB of edr of tte end cornpdtnenb will be tl|e san€.
L Since: KM = KB + BM; it is most probable that KM will change as a result of lhe increasing KB and
the dec.easing BM; the changes in boih unlikelyto be lhe same.
L lf KM d|anges and KG is assumed to remajn @nsl,ant,any charEe in KM will be lhe same as the
change in GM, being either an increase or decreas€.
L Considerexample1.
Example 1 lBv losl buovancv- constantdisplacenent methocl)

L A box-dtaped vessel has length 140 n, brcadth 36 m and is on an even keel drcught of 6 m in saft
water ln the ptes€'ntcondition the KG is 12.80 m. An ampty amidshipsconpaimant extending the
fu brcadth and depth of the vessel 60 m in letglh is Wed. Calculate:

L (a)
6
the draught in the bilged condition:
the initial GM;
(c) the GM in the Wad condition;
L (d) the moment of statical gability ifthe vesselis heelod to E.

Soltnicnh)

L Do a simple sketch-

L
L lt.xlxrn ***r*.F i..

I FiJ.224
l_
ctass 2/1STAB|L|TY,
sEcTtoN22 BirglrE 267

L-
LOST= VOLUI{EoF BUOYANCYGAINEO
voLUME OF BUOYAT{CY

60 x 36 x 6 = (140- 60)x 3ttx x


1m6O= 28mx
x = 4.500m

Thedft!.ght in tlle bilgedcondition= 6.000+ 4.500= 10.5lrom (Ans)

Solutbnh)
Tocalculatethe initialGM,fitstcalculateKM.
KMNX=KB+ BM

KB=WgU =A!@= 3.(non


BM= g = 140 x 363 = 18.000
m
12V 12x(140 x36 x 6)

Therefote: Kn = 3.000 + 18.000 = 21.0AAm

Calculate GM

cM = KM- KG GM = 21.000- 12.800=8.Zn m (Ans)

Salutionb)
To calculate the GM in the bilged condkion.calculate KM.

Remembet lhe assumptions :

KG remains agnstattl:
Disptacement (anal vatame of displacement) .emains constant

KM6x= KB + BM

KB= DBqU =1LW = 5.250n


2
BM= LE = Q10--@)-'!e = 10.286
m
12f 36r ej
12x114C,
Thercforc: KM= 5.250+ 10.286=15.536
n
CalculateGMfor thebilgedcondition.

GM= KM- KC GM= 15.536-12.E00


= 2.736n (Ans)

Sohnbn(d)
Rightingmoment(t-n) = GZ x Displacenent
Displacemenhq= Lengthx Breadthx Draughtx Oensityd water
Sincethe clisplacement rcmainsconstant:
Displacement = 140x36 x6 x1.025= 30996tonnes
At 5', a smal atqle of heel: GZ = GMx Sinee
Rightingmoment (t-m) = (GM x Sine q x Displacement
Rightingmonent (trn) = (2.736 x Sine 5o)x 30996 = 7391 t-m (Ans)

CIr'sS Zl STABILIIY SECnON22 Silging 268


L- 22.1.3 Added veight method
This assumesthat the f@dwater enteringthe ship increasesthe displacernentand affects the shiCs
KG by reason of th€ fu of added mass and (in some cases) the effec{ of the introducedfree
i surface.Essentiallythe problemis approachedin the same \Naythat wotid apply when a tank is glher
partiallyor fully flled dudngmutineship operations.Example 1 will be reworkedusingthis method.

Example 1 (Bv added webht nethod)


L A box-shapedvessel has length 140 n, brcadth 36 m and is on an oven keel dnught of 6 n in saft
wateL ln the pre*nt condtion the KG is 12.80 n. An empty amidshipscompatinefi ertending the
fu breadth and depth of the vessel 60 m in length is bilged. Calculate:
L (a) the dnught in the Wed condilion:
(b| the initial GM:
L (c)
(d)
the GM k the bilgad condition;
the ntonent of statical srabilityifthe vesselh heehd to 5o.

Solution(a)
L- Do a sketch-

Calculate the mass of flo<dwateradmttted


L into lhe compattment.

Let X equal the new dnught after Ulging.


Fig.22.5
L Added massdwater = 60 x36 xX x 1.025 = 2214X tonnes (1)

I Calculatethe initial displacement.


Initial displacenent = 140 x36 x6 x 1.025 = 30996 toones(2)

Calculatethe new displacement.


L New displacenent = 140 x xX x 1.025= 5166X tonnes (3)

Calculatethefrnaldraught(X).
LT Newdisplacement (3) = Initialdisplacenent(2) + massoffloodwater(1)
516?X=30996+2214X
.. 5166X - 2214X= 30996
t- ..
...
2952X= 30996
X = draughtin thebilgedcondition= 10-gn m 6ns)

L Solutionb)
TocalculatetheinitialGM,tirstcalculateKM.
KM*=119*BM

L KB = Dra@ht = A@ = 3.000n
2 2
BM= @ = 140x36' = 18.Unn
L 12v 12x(1a0x 36x 6)
Thercfore: KM= 3.000+ 18.000= 21.Unn

L CalculateGM
GM= KM-KG GM=21.000- 12.800=8.2(nm @ns)

I Solutionb)
CalculatethefinalKG.
= 30996tonnes
Initialdisplacement
Massof ffodwater = 60 x 36 x 10.5x 1.025= 23247tonnes
I
L-
Ct .SS?]1STAEIUTY SECTION22- Bilging 269
Kg cf the floodwater= 105 = 5.25m
2

tntroducedtreesuna@ rnoments= bf x dI = 60x 3d x 1.025


12

Freesuface r''o'nents= 239112 t-n

Takenomentsaboutthe keel.

757!x)a

calculatethefrnalKM
KMsx= KB+ SM

KB = Drauoft = 1LW= 5.250n


BM=E = 14ox 3d = 10.286
m
12v 12x(140x 36x 10.5)
= 15.536
Thereforc: KM= 5.250+ 10.286 n
CalculateGM
cM =KM-KG GM=15.536-13.972=LSAm(Ans)

Sohnion@)
Righlingnoitent (I-n) = GZ x Displacement
Finaldisplacement = 54243tonnes
At 5', a snan angleof heel: GZ = GMx Sinee
.. Rightingmonent (t-m)= (GMx Sineg) x Displacement
Rightingmonent (tan)= (1.5U x Sine5o)x !'4213= 73!X lrn (Ans)

Disregarding the slighldifferencedue to the roundingup of figuresin the cal@lationthis givesthe


sameansweras by the lost buoyancy(constaridisplacemenl) method.Theretore,bothmethodsof
caldiation arc equallyvalid.
22.11 neahodb uaefor Wing catculaions
The lwo rnethodsof calculationwill give identicalanswersfor lhe final draughts,ttim and righting
mornent.Despitegivingdifierentvaluesfor GM (andGlvt), whenthe GM valuesare alliedto the
appropriatedisplacem€ntvaluefo( the damagedcondilionlhey will give equalvaluesof rightng
moment;remembedngof coursethat lhe rightingmomentis the tue measureof a vesselsinitial
stabilityandnot GI\,alone!

The losl buoyancy(consbnt displacement) appmachis considercdmore appropdatewhen the


damageis ext€nsiveand the foodwateris very mudr parl of the sea- Becausedamagestabilily
legislationassumesworst case sc,enarios all damagedslabilitycalojations are conductedlsing
lhis method.Consequendy,this is the nethod that $houldbe adoptedfor examinaticnpurposes
and will be usedfor the puposesof all olherexampbsin this seclion.

The addedweightmelhodmay be consideredmore appropnatewhen the breachof the huil is


smalland fhe floodwateris rnoreconlainedso that the effectof the waterinlrcducedis lhe same
as that if it w€re induced inlo an intactship. Pumpsmay be able to limil the amountof water
admittedand a level belowthe extemalwaterlinemay be maintained,obviouslyin the calculation
lhe worstcasescenariois @nsidered.

CTASS2/1STABIUTY SECIO 22- BIS'E 270


I

L- 22.2 THE EFFECTS oF BILGING Al'l EMPTY AMIDSHIPS GoiIPARTMENT wlTH A


WATERTIGHT FLAT (DOUBLE BOTTOM)

22.21 Flooalweter confined t€,low a weteflighl f,at t€/ow the odgind waMlne
L_
Example 2
I A box-shaped vessel floating on an even keel in saft walet has the following pafliculars; length 110
t_ m, breadth 22 m and dnught 5.00 m.
There is an empty amidships bdtom conpaftment 20 n in lenglh extendittg the fuI brcadth ot the
vessel with a wateftght frat 4.80 m above the keel.
L Calculate the chatBe in GM if this cornpathEnt becones bilgecl.

t_ Solution
By the ktst buoyancy (conslant displacement)methoa!:

KG remains coas,art;
U*lacefient (and volume of tlisptacement) remains constanL

Thercforc. any chenge tn KM will equal the


L change in GM.

Do a simple sketch.
L From the sketch it can be seen that the water
plane area will rcnain intact since no paft of h,'.a-,P.
:r,....r-'qr *i
the hun is flooded above the wateftight f,at.
F4.22.6

LOST= VOLUiIEOFBUOYANCY
VOLUIIEOFBUOYANCY GAINED
L Let x = sinkage 20^22^4.8=110\22.x
2112 = 24mx
x = 0.873m
L_
Therefore the daught in the Wed condition= 5.000 + 0.873 = 5.873 m
L_ To calculate the change in initial GM. calculale KM far lhe intact cond6on and then KM fot the
bitged condition. The differcnce in the values calculated will give the change in GM-

L- lntact KM
KMBox=KB+BM

KB = Drauoht = 9@ = 2.500 n
L 2 2

BM= Lg = 110x22' = 8.067


m
!- 12V 12x(110x22x5)

KM = 2.fi0 + 8.067= 10.567m


L BilaedKM
KMBox= KB + B M
L At the ftnal wet€rlineKB, @!!9D!
2
I
T-
CLASS21 STABILIry' SECTION22 BilQing 271
Consider the shape of the new inkd
undeNvatervolumed the vessel,

KB in the Wed @nditionwill be greatal


than half the draught.To calculatethe KB
tor the bilgedcodition il will be necessary
to take 'nornentsof volume'aboutthekeel
in a similarway to taking monl€ntsaboul Fig.22.7
the keel whonsolvingKG calculations.
KB = 3.030m
5064.4
11l0^22r51 a.o t6666 7

(Note that the final wlume of displacentent(in red) is the same as lhe initial wlME of
displacement,so just usethe onginalvahEs!) BM = LE
12V
However,sinceth6 watetplane area has ranained fuIy intactand the volune of dsplacement
aloesnot change:lnitialBM = Find BM = 8.067m
Thereforc: FinalKM = 3.030+ 8.067= 11.097m
Charye in GM= Chat]gein KM
GM hes increesedby 0.530m (Ans)
1 10 S 7
055

ln this instarrcethe initial &ability of lre vessel has increasedas a resu/l ot bilgitg the
compartment. Thisis due to the addiltonof botlomweightwithN intoduc.d free surfacemomenls
(if the addedvleghl nethod wereto be @nstdered}

22.2.2 Flnal wabdine aboveahewaletiighaf,at


Example3
A box-sraped@ss6/is floatingon an even keel in salt waterand has the followingparticulaB:
Iength 10o m, breadth 20 m and draught 5.50 m. There is an empty amidshipsbottom
compattmentof 18 m lengthhat extendsthe full bre'adthot the vesselwth a waterlightflat 6.20m

Calculatethechangein initialGMif tlis conpatlmentbecomesbiged.

So/utio,
By the loslbuoyancy(constantdisplacetrrent)
method:
KG remainsconstant:
Displacetuent(and volufie of displaaement)rcmains constanL
Therefore, any change in KM will equal the
change in GM-

Do a simple sketch.

Consider figure 22.8. The initial watedine is


almosl up to the level of the watenight flat. :r-r*r. [rrrq.irr
The approach here is to nake the fo owing
assumpfion: Fi9.22.8
'Assume that lhe fmal wale|tine is ahoye tl'€ levd of the wabftght f,at'

Calculate the $oblem on this basis and if it were found that the new dnught is aclually less than
the hedht of the wateftight flat, rewrk the problem as if il were an odinary amidship$
cdnpatTnent as in example 1, since the initial assumptionmade wouldbe incoffed.

- SECTION22 Bilqiro
CTASS21 STABILITY
i

L-
l,lote t@t he spacein tl]€ bilgeddrnpaftnst belw@1 the initialwate,line d the wa@tightflat is t ot
padot tE volune of bloyancy gained, skce the atumpatulentb now open to the seawhen bilged.
L- VOLUME OF BUOYANCY LOST = VOLU E OF BUOYANCY GAINED

(18x 20x 5.5)= (100x 20x x) - (1I x 20x (6.2- 5.5))


L 19u=2000x-252
1980+252=2000x
2232= 20ffix
L x=1.116m

fhercfore the dnught in the bilged condition= 5.500 + 1.116 = 6.616m


L- Since this puts the final watedine above the watertightflat the assumptionwas @tecL
To caiculate the change in initial GM, calculate KM tot the intact condition and then KM for the
bilged !,ondition.

