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Seamanship
lntematSonal
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ShipStabitityfor MateslMasters
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fartn A" Rhod6 (BSc.Hon3)
L Lecturer,ShipStability,
GlasgowCollegeof NauticalStudies
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This publicarion has been p€pared to d€al with the subject of Ship stabiliiy. This should not however, t€
laken lo mean that lnas pubticalion deals comprehensively with all of the issues that will need to be
L address€d or even, where a particular issue is addressed, that this publicalion sels out the only detinitive
viewfor all situations.
L The opinions express€d are lhose of the author only and a€ not necessarily to be laken as lhe polaciesor
viem of any orgEnisationwith which he has any connection.
L Pnnbd in Scottan.!by The Hottp,ttdl< Diary Csvany Ltd., Diary tlouse, Unit 32, Annieslandaus,ness Pa*,
Nethellon Road, Anniesland,Glasgov G131EU
L ISBN 0453,(t793.{l
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FOREWORD
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It has b€en my pdvileg€ over recenl years !o be engaged in a wide variely of training activilies lor the
dev€lopmenl and enhancemenl of the professioml skills of s€afare6. The industry rarely whesses such
L* dramatc shifrs in a cultural awareness. as we have seen in recent years, in r€cognition of seafarers
professional sldls. These skills arc not only a foundaton in a dimcun induslry, bul must also b€ maintain€d
throughout a seafareE working life.
L Seamanship Inlemational h.s d€voloped a s€nes of professional €ducalional products that m the needs ror
lhis conlinual development. Inde€d,lhos€ of us who have leahl lhe had school of ship stability by traditional
and well lesl€d methods, will be rsfrsshed by lhis lraining material wnich encompasses both tradilional and
L basic concepts wilh a blend of cunent and relevant issues for the presont day Deck Oflicer.
Thasship stabihly book, I b€li€ve, will become a desk companion to many a ships omcer and will be a musl
L have for any ships library  commend Seamanship Inlemational in their approach, to thal Yvhichis wilhout
doubt, one of lhe most hazardousand commerciallycrilical subjecls in the madtime business.
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Capt Simon Kemb.ry. ASc.(Hons).FNl.
I Gtoup T.ainn g & Planning Managel
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L COI{TENTS
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lntroducfion........ 3
S€ciion1 BasrcPdnciples 9
L S€ction2 FormCoefficients 15
section 3 TonnesPerCenlimelrelmmersion(TPC) 21
L I iande s . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
S,ectlonilLo
Soction5 cernreof Gravity{G) andCenaeof Buoyancy(B) . . . . . . . . 39
S€c,tion6Inlroduction!o TransveBeSlalicglstability. 47
s € c t i o nI t L i s t . . . . . . . . .  89
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s e c { o n1 2 l n l r c d u c l i o n t o T r i m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
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L Scctlon '13suspended Weighis. . . . . . . . . . 121
Soction I /t Assessing Comdiance of a Ship s Loaded Condition wilh IMO Criteria 131
GrainCode(lMO). . . . . .
Sectlon lS The Inlemational 185
L Section 19 Indining Exp€rimed . . . . . . . 215
Bibliography.......... 401
L INTRODUCTION
This book of the CDROM sofrware of the s€me name is aimed at students studying lor
professionaf merchant navy deck offrcer certifcates ol competency. Ship Stability for
MatevMaste/s covers lhe sylfabus requirementsfor the curent Scoftish QualiticationsAuthorily
ISQA) examinalions (conductedon behalf of the Maitine and Coastguarc!Agency (MCA)) rp to
i STcw Chief Mate/Master Reg. lU2 (Unlimited) stiandard.lt also covers ihe content of H/vD Shrp
Stability Units being currently offered by UK colleges as parl of the underpinning knowledge
requiredtor certiication to Officer of the Watch (OOW) and Chief Mate levels (STCW 95). Because
this ten is likely lo be usod by students not serving on UK registered ships, or who might be
L attendjng nonljK college courses, IMO regulalion requirementsare also quoted where appropriale
in addilionto the MCA requirements.
L. It has been my expedence thal many students, resulling from thek lack of mathematical ability,
offen meet the subject of St ip Slab,7irywith apprehension.This is the main reason for lhe downfall
of many students studying this subject. This book version of the CDROM sofrware is designed to
I address this problem by covenngthe subject content in the simplest way I believe possible and at
an assumed malhematical level that is approp.iate for a leamer studying independently.Solutions
to wo*ed examples are brcken down into sequental logical steps, each step being explained in as
simple a format I think possible.The solutionsgiven set an examplefor lhe extentand type ot
presentationthat should be adopted for examinationpurposes.
All examples used are designed to be of a type and standard that are likely to be encounteredin
real SQA examinations.lt is this approachwhich gives this woft an added advantageover some of
the dlnently available and somewhat dated text books on the subject of Ship Sfabi'tt, where a
high level of malhematical ability is offen assumed. lt has ofren been the expedence of many
l students to encounter worked examples in text books that are not sufficiently broken down to
L_ enforce proper understanding. Relevant formulae are derived wherc appropriate to enhance
understanding.
2. Always attempt questions provided on tutorial sheets as soon as possible afrer the relevanl
topic(s) have been taught. For calculation gpe questions always indacateeach step and
show all working for the questions; your answers will provide excellent reference rnatedal
for revision purposes later on. Past SQA examination papers are an invaluable soorce of
revisionmaterial,
Many queslions require you to recall facts, particulady when it comes to questioning
knowledgeof cunentlegislation.For examplea queslionmightask:
4. In class, if the lecturcr says something lhat you do not underslandthen ask! Don't ever teel
embanassed or stupid, if you don't understand what the lecfurcr is ttalkingabout, you can
guaranteethat perhaps half the others in lhe dass don't understandeither!
5. Try not to study on your own all the time. lt helps if you find a suitable study partne/ so that
you both benefit from the improved understandingof difrerenttopic areas that each of you
v.]ll have. A poblem sharcd is a problem halved!
6. Don't over do it! Aim to study at no more lhan half+our inlervals at a time and find an
activrt that you can do for 1530 minutes in between sfudy periods (tor example, plan to
watch a few favorite TV programs to ensure suitable shon study breaks in the evenings.)
Failingthis. you will end up makingc€relessmistakesin calculations,getlingmore and
more fruslrated and making progressivelyslower progress.
7. lf you are studying in the evening, do not go straight to bed afrerwards. Your mind will siill
be 'going round and round'  thinkirE too much about your studies and probl€ms. Do
something else, maybe take a walk or get exercis€. Choose something that will rolax you,
and makeyou lhink of otherthings.Evengo to lhe pub for a pintto unwind(ore pintthat is,
not one dozen!)
2 Eat breakfasulunch, even thoughfood mightbe lhe last lhing on your mind on the moming
of the examinalion. Food feeds the brain' and inseases mental awareness
4. Get your mind in focus. Once in the exam rcom organizeyour pens and pencilsand get
yourself comfortable. Take some .eally deep broaths and stay calm. Look at the others
around yout it helps you to remember that everybody else in the room with you is anthe
same boatl
L 7. The SOA examinatioo invofues a th@e hour paper wth six queslions, usually three
calculationtype questions and three descriptiveor theory typo questions. lf you have done
sufficient revision you will have plenty of time to answer all the questions, quite oflen a
L queslion can be answ€red fully in lwenly minutes, leaving a sparc ten minutes per question
for checking over your work at the end.
'You may begin' STOP! Oo not charge straight into answering
L 8. When you hear the words
the questions, read each question carefully and make brief notes on how to approachthe
questions on scrap paper provided (or in the last page of lhe examination booklet, you can
cross these oul at the end). Choose an easy queslion to starl with, it will boosl your
L confidence at the beginning of the exam, the time when you will be most nervous and this
willhelp put you at ease.
L_ 9. Many students concentrate on obtaining full marks for the calculationsand lhen hope that
they scrape enough marks together from the descriptive qLrestions.You musl answer arl
qlrestiors and in some examinations it is a requkement thal you achieve a minimum
I p€rcentageof ma*s for each guestton (say 30%). In such cases, you could stillfail despite
having achievedthe overall pass markl
Always show all working and intemedaatesteps in calculations. Even though you might gel
L 10
the answer wrong, if the method is correct you will be awarded marks, in the event of a
clerical enor you watlprobably only lose a few marks. You will always get marks for parts of
the question you have done conectly, this is why it is vital that all \No*ing b€ clearly sholvn.
i_ 11. When doing calculation questions fold lhe exam paper so that you can only see the
questionyou are ddng, I have seen so manyassessmontpapersthat havefailedbecause
the student took data from lhe wrong questionl
ll is really important that you thoroughly read the question beforc you start to write your
answer. Read it through a couple of times and underline key words so that you are totally
L clearof what is beingasked.
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CLASS 2/r STABTLTTy lnlodurin
14. Use short sentences. A good length of sentence is between 1020 words. Clariry each of
your main points.Avoidthe use ot fancy wordsor jargon.In generalopt for plain English.
However,do us€ lhe standard terminologyused for the subject
15. Legibility and neatness. Provided that yo{rr handwritingis reasonably neat. it is unlikely that
handwritingwill be a problemand that you will lose mafts becauseyourwritingis undear.
Whilst you cannot totally ignore legibility and neatness, it is the content ol what you arc
writing that is much more important than the way it looks. You must pay attention to the 
layoul of your answers.Always use a ruler for diagramsand plenty of colours lo make them
more understandable.However, if your wdting is untdy you mlst make effo.ts to improve it
well before the exam date; if the mafter cannot rcad your scdpt you will get no marks!
16. Al\f,ays start a new question on a new page and cleady indicale your fnal answe6 to all
calculations.
17. lt is quite normal to occasionally have diffrdity in remembering one or lwo pieces of
infoamation.In such cases leave plenty of page space at the end of your answer, move on
to anolher question and add to the question you are having difficulty with as the infomation
comeslo mind laleron in the exam
18 Never leave the examinationroorn before the allocatedtime; use any additional time at lhe
end to rcadthroughyouransw€rsand especially.to recheckc€lculations.
19. You must use a non+rcgrammable falculator in the examination; it is usual praciice for
calculatorsto be checkedbefore lho examinalion.
20. Always assume that the matker knows nothing about the subjecTlYow answersshould be
wdtlen in such a way that anybody can reasonably understand what you arc saying.
NEyER rse the words etc. or 'and so on? this is evidence of lalness and you will be
penalisedif you do not stalealllhe detajlrequired.
21. Postexam review. There is no pdnt in cnticising yourself for things that you might have
done wrong, You can review your performancewith a view to coming up with constructive
ideas that will help you to improve your performanceif you have to resit the examinationat
a later date. You never know, you might have done b€tter than you think!
I hopethesepointswillhelp vou.
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CLASS 2/1 STABTLITY Inl'lducrion
CLrSS 211 SIABiLTIY lr'lr.dftlion
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L SECTION 1  BASIC PRII{OPLES
titTRoDucnoN
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This sectionintroduc€sthe lawsgovemingflotalionandwill helpin the undersbndingof whyships
necessaryto completethis leamingprogram.
foat. lt will lormtl€ basiclevelof understanding
j Leeming Ob.jecTivea
Oncomplelionof thissectionthe leamerwll acfiievethe tollowing:
1. Understandthe lerms Densilt, Mass and Volumeand be able to completesimple
relatinglo thes€tems.
calculatjons
l ' > Understand the lawsgovemingiotation.
3. Underslandthe changein draughvheeboard that will ocolr when a boxshapedvessel
movesbetweenwaterof differentd€nsrties.
4. Applaes(2) and (3) to calqjalions bas€d on the ffotalion of boxshaped vessels.
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CTASS Z1 STABIITY SECiO I BFE rhtEtll€
,t.'t ANOVOLU E
DENSW,IttASS
1,1.1 Dqsity
Thedensdyof anygivensubslanceis ils massper r]ril vorume.
This can be expressedas: = @
DENSITY
VOLUME
Forshipstabilitypurpos€sthe un s commonlyusedare:
mass: tonnes(l)
lolurne: cubb meldes(m3)
d€nsdy: tonnespercubicmete (t/m3)
Reananging the above formula gives: = @
VOLUTTE
DENSITY
Example1
0.1m x 2.2m ' 6.0m and hasa densryot 7.80tlm'. Calculateits mass.
A pece of stee!measures
Example2
A Uock of alumkiumrneasurcs0.8m x 0.6m x 0.3 m and hasa massof 0.389tonnes.Cdculate
the densityofthe aluminium.
Solution
Mass=VolumexDensity
Example 3
A rcctangulat ballast tank is 12 m long, I m wide ald has a depth of 4 m. Cabulate the mass of
sanwater ballast,densily 1.025 t/m", that can be loaded into the tank.
Sohttion Mass=VolumexDensily
Mass=(12r8x41x1.025
Mass = 393.6 tornes
Example 4
A fuel oiltank haslength 4.2 m, bteadth 3.4 m and a depth of 6.0 m. ff 50 tonnes of fuel oil (density
0.U Um") is loaded hhat wi be ke sounding(level) o, oil in the tank?
Solrtion Mass=VolumexDensily
50 = (4.2 x 3 4 x sounding) x 0.84
sounding= $ = 1.168m
4.2x3.4x0.84
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Clr,SS 2/1 STABImY SECTION1 B€sicPtin lgLEs '11
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1.2 THELAWSOF FLOTATION
So[Jtion(a)
Theblockis suspendedin aid
Sircei =
Mass VolumeI Density:
Massof theUock = (2m  2m x 2d t 7.84t/n' = 62.72t
Example5 (bl I
Whatmasswit thegaugenowindicate?
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Sohnionh)
Theblockis nowdisplacinga volumeof water
where:Volumoot waterdisplaced = (2mx 2m : 1m) = 4m3 Fig 1.2
62.72t
dueto Bt
Upthrust 4.08t
Gaueereadiw 58.U t
FA.1.3
Example5 bl
Whatmasswi thegaugeindicateif the cnne drivernow
lowets the blockso that it b conpletely submeryodin
Solutionb)
TI!€uoc* is nott displacinga vdumo of watorwl@e:
Fig.1.5
1.2.2 Law off,oaaton
This statesthat everyto atingbody displa@sit'sown massot the lhuid in whhhit floats
The dispracerrerlof a ship (or any floalingobject)is definedas fh€ ,rmber of tonnesof waterit
disp/aces.lt is usualto considera ship disptacingsaltwaterof density1.025Um', ho\/€ver,fresh
i__ walervaluesof displacemenl (1000Um3)are oflenquotedin ship'shyd.ostalicdata
i.e the volurneberowthe
is lhe udetulater volumeof a shipano€nl
llpp volune of displacement
waterline,
(W)of a shipthe followingneedslo be knoun:
To calculatethe displacement
I Thevolumeof displacement (V)
The densityof the waterin whidr it foats (p)
Since: L,lASS= VOLUI,IEx DENSIW
t_ of a shipis calculatedby:
the mass,or disp/acemenl,
=VOLUMEOFDISPLACETIIENTX
OISPLACEMENT WATERDE}{SITY
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i.e.