Intact KM
KMfux=KB+BM

L KB = Dra@ht = 9@= 2.750n

KM= 2.750+6.061=8.811m
L BM= LB = 1nx2d
12V 12x(100xm x 5.5)
= 6 . 0 6 1 m Therefore

t_ Bilaed KM
KMBox=KB+BM
At lhe ,inal wabrtine KB * @!90!

L- Cottsider the shape of lhe new intact


undetwater volune of the vessel.

L KB in the Wed condition wiu be Waler


than hat the daughL To calculate the KB for
'mofi,ents of
the bilged conditon take
vdune abolJtttE keel.
L FA.22.9
KB= 3.350m
I^r.l v.J',|m t'.lnw fin.l Wl BM=LE
12V
3.:t50 36452.3

Howover,sincethe walerdanearca has rcmainedfuly inlact and the volumed displacament


cloesnotchange: lnitialBM = FinalBM= 6.061m
FinatKM= 3 350+ 6 061= I 411n
L in KM
Gn hes increesedby 0.600n (Ans)
L
) ln this kstance the initial slability of the vessel has increasedas a rcsu/t of bilging the
compaftrnent.Thisis due to the additionof boftomweightwithno introducedftee sudacemo/nenls
(if the addedweitht nethod wereto be consideted).
I
!_
CTASS2r1 SIABIUTY SECTION22- Bilging 2?3

r--
22.3 BILGINGA COiIPARTMEI{TWHENPERMEAAIUTY IS LESSTHANIOO7.
fhe 1F]tmpemeabililywithrcspect1oanycompartrnent on a ship rolatosto lhe amountof spac€in
thal compartmentthat is capableof beingflled with ffoodwater.An emptytank has a p€fmeability
of100o/o(or 1.00).A completelytulltankhasa penneability of 0olo(or0.00).A widelyusedvalue
forpenneabilily
of theengineroomin a shipis lakenas 850/6 (o.0.85);wheGby 15%of theengine
roomis takenup by the madrinerywithinit and85%is vordspacl capableof beingnooded.

The previousexamplesassumedthat lhe compartmentbeingbilgedwas emptyb€forebilgingi e.


the compartft€ntpermeability was 100%.lf the co.npartnenthas pemeabilitylessthan 100%,by
reasonsof cargoin it for example,lessioodwaterwill be admitted,the ship'sbodilysinkagewill be
smaller, and lhe change of GM will be differentto whal \ould have arisen trom bilging a
comparbnent of permeability100%.

ln tems of the lost buoyancy(constantdisplacemont)rn€thod,a smallerpenneabilitywill meana


smallerloss of buoyancy.Furthennore,if the reducedpenneabilityappliesat the fnal waterline,
there will be less loss of water plane area and hen@ less loss d BM (sincethe volumeof
displacementremainsconstant).Unlessthere is data io suggestotherwise,the permerbilitythat
appliesto the loss ol volumeof buoyancywill apply equallyto the loss of water dane area. lt
shouldalsobeevidentthatsomeof thevolumeof buoyancy regained willincludethatof thecargo
in the bilgedcompartment.
223.1 Eilgi,E a c!,,r@tn€,ra wh€', ,F,nltr,bility Lsks dran10e/. - peneauw valuegiy€n

Examplo4
A box-shepedvesselhaslength120 m, bteadth16 m and floatsat an evenkeeldraughtof 6.00m
in saftwater.Thereis an empty amidshipscompatlnentof lenglh20 n extendingthe fu breadth
of the vesselthat hasa pemteabilityof 40%.ff thisfumpaftnentshouldbecomebilgedcalculaE:
(a) the newdnught,and;
(b) the changein GM.
gltJtion hl
By the loslbuoyancy(conslantdisplacement)
method:
KG remainsconstane
Disptacement(and votumeat disptacement)remainsconstanL
TherefoQ, any change in KM wil equal the
change in GM.

Do a simple sketch.

Fiq.22.10

VOLUIIEOF BUOYANCYLOST= VOLU E OFBUOYANCYGAINEO


(20x 16x6x0.4O)=[020-x 16)-,(20x16 xl.aq x)
768:(1920_128)x
768= 179
x = 0.429m
Thetetorethe drcughtin the bilgedconditicn= 6.N0 + 0.429= 6.1N m

Solutionb)
To calculatethe changein inkal GM, calculateKM for the intactconditionand then KM for the
bilge.t..ndftion.

ctass 21 sTAa[|TY sEcTlol]22- Bilging 274


L
L- IntactKM
RMBox__ KB + BM

L KB = pwb! = a@= 3.@0n

s M =E = 120x163 = 3.556m
L 12V x16x 6)
12x(120

I Therefore: KM = 3.000 + 3.5fi = 6.556 h


!-
BilqedKM
KMBox=KB+BM
L-
= A44= 3.215n
KB= DtaLmht
2 2
L-
BM=LE
12V
L- ,, th,b case not al of the WPA
attibutable to lhe bilged
t-
canpaftnent h lost - only 40okof
it. Seefigue 22.11. t Ont lry.ot tuWPA o, h b,Acd@ryartncrr k le.

t_ Becauseit is lhe taansverse8M


lhat is requiredthat portionof the
water plan€ area lost may b€
considered as a strip running
L- Lansversely.
2 Tt.di,ir the lostlllB as2trcl,E1'rtst s'itto{th.
Thereforc, the remaining intacl
lengthof the water plane area is W?A=1n p.1o-29Efr|ds.
L gMenoy: Fio.22.11

IntaclWPAlenglh= 120- (0.40x 20)= 112mehes


L
IntactWPAbreadth= 16 mekes(unchang6d)

L Theseare the valuesthat mustbe usedto calculatethe bilgedcondilionBM.


BM =!Er
Therefore: BM=n2O-(O.4Ox20Dx1d =3.319m
L 12t 12x(120;16 x6)

Theeforc: FinalKM= 3.215+3.319=6.5Un


L Changein GM= Changein KM
6 534
o.uE In this instancethe initial stabiry of the vesselhasreduceclalueto
L the k in KM.

I 22.3.2 CAlcuratirtst ra permeabiry for a compar'nent


The permeabilityvaluefor a compartmentmay be calculatedfrom data relatng lo the stowage
faclorandlhe tru€densityof the cargo.
i
!_
CTASS 2/l SIAA|UTY SECTION 22 - Bilging 275

t_
Example 5
A hdd has length 30 m, breadth 12 m
and a depth of I m. Coal haing a
stowage facbr (SF) of 1.36 n"/t is
baded into the hold until cornpletelyfulL
ff the tne density of the cnal is 1.20 Um',
calculate the petmeabil'ty of the
@mpaftment.

Note that the trae density is that which


applies to the indiviclual pieces of coal
cago and d(Es not take account of atry
Fiq.22.12
wid spaces that might exist in betwaen
those coal pieces. SF takes account of
the voids in between the pieces ol coal.

Sddion Method 1)
Compaftrnentvolmte = 30 x 12 x I = 2880n:'
Maximum mass of coal that compatTfirentcan holc!= WlEe = @= 21 18 t
sF 1.36

Volumeof actual coal in the conpattment (ignoring voids) = 49qg


Denstty
= 21L8= 1765m"
1.20
Theteforc, Void spa@in the compattment= 2880- 1765 = 1115 n3

Petmeabilily = votd space = 1iE = 0.387(38.7Y.)(Ans)


Totalspace 2880

A formulafor calculalingpemeabilityis derivedas follows:


= lb&Lgpe9C
Permeability = Totalspace- Filledsoace
Tolalspace Total space

Therefore: Permeability=@e!9lSE)=-.t03994C!9&)
massx sF

where:mass = the'solid'SF
density
= EAES!9E_=lldq4g!)
Permeability
massx sF

Therefore: Perme€bility= SF - 1/densiw


SF
Thesymbolfor penneabilityis p.
p=s@
SF

Considerthe previousexamplewherethe coal had density1.2OUm3


and SF 1.36m3/t.

CraSS 21 STAAWY. SECTION22 Bilqinq 276


L-
L- Sohnkn(Method2)

lr=SF-liRD = 1.36-'ll1.2o= 0.387(38.7%)


(Ans)
L- 1.36

Example6 is a partcularlyawkwardproblemwherebya @mpartment


abovea doublebottomtank
I becomesbilgedand permeatilityhasto be caldialed.
l-
Example6
A box-shapedvesselhaslenglh 140 m, breadth26 m and is f,oahngM an evenkeel clGughtof
5.80 m in saftwater. Therc is a double bottomtank, depth 1.fu n, with a hda! above. futh
compatunents aE 36 m in letuth atfi exted the fuI breadthof the vessel.Homogenouscatgoin
the hott stowsat 1.42 nfn aN has RD 1.28. The vesse/sutFeaside dam4e and the hoL!
:
L becimesbilged.Calculate
(a) be frnaldnught:
(b) the changein GM.
t_ Sddion la)
catcutatethepemeabiw ol the bigedcompatlnenLp= sF - 1RD = 1.42- 1/128 = 0 a5 Gsyd
sF 1.42
L_ By the lostbuo$ncy (c@s/antdisplacenent)method:
KG remains constant:
Displacement(and volune ol displacement)rcmainsconstant
j
L_
Thetefote, any change in KM wi equal the
change in GM.
t_ Do a simple sketch.

L- $nfu61*rGr Kr.r,-r",.r.,,.rr.*
v.btbrr... t 4iturt"...n'.''.'.1
L- Fiq.22.13

voLuMEOFBuoYAi{cYLosT = volu EOFBUoYANCY


GAINED
L_
Lgtx = sinkage s6x26x(5.8- 1.5)x0.45=l04ox 26)- ( x26x1Aq
1811.2= p646_121.2)x l
I
1811.2=3218.8x
L*
x= 0.563m
Thercforethe draughtin the bilged c:andition= 5.800 + 0.563 = 6.363 m
i- Soldbn b)
To calculate the change n initial GM, calculate KM for the intact condilbn and then KM for lhe
I bil1e.l condiion.
t- lntad KM
KMBox=KB+AM

L KB = D.&4A = '9@=
2 2
2.9@ n

BM= LE = 140x26' = 9 . 7 1m
3
12V 12x(140 x 26 x 5.8)

Therefore: KM = 2.900+ 9.713= 12.613n

CrASS ZI STAA]UTY SECiON 22 Bilginq 277

!_,
Bloed KM
KMsox=KB + BM

Atthefrnal water ne KB, MtgN

Consider the shape of the new intact


undeNvatervolume of the vessel.

To calcltlate the KB for the bilged condition


take 'mofiren|s of wlune' about the keel.

Remember that caryo is still displacing


water in the bilgad space and must be
accounted tor. The Kb of the bilged hold is Fiq.22.14
cdculatedby:
1.5 + G;393_l:5)= 3.ss2n (Studyfiqare22.14il k doubL)
2
KB= 3.109n

- 1 3 6 x 2 6 x 4 4 6 3 x0 4 5 1 BM=E
65634 12V

Only45%of the waErplaneareaattnbutableto the Wed holdis lost.

Fig.22.15

BM=Lg BM= fi40-rc6xA.46Ix2d = 8.589


m
12V 12x(14,/:a'a.a:

FinalKM= 3 109+ 8.589= 11.698


n

Change in GM = Change in KM

n.al5 GM has decreesed.

dASS 21 STAB|UTV-SEfiOf{22 - Blging 274


22.,1 CALCULATINGTHE DRAUGHTSWHENAN ENDCO PART ENT BECOIIESBILGED

lf an end cornpartmer{ becomes bilged the vessel will suffer both bodily sinkage and a change of
!-
fim. The bodily sinkage is calculated as if the comparfnent were siled amidships. The
'shned' in ihe calculelion to allow the change of tdm to be calculated. The
compartment is then
change of trim lhat takes place will depend on the MCTC vabe for lhe bilged condition.

it is usuallyrequiredthat the MCTCvaluebe calculeted


vess€|,in calcrrlations
Beinga box-shaped
using:
MCTC=WxGft,
i lOOLBP

Thededvalionof this formulawas demonslraledin section'12.6.

In examhationsit is (usually)only requiredto solvequestionswherethe bilgedcompartrnent


hasa
penneattlityof 100%.
I
221.1 Blrgi tg an ext E'meerf, cornpafttpnt with l(rM Frmeability
Exampl'e7
A box-shapedvesel hasbngth 75m, brcadth12 m andis froatngon an evenkeeldraughtin saft
ol length6
waterof 2.5 m. In thiscotiitbn the KG is 3.0Om. An enply foward end compaftment
m ertendingtheful brcadthand depthofthe vesselis Wed-
Calc!-tatethedaughtsin thefloodedcondition
Solrrtion
By the lostbuoyancy(constantdisplacement)
method:
I KG rcmainsconstaar;
Displaeament(and talumt tf displacement)rcmainsconstan,r

I By assumingthat the @nwnment is


amidships calculate lhe new mean
draugn

L Do a simphesketch.
1. Calculatethe newmeandraught
1_: v*c!.r.gt-d
:rdrr:.'..,rr
L-
Fis.22.16
LOST= VOLU E OFBUOYANCY
VOLU E OFBUOYANCY GAINEO
t-
6 x 1 2 x 2 . 5 = (f 7 5 - 6 )x 1 2 ) x
I t18O= 828x r
x = 0.217m
Thercfotethemeandnught in the biged conditidl = zsN + 0.217= 2.717n

2. to itsactualposilionandcalculatethetimmingmoment
Movelhe compaftment
consider frgure22.17.
lnhially the LCG and LCB arc in the
sane longitudinal positionat amidships
(sirce fre vess6/ ,:so/l an even keel),
The change of tdm is caused by the
I loss of volune of buoyancy foNad
which causes the LCB to move aft (B
to B). This crcates a tnmmingmoment
gMen oy: Fig.22.17
L*
CLASS211STAB|L|TY,SECTION22 Br€ing 279
Trinmingmonent (tn) = W' BB,

Becauseof tl€ symnew of the intactvolune it ffiows that the timming lever (BB) = 3 n, beinS
hdt theleryth d thebilgedcomparunent.
.. Timmingmoment= 05 x 12 x 2.5x 1.025)x 3 = 691a.75trn
(Di splacene nt remains constant!)

3. MC|C
Calculale
MCTC=W xGMl
100L8t
whereGML- KML- KG
FiAi calculatethe KMLfor lhe bilgedcondition
KML= KB + BML

ln thebiged conditidt: KB = Dawttl = 2J1!= 1.359n


2 2
BML=B-C
12V
Thewaterplanearcaafrodedby he bilgedcompaftnenthas beenlost,lhercfote:

BML= 12xq5-d3 = 146.004


m
1 2 x C ar 1 2 \ 2 5 )

meeforc: KML=1.359+ 146.0&t= 147.363


n

GM,=11v,- ^n - 3.aaa= 144.363


GML= 147.363 m
(KGremainsconstant!)

MCTC=W xGM,
1@LBP

MCTC=,75/12r.2.5':1.028x 144.363= 44.392t-m


100^75
(Nde that LBP is 75 m, do not u& the efrectivelength of the rcnaining waterplane area by
mistake!)
4. Calculalelhe changeoftim
moment= 6918.75=155.9cmsbythehead
COT(cns) = Trimminq
MCTC 44.392

5. Appotlionthechangeoftrim to the foNvardandaft draughts

Considerfigure22.17.Becausethe waterptanearoaatrotdedby the bitgedcampaftment foNad


is lostthe LCF v'tillnove aft. Becauseof thesynnetry of the box shapedvesselthe movementof
the LCFaft wi bo the sane as the movementof the LCB(BBI, wttichis 3 n
Thetefote,the new positionof theLCFis 34.5n foap.
T a = C O T xq Ta=155.9xyp= 71.7cms
L 7 5
o8/ 2 0.717
Tf= coT-Ta Tf= 155.9- 71.7= U.2 c/'],s
Apdy Taand n to thefrnalmeandrauglnd 2.717n.

ctass zl STABIL|TY
sEcron22 sirqinq 2W
L-
I
L- 22.1.2 Bllging an extr"lme .nd comparln'ent with a waf€ tiglrt ltat - 1@96lE,rne€bility

Example I
L A box-shaped vessel has length 100 n, breadth 18 m and is froatingon an even keel draught in
saftwater of 4.0 m. tn this condition the KG is 6.8 m. An empty foNad end compaftnent ot length
10 m below a wateftight flat 3 m above the keel atd extending the full breadth of the vessel is
t_ bilged. Cdculate the daughls in the fl@ded condition.

Sdution
@76-tost ouoyancy lanstant displacement)m ethd:
L_ KG ,emains constanl:
Displace,rent (and voluhe of disptaaement) rernarlnscotstatt

By assuming lhat the compartment is


L-
amidships calculate the new nBan
d@ght

Do a simple skelch

1. Calculalethe new mean draught


L_ lI8..!.F.',..
i*.: vd',.,qr..t,b.

Fig. 22.18

VOLUIIEOF BUOYANCYLOST= VOLU E OF BUOYANCYGAINED

Letx = sinkagc 10x 18x3 = llOOx 18x)x


L* 540= | 8Nx
x = 0.300m
Therefotethe nean dftLeht in the bilged condition = 4.0O+ 0.300 = 1.N0 m
L-' Move the compaftmentto its aclual position and calculate the timmjng moment
Considerfigue 22.19.
t_ Initialy the LCG aN LCB are in the
samelongituclinalpositionat am'dships
(sincethe vesselis on an even keel).
L The chat8e ot trim h causodby the
loss of volune of buoyancyfo/wad a
whichcausestheLCBto nvle aft (B to
L B) where the timming noment is
givenby: Fig.22.19
Timmingnonent (t-n) = W xBBl
L ft is necessaryto take momentsof wlume abouttheAP to tind thenewLCB.
I
t- rd,lsl,'lF tFlfl finrl wl
ll0x18x3) 5131t0
335700

L LCBnoves aft ivn a Wsition50 m foapto 46.625m foap.

I Timminglevet= 50- 46.625= 3.375n


.. Timmingnonenl = (100 x 18 x 4 x 1.025)x 3.375= 219)7.5tnn
(Di splacement rcmains consk nt!)
I
L_
CLASS21 STAaUTY SECTIOU22- Bdgrng 241
i
3. Calculate
MCTC MCTC=W xGMl
lOOLBF
WhCTEGML=KML.KG
First calculaE the KM L for the bilged ctdition.
KML= KB + BML
At ahefrnal welerlhteKB a AfltgU

Considetthe shapeof thenewintactutfretwatervoluneof the vesselin figure22.19.


Tocalculatethe KB for thebilaedconditiontake'momentsol vdun e' aboutthekeel.
In the biloed condititn KB = 2.199 n
BM,=ET
12V

2.199

Thewaterplaneatpaatrodedby the bilgodconpaftnent hasrcnainedintactdue to he watedight


flat,the@forc:
BML= 18.1M = 208.333m
1 2x , l r t , 1 e ' 4 )

Thetefoe: KML= 2 199+ 208.333= 210.532n


GML= KML- KG GML= 210.532-6.8c4= 203.732
n
(KGremainscongant!)

MCTC=W xGMl
lNLBP

MCTC=(10!: x 203.732=
\18 ' 1, t.a2a) 150.3yt-m
100x 100

4. CalcLlatethechangeoftrim
COT(cms)= Tnnminonan ent = @ZJ = 165.7cmsby thehead
MCTC 1fi.354

5. Appoibn thechangeof tim to thefonvardand aft draughts


kcause the waterplanearea hasEmainedintacthe positionof the LCF remainsunchangedat
amiclships.
Therefore, Ta= 1l = 165.7= 82.9 cms
2
o.429 0.829
Applyfa and Tf to thefinalnean d6ught ot 4.300n. 5,t29 3,471

- SECTION22- Blging
CIASS 21 STABILITY 242
L-

L- 22.5 CALCULATING IS BILGED-


THELISTWHENAN AiIIDSHIPSSIDECOTIPARTMENT
PERMEABIL]TY
1OO%

i 22.5,1Noment of inerta
We knov,thatfor a box-shaped vessel: Bl\&o.= tq' where:tEr
12V 12
is the momentof inertiaof the walerplanearca,andV is the volumeof displacemenl
of lhe vessel.

The mostinfuentialfaclorafiectngthe BMis the sizeof the waterplanearea, but in parlicular,the


'momeniof inertia' (l)
breadth.Many studenlshave difficultyunderstandingthe value of the
becauseit is diffidilt lo pictrre.A way of thinkingabolt the rolethat the mornentof hertiaplaysis
to considerlhat fhe lvaterplanearca ofrersthe ship resistanceto rtling. This is truebec€usethe
grealerthe waler plane area, and parlic,ilarly the breadth;lhe greaterwill be BM, and
cons€quently KMand GM,givingthe shipgreaterinitialstability.

fhe martent ol inetlta about an axis (af rctatiofi) is equal to


the prcducl of an area and the square of tts dlstance frcm

This will be looked at in moie detail. The way to picture this


is to coisrder that the ship stays uprighl and the water
plane area rotates about a longitt dinal axis of rotation that
passes through the centre of f,olaton (instead of the ship
rolling and the water line remaininghodzontal)-
Fig.22.20
22.5.2 Homen'sof inedia o, ,ectangularwabr plane areas
Thesma//eslvalues walerplaneareaoccurwhenlheaxas
of momenlof inertiaforanyrectangular
of rotation(longitudinalor transverse)passesthrough the cenlroid of the water plane arca
concemedi.e.ihe axisof rolationpass€sthroughlhe centreof ffotation(whichis at lhe geometric
centre of the water plane area).
L- The smallesl lIansversevalue
of I is given byi--------------:1
ll,,=LB'l
l- I E l
The smallest /orgrtudiral
value of I is given by:
l.Sm.llesl Uansvarse vrluo ot I. 2.Sma est longiturlinal value ol I.

Fiq.22.21
L_
The moment of inertia about an axis passing a/ong ore edge of the water plane area can also be
found.
These values may be calculated

rr
as follows:

The derivationof these fomulae


I is not important,but use of them 2. Longitud@l6lue ot I
t- will allowthe c€lculation of the
1. T.ansve6e value ot I

momenl of inertia of the water


I plane area when an amidships
i!_ Fig.22.22
side @mparlmenl becornes
bilged.

L-
clAss 21 STABIUTY-SECI|ON22 aibino 243

L-
22.5.3The patallel axes thaorem
This states that:

llP monent of inedk about any axis passitu thtough the centoid of a water plane arca is equd to
the nonent of ineftia of the same water plane area about any paftllel axis, minus the area of the
water plane muftipliedby the distance betweenthe:L{es squared'

considerfgure22.23-
The momentof inertiaaboulthe axis ll (whichpasses
throughthe cente of flotaton)is equalto the moment
ol inertiaaboullhe axrs XX minusthe prcductof the
waterolaneareaand the distancebetlveenthe axes
squareo r.e. Fig.22n
l,r=lxx-(Axd')

For this fomula to be tauethe two axes must be pararle/and one of them must passthroughllie
centoid of the area concerned.

Exanple 9
A box-shaped vesse/has lenglh 20 m and breadth 6 m-
Calculate:
bJ the moment of inetlia for all the axis' of rotation shown;
(b) the noment of ineftia about the two axis'passing thtough the centre of flotation using the
parallel axis' theorem.

Sohrtionh)
L,--
LT =nze = 3O0m'
12 12

L,=e-t =9z2A = tlo@ma


12 12
t*=B =:oz-d
3 3 Lengh m n Brcatth 6 m

tY|=BIC =9xE = 16000m' FA. 22.24


3 3

Solutionb)
the paralletaxis
lJsing theorem: I|= Iv-(A xt) whercd= 3 n:
ttt = 1440- (20x 6 x !) = 3@ n'
Usingthepanllel axistheorem: ILL= lw - (A x t) whsred = 10n:
ILL = 1ffim - (20x 6 x 10') ='1000m'

22.5.1 Calculatirrgthe momentot inettia of a waEr plane arcaof e box-sh.ped vessel with a
bitged side compaftnent
The parallel axis theorem previously describ€d
will be used to calculale the moment of inertia of 1
the waler plane area of a box-shapedvessel l,-
where an amidshios side comoartmenlhas .
becomebilged.This will be necessaryin order I
to fnd the KM, and hence GM of the vessel in l,-
the bilgedcondition. 0
Considerfgure 22.25. Fig. 22.25

Ct l.ss 21 STABIUTY- SECnON22 Blging 2U


t-- When an amidships side compartm6nt extending upwards lhe full depth of lhe vessel bemmes
bilged the centre of flolation (F) will move off the centre line, its new position with rcference to side
xx (axis XX) may be calculated by taking moments of area abort one side. This will give the
distance,d, betweenthe two axes to be considered.

In order to calculale the Bl\, in the bilged condition it will be nec€ssaryto calculale the new value of
lhe transverse moment of inerlia of the remaining intact water plane area aboul the new
longitudinalaxis of rotation passing through the new position of the centre of flotation (aboul axis
ll). This is adrievedby usinglhe parallelaxislheoremwhereby:

r-=E -!!' (r)


3 3
andthe iniactwaterplaneareais givenby:
A=(LB)_(tb) t2l
Combiningformulae(1) and (2) abovewill allowthe lransversemomentof inertiaof the damaged
water olane area to be calculated:
',,=
$'-u]-[."-"r,,0)
Oncethe valueof I has been calculated,this is usedlo detemine the BM in the bilgodcondition.
Considerthe next examole.