Fio.1.6
Draughfis the distancefrom the keelto the watedine(WL),asheasurod at tll€ foovardand aft
endsof the ship.(Morepreciselythe draughtreadingsaretakenas thosereadallhe FoNaKl and
Aft Peryendiculars these tems are definedin Sedion 12). lt is expressedin metreslf the
draughtsforwardand afl arethe samethenthe shipis saidto be on an evenkeel(as shown).
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Freeboardis the distanceb€tweenthe waleriine(WL) and the top of the uppermost@nlinuous
and is measuredamidstlios.
decklt is usuallyexpressedin mil/,imetres
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HullOepth = Draught+ FEeboard
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1.3 SII{PLE BOXSHAPEDVESSELCALCULATIONS
(V=LxBxd)
Thercfore:
= (Lx Bx d)xp
DtsPl.sor
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Fi9.1.7
Example6 (a)
Calatlatetll€ displeemonfofa boxshapedvesse/thd has lgtr.g/th
80 m, &eadth 16m and floats
at a dhrgltt of 1.2m in saftwaler(denslty1.025Un).
Sohnionh)
=Gx B\d) tP
DISPL.sox
.. asPLsu = e'o x 16x 1.2)x 1.025
.. = 5510.1t
DlSPL.Box
Solution(b)
D t s P L . s o (xx=B x d ) x p
55104=(80x16xd)x1.06
ffi10.4= 1287.68 d
.. 5510.1=d = 1279m
1287.68
Fig. 1.8
Notethatthe increasein ddught is:
4.279m 
4.Zn m
6frgi 1t.s./nsor t9 nn1
132 Summary
lf a shiprnovesintowaterof /6sserdens,ity,
the draughtwill rlacrease.
ff a shiprnovesintowaletof greaterdensily,Ihedraughtwill declsase.
CtaSS 21 STAaIIIY SECTION1 B* Piinople
L_ 2 . FORMCOEFFICIENTS
SECTION
I TRODUCTION
I Fom coeffcienlsare raliosthat numericallycomparethe ship'sunderwaterformio that of regular
shapeshavingthesamemajordimensions as lheship.
, They are prirnarily used at the design stag€, pdor io construction, to p@dic1facticrs such as
! resistance lo foMard molion that the ship will experience during operalion. Such informalion is
then us€d to estimate the ship's po'Jv€rrequirementsfor the desired service speed.
.. Ello* coefficient is a rato that is considered in the calcllaton and assignmont of a ship's
lreeboard.
, Le',rring Objecfves
On completionof this section the leamer will achEve the bllowing:
1. Undersiand the tetm Coefficientof fine,ess of the water*lane arca (Cu).
2. Understand thetem Btrockcoefficient (CB).
L 3. Understand the tenrl Midships
coefficbnt (Ci.
4. Understandthe tetmLongitudinal Vismatc coefficient(C).
5. Cornpletesimplecalculationson ( 1) to (4) above.
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l_ CIaASS21 STABLn SECTION2 Fom Co€trEienE 15
2.'I OFFINENE$S
COEFFICIENT AREA(CA)
OFTHEWATERPLANE
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Fig.2.1
lc* wPA :
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Since the ship's WPA is less in area than the reclangle fofined around it, the value of Ct must
alwaysbe lessthan100.
Example1
A ship has a bvth afu bredth at the watodiroof 40.1 m and 8.6 m respeclively.ff be water
of finonessof the water+lanearea(Cw).
dane aea is 2ffi m' calculatethe c<)efrcient
Sohnion
c:w=weL = 280 = 0.812
LxB 4O.1 ' 8 . 2
Nde that the ansver hasno units:it is simplya compaisonof one areato anothet!
The Uock coeffcienf (CB)of a ship is the ralp of l,l,eundetwater wlume of a ship to tllevdune of
the circumscribingblod<
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Therefore:
Since the ship's volume of displacement is less than the volume of displacement of the
$nounding block, the value of CBmust always be l'?ssthan 1.00.
Example 2
A ship floats al a dntEht of 3.20 m atfu has a watedine IeNtrh and bredth of 46.3 m and 15.5 m
i rcspeclively Cabulate the block coefflcient (Cs)it its vdune of displacenent is 1800 m'.
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Solution
I Ca= Vdune of displacenent = lgn
LxBxd 46.3x15.5xs.2
Cs = 07U
Exanple 3
A ship has length 200 m and brcadth 18 m at the watetline. lf lhe ship floats at an even keel
draught of 7.56 m in water RD 1.012 and the block coetricientis 0.824 cabulate the displacement
Solution
Displacement = Vdume of displacementx De$ily
Displa@nent = (Lengthx Breadthx dnught xCd x Density
Asdacenptt = (200x 18 x7.56 x 0.824)x 1.012 =2 95t
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The midships coefficient (CM)of a ship d any draught is the ratio of the underwater lransverse
area of the midships seclion to the product of lhe breadth and draught (the surounding r6ctangle).
nd!F.
Bfxdfl
Fig.2.3
cr=@
Breadthx Draughl
l.FEl
Bxd
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Similady,the value ol CB mustalwaysbe lessthan 1.00.
0.922= M
12.70' 4.40
0.922 = Am
55.88
0.922' 55.88= Am = 51.521m'
c" = \19!cm9_olg@g9nt_9!$!S
Volumeof Dtism
Cr= Volume of dkDlacoment of 6hiD
Waterlinelength)<Area of midship s€ctlon(Am)
FA.2.4
Example5
A shiphasthefo owingdetails:
Draught3.63m:
Watedinobngth 48.38m;
Watetinebreadth942m;
'r* Cm0.946:
Cp 0.778.
Calculatethe vdumeof displacement.
Sorr.//btr
Stanhgwih:
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cn= @. 0.946= Am
Bxd 9.42x 3.63
An = 0.u6 t 9.42x3 63 32.348m' and;
lt shoufd be noted that for mosl @urses only knowledgeof the Co€iticrbrt of finenessof the water'
plane area (Cw) and he Blor.kcoeffcient fcd is required.
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clrss 21 STABILITYS€CnOr{ 2 Fom CGfi.i€nG 19
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TPC is the frst of the ship's hydrostaiic data that is supplied to a ship thal will be considered in
L detail. lt allows a means of calculating the change in draughl that will occur when loading or
discharging,.csighls.
Letning Ohjecttve6
On completion of this sealion the leamer will achi€vethe tolkt ving:
'1. Understandthe tetm Tonnesper canhmetreimmersbn.
L_ z_ uenve ne lormuElor tru.
3. lJnderstandthe faclors that affect th€ value ofTPC.
4. Use Displacemenland Trc values from tabulated hydro6taticparlictrlarslo perfom simple
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calculalions involvingdraught cfianges when cargo is loaded or discharged.
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Crass 2/1 STABILITYsEcTloN 3 To@s Pd Cs{im€te lmtll€lg
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3.1 TONNESPERCEi'lTlilETREIMIIERSION(IPC)
The fPC for any givendraughl ,:slhe weightthat must be loadodor dischargedb changethe
ship'sm6andftught by one centjnetrc.
Considerthe ship shownfoaling in sah water (RD 1.025)with a waterplanearea (WPA)at the
waterlineas shown.
Fig.3.1
A weighl of 30 tonnes is loaded on deck so that the mean draught increases by 1 cm.
Fig. 3.2
Since the ship's dispfacementis equal to the mass of water d;splaced (Law of Flotalion) itfoll ts
'slice' of displaced water is equal to the added weight of 30 tonnes.
lhaltbe mass of the additbnal
fn this instance, 30 tonnes represents the value of [ne Tonnespet Centimete Immersion (TPC) tor
the ship al lhe inffal draught before the weight was loaded.
Considertheprevioussituation.
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Since: Mass= VolumexDensit
then:
:_ Massof additionalsliceof water= Volumeof the additionalsliceof waterx Density.
lf lhe WPAis assumsdto notsignificantychang€betweenthe lwo watBrlines, lhen:
Volunleof the slice= WPA{mz)x 1 cm;
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Fiq.3.3
Wecannotmultiplym' by cms,lherefore:
Volumeof slice= WPA(m')r 1 (m);
100
Sollnim
rPc =WA. p
100
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CTASS 2:/I STABILfIY SECTION 3 Trc Pe Cerljmde l,ffi 23
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3.3 FACTORSAFFECI]NG TPC
Two values of TPC are ofren quot€d in ship's hydrostatic data, TPC$ and TPCFW.However,
hydrostaticdata for M. V. Almar is given for saltwateronly.
Considerthe hydroslatc paflia.llats for M.V. Almar oo page t2 of the stability data book.
'1.025)the displacementof the
lf the ship were foating at a draught of 5.00 m in salt l4afet (RD
ship would be 15120tonnesTo sink lhe ship by exac{y 1 crn, 31.96tonneswould have to b€
loaded.
Considerthe sifualon if the ship were to ffoat at the same draught of 5.00 m but in fresh water (RD
1.000).
Would the displacenent and TPC values be the same as they were in sdt water?
Consider the following diagrams showing the ship foating al lhe same dnught httl in different
ttrlrtbli, !.0S
It followsthat the displacemenlof the ship when at a draughtof 5.00 m in sa/t wabr must be
g/eaterthanthe displacement of lhe shipwhenat lhe sane dnught in frcshlvafet(sincesaltwater
is denserthanfreshvrater!).
frrb.tt!.Ul,f
Fig.3.5
 s€cIloN 3 Toffi
cLAss ?]1 STABTUTY P6 cqlitrE e lmnsskr
By similarreasoninga 1 cn sticcot sattwalerv{ll havea grcatermasslhan a 1 dn slic€of ftesh
water.Therefore,for the samedraughtof 5.00m the Trc in sakwatetwil be greaterthanthe Trc
TPc: 31.96tormes
Example2
lJsingthe hydroslatbpaftiMaE detetminethe displacementand TPCvaluesfor the shipwhen
floathgat a draughtof 6.30m n:
(a) saftwater(RD 1.025);
(b) fteshwatet(RD1.M0);
(c) d@kwater(RD1.012).
So/tli2n
(a) The f'dtustatic clatagivestlE fttlowingsant /atervaluesfor e d.aughtof 5 00 m:
L_ Note
ft is usuatto wotkto thesamenumberof decimalplacesas the vahEsgivenin the tables.
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3.4 LOAD/DISCHARGEPROBLEi'S
lf givena Trc vafuefor a parlisiar draught,thenthe changein draughlthat will occuras a result
of loadingor dischargingweights,termedeithers/rkageor r,se as appropriate.maybe calcriated
usino:
Sinkage/Rise (cms) = w
TPC
where rv represents the tolal weighl that is loaded or discharged. Having c€lculated the
sinkage/riseof the ship, this is then applied 1olhe inital draught.
Use of the above fomula may be also used lo delermine the weight to load or discharge to
achieve a requireddraught wtEre:
w=Slnkage/RlserTPC
Example 3
M.v. Almar has an inifial nean dnught of 4.40 m in sdt water and b required to completeloading
wilh a dmwht of 6.70 m. Using the hydrodatic parliculars calculate the amou of cargo that must
Method 1
1. Read otr the DISPLW values for both the initial and r€quired final draught.
2. Subt?clthe smallerfton the larger.
3. Resuftequals the amount to load.
Method 2
1. Read otr the TPcswvalues fot both the initial and required final draughE.
2. Cabulate the mean Trcswvalue.
3. Calcukte the rcquied change in draught; in ihis case Snkage.
4 Use the fomula: Sinkage/Rise (cms) = ut tofind'w', the anounl to loa.l.
TPC
Sohrtion
Mehod 1
Initialdnught 4.40 m DISPLS/ 13200 t
Requheddraught 6.70 n DISPLsvv20610t
Cargoto load 7110 t
Method 2
Inilialdaught4.44n TPCsw31.78t
Requied dnught 6.70 n TPCsw32.66t
Sinkage (cms) = w
TpCsw
lf the changein draughtis onlysmallit is usualto usethe Trc vabe for the inilialwatedineinstead
of the meanTPC value as shownin the examplesObviouslythe greaterthe arounl of cargo
loadedor discharged;lhe greaterwill be the enor!
Example4
M.V.Almar hasan initialmeandnught of 5.80m in sakwatet and lcads113(n t of caryo Usitv
parlhularscaldiate the finaldisplacement
the hydtostatic andmeand6ught.
Solution
Method 1
lnitialdlaught 5.80 m DlSPLsw 17690 t
Caeabaded 11300t
FNALDSPL. 28990t
.
Enterdata with final displacenent gives a final mean aught of L200 m.
Method 2
Initiel daught 5.80 m DlSPLsw 17690t TPCtu 32.26 t
Caryo loaded 11300t
FINALDISPL. 28990t TPCsw34.43t
Sinkage (cms) = u!
TPCSW MN
(cms) = 1l@
Sinkage = 338.9c'r,s =3.389'/'
33.345
lnitialdraught 5.8m m
Sinkage 3.389n
FTNAL DRAUGHT 499n
ft shoufdbe evidenttrom Example4 that directuseof lhe Dispkcenent and IPC valuesgivenin
(Mettod 't). Usingthe formulamethodleads
the hydroslaticdataresullsin a moreaccu€te answer
lo unnecessary wo*ing and resultsin a lessaccuraleanswer.
Exanple 5
M.V.Almaraiives in potl witha meandraughtof 5.30n in dockwaterRD 1.016.Hownuch ctgo
mayba loadedto ensurethat themaximumdnught on completionis 5.70m in the dockwater?
DISPLD4= 16080x1.O16=15939t
1.025
DISPLy = 17370
x1n16 =17217t
1.025
lniqalDISPLM 1ffi8o t
FinalDISPLD? 17217t
Cargotoload 1278t
Melhod2
Finaldtaught5.70m TPCsw32.22t
It is usualio cafculatethe amountto load on the basisof the required saft water daughtsinc€
seasonalloadlinesassignedto lhe shipapplyto the shipat seain sa/twaler.
tNTRODUCTOI'l
a minimum
llost shipswilfbeassigned freeboadanda conesponding setof loadlines.Thesewill
be permanentlyrnarkedon eachside of the ship (certainclassesof ship are exemptftom these
reouiremenls).
Loadlinesassignedto a ship corespondlo oceanarcasor 2ones'.Oceansarcundlhe worldare
dividedinto these zones in tems of both geographicallocaton and time of year (season).By
ensudngthat the appropriateseasonalload line markis not submergedat sea in salt water(RD
'1.025)the shipwill alwayshavethe necessaryreservebuoyancylo ensureseaworlhaness.
Leaming Oti*wes
On mmpletionof this sectronthe leamerwillachievethe following:
1. Knowthe dimensionsof a setof loadlinesas wouldbeassignedto a ship
2. Understandthe tetmFreshWatetAllowancaIFWA)andderivethe formulafot FWA.
3. Understandthe temi DockWaterAlowance(DWA).
4. Perfom calculationsrelatinglo lhe loadingof a shipto the appropriateloadlinemarl..
t_
1.'l LOADLNEDrMEr{SrOr{S
The loadlinesas they wouldappearon the starboardsideof a ship are shown.
alof:o scALE
+ato____1 FrtA (nh) =g!S4.!gsa!! x ' stlrlilEi lnrocrl
4T 6, al
'Always loctt for"rd ta qtmtnar!'
!UIER
F'EEBO ND
EiJ.4.1
4. The ass&/,ed (Sumne4 fteeboad is rneasuredfrom the lop edge of the mmsJll line
(whichconespondsto the top edgeof the Summerline)lo the lop edgeof the deck/ine.
5. The WNA'foadlinemarkis onlyassigned to shipsthatare t00 metresot lessin length.
Shipsover100m willloadto lhe 'W nark as appropriate.
TPCvalueforlhesummerload
TPC$ is thesaftwater draught.
ff the ship were foaded to lhe Summer displacement in sak water (RD 1.025)then the waler line
would be level with the top edge of the Summer (S) load line. lf now towed inlo tesh water (RD
1000)the ship woufd sinkby the he$h t /atet allowarce such thal lhe waler line would nolv be level
withthe top edge of the Fresh(F) load line.
L x B xd x CBx p
DisplacementsHrP=
Therefore, x '1.025
fortheshipshown: DISPLFW = DlSPbw+ (WPAx FWAx 1.000Um')
To expressFWAin mm then:
E]llA= 0.025x'100
DlsPLr":_!q25
1000 x TPCsw
gives:
Rearanging
FWA(mm)= 0.025x DISPL$x 1m0
100x TPCsw
Therefore:
FWA(mm)= 025xDlSPLsw
TPCS
Thus: FWA(mm)=DISPL.Summer
4TPC6Ni
Example1
A shipflo€tsin SWat the Sum''er displaaement of 1680tonnos.f fne TPCswis 5.18,hoit/mrch w
thedtawht changpby if the shipis towedto a betu wheEthe densityd thewderis 1.m0t/n'?
So/uf,on
In movinghon SWto FWthe shipwillexpeiencesinkageby an anount equalto the FWA.
FwA (mm)= DISPL Sunmer
4IPCsw
FwA = 1@ = 871mm
4' 5.18
The Dock WatetAllowance(DWA)of a ship is the numberof millimetes by which the mean
draughtchangeswhena sr,ir passgstom sa/t waterto dockt /ater,or viceversa,whenthe shipis
loadedto the Summerdisplacenent
Considerthe loadline markssho\/n. Thetop of the Srmm€r malk and lhe top of the F.esfrma*
bothact as the fimitscf a scaleof density,indicatingthe positionof the sa/l waterand freshwater
watedinesrespectivefyfor a ship loadedto the Summerdisplacemont.lf sudr a ship was to be
foaling in waterof anintennediatedensily,termedDock lvate. the drangein draughtwhengoing
ftom saltv/atetlo dockwalerc€n be easilydetermined.

Fig.4.4
lf the shipwereto go fromSWto dockwater
of RD '!.010,the draughtwouldchangery
lhe DWA.Theamountof the DWAis simply
L a fiaclionof the FWAas sho\n, in ihis case
3/5thsor '15/25thsof the FWAvalue.
OWA(mm)= FWA,(
L ( meansdifferencebetween;takesmall€rvaluefromgreal,ervalue)
Example3
L A shipis loadedto iE sumner disphcementad is to Wceed dott/nriverhon a beih wherclhe
dockwaterRD is 1.0U to anothetbeih whercthe dockwaterRD is 1.016.ff the FWAis 260mm,
calculatethe dange in dnught that willoccurand statewhetherit is an hcrcaseor a decrease.
L Solutbn
DWA(nn) = FWA' (RDM RD"w,) Thereforc:DWA(nn) = 260 x (1016 1(n4)
25 25
DWA= 1U.8 mm
lhe dnugLhtwirl@fi by 125mm since the ship is noving into morc densewab
NglqAnswersneed onlybe ta the nearestmm!
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crrss 2]1 SIABILITYSECTION,1LoadLts
I
44 LOADLINECALCULATIONS
Considerthe followingsituation:
A ship is loadingin the Summerzone in
d@k waterRD 1.012.It can legaly loadso
that the saftwaletwatettineis level with
thetop edgeof the SummerLoad Line.
The aim of the prcblem is to ensurc that on ptoceeding lo sea lhe ship t:ses to lhe desired
'Fresh Water Albwance' or 'Dock
seasonal loac! lhE ma*. ThE is achieved by considenng the
water Allowance' as approwiate in the calculation.
Example 4
A ship has a Summet load draught ot 5.80 n, FWA 140 mn and TPC of 21.82. The ship is loading
at a benh in dock water RD 1.007 and the Wsent dnught i6 5.74 m. Calculate the maimum
amount of catgo that can stil be loaded fot the ship to Lte at the Surnmer load line ma* on
rcaching the sea alowing for 26 tonnes of fuel still to be loadedVior to sailing.
Solrtion
L RequitedSumnerdrcught (1.025) m
5.tv,)o
DWA + 0.101 m
Reguircddraught (.mn 5.901n
I lnitialdnuqht (1.00n 5.740m
Pemifted sinkee (1.(n7) 0.161n
Example5
is floding in do* waterRD 1.002at a daught of 4.30m. Howmuchmorecaryo mustbe
A sh:jtp
toadedto ensue that the shipwi be at the Wnter load line na* giventhat tlrc Wintetdmught
corespondingto the wintetdisplacenentis 4.32m and the TPCis 21.60andthe FWAis 100mm.
Notethat the TPC valuegiven will alwaysbe the one that conespondsto sall water fot the
watelinethatis beingloadedto.
Solution
, 1. CalculateDWA.
i DwA (mm)= 100x 0929:i@a= 92 mm
25
2 Calculatethe petmiftedsinkagein dockwater.
) RequircdWnterdraught (1.025) 4.3mm
DWA + 0.092m
RequircddmLght (1.002) 4.412m
lnitial drauaht ft.002] 4.300 m
Permiled sinkaqe (1.002) 0.112m
Example6
A shipis floatingin dock waterRD 1.006.The watelinoto pon is 12 cm bebw the lowet eclgeof
'W mark. lf the
the 'S' ma* anc!on the statboardside is 4 cm above tl€ upperedge of the
Summerdisplacementis 21620tonnes(conespondingto a draughtin sanwaEr of 6.86m, TPC
18.6),how muchcaryoremainsto be loadedto ensurcthat the shipwill be at the Wtnterma* in
saftwaler,
Solution
1. in the question('S' and W in this case):sketch
ldentifythe load linesthat are mensioned
them (poft or slakoafu, it does not matter) and entet all known dimensions,calculating
them as ,ecessafy.
3. CalculateinitialmeandraughL
Initialmoandraught(RD 1.006)= 6.715 + 6.757 = 6.736n
2
4. CalculateDWA (in lhis case FwA must first be calculated).
FWAh n) =DISPL.Sunmer = 216m = 290.6nm
4TPCsw 4 x 18.6
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Conside. whai will happen to the ship once lhe extemal
heeling force is removed
t__
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acl to retum lhe ship to the uprighl condition.
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Leaming OAectlvea
On complelionof this sectonthe leamerwill achievethefollowing:
l 1. lJnderstandthe term C€rtre of GraviA (G).
2. Understandthe effect on G of sh,ittinga single weight vertically
Fig. 5.3
The positionof the centreof gravitywithinthe shipis the mostinfluentialkct)r in detemining its
stability.The ofr@r in chatgeof loadingthe ship mustbe ftily conversantwith the way that G
moveswhenshinng,loadingaN discharyingwsigns.
The verlical po€itionof the centreof gravityof a weighton boardis also epressed in lerms of
'nutres abovethekeel'(Kg).
q?
o!
t
Fig. 5.5
Example1
A shipdisplaces5000t an.! hasan initialKG of 4.5 m. Calculatethe final KG if a weig of m t is
1 movedvetlhallyupwads fromthelowerhold(Kg2.0 n) to ke upperdeck(Kg6 5 n).
Sdtttion
, GGv= v:_4 = 20.6.5 2.0)=0.018n
i_ w 5000
InilialKc 4.500n
Gcvup 0.018m
FINALKG 1.518m
i.
t_
Fig. 5.6
t
t
Fig. 5.8
NOTE A common mistake in usirlg this fofiula is to use the initial KG of the ship insteadof d! Also
note that the displacement increasesbecause a weight is loaded, hence: W, V in the formulal
Examole 2
A ship displaces 12500 t and has an inttial KG of 6.5 m. Calculate the llnal KG if 1000 t of calgo is
loaded into the lowet hoLl at Kg 30 m
Sohnion
GGv=yJ4 = 1@:JPL=!A= 0.259n
W+w 12fi0+10(n
lnitial KG 6.gn m
GGv down 0.259m
FINALKG 6.211m
Example 3
A ship displaces 17200 t and has an initial KG of 8.4 m. Cahulate the final KG if 1400 t ot catgo is
loaded onto the ntain deck at Kg 10.5 m
Solution
GGv= y]_4 = 1!@_:JJ.9J!A)= o.15am
W+w + 1400
17200
Inilial KG 8.400m
Gcvuo 0.158m
FINALKG 8.558m
ctass ?]1 STABLTY sEcrloN 5 cdtre ol B@yancr(a) andc€nre of Gely (G) 42
5.23 Efrectot dischaeing a welght
Whenevera weighl is discharged,G vill manedireclly away hom the cente of gmviv of the
discharyedweight(g).
Considerthe shipshownwherea weightis dischargedfromthe upperdeckG movesto Gi.
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1
,, ! l
Gl
G'!t i
.ri
I
Fig.5.9
! ln this case the KG of the shio will decrease
lnitial KG 4.220 m
0.071m
FINALKG 1.119m
Example5
A shipdisplacos18000t and hasan initialKG of 5.30m. Calculatethe final KG if 10000t of cargo
is discharyedfrcn thelowerhold (Kg3.0m)
Sol.rti'
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t_ crass 21 sTAalllw . sEc I loN 5 CcnF of BhyEmy (a) .nd c€itre ol G.avily(G) 43
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5.3 WEIGHTPROBLEMS
IIULTIPLE
A prerequisatetor any KG caldrlaton lo be conect is that the ship's ltgl,twe tght Displacemqt and
KG values be accurate.This is the subject of Seclio, 19  lnclining Experinent
Fig.5.10
Althoughthe cente of gravity(G) is assumed1o rernainin lhe same place as the ship heels
L__ (providedweightsdo notshiftwithinthe ship), the cente of buoyancyconslantlymovesas the ship
Dilches.ro s and heaves.
As the displacement (and draught)of lhe ship changes,so will the posilionof the centreof
buoyancywhenthe shipis upright.
i Fig. 5.11
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CLASS2/1 SIABILITY SECflOt{ 5 Cenre o{ &byaE1 (B)and CFr€ of A?tny G) 45
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cLAss 2. S rABI mY. sTcTloN . csrE oI Bm]€ncy (B) .d cste ol G€viy (G) 6
SECTION TOTRANSVERSE
6.INTRODUCTION STABILITY
STATICAL
INTRODUCTION
Havingdiscussedthe positionsof ihe canlreof gravityaM the centreof buoyancyin the previous
seclion,it is nowapproprialelo introducehowtheirrelativeposilionsaffectthe statility of a shipas
it is heeled.
Leamltv Obiectlv€s
Oncompletionof thisseclionthe leamerwill achievethe tollowing:
1. Understandthe tefir'TransverseStaticalStability'.
2. Understandthe tetm'Righting Lever'andhow rightingleversare presentedas a Culve of
StaticalStabiWlGZ Curve)for differentanglesof heel.
3. Understandlhe tetm'RtlhtingMonent'.
4. Unde6tandlhe tem' 'lnitialTnnsverseMetacerfle'andil's relevanceto the initialslability
of a shipwhenheeledwithinsmallangles.
5. UnderstandtlF!F lelrn 'l',letacanticHebht'and its relevancelo dnent IMO minimum
stabilitycrileria.
6. Calculatethe 'Momentof TransverseStaticalSlability'lot a ship al a specifiedangle of
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clrss 2/1 SrAalL[Y  sEcTloN 6 Intrcdudin tr roB\]ee Slrlkt sr.bility 47
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6.1 TRAi.ISVERSESTATICALSTABIUTY
'Trarsversesfafica/slability'is a tetm usedto desdibe the abililyof a shipto rgtumto the uptight
whenit has beenforciw heeledby an extemalforce and is momentarilyat restwhenfloatingin
strinwater.
Thewords: exlemalfirrcel
momentarilyat rest; and',
slillwater are veryimporlant.
A simplewayof considedngthe abovestalemenlis to imaginesomeonewitha modelboatfloating
in a bathof sti//r,vatel:The modelis held in a heeledposition,representing
the extemalforce,and
thenlet go. lf a snapshotphotographis takenthe instantthat the personl€ts go of the model,then
the positioosof the cente of gravityand centre of buoyancymay be consideredat ihe same
instant,hencethe terrn momentadlyat reit.lhis idea shouldbe tome in mindwhenconsidedng
transverseslalicalstabiliv
Whena ship is heeledat sea by wind and wavesthe situalionmightbe differentto our imagined
still watersituation.This is one of the limitationsof evalualingshipstabilityfor still walerconditions
onlyto be appliedin the dynamicenvironrnent in whichthe shipactuallyoperates!
ll is the relaliveposilionsof the cenlreof gravily(G) and the centreof brroyancy(B) as the ship is
he€ledlo a parlicularangle thatdetermines ho\/ stablea shipis.
Considerthe ship shown.Whenupright,in sf,zlvalet linesof actionof bothlhe weighlforce (Wf)
and buoyancyforce (BDactingthroughthe pointsG and B respectivelyare sho,r/n.lf the ship is
heeledby an extemalforceto someanglethe relativepositionsof G and B char€e causingtlte
linesof actioflof Wf and Bf to becomehoa,izontal/v
seoarated.
Fig.6.1
lf the extemal force is removed it is evident that the ship will retum to the upright as a result of the
forces acting through G and & .
L
L Fig.6.2
L Righling l€ver (GZ) incteases to sonre mauimum value and then dectsas€s as the ship
progressively
h€€lsfur$er.
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L Fit. 6.3
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!a
at
C'
oa
a
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iat
FtC.6.1
whidr results from the buoyancyforce (80 (being equal to the ships
_l
displacement (\ ff)), actjngonthe end of the leverGZ,wfiichpivotsaboutG.
'var.re
t Therigfiing momentat any angl€of heelrepresenlsthe itslantareous
of the ship;sabililyto rglum to the Wrilht, expressectin tonnesmehes, when e
the shipis in 'sti watef conditionsand is npmentaily at rcst i.e. acceleratbn t l
forcesas the shiptollsaG gnorccl.
E\amDle 1
Cahulatethe rnonent of slaticalstability(tightkg manent) fot a ship wilh a
l"l
:
ol 12000tomes if the dghlingbvet (GZ)is 0.46m when heeled
displacement l Fig.