Example 10
A box slraped vessel has bnglh 96 n and bredth 18 n anc! floats at an even keel dnught of 4.6
i m in saft water. An amidsllips side conpartment of length 24 m extending in frcm the side 6 m b
bilged. Calculate:
(a) the initial BM value;
(b) the BM in the damaged condition.

Soldion b)
'iili6li6it
andition:BM= Ld
1w
BM = x1e = 5.870m(Ans)
I
L- 12x(96x18x4.6)
t."
Sohnionb)
L fo cdculaE the BM in the damagecl
condilion:h =l^-(Ax d'l Fil.22.26

L '{5'-g)'[r'-"-'.r'*
]
Calculatethe distance of the new LCF frcm one side of the WPA (rc<in figure 22.26)
L 1.
Take momonts of area about side)A

L
L clr"ss zl1 STAB||TY - sEcIoN 22- Bitghg 245

L_
2. Calculatethe transversemomentof inertiaaboutthe axis passingthroughtlle now position
of theLCF
t , ,= ( L E - t b ) - ( 'r L B - l b ) . d I)
L3 3J'
t . . = ( t % ^ 1 d t- e 4 ' d ) - f ( r 9 6 . r s , - r 2 4 ' 6 , 1' 9 . 5 1 5 ' I
L 3 3 J L ' 't )
l

h , = ( f t a a z q - t t n ) - ( n 7 2 8- 1 1 4 ) , s s 4 5 )
L J L )
-
,t= 184N6 (15u x9.54e)
ht= 4O582n'
3. CalculatetheBMlot thebilgedconditionBM=!

Using the lost buoyancy(constantdisplacement)mathod the volumeof displacement


rcmainsconstant,thercfoae:BM= 40582 = 5.105m (Ans)
(96x18x4.6)

22.5.5 Celculaling lhe arrgle of li6t ,esulting from an amidships side comparknent
becomlng b ged.
Considera box-shapedvesselwith side compartments
amkJships as in figure22.27.F is the cenlreof iotalion
initiallyon the centreline.Thevesselis ioatingupright
on an even keel when a side compartmentbecomes
bilged.Thevolumeof buoyancy loslis shown

Fiq.22.27
The vesselwill sink to regainthe buoyancylost. Figure
22.28 illustratesthe shape of th€ buoyancy gained.

Because lhe water plane area has changed sh€pe the


centre ot fotation moves off the centre line of the vessel
(F to E). This causes lhe axis of rotation of lhe water
plane area to move ofi lhe cente line as already
discussed.

Fiq.22.28
Figure 22.29 shows the vess€l after it has exp€rienced
sinkagebut beforeit lists. l l
The transfer of the volume of buoyancy (b to br) causes
the cenlre of buoyancy, g, to move off the c€nlre line
(and upwards) to 81. fhe horimntal @mponent of this
shift creates the listing lever, whi(*r is equal to Gx.

Fig. 22.29
CI-A.SS21 STABLTY - SECTION 22 - Ailgihg
The vesselwill now list over to the bilgedside (tigure
22.30\.
Tan0L6r= oPP = Gx = 99"
ADJ XM XM

t4/h6reXMis the Gl\4in tho bilgedcondilion.


L-
Becaus€of lhe symmetryof a box-shapedvesselBBH
is equallo lhe movementof lhe centreof flotationoff
the cenfe line (FFi)that is foundby takingmomentsof
area of lhe water plane area about one edg€ (s€e
example 10).

Therefore: Tanousr= Er
Gltgreo
Note
When calculating list arising ftom the loading,
disdErging or shifring oI weights the formulal Fiq.22.30
Tanour = 99r
Gtl
In this insiance, GGH is the cause of the list, whic*| represenG the distance that the centre ot
grawly of the ship is off the centre line at the tirne for which the list is being calculaled.

When calculatingthe list caused by the bibing of a side comparlnent lhe formula:

Tan Outr= Er is used.


Gt{a,rn.o

Here the lisl is being caused by lhe hodzontal component of the movement ot the cente of
buoyarcy and the GM is that which appliesto the vessel's damagedcondition.

Example 11
A box-shapedvessel floating uptight on an even keel in sallwater has the folowing patlbularc:
Lenglh 120m *eadth 25m Dnught 6.00 m KG 5.80 m
The vessel has a centrc line wateftight bulkhead wkh an empty amidships side conpartnent of
20n lenglh.

Calculatethe angb of lisl whq thts compatunent becomesblged.

So/ufion
By the lostbuoyancy (constantdisdacement) nethod:
XG retaainsconstant;
Displaatment (and volume .rt disptacetrant) rcmains constant

Do a simple sketch.

I
l

i,
Fb.22.31
- SECTTOU
CLASS21 STABTLITY 22 B'long 247
1. Calculatethe sinkage and new uptight draughl.

Consider the shapesof the volumesof bwyancy gained and bst.

Fig. 22.32
VOLUIIE OF AUOYANCYLOST= VOLUMEOF BUOYANCYGAINED

Letx= sinkage 20.12.5t6= l(lm '25)-(20,12.5) 'lx


\ 15m= 2750x
x = 0.545m
Thereforethe meandnught in ke bilgedcotditidt = 6.ffi0 + 0.545= 6.515m

2. Calculatelhe new positionof theLCFham sicleXX (andhenceBBi


TakemonenE of areaaboutsidexx.

Area bhed (M@rtEnt 120x 12.5i 12.512 15625


2750 t3.064 35937 5

LCF is now 13.068 m hom side XX.


Since the LCF has noved of the centreline by an amount equal to: 13.068- 12.5 = 0.568m
EIBHis also equal to 0.568 m.
The distance batween tha axes to be used = 13.068m.

3- Calculate the tqnsverse mcnent of ineftia about the axis passing through the new posilion
ofthe LCF l,= In-(A x d')

t,,=(Lg -tb\-( tLB-tt, ,d )


L3 'J'
)

h,= ( u20, 2ol- eo' D.fl ) - (l ( 120


x 2s)- t20\ 12.s)'f,13.06d )
[ 3 ' J[. ) )
- ( Booo.2so' r3.06sl
t,=( aznoo-13021)
L J t ]
l = 611979 - 469625

Itt= 112391ma

4. CalculaleBM forthe bilged conlitlon BM=!

Using the lost buoyancy(constantdisplacement)nethod the wlume of displacement


rcmainsconstant,lherefore: BM= 142354 = 7.t[n m
(lmx25x6)

5. CalculateKB torthe bilgedcondition

KB = dratnht= gZ! = 3.273n

CLASSZI SIAB|UTY SECTION22 6 Ong 284


L
I 6. the GMin thebil96dfunditbn
Ca/(J)lala
KM=KB+Bll
Tffii€: KM= 3.273+ 7.98 = 11.182 n
L GM= KM- KG
T,6lE'o,t: GU = 11.1A2-5&O = 5.#2 n

L 7. Cdcdalefrre list

fan 0ufr-= &


GMarcra
L f& eus = 9&= 0.10551
5_382
L L,tt- d0? (tu''.)

L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L

L
L
L CI-ASS2xsna|LlTY- SECIIo|{22- g*tno a9

L
22.6 REVIEWOF PRINCIPLESOF BILGINGTO BE APPLIEDTO CALCULATIONS
The accepled method of conducting bilging calculations is by using the Lost Buoyancy (Condant
Disrlacernenf) method.
This assumes:
t. n/habver cqnparfnert is brged,trle vdurne of disphrn€i (anddidacen'ent) does rDl cttarEe.

2. The KG of the vessel remainsconstant,

3. lf the tilged compartmenlexlends the full depth of the vessel, KB in the final condilion will
always be half the inal draught.

4- lf iooding of the compartnent is restrictedby a watertighl flat below the final waterline fnal
KB is nol half the draught;it must be found ry taking momenlsol volumeabout the keel.
Doing a sketch for the final watedine conditionwill mnfim lhis.

5. The cenlre of flotation is always at the centroid of the intacl water plane area. lf the bilged
compartmentis amidshipsthe centre of tlotation will always be amidships.
lf ihe bilged cornpartment is at the end of the vessel and lherc is no reslncting watertight
iat, then the LCF will be at half the lengthof lhe remainingintactwater plane i.e. it will
move a distanceequal lo haff the length of the bilged compartment.
lf the bilged compartrnentis at the end of the vessel and there is a reslricling waterlighl
iat, then the LCF will remain at amidshipssince the water plane a@a will not be affected.

6. The posffon of B will be vertic€lly belo\ / the centre of folation if the bilged compartmenl
extends the full depth of the vessel. ln this instance any shiff in B and F will be the same.

7. lf the bilged compartrnentis al the end and llooding is restficted by a watertight flat B will
not be in line with lhe LCF in th€ fnal condition i.e. LCF will remain amidshiAs bul B will
move away from amidships (away from the position of the centroid of the bilged
compartment). The LCB must be calculated by taking moments of volume about the aft
perpendicular.Doing a sketdr for the final watedine conditjon will conim this. -

8. BM = ! always, whelher transverselyor longitudinally.

listrc moment of inertia of lhe ,inlactwater plane area taken about an axis passing through
lhe centre offfotation.
V is f^e volunE d displaenent WhenusirE the consbnt displacen€r{ (losl tuoyancy) nEthod
V rermins constari so alway€uset|e ort inallerEth,bEadh and draughto{t}le \essel

L Side conpaftmentsi In examinations the only scenario which is considered (usually) is


where an amidships side compartrnent extending upwards the full depth of the vessel
becomes bilged- In this case lhe movemerf of both the centre of flotation (FFi) and the
centre of buoyancy (BB,) off the centre line vUllbe the sarne, keeping lhem in the same
vertic€l-The new positions of both B and F are found by taking moments of the water plane

o","n thebirsed
ilT;B?frt;:i"',i5$"hLi""il?'11"'" norsr,icry
dtausht.'thisis ruc
sinc€ this only applies when the centre of ffotation is on the centre line (where lhe water
plane area remainsinlact).The vesselwill heevlistabout a longifudinalaxis that passes
through the centre of flotation whereby lhe increase in draught on the heeled side will equal
the decrease on draught on the high side. lf the centre of lloiation is off the centre line (F,),
as in lhe case considered,lhen there will be a greater increase of draught on lhe heeled
side than dedease in draught on the high side. However, provided that the list is small, any
enor is assumed negligibleso may be ignored.
Finally,the list is calculatedusing: Tanousr= ggH
G;1"'.o-
where the fist is caused by lhe movement of the cente of buoyancy olf lhe centre line and
not lhe rnovementof a weight as in a normal list problem.

?11sTABtLrv-srcTloNz - Birging
ct-a"ss 290
t_
L @
lNtRout cTloN
i When a ship has achieved a steady rate of tum it will he€l in a direction away from lhe centre of
tfl€ tuming circle i.e. a tum io sta.boad vrill cause a heel lo port. However, at the initial stages d
the tum the dirsc{on oI the heel is in fact opposite lo this! This section idenlifies lh€ folces that
arise when a ship is undergcinga fum and explains lhe fomula that can be us€d to determinethe
angle ol heel lhat will occur.

Leaming Ohjactlvea
i- On completionofthis s€ction the leamerwill achieve the follo/ving:
'1. Understandthe terms relaiing lo a ship s fuming cirde.
2- Understandthe forces that c€use the ship to heelwhen tuming.
i 3. Caiculatethe angleot heelwhenluming.
4. Calculatethe increase in draught due to list or heel when fuming.

cl-lss 2ll sTABlLlw ' sEcIoN 3 Angb or her *hs ruhino 291

t-
23.I TERMSRELANNGTOA SHIP'STURNI]'IG CIRCLE
Figure23.1showsthe pathtaced out by
ihe ship'scentreof gravityduringtuming-

r-
!
t'
I
I

Fiq.23.1
2t.1.1 Advance
Thisis lhe distancetravelledby lhe ship'scentreof gravityin a directionparallello lhe ship'sinitial
course.lt is usuallyquotedfor a 9C changeof heading.

23.1-2Tra,rsfer
Thisis the distancetravelledby the ship'scentreof gravityin a directionperpendicular
to the ships
inilialclurse. lt is usuallyquotedfor a g0' changeol heading.

X1.1.3Tacticatdi.n e'€r
This is the distancetavelled by the ships centreof g€vit in a directionperpendidiarto lhe ships
initial@urse whentheshiphasaltereditscourseby 180'andis on a reciprocal heading.

ZL1.1 Sl&,dy atmlng clrcle 'edlus


This is the steadyradiusof the tumingcirde whena sleadyrateof tum is achieved.This strateis
usuallyadrievedby the time the ship has alleredcoursebelween90oand t 8f howeverthis will
varyfromshipio ship.

Z'l ,5 Yaw(*)
Thisis the anglebelweenihe ship'sforeand aft lineandthe directjonof travelof the ship'scentre
of gravityat any instantduringthe tum.

CTASS ?11 STABILITY ' SECT|ON 23 Angle of heel when bming 42


23.2 FORCES THATGAUSETHESHIPTOHEELouRlNGTURI'||NG
Coosidera ship tumingto starboard.When
the rudder is put over lhe thrust on the
starboad face of the rudder has an
athwartshioscomponent,F, which acts at
lhe clntre of pressure,P, of the rudder.

add&.r*t .@8.,,nt a

FO.23.2
An equal and opposite force, Fr arises,
resisting the athwartships motion set up by
the force on the rudder. This reaction ac-tson
the oort side al lhe cente of lateral
rosistance (CLR) and is loc€ted at the
geometric cenfe of the undeMater
longitudinalarea and is invariablyhigher
than P.

Fig.23.3

The two forces, F at P, and Fr at the GLR


set up an inward heelingcouple for which
the momentis givenby: FxPQ

Oncethe ship has achieveda steadyrale of


fum, the inward heel is overcomeby the
effectof the centrifugalfor@actingoutwards
throughthe ship'scentreof gravity(G).This
causesthe ctaracterislic odwad heel to lnittat inwa.d heeltng coupte is creatcd (tor .hlp
developin the tum. The cenlifugal force is tttmlng to st .boa.d)-
gven Dy: Fig.nl
=
Centrifugalforce (ionnes) Urf
gR

where:'lll is the ship'sdispla@mentin lonnes;


'lf is lhe speed of the ship in metres per secold;
?'isthe acceleralion due to gravity(9.81nvs'), and;
R'is the radiusof the tumingcirclein rnetres.

The centrifugal force is opposed by the equal


and oppositd centipetat force acling lhtotgh
the CLR, where the CLR (for purpose of
formula derivation) is assumed to be at the
same heighi above the keel as lf|e centre of
buoyancf, B. Considerigure 23.5. adr-rtu

L-
Fiq.23.5

CLASS 21 STABILITY SECTIoN 23 Angl€ of h6lwh€n luminq 293


The inilial inward heeling moment is ove.come by the outwad heeling moment created by both the
centrifugal and cenlripetal forces. lf the initial inward heeling moment is ignored, the ship tvill heel
outwards to an angle of steady heel €) when the outlvard heeling moment balances the no.mal
righting moment for lhe angle of heel deveioped.At small angles of heel:
Righting moment (t-m) = GZ x Displac€ment
where:GZ: Gl{x Sineo --.-

cmsideration of fgure 23.6 will


help to de.ive the formula for the
angle of steady heel due to tuming
once the ship has ac* eved lhe
steady rate oflum.

The formula is derived as iollows:


B and q are assumedto be at the
same depth-
cos0=AgJ=d
HYP BG
Fig. 23.6
Therefore: d=BGxCos0

Al he sma//angleol heelshovvn: Rightingmomenl= He€hngmoment

(wxGz)=WV?xd
gR

lf d = BGx Cosoand: GZ= GMx Sin€

then: W xc t x Sins= WV x BGxCos€


gR

.. gRxWxGt\rxSins=WVxBGxCosO

Dividingbothsidesby Cosogives:
qRxwxGMxSine=wt'xBG
Coso

gRxWxGMxTane=WVxBG

Tano= llfnBq
gRxWxGM

Thus: ranO= @
gxR).Gil

It should be noted that in practice the outward angle of heel developed in the tum will be slightly
/ess than lhal given by the tormula because of the small inwad heeling moment sel up by lhe
athwartshioscornDonenlof thrust on the rudder.

However, the initial tendency for the ship to hed inward must nevet be ovedooked. ff, duing a
steady tum, the ,uddet is qui*ly retumed to amidships, the outward heel wil instantaneously
iwease. If the tudder is suddenly reversed i.e. pd hard-apott on a slatboatd fuming circte, an
even rbrc seious oLlvvardangle of hed would an6e @lbeit tgnporarily) which could cause the
ship to heel excessively-

CLASS2/l STABIIITY- SECTION23- Angleor heelwhenluming


L zl.3 THEaNGLEoF HEELwHENTURNING
CALcULATTNG

The followingexampleswill demonstratethe use of the formula.lt shouldbe notedthal lhe speed
(V) is in metresp€rsecondandnot in knols-Thefdlowingwill help.

1 Knot= 1852metresperhour
: To converlmetresper hourinlo mefes per seconddivideby 3600;sincethereare 3600seconds
tnannour.

I Thus,if a queslionstatosthata shipis ddng a speedof 12 knots:

12 Knots= (12_Xl-85?!
= 6.173rn/sec.
3600

Example1
Calculatetheangleol heeldevelopeduhen a shipdokg 20 knotsachievesa steadyrcte of tum to
statboafuand the ndius of the tumingcircleis 300m giventhat
KM=8.0Om KG= 6.00m KB=2.5m

Solution
20 tlJr,o's= lAZJ.gE) = 10.289n/sec.
3ffi0

cM = KM- KG GM= 8.00- 6.00= 2.0On


BG = KG- KBEG= 6.N - 2.50= 3.50m
Tane= VXBG Tane=10.28ex3.€A = 0.06295
g "R. Oi, g-A1.SOOTZOO

e.3.f Pott(Ans)

L Example2
Calcutatethe maximumWeed on a turningcircle ot diameter620 m in oder that the heel
developea! doesnot exceedf giventhd:
: K M= 1 5 . 8 8 n KG=14.26m KB=8.05m

Soldion
GM= KM- KG GM= 15.88- 14.mn = 1.62n

BG = KG- KBBG= 14.26- 8.05= 6.21m

i-- Tano=V-zEg Tane=Vx6.21


gxRxGM x310x1.62
9.81

I T e=621f ll =Tanex4926.582 = 83.382


4926,582 n1

... v=1ffi382=9.131n/s
L

ln knots: Speed= qly x3600= 17.75kno's maxlmum(Ans)


1852
t-
Nob
Be careful not to use the diameter of the tuming circle instead of the radius in lhe formula!

CLASS?]1 STAa|L|TY- SECTION23 AroE or hel *ns tuminq 295


IHE MAXIMU DRAUGHT(II'ICREASE
23.i1 CALCULATING lN DMUGHT) DUE TO
LIST/HEEL
Obviously, as the ship heels when tuming
the draught inc(eases on lhe lo$/ side. For
passageplanningpurposeswhen underkeel
dearance might be limited it may be
necess€ry to calcriate the deepest draught
in the trm. Considerfgure 23.7.

The draught when heeled = XY + YZ

=gee=
Sino X/
f{YP l,Beam

.. XY = %Beamx SirS (l)

coso=A!!=Yz = Yz Fig.23.7
Ff/P YW Upight draught
. . YZ = Updght d.aughtx Coso (2)

Bdngingtogetherfomulae (1) and (2) gives the fomula for calcriating the draught when heel€d:

DEughtwhenheeled= (%Beamx ShO)+ (Uprightdraughtx Coso)

A marginof safetywill be affordedby the tum of the bilgeof the ship that is ignoredwhen using
thisformlla.
Example3
A ship heds 5oas it makesa tum. lf the dftr,eht wl6n u$ight is 7.60m calculatethe dtaught
whenheeledgiventhat thebreadthis 18m.

Sohfiirn
Draughtwhenheeled= (% Aean x SinO)+ (Uprightdnught x Cose)
Draughtwhenheeled= (%x 18x Sin 5o)+ (7.60x CosA)
= O784+ 7.571= 8.355m (Ans)

ClAss 21 sTABlUw - sEcTloN 23- anqleol her ,1€n lumirE 296


L
SECT|ON2{ - wlND HEELING.ICEACCREnOI'IAND ROtllNG
INTRODUC]ION
At seaa shipwillexperieficeheelingdueto fie aclionot boihwindand waves.In highlatlfudesice
accrelionmay occur resuhingin an ovelall reduclionin stability,This secton considerslhese
weathereffectsanddescflbesminimumcriteriathat mustbe compligdwith-
L- LeamirtgOti&,tves
Oncomplotionof thissectionthe leamerwill achievotlle follo,ving:
1. Understandthe minimumcdtedawith respectto wind heelingas sp€cifod in the [4CA
L pubficationLoadUn6s- lnstrudi@1s for the Guidanceof SuNeyors'and Chapter3 ot the
Code@ lntad Stabilityfor aI Shipscoveredby IMO lnstruments(lMO).
2. Understandthe methodfor makingicjng allowancesas specifiedin lhe MCA pubiication
'LoadLires- Instruclonsfor the Guidan@of Suveyors'.
L 3. Underslandthe lefil still\/ater rclling.
4. Underslandthe factrrsthat infuencea ship'srollingmotionin wavesal sea.
t_ 5. Urderstandmethodso{ minimisinga ship'solling motionat sea.

L
I
L-

L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
CL,€S 21 sTABlUw- sEcTloN 24 wind lEdinq, ie @ljon aid.drrE 297

L
24.1 WND HEELING

Minimumwind heelingcdtedathat appliesto arl ships is specif€din Chapter3 of the Codeon


lntactStabililyfot aI Ships@vetedby IMO lnsttumerts(/MO).Altemativercquirements applicable
to containershipsare specifedin the MCApublicaton'LoadLirres- Instnrctionsfor the Guidance
of SuNeyoB'a d are similarto thosespecifiedin lhe IMOcode.

Theprincipaldifferencebetweenthe two sels of legislationarisesmainlybecauseofthe difference


in ihe unitsof pressureadoptedfo. tho purpos€sof calculation,IMOadopiingthe Pasca,and the
MCAusing,inconec{y,Kgy'lr';th€sesho|jd be expressedas KlogBms-forcepet s4uarcmete
(Ksf/n').

Becauseof the confusionoften @used even io the adhor) both ve6ions ot the wind heeling
cdtedaare fullyexplained,ho$,ever,tho approachto be adoptedin any particularcasewill depend
uponthe legislationapplicableto any parltcllarship.
Becausethe MCAapproachappea6 to many to be a litde simpler,this will be discussedfirst,
folloNedby the IMOappmach.

21.1.1 Mnd l'EF/ingconsideratlonsror con'€iner ships (MCA)


The MCA idenlifiestwo hazardsassociatedwith the caniageof containerson dec* that miglrt
affecta ships stability,theyare:
(1) the possiblefailureof co.rlainersecuing atrangementscausinga shift oI ile container
ca€o ard consequentlislingof the ship;and

12) the largeanglesof heel causedby strongbeamwinds actingon lhe large lateralarcas
abovethewalerlineafford€dby the shipand coriainers.

Withrespeclto (1) above,ship buildersshouldtake accountof the probableship motionslikelyto


be experienced,includang lhe accelerationforcesto be expedencedat distancesawayftom the
rdling axisthatthe seoJringanangemenlsmustresist,

Wth respectto (2) above, Part 8.2 of'Load Lines- Instuchonsfor the Guidanceof Sutvoyots
/MCA) stales the minimumrequirementsto be nlet by containerships likelyto €xp€dencethe
adveFeeffecbof windheeling.
2L1.1.1 Wi d hdlrrg ctibfie ror container ships qlCA)
Parl 8.2 of 'LoadLtnes- lnstructionsfor the Guidanceof SuNeyorc(MCA)stateslhe minimum
cnteriaapplicable shrpsasfollows:
to contiainer

8.2.3 lhen the heightof the lateal windqe arca neasued f@n the bad watedineto tl,e top of
the catgo containetssituatedon the weatherdeckis gr€al€/ tl'dn 3U6 of tlre beem,the
shipbuildetsshouldpreparca cuNe of slatical stabilityfor the ship in tie h@rstsel,be
condtion (takinginto &,coutitthe advgrseeffectsof icitg as apwpriate). The windage
arcaand itscentreof graity andleverto mid4aught shou/dbe staled.
8.2.3.1onwatdsdescribesthe criteriathal mustbe salisfiedand is simplified
in lhe restof thissub-section.

- SECION 24- wind h€eirc, i@ a@iio. and mling


CTASS21 STABILITY 298
L
Becausethe rightingmomentis
a true fieasure of ship stability
the GZ values for the
aforemenlion€d $r'orsf
anticipatedsevbe cotdititn arc
mullipliedby the displacernent
9-
L valueto give a curveof righling
rioments(t-m)-Thisis plottedas
shovrnin fgure 24.1to give both l .
Portand Slarboardvalues.
l_ The angles of heel due lo
strongbeamwindsare toundby
L frst superimpostng a wind
heeling moment set up by ?
pressure of /|8,5 Kgflnf
assumedto be acting at lhe tr.t€.rl
L geomGticcentre of lhe lateral Representation ol the cutue of dghtng moments tot bob Port
exposedareaof the ship on one an.l staftoar.l angles ol haal ts aclopted by tha.egutatidts.
side. For the plrpose of Fig.24.1
L explanatrcnthe windis assurned
to be actingon the porl side to
cause lhe ship to heel lo
L starboard.