Soldion
RIGHTINGMOMENT = GZ x DISPLACEMENT
RM = 0.46 t 12000
RM = 552, tan
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L ctass zl sTABtLrw sEcTloN6 lnrodudiq toT€nse siauersiattliry 51
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6.4 NMAL TM'{SVERSE IEfACE}ITRE O)
Consid€rlh€ shiDahowr.
Fil.6.6
Whei lhe ship h€€ls boyond srmll angles tlE pcint ot it{ersecton has b mow, h€ncs lh€ tBIm
lnitial Tra,r6vers€futatac€nte.
lfs pcilion is expre3s€das a h€ight abow ihe keel in rnef€s and is tented KM.
The '/alue of KM is tabulatedin ship's hydrostaticdata and ib pocilion vades wifi draught.
This is the veftical distancebaween the ship'scentta of gravily (c) and the initialt ansletse
metacante(M).
Fig.6.7
Th€ GM is very important in determiningthe ,h,lal siabir,ilyof the ship ie. the stability of the ship at
small angles of he€.
tf the centre of gnvity (G) of the ship shown was highe\ the ighting lever (GZ) would be smaller
and the ship would be less stable (since the ighting nt<nent woud be slnaller!).
tf the centre of gravity (G) of the ship shown was lowe\ lhe ighting lever (GZ) would be lager and
the ship would be more stable (since the ighting momeft would be lagert).
Consider the verlical positions of the cenke of gravity (G) and the initial transverso metacentre (M)
for the ship shown in Figure A Z
L
M is above G.
l/VheneverM is above G lhe ship will be in a stable conclliul, in other words, the ship will have
pdsilive stabilily. lt is the aim of lhe officer in charge of loading the ship to ensurc thal lhis is the
case at all lirnes.
]n the normal loaded (nndition the initial metacentic hebht (GM) shotld not be less than 0 15 m
(Me on lntacl Stability for All Types of Ships Covercd by IMO lnstruments (MO)  Chapter 3
Se(tbn 3.1.2.4)
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crass 21 STABIUTY. sEcnoN 6 Inlldudis b Tffiw sr.l6l 9.blrty
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6.6 CALCULATINGTHE MOMENTOF STATICAL STABIUTY AI ST'AII ANGLES OF HEEL
In triangleGZM: S i n e = O P P= @
HYP GIVI
I
Therefore: GZ= GM,.Sln0
HavingfoundGZ:
IIOMENT= GZ r DISPLACEMENT
RIGHTING r lJ.:
(* ,;&
. q l
NqqThe aboveformu,afor GZ can only be rsed tor
sma//anglesofheel.
&,J
Examole2 Fig.6.8
A ship hasa displacenentof 9420tonnosand a KM of 9.22m. ln fts presentloadedconditionthe
KOis 7.46m.
Calculatethe momentof staticalstabilityavailableif the shipis heeladto:
(a) 2 deg.
(b) 4 des.
(c) I des.
Sohnion
KM 9.22m
KG 7.46m
GM 1.76n
(a) GZ=GMxSine
GZ= 1.76x Sin? = 0.(fi142n
RM=GZxDISPLACEMENT.
RM= 0.06142 x 9420= 5?8.6,m
(b) GZ=GMxSins
GZ= 1.76' Sin4'= 0.12277
m
RM=GZXDISPLACFMENT
RM= 0.12277x 9420= 1156.5tin
(c). GZ=GMrSing
GZ = 1.76x Sinf = 0.24494m
RM=GZxDISPLACEMENT
RM = 0.24494/ 9420= 2307.1tm
Example3
ol8900 tonnes,a cofiespondingKM of 9.400m and a KG of 7.6m m.
A shiphasa displacement
Sohrtion
(a) KM 9.400n
KG 7.620n
GM 1.780n
ctAss 2/1 STABLrY  SEcTloN 5 Inrodudjc'nlo T€nsw sraftd slabiltly
GZ=GM xSins: GZ= 1.780' Sin5"= 0.15514 m
RM = GZ t DISPUCEMENT; RM = 0.15514 x 8900= 13N.7 t+n
(b) Takemornentsaboutthekeel:
IIEIGHT ItI 9.!00
762 6 7 4 1 40 FINAL KG
200 426 {52.0 l.l&t
1260 25m.O
Elt0.0 t,8f 60485_0
In this seclion the transverse statical slability of a sfabb ship at smal, angles of heel has been
discussed.
A smalt angle of heel is olten considered lo be any inclinationof the ship up to approximately10"
A more accuraie definilion of a sma// angle ot hed for a parlicular ship is the subjecl of disdrssio.r
tot Section 16  The Wall SidedFormula.
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Ct eSS21 STABILITY  S€CiON 6 Inltoduclin 1oTftvge Slii:. Stabilily 55
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ctass 2/1 sTAa[ffY  sEcfrofr 6 hf.ducrbn lo Trflsvre siaricc sl*ililv 56
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L sEc l'loN 7  col{DlTloNs oF STABIUTY
r{IRODUCTtON
L fntheprevious
seclron,transverse in termsof a shiplhalwasin a
wasdiscuss€d
*atical staMlity
stabrecondilionor y. lt is e$s€rhl to disc[ss the behaviourof a ship when it may becolrE
undable.
L A ship may becomeunstableif the centreoI gravity(G) is allo.tedlo rise too high.Thereare a
numberof possiblec€usesof this, principleonesbeingihe loadingof too muchweighthigh up in
the shipandlhe effeclof freesurfacesin slacktanks.
t This sectionsimplydiscussesstatility and instabilityin termsof the relativeposilionsof G, B and
M.
L Leanlr'4Obj*{w*
1. Understandthe tetm 'stable@ndition'.
2. Understandlhe tefir'neutral condition'.
L 3. Und€rstandthe tetms'unstablewtdition' and
'angieof loll'.
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L
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t
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L CLASS2/1 STABIUTY SECION 7 Cqdii$ ol Slatnrrv 57
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7.1 STABLECONDM(,I{
F*1.7.1
L_
Fig.7.2
Cons*lertt€ lin€s of aclbn ot weightlorc€ (WD,acling do\{rwardfrorn G, and buoyancyforce
(B0, acting upvar& from E lhroughlhe inilial t"ansv€rsem€tac€ntg(M). Th€ ship will wEntto
retumto tl6 uprltrt cdrdilionwt€nthe exbrnalforc6is romov€d.
In this stableconditionthe rightingleverGZis actingb nghtthe ship.
G is belowM:initialGMis Dositive.
i.e. KM  KG = 0: GM= 0
Fig.7.3
The ship is now heeled by an extemal force to a sma//
L_ argr. of inclination ,l
''\
Since the ship has no GM, lhe lines of action of Wf and a
Bf remain in he sane vefticalt lh€re is N horizontal
separarbn between them when the ship is heeled within ,
snall angles of inclination. Thus, righling l€ver GZ will
not ex$.
\ i
ln this neulnl condition the ighting lever GZ will not
exist. G is at the same height as M: the ship has ze,o
GM. The ship will settle aI an indetenninateangle of heel
wthin small dngles when acled upon by su.cessive
extemalforces.
L_ Ftg.7.4
lf the ship is heeled berondsmallanglesthe centreof buoyancy(B) will move ootboardof the
cenre of gravity(G).Thiscausesa positiverightinglever,GZ,to takeeffecllo retumlhe ship back
to someindeteminatesmallangleof heeloncethe extemalforceis removed.
L
Fio.7.5
N9!9
when heeledbeyondthe inilialsmallanglesof inclinalionthe initialtransversemetacentre(M) no
longerapplies hencethe lerm initbl. At theselargeranglesof heel M can be assumedto be at
L some indeterminatepositim on the line of acton of buoyancyforce (Bf) at any instant  it just
dependswhere the point of intersectionof lhe lines of action of buoyancyforce are at that
partioiarinstantas theshipis in theprocess of heeling!
L_
crAss 21 STABIUTY sECnoN 7 condidoreof slaulity
7.3 UNSTABLECONDMONAND ANGLE OF LOLL
The question that now comes lo mind is: l/yi,/the srip caps/ze?
Fig.7.7
Provided that the centre of buoyancy can move suftciently
outboard to attain a new position vertically below G tlEn the
capsizirE lever will disappear and the ship will come 10 rest al
an angle of loll. lf the cente of gnvity were very high then the
ship would possibly capsize.
Fig.7.8
lf the ship is heeled beyord the
angleof loll the cenbeof buoyancy
(B) will move outboard of the
centreof gravity(G).Thiscausesa
positiverighlinglever(GZ)that will
acl lo rctum the ship ba* to the
angleof bn
The effecls of 'fiee liquid surfaces'in slack tanks are a principalcause of instabilityin ships.
Seclbr 9 considersftee surfaceeffectin detail.Wheneverinstabilityis suspectedthe procedures
in Secfto't5 mustbe strictlyfollowed.
II{TRODUCNON
Whendesigninga ship the faclorsihat influencethe heightof the ir lial lransversemetacent€
(KM)are of primeimportance.lt followsthatthe greaterthe KMvalue,thenthe greaterwill be ihe
GMfor any givenKG.lt is importantto appreciatethatKG a/ore is notthe iniuendnglactor on the
ship's initial condition of stability. lt will be seen in lhis seclion thal KM changes with
draughudisplacement; this meansthal a particularKGvaluemay giveadequateinitialstabilitywith
respectto GMat one draughlbut nol at another.
ln this section,the learnerwill caldiate KMvaluesfor boxshapedvesselswherebyit will be seen
at lirst handthetactorsthat iniuenceKM.
I
L
L
l
I
Fig.8.1
811 fitelacen''icRadrus
lf B js plotted for several sma/ angles of heel, il may b€
assumed that it follows the arc ol a circle cenlred at M.
Fig.8.2
KB=gEgs!! K
2 Fig. 8.3
l__ BM is calculatedby:
l r
Fig. 8.4
, C is tre geometic centro of the wateFplane area and )O( is the longitudinalaxis about which it is lo
be rotated.
 (ln reality, it is the ship that will rctate alrout th,s axis as i heels, however it is convenient to think of
the t/raterplanearea rotaling about the same axs insteadl
For a boxshapedvessef
I
I irl
whereL and B are the /en!/, and brsadlh of the waterplanearea respectively/ is in units of
I meheso(mo).
Al thislevelit is rrotnecessaryto undeBtandthedeivationof thisformula,leavethat to the menn
\ white aoals'
L
Since: Blt = !
.
it follows that: Bilbx = la!
12V
TheEfore: B sor= .33
I2LBd
l thus: ITM;;E1
12d
 I
L A simplistic, but convenient,way of considering the effecl of the momenl of inettia of the wateF
plane area is to @nsider that it gives a ship tesslance to heeling!
L fhetefqe,lhe laryer the water+/arg area, the /ess eas,t a ship will heel.
L it is the breadh of the tt/aleFplate area that is most inflrAntial. lt is generally accepted thal the
broadere ship is, the more slab/e it will be.
L Tosummarise: KTI=KB+BM
andfora boxshaped
vessel: KMBox=d + B
L
A.2 iIETACENTRICDIAGRAMS
Sodion ' , .
(a) Thevaluesfor KMarc shownhavingbeen
calculatedusing:
KM = KB + BM where:
KB=dnuaht; and BM=g Fig. 8.5
2 12d
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i._
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r r a r r o r i r t
(i) Fot the vess€/ lo be unstablethe KG nasl be greater than the KM at the dnught
concened.Thisoccutsbelweenthe draughts5.2m and 12.8m.
L
(i0 At a dratghtof 3.0Om KM wascalcdatedto be 12.61m.
KM 12.61m
KG 9.0om
GM 3.61m
DISPLACEMEN7Dx = L\ B x d x densv
DISPLACEMENTB''= 100x m x 3.00\ 1.025
DISPL,CEMENT@X = 6150 tonnes
l_
Gz = GM. Sing
GZ = 3.6'1: S,ia5'
GZ= O.31463....met es
t_
Thercfote: Rghtingn onent = GZ ' Displacement
Rbhtitutlonent = 0.31483......6150
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L_ Rightingmonent = 1935ta
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CTASS ZI SIABUTY SFCION A hli' T€FreR ll€la.'ie 65
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Solulioa (a)
DSPLACEMENTNX= G x B x d ) x p
DISPLACEMENToy = (100 x m  4.5) x 1.025
DISPLACEMENTN( = 9:225t
(b) The rcquircd GM on conpdion of loadingis 1.20n. vt/hatis the naxinwm petmissibleKG?
Solu1iotl(b)
Frcm the g6ph lhe KM for a draught of 4.5 m
is awroximately 95 m.
KM 9.5m
Required: GM 1.2m
KG 8.3m
(c) Ihe vesse/ is curcntly loaded to
dhplacenentof 8/'65t and hasa KG
of 8.40m. Whatis the rnaximumKg
at which to load the frnal 760 t d
cargo to ensure thal the final GM
requirementof 1.20m is achieved?
Solution(c)
In (b) it was detetmircdthat the maximum
KG requircdwas8.3m.
Takemonentsabod the keelin the normal
waybutlet 'x'equaltheKg at wllichto loadthe
fnal 250t.
8.3'9225=711(fi+760x
76567.5=71106+760x
76567.5 71106= 760x
U61.5 = 760x Therefore: W!.! = x = 7.186m
760
ThemaximumKg at whbh to bad the finalTN t weightis 7.186m to ensurethat thefinal KG does
not exceed8.3m, thusensudngthat thefinal GMis at least1.2m.
Had the valueof KM beencalculatedusingthe farmulainsteadof takingit from thegrapha more
accurateanswerwouldhave rcsultecl
ln practicethe metacenticdiagam fot a ship(if available)will haveto be usedas presentedin the
stabiltydatabook,sincethe KMfar a shipshapets notrcadilydetetmined.
8.3.1 Beanl
Considertv,,oshipsof diff€refltbeameadt heeledlo the sarneangleof indinalicnas s h(/rl.
8.3.2 Dnught
Considerlhe formula: B B 1 = v ; 46 q
Fig.8.7
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ct ss2t stAa TY sEcTtoN3In'tstT@*6e lretanrre 67
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 SECTIONa htar r6Evee
CLASS2t1 STABLITY rvrelaenre 68
SECTION9 . FREESURFACEEFFECT
INIRODUC]ION
lvlostcaseso{ instabilityin ships are lhe result of free surfaceeffects,This occuE when tanks
withintheshipareonlypartially full,or slack.whena shipheels,liquidwifnina partially flled tank
will moveto the low side. lt will be seenin lhis sectionthat lhis advelsevaffectsthe lransveBe
stalicalstabilityof a ship.lt is essentialthat the leamerfully understandthe effectof slacktankson
transversestalicalstabilityand the necessityb maintainto a minimumlhe numberof slacktanks
at anyonetimeas appropriate.
Leanrng Obj.ctivet
On completionof lhis sectionthe leamerwill acfiievethefollowing:
1. Understandlhe effeclof a fee liquidsurfaceson the transvers€staticalstabilityof a ship
2. Cafdrfalethe efreciol Free Suface in a rectangularshapedlank and determinelhe
offeclive(fuid) KG andGM of a ship.