L
lf lhe laieral exposed area on
L one side is A (m') then the
force acting at C due to tlle Win t assumed to act at gaomatr'tc centre ot tate',t exposed area on
steadywind is given by: one sLte abova the lotcl eatedine (c).
L Steadywind force (tonnes) = (Ax 48.5)
Fig.24.2

1000

L (Dividingby 1000convertsthe steadywind


forcevaluefromKg'sto tonnes!)

L Considerfigure24.3.
Thesleadywindiorce of 48.5 Kgtm' acting
L at C is resistedby an equal and opposile
reaclionat halfdraughtdepthwhichsetsup
a sleadywindheelingmomentgivenby:
L Fig.24.3
Steadywind heellngmoment(tfl) = (A:l!qD x PO
'1000
L
This steady wind heeling moment is plotted as a horizontal heeling arm on the cu e of dghling
momenb.This is shownin figure24.4,whereit c€usesthe shipto heelto sta/board
L rhe angteorsteadyheelduq!914!9!!9e!! wind is0j, wherethe ship'srightingmomentsand wind
heelingmornenlare equal.
L
clAss 2l1 STABUr} $anON 2! Wnd h*lhg. G sclio. and'olling 299
l
L__
Becausethe ship is likelyto be rollingdue to the actionot wavesil is lhen assumedthat the ship
rolls15' ,lalo,t e dnd (to port)fromthe angleof steadywind heelto an angle0r.

At the instantlhe shipstartsto recovera gustingwindis assumedto act, givenby:

Gust wind heoling moment (t-m)= l.5x Steadywlnd heeling moment

The vesselwifl right itselfbrrtin so doingrvill iniliallyheel overto U,lhe angleof dynamicheel.
This angleof dynamicheelis at a positionsuchthat the shadedarea Sr equalsshadedarea 52.lf
it is bome in mindthat area underthe ighting momenlcurveis a measureof dwanicd stability
(beingthe \wo* required by thewindandwavesto heeltheshipto a particular angleof heel) then
it willhelpin the undersianding of whythe shipwouldheelto 03underlhe conditions assumed by
theseregulalions.
Thefinal requirementis that:

03 - beins th6 angle of dynamic heel, must not angle oI heel at which
progr€ssivefloodlng would take place (0r).

ot: angte of st .dy *ind heet


to not dcee.t 0.6508.
02: ship tols 15" into stetcty
3 . 8 : vind as a .eg'tlt ot tave

0r: angle ot haal b -hich


shiD will ro when ac.€.l
upon by a gusting wincl at
.,*'e&hdF @r.4.,r(arrl the instant the ship sta.E to
rccovat frcn 0, (03 beins.he
angte ot .tynanic heel).
0n 6ngle ot qnanic heat) to
not Qtceed the angle ot heet
tu ir'\sq" 1.r-5,.!!d at whlch pog.gssite down-
tlooding tatcs pl.ce (Od.

FiJ.24.4

21.1.1.2 tteahodb vertfy conpliance wllh the regulatiotts


In pracliceit wouldbe difficultlo
calculatethe value of the angle
of dynamic heel B3).Consider 3. n0st be ,cir lLr r: ,, c.tntlt
fiqure 24.5.

.'.1,'jc!b'.!hi*i,$,:,e']

Fig.24.5

- sEcTKrN24- Wnd heelinq,@ aeelion and rolling


CTASS21 STABILITY 300
I
L--

t- The method to be adopted is as follows:

1, Caldilateareaq usingSimpson'srules.
FromshiCsdaladeterminethearEleofprogressivefloodirE(q)fortle ships baded condition
L 2.
3. Calculatethe area boundod by the gust |vind heeling moment am andthe ighting moment
culve betwe€n0y and 0r usingSimpsons rules.
4. Provided that Area Sr < Area S, (0y to 0r), the ship will comply with the recommendalions
L In many inslances ii will not be necessaryto us€ Simpson's rules to veriry compliance, since it will
be obviousthat the shipcomplies.Considerthe followingexamde.

L Examole 1
A (;.,nainer ship displacing32NO tonnes has KG 9.80 n at a drcught of 9.90 m and has a latenl
windagp atea of 1400 trf ti/here the geometnc cenlre of the windage arca is 16.2 m above the
L keel- KM is 10.15 m. The angle of deck edge im'''ersion is lf and the angle ot progrg$sive
downfloodingis 2e. Detetminewhethet u not the stabw is adequate in tetms of the etrocts of
slrotl4 beam winds if he ighting levets (GZ) tot the bded conditionate as fdlows:
e e 1 a 2 0 3e
L Gz (m) 0.00 0.06 0.14 0.24

Solulkm
L 1. Calculateighting rnomentvalues

2. Calculate the steady wind and gusting win.l


L heeling moment values

HeelingleverPQ = l<g.Enfioidof widege arca- hat dnught


L Heelitv leverPQ = 16.20* gpp = 11.25n

Steadywindheelitgnornent(t-m)= (AZigD x Pa
1000
L Steadywindheelngnnment(ta) = (LgI:lLg x 11.25= 7A Ln
1000
Gustwindheelingnoment (un) = 1.5 x 7U = 1146t-m
L ts
Plot the cu|e af ighting
moments lot both 1s
L sides of the up,ight
condtion ".nd, n
w

supenmpaselne wlno
heeling ams (Figure n
L 24.6)
Fron ke fisutelhe.ansteot Z:
L saeitdltwtEt neetts 1'.
; .
e, is 11oon the othersideof ,6
L uptighl (being 15o into the Z.n
windfromei t*

Hr.l l&!.1
Figure24.6
t:
CLASS 211 STABIIITY- S€CTloN 24 Wind tEling i@ adrclo. and blling 301

l--
4. Veify complianceby inspection(or Simpsons tulesil rcquied)
ft is evidentttumfgure 24.6thattheship@mp[essitrceS, is greateat ttn Sr.
i.e. Ship comples (Ans)

lbE lt shouldbe emphasisedlhal th€ wind heelingcriteriadescribedhere is applicablgto IJK


registeredcontainer ships assigned freeboardsin accordancewlfl be M.S. (Load Line)
Regulafiors1998(asarnended)only.

.1.2 Wtndheding consi.lerationstot a ships (rl*O)


Minimumwind heelingdileda lhat appliesto arl shipsis specifedin Chapter3 of the Code on
tntact Stabiw fot aI Ships @vercd by IMO lnsttuments(lMO). Specfically, regulation3.2
supplementsthe gen€ralstabilitycriterialaiddowll in regulation3.1 of the Codeand appliesto all
passengerand cargoshipsof 24 m in lengh and o/er. The effec1sof rollingare also taken inlo
account,

21.1.2.1 Unitsotwlrd p,€,ssuroado&d by rLrO


The MCA rgulalions (detailedin seclion24.1-1)expressedthe pres$re exertedby lhe wnd in
tefins of Kg/;' (Kibg;ms-fo.€€r'm'to be corect) To manythese unitsare r€adilyunderstoodin
thecontextot the windheelingmo.nenlformulaus€d.
IMOadoptsthe us€of the Pasca/(Pa)for wind pressureand shouldlhereforete definedso that a
of lhe MCAand IMOminimumcrileriacan b€ made-
comDarison
is defned asbeingthe forcerequi6d to carse a massof
Theunit of forceis lhe /VeMon(w),wl-1ich
1 Ko to havean accebrctionof 1 ttr/s'.

Weight is expressed in /Ve${ots where: weight (N) = a$s (t) x Accal.r.tion (nvs')

Thus,a massof 50 Kgwill havea weightgivenby: Weight(N) = 50 Kg x 9 81 m/s' = 490.5N

at the earth'ssurfacedue to gravity.In olherwords,a massof


where9.81nts' is the acceleration
50 Kg will exerta downwardforceof 490.5N at the earths surface.
Theunil of pressureis the Pascal(Pa)wherc: (Pa)= E9B9E(!)
PRESSURE
AREA (flf)

the steadywitrd force assumed^bythe MCA regulationsof,f8.5 Kgflm' expressedin Pascals


rvouldbe: 48.5Kgf/m'x9.81rvs' = ,|76Pa

Fhe gustingwinclforceassumedby the MCAregulationsexpressedin Pasca/slvouldbe:


1.5x476=711Pa
The IMOadoptslightlyhighervalueslhanthese,being5M Pa and756 Pa as wll be seen.

21.1.22 S.verc rtnd aN rdlirrg cdtqion (vea''he' cdte'ion) (IMO)


Regulation3-2.2of the fue detailsthese requirernenls that applyto a// passengerand cargo
shipsof 24 m in lengh andover

IMOexpressthe regulationsin terms of the heelingarms (steadywind and gustingwind) being


expressedin metreswherelheseare superimposed on lhe c rve of slaticalstability(GZcurve)in
a similarfonr€l to that previously
descnb€d. (The same methodcould b adoptedfor the MCA
regulationsif the c€ldiated valuesof the sleadywind heelingmomentaM gustingwind heeling
momentwhereeachdividedby the displacemenl valueto givea h€elingarmin rnetres!)

fhe steadywifr heeling,everin met es (Lt is calculaledusing: L,(m)=eAZ


100096

ITY- sEcm N 2,1- wnd rEeling,ie dBiid


ct t"ss 21 STABTI .nd dlng {2
I
t--

I wherc: ?'is the wind pressureof 504 Pa;


A'is the lateral area above the walerline afforded by the ship and deck cargo on
one side:
2' is the vertcal dislianceiiom the centre of A to the centre of the undeMater lateral
L area or approximatelyto a point at one haif the mean draught (m) (being the same
as PQ-the heelingleveo;
'/'is the displacement (t),and;
I
?'is lhe acceleration to gravityol9.81 fi/s'.
due

The gusi,irg wind heeling


i- /ever(le) is givenby:

ld='1.5x1,

Thewindheelingleversare
thensuperimposed onlothe
l clrve of staticalstabilityas
illustrated
in fgure24.7.
Area b shouldbe equal to
orgrcaterlnanareaa.
c* ranl lcct. 1.6| a$.rrt grn |!tar
The anglesin fgure 24.7
aredefnedasfollows: Fiq.24.7
eo is the angle of heel due to steady wind;
0r is the angle of roll to windward due to wave action (' see note);
e2 is the angle of progressivedou,nfooding(0r) or slP or 0" whichever is iess,
L where: 0i is the angle of heel at lvhicfi openings in the hull, superstrucluresor deck
houses which cannol be clos€d weathertighlimmerse.In applyingthis
criterion, small openings through wtrich progressive fooding cannot take
L- place need nol be consideredopen.
e. is the angle of heel of lhe second intercepl between the gusling wnd
heeling lever (la) and the GZ crlrve.
L- ' Note:Theangleofroll(0i) shouldbe calculatedas follows:
where:,x''is a factorwhichdependson lhe Breadth/draught ratiowherethe
as lhe B/d ratio increases;
'X,' is a factorthat dependson the blockcoeffcjenlof the ship wherethe valueof
)Gincaeases as theCBratioincreases;
I
'k' is a factorthat dependson the roundnessof the bilgeand whetherthe ship has
bilgekeelsfittedor not ( the more roundedthe bilgethe easierthe shipwill roll and
thegrealerwitlbelhevalueof k (having a valuebelween 0.70and 1.00).
f is foundbytheformula:r = 0.731(0.6xOG/d)with:
]-- 'OG'being the distancebetweenlhe cenlrcof gravityof the ship and the waterlane
in metres(being+ if the centreof gravityof lhe shipis abovethe watedineand - if
below);?'is themeanmoulded draughtof lhe shipin metes.
I 's' is a fac{orwhic+rdependson the rollingpedodof the ship where s' reducesas
therollingpedodincreases. Therollingperiodis givenby:
Rolling period O secs) = ?9q
,,/c
L where:
C=0.373+0.023(B/d)-0.043(U100)
ts'is themoulded breadlhol theship(m);
'G/lt'is lhe metacentricheightcorecledfor freesurfaceeffect(m).

Clearly, the tables in Chapter 3 of the Code must be consulted in order that lhe values for the
various aforemenlionedfaclors can be ascertained.

Ct .sS 21 SIABILITY SrnON24 Windh€€ling,i€ *r@lion androlling


242 ICING ALLOWANCES

With respecl to icing regulation 8.28 of the MCA publicatjon toad Lines - lnstuctions for the
Guidance of Sutvetprs'details lhe circumstancesand method for making allowancefor iclng in lhe
calculationof the ship's etfeclive KG.

The stability information book of any ship, which may trade in an area where ice may form should
contain infomation thal indicates the effect of the formation of ice on exposed hull,
supeGtructures,holses, dec* cargo etc. This musl be calculated as eithet afull icing allowanceor
a hall bing alLwance.

fhe full icing allowanceshould be applied:


(a) '10' W.
Norh of 66' 30' N belween the Norwegiancoast and
(b) North of 63' N belween 10oW and 28' W.
(c) North of 45o N b€tween 28oW and the North American coast.
ld) North of the European, Norlh American and l6ian contnents outside of the limils of
longitudein (a), (b) and (c).
(e) The Sea of Okhotsk, Bering Sea and Gulf of Tartary.
(0 Sout' of 60 S-

Fhe half icig allowance should be applied:


(a) In the areas north of 610 N, between the Norwegiancoast and 28oW, south of the areas 10
whichthe fullallowanceaoolies.
(b) Elsewhere in seasonal winler zones, as agreed by the MCA and lhe owners.

The icing allowancesare as follows:

The furl a/Iowarce assumes:


(a) That all exposed horizoltal surfaces (decks, tops of houses and deck c€rgo) are canylng
an ce we€ht of 30 (9/m'.
(b) That verltcal surfaces are c€rrying a weight equivalenl to 15 kg/m' on the laleral area on
ore sideof the ship (hull.houses,and deckcargo)abovethe waterline.

the hat icing a//olvarce should be FuI dto^anc6 30 Kg[n:


taken as one half of these values. tlrlt.:bvience 15 KgtlrF
The centre of gravity of each area of
Ful rlowenc€l5 Kotnl.
ice formation has io be estimated in H.n l|t)rtrrcr 7 5 {o/rnz
order thal lhe moment abod the keel ONONESIDE
of each part of ice weight can be
calculated.

lce on booms,stays,railsetc. should


lE allowedtot as 5okof the woight on
vetlical sufaces, and the velrbal
moment of this ice allowed for as
10% of the moment due to fomation
on vetlical sufiaces.
Fig.24.8
Chapter 5 of the Code on lntacl Stabilily for all Ships covered by IMO lnstrumenls (IMO) gives
similardetailsfor icingbut only one set of icingallowan@figures are used,thesebeing:

30 Kg/m'on expos€d weather decks and gangways,and;


7.5 Kg/mzfor the projected laleral area of each side of the ship above the wateriine.

The geographicallimils of areas in which the icingallowancehas to be appliedalso differa little


and the Code should be consuftedlvhen compliance of lhese altemauvecdteria is a requirement.

CLrSS Zl SIABIL'Iy SECiON24 Wid h€€lirE.ie€sei4and dling 304


l Example 2
A shil disDlaces31700 t and is loaded s/.rchthat the sdid KG is 9.12 m. KM is 9.46 m and total
FSM'Sarc edimateclto be m50 tm at the wo6t anticipatd slage of the wyage The vesse/ r:t fo
L $ter an arca wlEre the full icing allowance awlies.
Shipcletailsare as bllows:

{ Mainde*3100m' at Kg 16.2n:
2nd deck N n' at Kg 18.6 n;
3rd deck42 m' at Kg 21.0m;
&idge deck 48 m' at Kg 23.4 m;
L Funnel cLeckS m' at Kg 25.8 m;

Lateratexposec!area above the waterlineis 860m' at a Kg oI 13.64m.


L Calculatethe etredive GM afu disdacenent that wi alow lor icing.

Solution
Calculateweighto{ ice on de*s usingfull icingalbwance
L Main deck: 3100x 30 = 93000KS= 93 tonnesat Kg 16.2m
2nd cleck: 60x 30 = 1800KS= 1.80tonnesat Kg 18.6m
42x 30 = 1260KS= 1.26 t(mnesat Kg 21.0 m
L 3rd deck:
Bndge deck: 48x 30 = 1440KS= 1.44 t@nesat Kg 23.4m
ffi x 30 = 1680KS= 1.68t,nes at Kg 25.8m

L Calculateweightof ice on Lerticalsafaces on one stdeusingfull icingallowance


860x 15= 12900Rg = 12.90tonnesaI Kg 13.U m

L 3. Calculateailowancefor ieeon boomqstaysetc.


Webht= 5%of the weighton verticalsulaces
fhercfote: 123921= 0.65tonnos
L 1m

Momentfor ice on boomsstays= 10y"of thenoment duelo ice on veft'calsurtaces


I Monentof ice on verticalsurtaces= 12.90x 13-U = 176t-m

10%=lJPa!9= 18trn
L 100
4. Take montents about the keel to calculate etrecive KG and GM.
L @l".*l
EA_lJ3gJ
IGM I 0210 |
I
t--
33 7(

L e on booms. slac elc. 06r ta 0(


31412 7i 9ZO 292991.9

L Flnalefiective Cn altowingbr icing = 0.80 m (Ans)

t_ Finally,
anev€minetion queslionmightbephrased as follows:
A ship operathuin severcwinter coditions nay sufrerfrcm non-symmeticalice accret@non
decksand supedructure.Desqibethe effeclson the ovetallstadlityof the ship,makingparlicular
efercnce to the ship'scu|o of staticalstabilitt.
L CtaSS 2/1 STABILITY - SECnO N 24 Whd h€€lrng ic6 al:did and ollinq 305
When iong occurs as previouslydescribed the following may be expectedto happen:

(1) lcing on horizontal decks and cargo surfaces will cause G to rise resulting in an increas€d
Kci/decreasedGl,l.

(2\ lcing on the lateral areas of the ship on one side above the watedinewill cause lhe ship to
list.

(3) Both (1) and (2) above will c€use an increasein the ships disdacementresullingin a
reduced ieeboard (arguably the effects of this will be dependanl on the ship's overall size
in relalion to the mass of ice accumulated).

Figure 24.9 illustratesthe overall effects of icing on th6 oirve of statical stability.
'tl, . -

0-t l:-hnj GiZcsrv.


- --Curv..so*ln9 tor lolngoo
o, I
!'? I--- H..{.O .rrnc.urartry Slng
-.
06 I on hianalaHnacaaaaora
0, I
0tt
cz 0i
ti)
o:
o.t
0,
{t.l
a2
a3 i . -

4l
xi.r ftt grl
Fig 24.9
icingwill c€use:
In summary.unsymmeldcal
' lnitial GM to be reduced;

' Hl GZ values adoss lhe finge ot &ability to be rcduced;

' Dynanical slabiliy


@rea under the cuNe) to be reduced making the ship /ess ablg to rosisl
heeling by elemal forces:
' Range of stability to be rcducad:' The atple aI which deck edge immetskn occurs (point of
inllexion of lhe cuNe - not shown) to reduce a liftle as a result of the increaseddisplaaEment.

In effecl, all aspects of stabilitywill be worsened!

ct ss 21 STABILIIY- SECIION 24- wind heling, ie dBiton and blling 306


24.3 'STILLWATER'ROLLING
of a shipare govemedby:
Therollingcharacteristics
L (1) theGI\r,and;

12) the distributionof the weighlcomponentsof the ship'ssbuctureand deadw€ightitemswith


L- respectto the rollingaxis,whichis assumedto be at the cenfe of gravityof the ship (G).

The rcrl penbd (T) in


I seconds is the time taken
L-
for the ship to complete one

ffi&a
completeoscillationi.e. the
L time it iakes for the ship to
roll from one side back
through the upright to the
extent of il's roll on the other
t- sideand backagain.
,aaa! Prrs ar't, *d6
The amplitude of the roll is F8.24.10
L deined as lhe extent of the
rollin degrees.

L 21.3.1 Unresticled totling in stltl wabr


Unresticted rcllitE is a hypolhelical condilion that assumes
the ship is rolling in a ficlionless' fuid such thal the
amplitude of lhe oscilla{ons remains constant. In reality lhe
L amplilude ot the roll decreases with each half-roll cycle until
eventuallythe ship selUesin the uprightconditionin still
wat€r (being due to water and air resislance)-
L The energy in this assumed undamp€d roll is totally
potential energy at the limil of the roll, and; loially kinelic
energy at the instant the ship passes throwh the upright
L position. At any intermediate position within the roll cycle
the energy will be partly kinetic and party potenlial; btit the II iE
I sum of lhese two quantilieswill remainconstant.The ship
PE= n\th KE= %nf
will act in a similarmannerto a pendulumunderthe same
conditions. Fig.24.11

L At theextentof theroll,(1)and(3)in figure24.12,lheshipwillpossess


allpolenlialenergythatwill
be equivalenlto: PEat extentof rollto 0' = Areaunderdghtingrnomentcurvefiom 0' lo €p
I As the ship passesthrough
t-
the upright position,(2) in
f,gue 24.11, the GZ and
L hence righling nDmentwill
be zero and potenlial
energy at this point in the
roll will be zero. Ho\ /ever,
L the ship will possess all
kinetic energy by virlue of
ils motion as it passes 1. Extentot rol (e PE) 2- Passingfircugh 3. Ext ntolto (a Pq
I through the upright posilion. tha uP.isht (aI KE)
Fiq.24.12

L
CLASS 2yl STABILITY- SECIION 24 wind helinq. i6mlin and olling 307

L.
Underthecircumslances therollperiod(T)is approximated
described by thefomula:

T (secs)= 2t
Wxs-icn-
where: 7 is the momentof ineniaof lhe ships slructureand all deadweight
components
aboutlhe rollingaxis(G);
'lf istheship'sdisplacement in tonnes;
?' is theaccelerationdueto gravity(9.81 nvs'),and:
'Gll is the ship'seffectivemetacentricheight.

Thevalueof I isfoundby: l=>wl

where 'w' is the weightof eachsfucturalcomponentof the shipand eachatemof deadweightand


'/ is the disLance that eac+rcomponentis fromthe rollingaxis.assumedto be at G.

The quantitytul c€l be writtenas VU('whereW is lhe ship'sdisplacement


and k is the rad,rrsof
gyauon.

2L3.2 Radiusof gwtion


The radius of gyrationmight be a difficult
concept to undersliandbLrtmay be loosely
defined as being for a ship the drstarce
from the cente of g6vity (or roling axs) at
wttich the total weight (W would have to
.X
be @nentated in order to give the ship
the same noment of ineftia as iI aclually
llas.
lioving wetghl to tha sicles ot the shlp away trom the
For any particular ship lhe radius of rcIins t'is (G) incrcases the ndius of wntion (k) and
gyration can b€ changed by allering the incrcasas the ship's tolllng peiod.
distributionof deadwdghlaboul the rolling Fkr.24.13
axisas shownin figure24.13-

21.3.3 Fonnule for rolling pefiod


Because| = >wl, the fomula for the stillwaterrollingperiodbecomes:T (secs)= 2r
w,g<GM
whichsimplifesto: T (secs)= 4!
rrs-Fclr-
This formula is substanliallyconecl for small angles of heel where the formula GZ = GM x Sin 0 is
valid.

The formula shows that for a constant value of | (or k) the rolling period is inversely proporlionalto
the square rool of the GlVl(so long as GM is positive) i.e.

As GM increasesthe rclling peiod re.luces.

The fo.mula also shows that the rolling period is direc'dypropo.tionalto the radius of gyralion (k) i.e.

As R indeases (by fuinging out'weighE say), the rolling peiod inc/eases.

An ir erestinganalogyis when one considerslhe abilrtyofa personto walk a tightropelBy usinga


/orEfpole to increase the walkels radius of gyraton, the roll period' of the person (as he wobbles
to stay iJpdght) is increased. Provided that the pole is long enough, the duration of each wobble

CTASS 21 STABILITY - SrcTlO N 24 - Wind h@llng. ie aEEiid and olling 308


that is experienced(as a resultof periodicimbalance)becomeslongenoughfor the personlo be
ableto anlicipateand corecl for it. The longerthe pole,the easierit is!
Any change in weight dislribulion that
alters GM or k (and so ahers l) will alter
L the rollingpeiod- As a general rule a
verticalmovementof a givenamountwill
l have a grcater effect on lhe rolling period
thanhas an equalhodzonlalmovement.