3. CalculateFree Sufa@ Moments(un) lor a reclangularlank and take accounlof lhe ftee
surfaceby includingthemin the KG momentstable.
4. Understandthe methodsof rep.esentationof free surface data used in ships tank
sounding/ullage tablesand usesJdrdatain typicalcalqialions.
5. Underslandthe factorslhal iniuen@frce surfaceeffecl.
;*
t
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ctass 21 sTAa[mY sEcTroNI F@ sud* Elfed 69
9.I EFFECTANDTHE
FREESURFACE LOSSOFTRANSVERSE
STATICAL
STABILIW
Fig.9.1
Consider what will happ€n if the liquid in the tank thaws out
and is then free lo move as lhe ship heels, as would normally
be the case.
I i.e. W=V x ds
Example1
: A shiphasan iniliatdisplacement of 10500t and KG 7.60m. A rcdangularcatgooil t4* ol lenglh
l 30 m and tueadh m m is panialy frtledwith 9c00t of oil (RD 0.86) ff the Kg of the oil is 8.@ m,
calculatetheetrectiveGMif theKMfor the finaldisplacement is 8 80 m
Solutkm
1. Takitv monentsaboutthe keel,calculatelhonew solidKG.
WEIGHTft) KG lm) MO[E}{TS (t{n)
10500 7.60 79800
:amo oil 9600 8.00 768()0
:INAL 20100 779' 1566{X)
L
9.22 Frcesu ace momen's
ftte noment of i@ftia (ll, oftentemed the secotd momentof area, ot lhe free liquidsuriaceof a
recianqulartankmavbe delerminedbv:
I r= b3 (m1l
I 12 
ff the vafue of I is muftipliedby the liquid density lhen a value of 'Frce Surtace Moments' (FSM'9)
(tm)is obtained.
Fsfl's (td) = D:x d
12
Considertheprevious effeclfomula: GGv= lb3 x dt
fteesurface
12W
Therefore: GG, = ESM!
Displacement
Considerthepreviousexample.
Example2
A shiphasan kitial displacementof 10500t and KG 7.60m. A rcctangularcargooil tankof lenglh
30 m and brcadth20 m is patlia y ft ed with 9600t of oil (RD0.86).ff theKg of the oil is 8.00m
calculatethe etrediveGMif the KMfor thefrnaldispla(Fmentis 8.8Om.
Solulion
1. Cabulatethe FsM'susing:
FSM'S(rn) = 1b3
x dt
12
3. Apply the flukl KG vatue to the final KM to obtain the frnal fluid GM.
<M
FLUID KG a.u7
FLUIOGM 0.1sit
2CO.Stbd otl
130()
too
37l}I
150 3 569s 2 302
268t
The table is tor a cargo oil tank in a tanker  No. 2 Cargo Oil tank Starboard.
F.ee SJrface Moments (FSI\,'l's)in tomesmetres a.e tabulated for an assumed liquid den$ity of
0.740Um'.
VCG (Vertic€l Centre of Gravity or Kg) indicates lhe verlical positioi of the oil within the ship in
lerms of metres above lre keei for the appropriatesounding.
Example 3
A ship displaces5400 t and has a KG of 7.860 m. No. 2 Caryo Oil tank Stbd.is filled to a sounding
o[ 150 cms with caep oil RD 0.740. Calculatetlp frnal efrediue KG and GM it the KM bt the final
conditionis 8.000 m. (Use the sounding table extact gNen.)
2CO.Stbd oI 0.7:O
_
7A29
50
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7A379
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1 6 64 1 7A 421
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 sEcTloN I F@ Sud*
ctass zl STABTLTTY EfrbcI
I
Sohnion
100
125
225 166.41
Examole4
A shipdisplaces900 t and hasa KG of 7.8@m. No.2 CargoOil tank Stbd.is filledto a 5ounding
ot 150c,nswith saftwaterbalksl RD 1.025.Cdculatethe finaletrediveKG and GMil the KM lor
thefrnalconditonis 8.000m. (Usethe soundingtableextacl given.)
'to0
125
150 107.,16 373 7
2 430
L_
78.406 3.602s
20n
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CLASS ?]1 SIAAIIIY  SECTION 9 F@ Sutf@ Effed
Momentsof lnetlia(l) in metrcs"(m")are tabulated.
Volumeof lhuid in thetankin cubicmetres(m') is kbulated.
ExamDIe5
TE6iiz ptaces54oo t and has a KG of7.8N m. I'to.2 Catgo Qil knk stbd. is tilled to a sounding
of 1fi dc,nswitt caryo cil RD O.74O.Caldlde the frnal etroclive KG and GM if the KM for the final
conditidt is 8.000 m. (Use the sounditg ta e exbact given.)
Sohrtion
Obtain.atgo datafromtable.
2CO.Stbd
o01}
516r1
Calculatethe massol oil in the tank. Mass= Vdumex Darsity:rlass= 145.22x 0.740= 107.46t
Caltulatethe FSM'9fot theoil. FSM'S= I ' Density; FSM'S= 505.0' 0.740= 373.7trn
:LIIID KG 7 819
107.46 2_302 :LUIOGM 0.18'l
5507.45 ?3r0 43{t65.1
9.23.3 Summery
You will not have a droice as to which of the two methods to use, it simply depends on the format
of lhe tank soundingtables that are suppliedto the ship.
Tabulated FSM'9for an assumedliquid density are not cfrnected for the actual density of the liquid
TabulatedI values are not nuftiplied bythe densiu ofthe quid inthetank!
ALWAYS CHECK!
Example 6
A ship has a disdacem$t of 12000 t and inilial KG of 7.84 m.
A rcctangukr ddtble boftom ta < has the following dimensions:leIEIh 20 m, brcadth 15 m ancl is
L filled with saft water ballast(RD 1.025)to a sounding of 2.00 m.
ff the KM for the final cdldition is 8.00 m, calcdate the final etrec'tiveGM
Solution
1. Calculatethe massand Kg of the ballast water.
Mass=VolumexDenstty;
Mess= (l x b'sounding) x density;
Mass= (20 \ 15  2) x 1.025= 615.0t
Sirrceit is a double bottom tank the Kg d the ballast wabr will be half lhe souncling:
K9=05x2.0=1.00,7'
FSM'S(tn) = h3 t dt
Takingnonents about the keel calculate the frnal KG and herce the final KM:
WEIGHT(tI KGlml UOIEI,ITS lt{nt
:LUIDKG
615.00 '1.000 rLUIDGI
Considerthe same exampfebut this lime the lank will be qually suMivkled into lwo l?/lks.
Example 7
L A ship has a displacemont of 120N t and
initial KG of 7.U m.
L
cL.r.ss 21 sTAarLrTY sEcTloN I F@ Surre Efied 77
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lf the KM fot the final condition is 8.00 m calculate tha frnal effactive GM.
ll can be seen lhat lhere are now lM,otanks each having a breadth of 7,5 m.
Souion
1. Calculate the mass and Kg of the ba asi wabr.
Mass=VolumexDenstty;
Mass = (l x b x soundjng) x density;
Mass= (20 x 15 x 2) x 1.025= 615.0t
Aftemaively:
Massper tank = Volume x Density;
Masspertank = (lx b x sounding) x density
Mass= (20 x 7.5 x 2) x 1.025= 307.5t
Tokl mass= 307.5t 2 t:anks= 615.0 I
Since it is a double botton tank the Kg of the ballast watet will be halfthe sounding:
Kg=05'20=1.00n
FSM'S(tn) = h3 , dt
3. Takingmoments about the keel, calculate the final KG and hence the final GM:
WEIGHTITI (G lml OMENTS lt{l
:LUID GX o3n
Example I
A ship has a displacement of 12000 t and initial KG of 7.U m. A rcctangular buble boftom tank,
which is equdly subdivided into three compatunenE, has length 20 m and overal brcadth 15 m
and is filled wilh saft water balast (RD 1.U5) to a sounding of 2.0Om.
ff the Kl,t for the tinal qnditicn is 8.00 n, calculate the fnal etfective GM.
It can be seen thal there arc now tt ree lanks each having a breadth of 5.0 m.
Altematively:
Masspe, tank= Volume, Density;
MassWtank = (lt b t sounding) 'density;
Mass= (20t 5.0\ 2) x 1.o25= 205.4t
Totalmass= 205.0x 3 tanks= 6150t
Kg=0.5x20=1.04n
As a resuit of subdividingihe tank into three it is evident that lhe itna, GM is further improved
h No subdrv?sro,
Fig.9.6
(b) A single subdivision
Fig9.7
A singlesubdivisionwill reducethe free surfacemoftents (and losr of GM)io ore quatlerol lhe
originalvalue.
(c) Two subdivision'(crcatingthrcecompa n ents)
Fig.9.8
Therefo.e,subdividing
a tankintofouregualsubdivisions
willreducethe FSM'Sto onesixleenlhi.e.
1 I
t 't6
9.33 Density
Freesurfacemoments(andlcesof GM)are direc{yproportionalto the densityof the liquidin the
tankas discussedin 9.2.a1,the greaterthe densityof the liquidin the tank,the greaterthe FSMs
andsubsequent lossof GI/
9.4 FREESURFACE]'O[ENTS
IIPORTAI'ITPOINTSTO T{OTEREGAROING
It_
(U T.r* tu n 'rJ tottgtat&1.tb.ah,,(
Fig.9.1O
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t
Ctlss2?1sTABlLrv S€CTONI Fe sude Efied 81
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3. lf two similarrectangulartranks
are illed to difierenllevels,the
hee )merfs tor eadt
wiube the sane. (Considertle
formula for FSM'S if you al€
unsure!)
4. ll atank is emptyor pressedup,
free surface rnomentswill not
existin thattank. Fig.9.11
L @
INTRODUCNON
L the Ne of staticalstabilry,ot GZ cuNe as it is most commonlyrefer€d to, is a graphical
representatonof the ship'stransversestaticalstability.
I Tre/'sl!€/slestaticalstabihtyis the tem usedto describethe abilityof a shipto r€tumto the upright,
L when it has beenforciblyheeledby an extemalforc€ and is momentarilyat rest whenffoatng in
siillwater.
RIGHTING MoMENT(tm)= GZ (m)x DISPIACEMENT (l)
L
Al anyangleof heel,it is the hoizontaldispositionof G and B that determinesthe GZ value.
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t_
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Fb.10.1
t Thegreaterthe valuesof GZ,the greaterwill be the a/eaunderlhe curve.Minimumstandardswith
respectlo the aroaunderthe curve(andothercdteria)are specifiedin the Code on intact$hbilily
(fMo)'and thes€are incorporetedin the govemmentlegishlionof rnostcounhiesthat adoptthe
ll\ro convenlions.
Assessingcomplianceof a ship'sloadedconditionis consideredin Secliont4. lt is he aimof this
L seclionlo reviewlhe methodof actuallyproducinga qlrue of staticalstabilityand to be able 10
extractbasicinformalionfromit.
Leeming Objectlves
L On completionof this section,lhe learnerwill ac+ievethe following:
1. Undersiandthe termKN and hovvKN varuosrnaybe usedto oblainGZ valuesfor specified
anglesof heel.
L 2. Knowlhe procedurefor producinga oJve of staticalstability.
3. ldentrythe basicfeaturesof a curveoI staticalstability.
4. Understandthe termsSdifandlenderwih respectto the curveof staticalstability.
L
ctAss 21 sTABtLtw sEcrroarl0 cutw ofsra , slabilftv
lcuc) 83
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IO.,I CALCULATINGGZVALUES
10.1.1 KN values
As a ship heels the centre of buoyancy(B) constantly
moves,il's lransversepositionb€ingdependenton:
 the wlume of displa@nent( anddraught)of the ship;
 the angleof heelat any inslant.
The KN valuesfor MyAlmarare givenin tabulaledfdmat on page 16 ofthe sbbil y data book.
The GM c€lculated is that allowingfor free surfaces since the question gave a fuid KG.
When KN values arc tabulated, interpolation for displacement values olher lhan those staled
shouldbe done, but it shouldbe bome in mindthatthe rale of changeof KN is not lineat lf lhe KN
ralves Jor M.V. Almarv@re plotted, they would be culves  ''ot stra,ghfliresl However, any erors
caused by interpolationof KN table values are likely to b€ negligible.
'I0,2 PROCEDURE
L THECURVEOFSTATICALSTABIUTY
FORCOI,ISTRUCTING
L 5. Using: cZ = KN . (KGSineo)
i 7. Beforojcining all the poinlson the curveconslrucla v€rticalat 57.3" and ftom the base
up /ardsmarkoff lhe valueof the effediveGM (usinglhe GZ scale).Frornthis pointdraw
a straightlineto the originof the drrve to be drawn.This will indicatelhe initialtend
of tle curveat smal/anglesofreel andwillassistin sketcfiingthe actualcurvebetweenthe
L originandthe irst plottedGZ value.
(GZand GMarc cbselyrelatedal sma anglesd heel.)
L The curvefor the GZ valuescaloJlatedin Example t is sho\m. Notethe consfuctionusingthe
inilialGMvalueof 0.9 m.
L
;l
t
L
 02
L
L Fig.10.s
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L
 SRTION 10CU'E of srarEl sr.bility{cuMs)
CLASS?]l STABTIiTY 85
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'I0.3 BASIC INFOR]{ATIO]'I AVALABLE FROTITHE CURVE OF STATICAL STABILTTY
Consider lhe orrve in lhe previous example.The following infqmadon can be extractedtrom it:
(a) The GZ vahE for any angle of heel
This can be used lo calculate the moment of statical stability for lhe ship at that particular
angleof heel if the formula:RIGHTINGMOMENT(trn) = GZ (m) x DISPTACEMENT (t) is
aoolied.
(b) The maximum GZ and the angle of heel at which it octuts
(c) The ftnge ot posi've stabilily and the angle of vanishing stability(AVS).
(d) The apprcximale angle of deck edge innercion (goE).
Figure 10.4 shows the ship heeled to lhe poinl where dec* edge immersionlakes place.
Fig. 10.5
Fig.10.6
 sEcrlofi 10 CltB
ct lss 21 STABILITY ol star€l slattlily lcures) 86
STABIUTYFORSTIFFANDTENDER
OFSTATICAL
10.4 CURVES SHIPS
10.1.1Stifr ships
l A srff ship is one with a verylarge GM causedW KG b€ingloo
small.This occursif too muchweighl is daced low downwithin
the ship.The ship will be excessive/yslab/e,rightingmornenls
j will be so largeas to causethe ship to retumto the uprightvery
quicklywhenheeled.Rollperiodwill b€ short.
A verylargeGMshouldbeavodedforthefollowing reasons:
. Theshipwillretumto the uptightveryquicklywher€bythe
notkm will be je*y cars,irg e.xc€ssie sfuainon catgo
lashingsand possibbcargoshift.
t Lo()segearwillbe thrownaboLtt.
for ew aN injurymay esultfrcn the
It is uncomfotTable Ftq.10.7
shio'soulckmotbn.
Structutuldamageto the shipmayoccu due to racking.
L_
L Fig. 10.9
L
cll"ss 2/1slAa[mv  sEcTroN10crc of srarjl:rsrdiriry(cuG) 8a
:
t sEcTtoNfi  usT
INTRODUCTION
I So far stability has only been consideredtor a ship thal is upright,wfiereby G is on lh€ cenlre line
and the ship foats upright in stll water. ll is necessary lo consider lhe posilion ot G in the
trarsv€rse sense as well as the vertical.
There is a dislinction lo be made between lhe tems /ist and lEel, this offen being ovedooked or
ignoredcompletsly.
L Listi6 the tem used to desdibe a ship that is itrdined due to the distributionof waights wihin it
Heet is the tetm us€d to desdibe a ship that has been forclbly inclhed by ertemd torc's (wind
Leaming Obj*tives
On compleiionof lhis section,the leamerwill achievethe follcwing:
L 1. Calculatethe list caused by a transverse shift of a single weight lsing the basic list tnangle'
for a shipthat is initiallyupright.
2. Calculatethe list caused by a lransverse and vertical shift of a single weigh for a ship thal
is initiallyupright.
3. Calculatethe list caused by a single weigh being loaded or discfierged.
4. Calculaie the weight to shn to bring a listed ship upnght.
I 5. Calculatethe fnal list when loadingand/ordischargingmultipleweightsfor a ship that is
initiallyupright.
6. Calculate the fnal list when loading and/or disdlarging 'rltiple weighls for a ship that is
inilially listed.
L_ 7. Calcriate the weights to load each side of lhe centre line to ensu€ that the ship completes
upngm.
L lheeffectoffreesurfaceonlist.
Understands
t
L
i
I
t
I
t
L
Cl^ss 2v1STABILITYSECTIoi.J11usl 89
L
1I.I CALCULATINGLIST CAUSEDBY A TRANSVERSESHIFT OF WEIGHT{THE LIST
TRIANGLE)
Fiq.11.1
G movesotr the cenlre line to Gr and the ship lists ove(
comingto rest wjth the centre of buoyancy,B, vertically
belo / the centreof gravity,nowq{.
The distancethat G nrovesoff the cenlre line, GGH,is
calculatedusingthe fomula:
where:'w'is theweightshifred;
d' is the distance through which the weight is
shiffed,andi
'lf is the displacernent
of the ship {whichincludes Fiq.11.2
theweight).
fiangle GGHM is the /,:st(termed0).
Theangleat the metace re in the rightangled
Tan0!e = Qee = @,,
ADJ GI\4
Therefore: Tan oLEr=!:!f{
Gtl
Forthe aboveformufato be validfho /isf l,ust be restbted to a $dl angle,i.e. lhe o,?
initiatransversemetacentreisassunredtobeinalixedDosilionwithinsma
anglesof indination
only
FA. 11.3
ExartDle1
A shipinitiallyuprightdisplaces12000t and hasKG 6.7m and KM 7.3m.A weightof 60 t alrcady
on boad is shifted14m horizonkllyacrossthe deck.Calculatethe resultingangleof list.
Solution
KM 7.3m G G H = t t ,x, d GGH=60x14 =0.070m
KG 6.7m w 12000
GM 0.6n
Tan06,= 9G)' glZP = 0.11667 List = 6.V
GM 0.600
L Fig.11.4
Theprocedurefor calcdatinglhe resultantlisl is as follows:
t 1. GGvusing:GG/=W!d
Calculale
w
'd'being the vertrca,dislance through which the weight is shifted.
L
2. Apply GGvto fie ship's initial KG to find the fnal KG.
3 Calculatethe fnal GM usirE:GM = KM  KG
Caldiaie GGBusing: Gq. = W!
L 4.
W
'd beingthe hohzontal distancethro'lgh which the weight is shifted.
5. Usingtheformuia' t a*. = calculatethe list.
L_ &,"^,
ExamDle2
, n snA inAW u\gh hasa disptacement of 12200t, KG 6.36m and KM 7.62n. A webht of 40 t
' is in the lowerholdin a posilpnKg 2.20m. 4.00m lo ponof the cente line.
Catculatethe fnal tist if the tteight is shiftedto a new positionon deck, Kg 114 m, 26 h to
staftoad of tho @ntreline.
Solution
1 GGv=yJ{ = 40 x (114  2.2) =0030m
w 12mo
2. lnitialKc 6.360m
Gcv(upl OOmm
FinalKG 6.390m
3. KM 7.620m
FinalKG 6.390m
L_ FinalGM 1.2Wm
List= Le Stbd
L
ct ss 271staBtftTY sEcTtoN11Lbt 91
1,I3 CALCULATINGTHE UST DUE TO A SINGLEWEIGHTBEING LOADEDOR
DISCHARGED
Follow Exampbs 3 and 4, one for a weght being loaded, the other for a weight baing discharyed.ft
may help your unde6tanding of the wo*ing if you do a sketch for each case
Exampla 3
A ship initially upight displacEs6400 t and has KG 4.6 m and KM 6.5 m. A weight of 80 t is loaded
on deck at Kg 10.2 m, 6.2 m off the centre line to staftoatd. Calculate the final list. Assunle RM
Solrtrc',
cG, = y:_! GGv= @JJ1qz:tlA= 0.06en
W+w U00 + e'0
lnitialKG 4.600m KM 6.500n
GGv(ud 0.M9m FinalKG 4.669n
FinalKG 4.669m FinalGM 1.831m
L ExanoleI
A shipinitiay wightdi laces144fotandhasaKG8.82nad KM 10.96n.Aweightd240tb
fom a positidl in the lowet hold Kg 3.6 m, 2.8 m f the centr€ line to pof.
dischaq@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@cd Calc'iate
t_ GG"= !yl_d_
Ww
GGH=21Or2.8
1'U8024O
= 0.047m
L TangLtst= 99s
GMaw
= 9U = 0.02290
2052
list = t'3'slbd
L
I
L
L
L
l__
L
L
L
L
L ' S€CiO 11LiBl
ctAss 21 STABILITY 93
L.
11.,1
sHlmNG A WEIGHT
ALREADY
ONBOARDTOBRINGA USTEoSHIPUPRIGHT
Reanangingthis gives:
(GGts' V!) reprcsents the lisling moments that the ship inilally has.
(w t d) representsthe n.o,I:tentsrcquhed to equal (GGB , W if the ship is to
completeupnghL
Fi9.11.6
Example5
A shiphas a displacementof 12000t and is initialy listed2' to staftoad. ffthe KG dthe shipis
11.60m and the KMis 12.00m, how muchballastwatermuslbe transleredftoma sta'iloa'd side
balasttad<to a pod 6ideballasttankthtougha dislanceot 16.00m?
Solution
Toatunpleteupright: PortMoments= Starboardmoments
KM 12.00m
KG 11.60m
GM 0.40m
ran gus= 9.9,\ Tan2' = 9.9n
GM 0.40
0.014t12000=u/\16.00
168= 16w
w = 1O.5tonnesb uansfer
fn praclice list problems are solved by taking ''on'ents about the keel to determinefinal KG and
then final GM; and then taking noments abod the cenlre /ire to determine Gqr.
L_ '1. Take moments about the keel to deternine lhe final KG:
FinatKG=qu[9189@ob3!99!_t99!l!q]
(t)
FinalDisplacement
L
2. Calcllatehe frnalGM: GM=KlVKG
3. Take moments about lhe cenlre line to calc1llatethe final dislance that G is off lhe centre
line,GG: GGH= Sum of momentsaboutcentreline (!m )
(t)
FinalDisplacement
l
Load:3O0t atKg0.60m,6.1 mtoNtlof CL;
250t at Kg 6.10m, 7.6n to slbdof CL;
Disch: 50 t fton Kg 1.20m, 4.6m to ponof CL;
500t ton Kg 12.60m, 4.6m to slbdof CL.
tule he fnd 6,ub cfli* m @npld*n d @gof AEKMttxtE fnd Mersn b g.firn.
1_
S<lutbn
aboutthekeelto determinethe final RGand GM.
Taken:F,nments
30m
2g 6.10
I
500
lrta 56145.00
CLASS2yISTABImY SECTTOiI11Lbl 95
I
1I.6  SHIPINITI,ALLY
iIUL'IIPLE WEIGHTPROBLETIS LISTED
where GGx is the inilial listing lever to be incorpo€ted into the momenb table for
the ship.Considerthefollowingexample.
FU.11.7
Example7
A shh hasa displacement of 15000t, KG 8.6n, KM 9.4andis listed6" to slaftoarc.
Cargois wo*ed as folltcws:
Load 150t at Kg 7.6n, 5.0m to pottof CL:
Load305t at Kg 8.0m, on theCL;
Load95 t at Kg 8.0 m, 4.2 m to stehoardof CL.
t555ll 1333ro.0
GGH=NetlbtinamomenE=@= 0.058m
Finalclispla@ment15550
Final,lst.1.0 Snrd.
ct ss 2/1srABtltw, sEcTroN11t6r 96
,I,I.7 LOADINGWEIGHTSABOUTTHE CENTRELINETO COMPLETEUPRIGHT
L
A commonqueslionariseswherethe ship is nearcompletionof loadingand the remainingcargo
I has to be distnbuted between two compartrnentsthat are either side of lhe centre line in $rch a
way that the ship completesupright.
L ExampleI (Method 1)
From the following details cahulate the final GM and the amount of cargo to bad in each spaceso
that the ship wil canpleE loading upnght
I
lnitial disphcenent 18000t, KG 8.80 n, KM 9.40 n and listed 3' to stuhoard
400 tonnesof cargp remainsto be loaded wherc spaceis available in a tween de* Kg 10 5 n, 7 0
m to potl of CL and 10.0n to sktboard of CL.
L_ (Assume KM remains constant).
Solutbn
L Calculate initial GM.
KM 9.400
L lnitialcM 0.600
Gc+using:GGB=TangusrxGM
Calculate
L
GGH=Tan3',0.6(n=0.031m.
L Take momentsaboutthe keelto dotetminethe frnalKG and GM ( tre hat all 40Ot ot ca.go is
loadedat Kg 10.5m so treatas a singleweight!).
I WEIGHTlt OMENTS(t{l
400 4200 0
6.at t62000.0
L Takitgfironentsaboutthe cente line loada 400t in theport side.
L
L
L
tf all4OOt wee loadedintothepon side spacethe shipwoud completewitlt an excossol 2242t'
m momentsto pott. Thereforesome of this 400 t must notAlbe shiftedto the spaceon the
L stah@rd sidek disknceoi 17.0m).
2242=w xd
L 2242=w x (7.0+ 10.0)
2242= 17w
w = 2242= 131.9 t to shiftlrcmportb saftoad
L 17
clAss 2/1sTABlllTY sEcTloN11Lisi 97
L
To complete uprbht:
Load 400.0
131.9
268.1 t pott Load 131.9 t S'a'hoard
Solution (Method 2)
Calculate initial GM.
KM 9.4t)0
lnitial KG 8.gn
lnitial GM 0.600
[*_l".*l
159___.1_s!z.l
l8{,tt lt3l r626{0.0 t9!___r$!!l
TakingmomenEaboutthe centrcline: Lett = catgo to load to potl; (4OO x) = cargo to hnd to
starboard.
Tocompleteuprilht
Pott momdlts mustequalslarboardmoments.
Tharefore: 7x=SS8+(4000_10x)
7x=558+40(n10x
7x+lU=558+4000
17x= 4558
x = 4!99
17
x = 268.1tb porl
400 268.1= 131.9ttu s',tuoa'd
 sEcTtoN11Lrsr
cl,ass 2/1sTABtftTY 9A
l
L EFFECT
1I.8 LISTANDFREESURFACE
figure17.8.
Consider
Listwith no free Bude
The basiclist tiangle is Gqrtul. Glvlis the sorrdmelacentdc
height,the G[.4thatwouldexistif the shiphad no slacktanks. List*ilh fiee surfac€s
I
GG, is the distancethat G is off the centreline.
cG, is the virtualriseof G dueto tankfiee surfaces.SinceGM is
I reducedto G/M(tlE Frutd Git) it can be s€enthat the angleof
tist has increasedior the samedislancethat G is off the cenfe
line(GClr).
I
fhe gteatertt?€hee surtace mon'FJnblfreesurtadedtect; ahe
gEater wi b the tist for tle samelisflng moma'n's.
L ExamDleI
A ship displaces13200t, KG 10.2 m and is initialy uptight.
BallastwaterRD 1.025is run into a reclangularDB tank length
I 24 m, bteadth 10 m to a saunditvof 4.00 m. ff the Kg of the Fig. 11.8
batlaslwateris 2.00m and it's transvercecentreof gravttyOCG)
is 5OOm to starboarc!of the cenle linecalculatethelinalangleof list:
(a) assumingno Ireesuface moments;
(b) accountingfor frce suface moments.
AssumeKMfor thefinaldisplacement is 11.U m.
I
Solution
massof ballastwaterleaded= 24 x 10 x 4 x 1 O25= 984t
l
(a) (assumingno FSM'S)
L
l [*'*"l
l!G____pq2.!l
E!lllggJ
the keelto determinefrnalKG and GM,
L aboutthecenlrelinecalcul€te
Takingmoments GG!.
t*
L
GGH= Netlisfna monents= 44 = 0.347n
Finaldisplacement 14184
L_
Calculatethelinal list
Tane"st=99j! =99 =017272
: GMM 2.009
11141 134658.0
When calcllating list fr€e surface effects should always be accounled for, as they will always
causean ,rderse in lhe lisl of the ship!
Example 10
A shipdisplacingn90 t KG 7.57tn, KM 8.12 m is tualjv Wight. A doubb b€ftotntank of recang.lar
crosssec6o.r,:5dn ded irao lwo equal pans,each 16 n lorc, 6.9 n wide and 1.6 n deep.
ln the upohl condkionthe poft side is ful of diesel oil (RD 0.88) and the staftoard side is empty.
Calculatethe res! itu at8le of list whenhat d Alisoil E tnnsbned to the sb,,boad side ofthe tank.
Sol/,lkn
Assume that the bottom of the double
bottom tank is at the keel.
Takingmoments about the keel calculate the frnalKG and hence frnel GM.
770SO
7790,0 7.061 5!)679,tr
of 69m.
Oil is trcnsfenedto slaftoad thtougha alistance
GGH=tyxd = 1LZ_z_43= 0.069n
w 7790
Calcuhtethe ftnallist.
I
12.I TERTIS RELATING TO SHIPLENGTH
Thetollo\ringiems relalinglo shiplengthshouldbe understood
121.1 FonYetdPerpendicular(FP)
This is the verticallineot referencethal intersectslh€ SummerLoadwalerlineat the forwardedge
of the slemwhenlhe shipis on an evenkeel.