L-
L The long pole tnakes tightrope etlking aasy!
Fig.24.14
l_ 21.3.1 Deterrnining he GH by means of rolling p€.iod aests
Annex 3 of the Code o, lntact Stabilityfor all Ships cove@dby IMO lnstrumenrs(/MO.)detailsthe
method of determining the lighl ship GM (and hence KG) by means of a rolling period test. This is
L- permitted for ships up lo 70 metres in length. lt c€n be sholvn that the roll period is very much a
function of the ship's beam and the formulae used for the rolling period test is:

L- T l3ecsl= -16tl
tx Beam

where ? is a factor 6-lFE-l6mlgE6|t&fRlt6lvn as the rc/iing coe,fderf. For coasters and lishing
vessels th€ average values of t range between 0.60 and 0.88. Annex 3 of the Code should be
consultedfor more detail if required-

Example3
L Calculatethe naturclrollingperiodof a shipfor whichk is 4.0m and GMis 1.20m-

Sdulion
L T (secs)= 2* T (secs)= Zt x4 = 7.3 seconds lAns)
/s-'EF !31tx tzo

L Example4
A ship disdaces15000tonnes,has GM 1.20m and a rcI perid d 12 seconds.The shipl@ds
100tonnesin psition 6 metesaboveG. Calculatethenewrollperiod.
L Solution
T(secs)=4
I /stTW
t-
Calculatelhe initial radius of ovralion (k)
x=r."6,au k - f l a f - s i l , 1 . 2 0= 6 . s s 3 n
L 2E 2n

2. Calculatethe new value of I and new GM


i Onginatl= W? = 15000x 6.55! = M127 na
t vatueof added weight = wx? = 100x 6' = 3600n'
Total Mn27 n'

GG,=,!z_! = 100xo = 0.0397n


w+w (15oo0 + 100)

L_ - SrcTx)N 24- Wnd h@rrng.ie a6er.n and drrlg


CLASS2/r STAAILITY 309
I
Cdrcctionto t for shiftof G = w x (GG")'= 151cdx 0.039f = 24n'
Ther€forc: Finatvatueof t aboutthenew G = 647727- 24 = 647703m'

NewcM = 1.20- 0.0397= 1.1603


m

3. Calculatenewvalueof k

t? =L = u7703= 42.894
w 15100
k = 1/42N4 = 6.!49 n

4. Calculatethe new roll Wiod

T (secsl = 24< T (secs) = Zt x 6.549 = 12,2 s@oods (Ans)


ts-EW -931 " 11603
A3.5 Res6|€dro hrg ln stilt water
Whena ship is rollingin still waterit will expedenceresistancecausedby friciionbetweenthe hull
and the water;the wder itself will be set in motion,this wll also resistthe rolling.The resullis a
dampedoscillalion,howeverthe periodgivenby the fomula:
T (secs)= 2d<
/ stEM
remains substantially conect- The roll pedod ot the ship is independent of the amplilude and as
such the ship rolls isochrorous/y. This means that if a given ship has a roll period of 10 seconds
whilst rolling from 50 to port to 50 to starboard, the roll period will still be 10 seconds if the ship
subsequen{y rolls trom 20oto port to 20 to stalboard. Obviously, the greater the amplifude of the
rolling, the faster the ship's motion will be to maintainthe constrantroll period.

cl-Ass 2/1 SIABILITY- srcTIo N 24 - wifld h€elinq,@ adet@ and rollrrg 310
t__ 2i1.4 ROLUNGlN WAVES

21.1.1Wavetheory
Verysteepwind generatedsea
waveforms are essentially
trochoidalin nature. A point
I ma*ed on a bicycletyre will
appearto tac€ out a trochoidal
cuNe as the bicydeis ridden
I past an obse er, as illustrated
in fgu€ 24.15. Invert thal
paltemand you havethe profle
of a trochoidalwaterwave.
L
I Fiq.24.15

When a wave passesin deep water


there is virbally no actual displacement
L of waler. the water oarticles move in an
almosl closed drcular path. lt ttre ,l|
-----5:1
wavecrests,the padiclesare movingin
L the same direclion as wave
propagation,whereas in the troughs
they are moving in the opposite
direction. At the surface the orb,lal
d/brnels,cofiespondsto wave height,
bul ihe diamelers decrease *:-:i.r,gr
exponenlially with increasing deplh, -
L until at a depth roughly equal to haf
the wavelengh, the orbitaldiameteris
of the waterpartidesThis is why a submarinein
negligible,and thereis virtuallyno displacement
deepwateronly has lo submergeabout 150melresto avoidthe effe61sof eventhe moslsevere
L $orm ar sea,

The movementof a ship


as a wave pas.s€sts a|so -> tu<d-ltld t6ri*.
circularin fashionas it
follo /s the orbitalmolion
L of the parlicleswithinthe
wave as shown in figure
I 24.17.
L-

L Fig.24.17
When on the crest of lhe wave the ship will be moving in the same direclion as wave lravel, when
in the trough the ship will be moving in the oppositedirectionto that of wave movement.In
L advan@ of the wave crest the ship will be being lifted and immediatelyafrer lhe wave cfest has
passedlhe shipwill be dropping._
In openwater:I = 0.17Y = 'l.f'6T'

where: ?,'is lhe wavelengthin metres;


'll is the wave sp€ed in knots, and;
'f is the wave period in seconds.
L_
ctAss 2/1 sTtSlLlTY SECION 24 Wnd tE€ling,i@ a€reiion and dling 311
U.1.2 Ship rolting in waves
Theship'srollingmotionin wavecondilionsis the resultantof:
(1) dueto thestillwalerrol'ingperiod,
theoscillation and;
(21 the oscillationdueto the waveperiod.

lf the ship is aciedupo.rby regularpassingwavesovera reasonabletime pedodit will eventually


roll with the sameperiodas thal of lhe wave (waveperiodbeingdefned as the time intervalin
secondsbetweentwo slccessivep€aks(or troughs)passinga nxedpoint).Ho/vever,if the waves
are of varyingpeiod, as is ofrenthe case,the ship will tend to revertto it's o\f,nnaluralrolling
period.The amplitudeof the ship's roll (in terms of maximumheel angle) will dependon the
phasingof ('1)and (2) above;and becaus€lhe ship'sstillwater rollingperiodis a functjonof both
beamand GM it will dependon whetherthe ship is relativelybroad and slable,or na[ow and
relativelyunstable.
A wide, shallowvesselwill tend to roll
ariay from lhe wavecrest(aligningthe
deck with the wave sloDe).This is
b€causeof the large heelingmoment
thal will exist in the uprightconditioo.
Any broadve-ssel,or ooe wilh a large
GM,corFeqlenilyrolls heavilyand this
is a chaadenslic of a ship that has a
nafuralro ing pedod shorterthan the
t@ve perid. In suc*t a condilionlhe
angular velocit of the roll will be
excessive causing severe racking
stresses. A broa.l vessel or one *ilh . ta.$ GU vti aenl to .o
away trom 0E w.yo c..st causlng larya angl$ ot h..l

The ooDositeis bue for a vessel that is


nanow in beam or one wilh a small
GM, lhe effecl here is for lhe vessel to
lend to roll irlo the wave crest. This is
a characterislic of any vessel which
has a natural roll period longer than lhe
wave period. The ship will roll to
moderate angles of heel and will do so
relalively slorrly. Provided lhat lhere is
adequate stability to ensure safuty in
heavy weather with breaking seas this A nanow v€ssat tith a sma GM wir tand to saty norc
will b€ the more desirablecondition. uprlght on the wava stop., .o antplftucb vitt ba sm
(similar to a lahing f,@t!).
Fb.24.19

21.1.3 Sy'rclvonism
Synchronism is the namegivento the conditionthatariseswhenthe ship'snaturalrollingperiod
equalsthe peaodof ercorrfar of lhe waves.The natural'stillwater'oscillationof the shipis added
to by the forcedoscillationof the wavesand the amplftudeof the mll increasesby approximately
(n/2 x waveslope)betweensuc@ssivewavecrestsand troughs.A waveslopeof say 40,causes
each angle oI roll to increaseby about 60, and the oscillalionincreasesabout 12' between
successivewavecresls(or toughs).
Synchronism whenlhe shiphasa longnatural
is lesslikely,andif it doesoccur,is lessdangerous
rollingperiod.The nec€ssarylong-periodwave\Nouldhavea comparatively lovvslopeangleand
lhe blild up of the rollwouldbe relativelyslow
clrss 2/1 STABILIIY- SECIION24- Wnd heeri.g,E addon and m$E 312
!--

Unlessthe GI\,lis very large,the ship'snaturalrollingperiodcan be expectedto exceedthe period


of encounterof a beamsea. This is esp€ciallytrue if the wavelengthdoesnot exceedabout200
metres.In lhesecircumstances synchronism is unlikelyin a beamsea bul may ansewhenthe
!- samewavesareovertakingtheship on lhe quarter.
Capsizingdueto the buildup of rollingin synchronism conditionsis unlikelybecauseof the change
t- in the ship's natural roll p€riod when it is rolled to larger angles of inclinationcausangthe
sync+rronism effect to be arested- Ho\/ever, the heavy rolling may cause a shift of cargo
(especiallydeckcargowhichis al greaterdistancesfromthe rollingaxis)or entryof waterthrough
l__ deckopenings.lf ihis occurs,the ship will then roll in a fashiondictiat€dby lhe shapeof lhe curve
of rightingmoments,heelingexcessivelyto the listedside and furtherincreasingthe chancesof
subsequentcargoshifr or iooding. There is alwaysa risk of capsizingbecauseof the lack of
L dynamrcal stabilityunderlhesecrrcumstiances.

canbe remediedby:
Synchronism
I
(1) an alteralionof course;

I (2\ an alterationof ship'sspeed(exceptwhenwavesare on lhe beam);


(3) alteringthe ship'snaturalrollingperiodby:

L (a) lheship'sG[r, or
changing
(b) changingthe radiusof gyralionof the ship(suchas by \^,inging-out
weights').

t_ Synchronismis often,albeittemporarily,experiencedwhen lhe ship is enteringor leavinga port


andis recognisedby the shiprollingexcessivelyand out of characterwithlhe actualseaconditions
at the time. BreakwateG, naturalcoastlinefeaturesand the shoalingeffeclscreatedby sandbanks
I etc. in the vicinrtyof a port c€useswave reftaclionlo occur.This will be the causeof the *lip
encountering wavesof widelydifferingdirectionsand periodswithinrelativelyshorlperiodsoI lime,
thusincreasingthe likelihoodof encountedng synchronism. Undersucficircumslances lhis type of
rollingis oftenonlya temporary condition.
L
L
L
i_
I
t-

L
L_

L CLASS 211 STAAILITY - SrcTlO N 24 - Wind h4ring, @ a@@lim at\d tdlng 313

L--
24.5 TIETHODSADOPTEDTO MINII'ISEA SHIP'SROLLINGiI|OTIOI.IAT SEA

Stabilising systsms fall into two categories; being either passrve or aclie syslems and within each
category the method adopted will be either by the frtting of'fins' or tanks.

21.5,1 Passive sysls,ms


Th€se inctude the ftting of bilge keels and tanks whereby the $,ater has no positve means of
transfer ftom side to side as the ship rolls.

4.5.1.1 A ge keds
'fn' type) stabilis€rs provide lhe best means of reduction in roll amplitude when a
Bilge keels (or
ship is operating at speed. ldeally, bilge keels should be ftted to all ships and be carefully sized to
give optimum effect and align€d so as to give the least addition to iiicllonal resistance. The effect
of increas€d resisliancewill occur as the she ship actively rolls as the line of the bilge keelwill no
longer be in line wih lho fow of water along the hull and lhe more ihe ship rolls the grerler will be
lhe effect of the increas€d resistance.

Bilge keels should be fitted lhroughout the length of the parallel mid-body of the ship at the lum of
the bilge. Roll amplihldes may be reduced by up to 35% and are lh€refore a very @stefieclive
meansof limitingroll amplitude.

Eilge keels should always be ftted to 9rips having a large welFrcunded bilge radius, whereas
ships having a more square bilge shape will be more resistantto rolling.

21.5.1.2 Passivestabt rsttg rt'tks


Passive stabilising tanks are those that reduce roll
amplifudesby the movementof waterfrom one side of the
tank lo the other as tl|e ship rolls but wherethe effeclsof
gravityalonecausethe watert'ansfer.

The 'flume tank may simplybe a singleundividedand


unobstnrctedrechngulartank. Often, it is a tank that is
divided into three linked chambersas sholvn in fgure
24.20. Olhet arrangementsmight include perforated
longitudinalbulkheads(batres) lhat restrict (but do not Fiq.24.20
orevent)the iow of waterfromone sideto the olher.

The slabilising forces that a.e set up in 1, WigbL roling ,o stubotd. 2.Al extenaol rcll lo .E b.Rl
these lypes of passive free surface
elTectlanks are a combinalion of the
mass of liquid shiffing and the
horizontal acceleration forces
generated as the liquid moves. The
size of the stabilisinghoment due to
the unsymmetrical dislribution of liquid
can be increased by a faclor of lhree
by the action of lhe wave moving
across within the tank. An oplimum fill
level will ensure that lhe wave
movemenlwithinthe lank is 90pout of
phase with that of the ship's rolling
period. There should be a ma{mum
difference in the ouanlities in the two
sides of the tank when he ship is
upright, and equal quanlilies in the two
.o ingtopon. l.At*t nrotrolltopnt
sideswhen lhe ship is at the limit of its 3.ItFright
Fil 24 21
ro4l(fgure 24.21).

clrss 21 sTABlLtl-( SEcTloN 24 Wnd lE€ling.i@ ston and olling 314


L_
l
Thewaveperiodof the tank riay be vadedto suita particularshipal lhe d€signstageby changing
the length of the centro chamber,or, by varyingthe openingsin the longiludinalbulkheads
(baffles).In servicethe oplimumlevelto fll lhe tankwill vary to allo^/adiustnentfor differentGM
conditions-The periodof the wavewithinthe tankshouldb€ equalto that of the ship'sslill water
L_ rollperild