ConsidetFigute12.1.
c
F4.12.1
L_ MARKSANDREADING
12.2 DRAUGHT THEDRAUGHT
Soruf,o'l 2
I (a) 2.80m 3.0
(b) zfi m
(c) Awroxinately 2.37m
(d) Apptoximately1.82m
L
2.O
ldeallythe draughtsshouldbe read on bolh sidesof the ship and
L lhe mean draught foMard and the mean draught afr determined.
For obvious reasons this is rarely done so before the draughts are
read the ship should be brought to the uprighl condilion to
L_ eliminateerrors.
Fig. 12.4
At the outset il was staled hat the draught marks should be in line with the foMard and after
I oerDendidiars but this will never be so. At the afler end the cuNafure of the slem may make the
L
draught marks diffidit 10 see. At the foMard perpendicular lhere is nothing to mark lhem on!
Therefore it is usual lo set them a suitable distance forward and aff cf the respective
peDendicularswhereby the readingsobtained will have to be conected to the perpendiculars.
I
t_
Ct tSS 2:/1STABIUTY SECIION12 Intoduclt'n to tim 103
L
'12.3 TRM
Tim is the alifferen@in centimetres or metres belwegn the foNatd atfr aft dmughts, as neasured
at he fotu/ard and aft DerDendiculars
Consider the ship shown in Frgruret25 with draughts Fwd. 2.20 m and Aft 2.68 m.
F4.12.5
Fil. 126
L Soi./f,on
Calculatethe initial tim:
Aft 6.2Nm
M 6.0(nm
lnitialtrim qrylbythestem
1 Calculatethe finaltim:
i. Afl 6.1mm
F,rd 6.080n
l Finaltin QlggLby the stem
Calculatethe changeof t im (COn:
lnitialtim 0.200m by the s'€m
L Findt im
COT
0.U0 m bv the stem
0.160m bvthe HEAD
I soar,i'
c.t u^t" tn" nnial tim:
Aft 4.U0 m
I M 5.000m
lnitialtim qSoQIbythehead
I Calculatethe tinaltrim:
L_ Aft 4.9ffim
Ptrd 4.680m
Finaltrim L2@! bYthe stem
Calculatethe changeol him (COn:
lnitialtim 0.360m by the head
Finaltim 0.280m bv the ste/n
COT 0.640m bv the STERN
I fhe shlp, iniliatly trid ned W lhe heed, comple.€s tlimmed bythe s'om
L
L '105
CTASSZl SIAaUTY SECrn l2 InLodudis totin
L
Let us considermore closelywhat happens
when a weightis shifredlongitudinally.The
ship shownis on an evenkeelwith a weight
on deck.
'G' is the longitudinalcentre of gravi9
(LcG).
8' is the longitudinalcenfe of buoyancy
(LCB).
GGj = q:_d
:
Fig.12.7
Fig.128
ML is lhe longifudinal metacente, GML heirg
lhe longitudinalnetacentric height.
Fiq.12.9
!_ Sohnion
Calculatethe initialtrim:
Aft 6.200m
tud 6.m0 m
lnitialttim 0.200m by the stem
Cabulatethe finaltrim:
Aft 6.120m
F$d 6.080m
Findtrim glEgAbythestem
Examole3
1 A shipffoatsat dnughts Fwd 5.000m and Aft 4.U0 m. A weo is then shiftedaft. The frnal
L draughtsare Fwd4.680m andAft 4.960m.
Itttat changeof tim hasoccured?
I so/utkn
L;atcuE
te me nuEt mm:
Aft 4.640n
FN Z@!
Inilialtim 0.3N m bythe head
L
L ctasszl sTABlLlw sEcTloN 12 lnlr.dudion lo tim '105
L
Let us considerfiore dosely whal happens
when a webht is shned longitudinally.The
shipshownis on an evenkeel$,ilha u/eight
on oecK.
'G' is the longiludinalcenlre of gravity
(LcG).
9' is the longitudimlcentre of buoyancl
(LCB).
GGt = !]_d
Fig.12.7
t ?
Fig.12.8
ML is lhe longitudinal metacente, GML beirg
lhe longitudinalmetacentricheight.
Fig.12.9
wherethe tnmmingmomenlis: wr d
:_
'w'beingtheweightshifbd,and
i d'being lhe disiancethroughwtrichthe w€ightis shifredlongitudanally.
l
L
I
t_
ln praclice the MCTC value will ah/vaysbe tound br the draught in questionin the ship's
hydrostaticparticulars. Ho\,ever,in examinalions
il mav haveto be calculaledand the fomula for
caldlating MCTCis:
Hcrc =!Llti![
IOOLBP
'yl/ is the ship'sdisplacement;
'Gltr'is the longitudinalmetacentric
height,&;
'laP'is the lengthbetweenperpendiculars.
Fiq.12.10
G will moveaff to G' (parallello and in the same
direction as the shifi of ihe weight)
t
Ftg 1 2 . 1 1
:t
G and B becomehodzontally separatedcrealing
a trimminglever.This causesthe ship1otrim by
the stem unlil B attainsa new positionverlically
belo\uthe new longitudinalcenlreof graviiy,G
(Figure12.12).
Ir
Fiq.12.12
clAss 2?1STABLTY, SECTION12 lnoducrd to rim 108
GGr fi! is a right angled lriangle lvherei
lllen: tan 0 = gj
W x cill
Nso,itrFigurc12.13. Tano=fE!.(m)
[aP (m]
Fb.12.13
Since:
l
L
cfAss 2/1 STABILITYsEcToN 12 rhrr.drrion lo tim 109
CE].ITREOF FLOTATION(LCFor F}
12.7 LONG]TUDINAL
E
L
ln lhiscase: Fiq.12.17
Aff draught,'lacreases;
FoNard drawht dodeases.
COT (cms)=w x d t
MCTC. F4t.12.18
The change of trim has to be shared
between the foNard and afl draughts
where:
'7a' is changein draughtafr due lo tdm,
and; {
'Ir" is the changein draughtfoMarddue to
Fig.12.19
lnm.
Considerthe folloM/ing
example.
Examole5
A shiptloats at draLghtsF 6.50 m and A 6.80 n. Determinethe final draughEif 25 tonnesis
moved45 n fovad giventhatMCTCis 112.5tn and the LCFis amidships.
Sohnion
calcutate
thechangeof tim (COT) coT=etxd =25r45 = 10cmsby the@@
MCTC 112.5
Ta = 0.050m Tf = +0.050m
Calculatethefinaldraughb
L
128.2 Ship with LCF not ani.tshlps
Consideraship with a weighton deck.The
LCF is aft of amidships.
Therefore: Tf = coT
f LBP
thisgives:
Reananging rr=l. r COT and it followsthat: fa r COT
LBP LBP
Examole6
A shiphas initialdraughtsF 10.25m andA 10.15m. A weighlof 95 tonnesis movedaft througha
distanceof 42 m. Calculatethe final dtaughtsgiven that LBP is 10Om, LCF is 48 m foap and
MCTCis 285tn.
Solutf,n
eiiffate thecnmgeof Mn (CO, COT=t4xd = 95]42 =l4cmsbytheg@D
MCTC 285
Appottionthe COTaccordingto theLCF positon
T a = 4 8t 1 4 = 6 . 7c m s T f = 5 2x 1 4 = 7 3 c m s
100 100
(Altematively:
Tf=COTTa; Tf= 14.0 6.7= 7.3cns)
Caltulatehe finaldraughts
lnitialdraughts F 10.250 A 10.150
Trin 0.073 + 0.067
FNAL F 10.177
n AJq2JZq
crrdss ,/1 sTAa[rY  sEcIloN 12 lntDdudi( 1olrim 112
L 12,9 THEEFFECT ANODISCHARGING
OF LOADING WEIGHTS
Thefollowingprocedureshouldbefollowedwhen,oad,'ng a weight:
1. Loadthe weighlal the LCFposilionandcalculatethe sinkageusingthe TPCvaluegiven
(ff a weightii toadedat theLCF the shipwil sinkunifomly,thercwillbe no changeof tim!)
2. Calculatelhe COTby movingthe weightf.omthe LCFpositonto its actualloadedposilion.
3. FindTalTfby apportioning the COTac{ordingto the positionof the LCF.
4. Applyboththe sinkageandTalTfto the initialdraughlslo determinethe finaldraughts.
Considerthe followingexample.
Example7
A ship1OOm in lenglhfloatsat d@ughtsF 7.0Om andA 6.80m. CalculatethefrnaldraryhE if 150
t is loaded20 n {oapgiventhat TPCis 15and MCTCis 150trn andLCFis 45 m foap.
t
i
So/urbn
Calculatethe sinkage Sthkage= s = 150 = 10c/ns=0.100m
15
('d' is the distan e that the weight is loaded fron the LCF)
L Calculatethefrnd drcughE
L
The same procedureapplies when d,schary,inga weight:
1 Dischargethe weighl from lhe LCF position and calculate the dse of the ship using the TPC
value gNen.
2. Calcriate the COT by consideringte effect of moving the weight from its original position
to the LcF.
3. Find Ta/Tf by apporlioningthe COT according to the position of the LCF.
4. Apply bolh the rise and TalTf to the initial draughts to determineth€ fnal draugtrts.
Examole 8
A with LBP 160m floats at dmughE F 3.22 m and A 3.10 m. Calculate the finol draqhE i208 t is
discharyed fiom a positbn 118m foap givffi that TPC E 32, MCTC is 306 tan and LCF is 88 m
foap.
liiil€
t ? :
f
Fig.12.24
Solutkm
Calculate the dse
CdculatethefinaldnughE
Problems involving multipleweighls require a tabular 4proach to be ad)pled where moments ate
taken aboutthe LCF.
Example 9
A ship 120 m in bngth floats at darehts F 6.24 m and A 6.36 n. LCF is g n toap, Trc 14.2and
MCTC 116tn.
Calculatethefrnaldraughls.
Solution
In cotumn (1) the weights loaded and clischargedarc summed to find the net weight baded or
discharyed.
ln column (2) the weights are listei as Fnsitivevalues, rcgardless of whether the weight is being
loaded or discharyed.
ln column (3) the ddance that each we@t is loaded or discharged from the LCF is listed.
Timming nmonments are calctlated (Colunn 2 being multidkld by cdumn 3) and entercd in colunn
(4) or (5) depending on whether they ate head or stem mom,ents.
(lt is here that mistakes are commonly made whereby the monents are often applied the wrong
L Ta= yr 19.3=8.7cms=0.087m
1m
L
Calcalatethefinald@ljglhb
Th6re are fiEny different typ€s of queslions that might be asked. Most probletns arg
straightb&ard providedthat you understandthe intormaiionbeinggivenand can recognis€lhe
formulato whichit belongs.
The nen few subseclions deal with frequondyasked questions that are not quite as
as thoseso far encounterEd.
slraightforward
ll will be ussfulif you keepa copyof the lormulaecommonlyusedin this sectionin front of you:
Theseare:
(cms) = !
Sinkage/Rise
TPC
COT(cms)=w i d = Trimmino
moment
MCTC MCTC
ta= a x u(Jt
LTP
Tf=COTTa
Sorl,fion
Cald.latetheinitid trim
A 5.46
F 4 @
lnitialtrim q@m by the stem
148
L
L
t_
L
t_
L_ '117
ct^sszl sTABluTY SECTOul2 Intldu.lim to tim
L
12.12 WEIGHT
TO LOADTOBRIT{G
A SHIPTOAN EVENKEEL
lhe following
Consider example.
Example11
(a) A shb f,oatswithdraughtsF 6.32m A 7.42m. Howmuch ballastwatermuslbe takenmto
a foNard tank (kg 168n foap)in orderto britrgthe shipto an ewn keel.
LBP 184 n, TPC33,MCTC260tn and LCF92m foap.
(b) Calculatethe finaldaughts
Solution
(a) Calculalethe initialhm
A 7.42
F 532
lnitialtim XlPm by the stem
Cabulatethechangeof tim requhed
lnitialtin 1.10m by the stem
Reauircdtim 0.00m evenkeel
= 110 cms
9g@.U@______JJ.p_s_!yJtgt!E4p
COT(cms)=y371 110=wx(lN92)
MCTC 2@
Cabulatethe sinkage
(cms)= llL Sinkage
Sinkage = 3763 =11.4cms=0.114m
TPC 33
fhe changedtrim requiredis hown to be 110cmsby theEAIL
_ Considerthe follolrringexample.
Example 12
(a) A ship has to ctoss a bar where the maximum depth of water is 9.5 m. The present
dmLghts arc F 7.55 m A 9.00 n. Mat is the minimum amount of ballast to transfer fowatd
through a clistanceol 62 m in ofuer to cross the bar with an underkeel cleannce of 0.80 m.
LBP 136 n, MCTC 248 trn and LCF 65.6 n foap.
; (b) Calculate the final draughts.
544!eL
(a) Waterdepth avallable 9.5o
deannce eqwed 0.80
Max. draughtalowed 8.70
DeenestdftMhthftl 9.4)
Reductionrequiredaft 9&= 30 cns
t_ thaCoTrequited
Calcutate Ta=zBpxCOT 30= ' CoT
#3
coT =30x136= 62.2cms
65.6
Cabulatethefnal draughE
lnitial F 7.550 Ag.An
Tim +0.322  0.300
:::::::: F,NAL F7.822m A 8.700m
NgE
Therearemanywaysof questioning
yourknowledge
of trim,theyhavenotall beenmveredin this
Alwaysreadthequestion carefullyandhighlightthose
elemenlsin lhetrimformulaethalaregiven.
Therewill alwaysbe one formulawith only one unknownand this is wfiere you shouldstartthe
problem.A sketchshouldbe drawnwhen necessaryto aid your understanding of what is being
asked,thisis helptulasitwillhelpto preventapplying
moments lhewrongway.Balance yourruler
on yourfrngerand lry to imaginethe seesawsitualionif it helps!Mistakeswill be madebut
practiceis the onlywayto over@melhese.
When the weight is plumbedover the side a largerlhan normallist will also occur and certain
precautions will have to be laken to ensure thal the maximum list is restdcted to an acceptable
limit.
i Leffiing Otteclives
On complelion of this section the leamer will achieve the following:
1 Understandthe effect on KG of liffing a weight using ship s gear.
2. Caldrlate lhe vertical and hotizontal @tnponenls of the movemenl of he ship's centre of
L gravig (G) dudng a lifring operalion and use lhese to delermine lhe maximum angle of list
that will oc{Ur.
3. Calqiate the maximum permissibleKG required prior to loading or discharginga weight to
I ensure thal a certain list limit is nol exceededduring the ope€lion.
4. As (3) but wilh two weights.
L_
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L
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L_ Crr€S 21 STABILIIY SECIol{ 13S6pddedreEhts
L
I3.I EFFECTON KG OF LIFTINGA u,EGHT USING SHIP'S GEAR
FiS. 1
As sooflas the weightis Ined clsarof the tanklop lhe centreof
gravity ot the weight moves verlically up to its pdnl of
suspensionat 9,. This resull's in a coftespondingvertic€l
mvement of G to Crr',causingan ,ncreasein KG.
ccv = g:_g
FU.2
Example 1
A ship has a disdacenent of 10516t, KG 8.20 n and KM 9.0Om. A weight of 86 t in the lower hold,
Kg 3.1On, is h'ftedby the ship'sheavy lift denick, the head ofwhich is 22N n above the keel.
(a) Calculatethe GM when the tEight is suspended.
(b) Calcukte the finalGM wlten the weight is restowed in the lween deck at K9 8.50 m.
Solution
(a) ccv=14'd =99JJ4!9:_34) =0.152n
w 10516
Initial KG 8.2OO m
GGV 0.152n
KG wlien wewt sus@nded 8.352n
KM g.Un n
G, when weight suspended 0.648n
Thisis the minmumGM.luing theliftingoryration.
L 2 the maximumanaleof list that will occu. when the denick or craneis plumbedover the
l_
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L
L
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L
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L  SECTION13 Scpeftted EEms
CLrGS 2?1STABILITY 123
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I3.2 A WEIGHTUSINGSHIP'SUFT GGEAR
LOADING
Fis.13.3
ThemoverneriGG1hastwo components:
GGv:whichcausesan increasein
Kc/decreasein GM.
Fig.13.4
Fig.13.5
 SECTION13 Suspend€dweighis
CLASS2'1 STABILITY 124
I
Fig.13.6
4. Weightlanded in the lower hold.
Note
l The weight is loaded berow the initial centre
of gravity of the ship; so the fnal position of
G, G3,musl be ,or€r KG is reduced overall.
Fig.13.7
Example2
A shipdisplaces8850t, KG 7.15m andKM 7.98m. A weightof 40 t is to be loadedfromthe quay
15.0m to stahoard of the ship'scqte line. ff the headof the denickis 270m abovethe keel
whentoppedto it'smaximumextenlfor theliftingoperation,calculate:
(a) the GMwhenthe weilht rbsuspended;
(b) the maxinumangloof list:
(c) thefmalangleot listif the weightis daced on deckat l<g10.40n, 5.0n off the centrc
I
L_ lineb slaftoad.
(d) the weightof ballastto tansfetbetweentwo doublebottomtanks,999hhaing iE centrcof
gravity4.0 n otr thecentreline,to btingthe shipupright.
(AssumeKMremainsconstant)
t_
solulion(Method1)
I (a) Tocalculatethe GMwhentheweightis suspendod.
L_
Loadthewsightat thederick head.
lnitial KG 7.150m
GG, 0.089m
Maximum KG .239m
KM 7.980m
c$ when weightls suspended 0.741m (Thisis theminimun GM)
(b) Cal late the distancethat G is otr the cente line whenthe weightis suspendedover the
quay(GGJ.
(c) Calculatethe final angle of list when the weight is placed on deck
(Simply load the weight on deck, ignaing flte derick as in a notmal single weight problen.)
Tane usr= 991 fan 0,,", = 0tn22 = 6.62766 Fir'6l list = 1.9 StDd.
GM"*, 0.815
Tr'nsfer 21St
solution(Melhod2l
(a) Tocalculatethe GM whenthe weightis suspended.
Loadthe webhtat thedefii* head.Takemonentsaboutthekeel.
Ke (m)
8850 7.15 63277.5 KM 7 gqn
40 27.W 1080.0 KG 7.239
8890 7.239 64357.5 EH o.711
(c) Calculatethe final atgle of lisl wlEn the weight is placed on aleck
Take mor'nen/sabout tha keel.
l KE(m)
weioht (t)
8450 715 63277 5 KU 7.980
40 10.40 4t6.0 KG 7165
4890 7.165 63693.5 GM 0.815
Ne@
lf a heavylift weight is to be drschafgedthe same principlesapply wherebythe maximumlisl
duringthe operationwill ocorr whenthe weightis suspendedal the derick or sane headandthe
weightis plumbed overtheship'sside.
The key point here is to firstly identify the sifuation during the lifling op€ration that will create the
maximumlist.Drawinga diagramwill help.
Examble3
A ship displacing16200t is uprightand has a
90 t weighton deckat Kg 13.0m, 6.m m b potl
of the cenbe line. This wetJht is to be
dischargedinto a l4lhteron the potl side,14.00
m hom the @ntrcline usingthe shb's heavylifr
denick.f the angleof listis not to exceed8oat
ary tine duing the operation,calculale the
maximumdlowableKG prknto discharyegiven
thatKMis 9.60n.
Sohnion
Ma(mum lst w l occur when the weight is
suspendedat the denickheadandthe denickis
Dlumbedoverthe oortside.
Fig.13.8
GM will have its minimumvalue TanqMAxLts = 991
GM",N
allowedlistis8". GGHis0.044
Maximum m. ThisallowstheminimomGMtobe
Fig.13.9
Tanqw us= 9G1r
GM"',
TanI = 9!4
GM"*
Therefore:GMhN=EEA = 0.313m
Tan8"
3 m is rcquiredwhenthe weightis plumbedoverthe side
A minimumGMof O.31
at Kg 27.0m.
KM 9.ffi0m
MinimumGM 0.313m
MaximumKG 9.287m Fb.1s.l0
L
I co t3m
t
Tlreintial KG nfrr5lnd b. gsder tw 9Zfi, it hrd.let to limllha M b e.
L
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L
L
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L Crass zl sT gllw s€cno{ €  s4.id.dFidr. 1p
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CIr"sS 2/1 STABILITYSrcION 13 Suspsr]d.dmights 130
INTRODUCTION 'Codeon lntacl
The minimumintactstabilitycriteriafor a numberof ship typesis specifiedin lhe
StAbilityfot A Typesof ShipsCovercdby IMO lnstruments' (lMO). This seclioncoversthe
p.oceduresfor veriryingcompliancewith suchcnleriafor a lypicalcargovess€.The intactslabilily
requirements for passengervesselsare also detailed.(The additionalsp€cificrequirementsfor
othershiptyp€sand conditionsof loadingare coveredin latersectbnsas appropdate).using the
sLabililydatabookfor M.y. A/marlhe proceduresfor verifyingcomplianceof a loadedconditionwill
bedemonstrated wjthlhe aid of workedexamples
Le.ming O,l€rtives
On complelionof this sectionthe leamerwill aclfevethefollowing:
1 CalculateareasundercurvesusingSimpsor'sFisf and SecordRu/es.
2. Unde6tandthe tetm DynamicalStabilityandifs relevanceio the area underthe curueof
staticalstability.
3. Understardthe tMO andM.S.(LoadLine)Regulafiorst998 intactstabilitycriteriafor cargo
shipswilh respedto the curveof statrcalstability
4. Verifylhat a shipsloadedconditioncomplieswithrequiredminimumcriteria.
5. Understand the IMO and M.S. (Passetver Ship Constuctio/t:Shipsof ClassesI, Il and
ll(A) Regulati<rls1998)intactstabilityc.iteriafor passengershipswith resp€ctto lhe curve
of staticalstability.
6. Understand the relalionshipbetweenGZ and GMat smallanglesof he€].
7. Understandthe limitationsof usingstalicalstabilitycurvedata as a meansol assessing
shipsliaLilityat sea.
E)Gmple1
A sectidr of steel plate to be used in the
conslructionof a ship'sdeck has ditnetsions
as shown.CalculaEtheareaofthe plate
'''r
to the solulionare shown.
Twoapproaches
Sohnion(1)
Area=1bth,(1A+48+1C)
Arca= 1b t 6.3 rt(i' x s.4)+(4x 4 3)+(1x1s)l
Aea = 2 1, (5.4+ 17.2+ 1.9) Fiq.14.2
Area= 51.15m'
SM Arca=1/3xhtSum
Area=1h' 6.3x 24.s
4 3
Areao 51.'15m'
I
216
,t!.n .a"{
of calcllating the whole area would be lo divide it up inlo lwo, use Simpso.l's frst rule to calculate
both areas 1 and 2 separatelyard then sum them up lo wo* out the lotal
Fig.14.3
A more convenienl way is to consider the Simpson's mullipliers for ttoth of lhe areas concemed.
Simplysum the multipiielsfor the ordinalethal formsthe boundaryof bothshapesand beat the
wholeas a srng/eshape.Thisgivesmultipliersof 14241.
F4 144
ExamDle2
Ii.Tips waer+tanearea hashalfatdinatesftoman to foNard as follows:
OOm. 1.5m. 1.6 m, 1.4 m and 0.0 m. lf the halfodinab arc equanyspacedat 42 m apatt,
calculate:
(a) thetotd water+lanealea;
(b) the TPCif the shipis floatingin saftwater(RD 1.025).
Fig.14.5
Solution
(a) Cahulatethe areaol thehalf wder+lane area
L_ Arca=14xhxSum
l
(b) TPc=WAx p TPC= E:!2, 1.025= O.tU2
I 1N 100
CtAss 2/1 STABIUTY sEcnoN  AsessrE @mpraM ofa ships lo€ded@ndilih *ifl lMo 133
IEE Simpson'sfrrslrule @n be usedwheneverlhere are an odd numberof ordinates;henceit is
oftenrefen€dto as the 'oddodinat1 nte'.
Thus:
Wrth3 ordinatestheSimpsons multipliers are. 141
I4tth5 ordinatesthe Simpson'smlllipli€rsare 't4241
Wrth7 ordinates lh€Srmpsons muhipliers are. 't424241
Wnh9 ordinales lheSimpsoos muhipliers are. 142424241and$or1...
11.13Simpson's seconalrute
Considerthe shapesho$,n:
Example3 14.6
A plate sectiotr has dimensionsas shown. Calculab the area.
Solution
Fiq.14.7
1n" = 3 h x h x g u m
Arca= 3/8x 4.6 x m1
Arc. = 51.92m'
3 3 1
1
:
Fig. 14.8
CLASS2l1 STAAIrY  SECTION14 Assstg mdlro ol, ships load€d@ndilir w{h DIO 1U
Example4
A srnall boat has a half waterplane
area wih equalyspacedhalfodinates
i._
CLASSZ1 STABIUTY SECTION14 AE**rs mplire of a shjps loaded@ldibd ritrl IMO 135
L
I4.2 DYiIAI'ICALSTABIUTY_ THERELEVANCE
OF THEAR€AUNDERTHECURVEOF
STATICALSTABILITY
Fiq.14.10
lt{n{) = DISPLACEIENT
oYNAilcaLSTABILITY {tl x AREAU oER62 CURVE(0'to 0"){m4
'tansverse sbtkal stattlllly'
1L22 The disthcaon betvt€€n 'dynamical stafitity' and
'Trcnsvetse staticd itabihty' is the term used to describe the ability of a ship to retum to the upight
when it has been forqbly heeled by an exlemal fot@ and is momentatily al resl whon floating in
sti rBter
It is calculatedby the fomula:
= AREAUNDERRMcuRvE {f to 0')
DYtlaflcal STABILITY
or (in practice):
Fi1.14.12
DYNAMIGAL STABILITY {t{<) = DISPLACEI{ETT (T)X AREA UNDERGZ CURVE ((r tO O.I (M{)
Thedistinctionbelweenlhe two termsis madeevenclearcrif the curveof stalicalstabilityin fgure
L
L_
'14.13
is considered.
L Fiq.14.13
L
CLrSS 21 STABILITY  SECTION 14  A5s6ing @plEne ot a ship's h6d€d oudilion witl rJlo 137
L
The moment of static€l stability will be the same for when the ship is heeled'work'
to 25' or 53'.
Ho$,ever,the dynamicalstability will obviously be much greater at 53osince more is required
by the extemal forces to heel the ship over to the larger angle of heel.
The €lationship betweenGZ and dFamical stabilit can be furfier apprecjatedif a comparisonof lhe
valuesof GZ and dFantcal statility ale comparcdat differentanglesof hed.
Fil.14.14
NgE
ft mustb€ appreciated that the explanationgivenis onlytruefor a shiplhal is heelec!in stillwater,
is morentaily at rest andis not heeledbeyondthe atEle of progressiveffoodrng.Furthermore, it is
assumedthatthe posilionof lhe centreof gravityof the shipdoesnot rnove,evenwfienheeledto
suchlargeanglesfor whicha GZ drrve is normallyplotted.Cleady,in practice,the sifualionwhen
a shipheelsat seais completely (Seesection14.7).
different!
Chapter 3 of the Code on htacl Stabilitytor A Types of Ships Coverec!by IMO lnstrumenb (IMO)
details the minimum intact slability crileria to be satisfed by all cargo ships lvhen at sea. Similar
requiremenls are slipulated in MSN 1752(M) lhal accompaniesthe M.S. (Load Line) Regulations
t99A beingapplicableto all UK registeredships.
Requirements for other types of vessels are also included in the /MO Code and the MCA
publication Load Lr,es  lnstuclions for the Guidance of SuNeyors'. The various requiremenls in
the above publicafons will be covered as deemed necessary in this and subs€quent seclions
11.3.2 lntact stability crltefia for cargo ships asslgned freeboards under lhe .5. (Load
Line) Regurations 19 (as specified in,ISN 1752(M))
This is as follows:
The design and construction of the ship *aI be such as lo ensure ll,af its sfabiw in aI Vobable
loading conditions shall be sufrcient for the freeboards assigned, and for this putpose due
considefttion shallbe given to the intended sevice of the ship and to the followng cnteda.
" The area under the cuNe of ighting leve6 (GZ cuNe) shall not be less than:
CTASS Z1 STABILITY  SECTION 14 a$€Mg mdi.G ot. ship s loaded cdrd.lid wih IMO 139
(i) 0.055netetadians upto an angleof 30o:
(ii) 0.09neterdians up to an angleof 4e orthe angleat whichtheloweredgeof any
openingsin tre hull, supeGlructuresor decr(houseswhich cannot be closed
weathe'loht,are imnersedif thal angleis less:and
(iii) o.U metreradians belweenthe atvles of heel of 3e and 4e or suchlesserangle
as refeted to in subpaagraph(ii)above.
Thedghtkg hver (GZ) shal be at leasl0.20m at an angleot heel equalto or geabr than
3e.
Themaximumr*jhtinglever shallociur at an angieof heelnot lessthan3e.
Fi9.14.16(M.5. (LoadLine)Regulations1998qiteda)
These requirementsare very similar to those specifiedby lMO. The specifc requirementsfor
imber deckcargoeswherea ship l6s b€enassignedtimbertreeboardswill be coveredin Seclion
27.
ft e lnLlal netecentic heighl ,equitsnent is always a value of GM tlat has been conected
of tlee sufiacesin tanks.
for lhe efr€c/sss5
lor passengershipsand otherspecifrcshipVpes. Someot the
Thereare addilionalrequirements
more @mmon ship typ€ requirementswill be coveredin subsequenlseclionsas necessary.
Passengership requirementsarecovered in seciion'14.5.
'14.4 ASSESSING
COI{PUANCE
OFA SHIP'SLOADEDCOI'DTON
CLASS 2/1 STABILITY SECnON Assshg ffpr.E oia ship s lo€d.d qlditi'n wnh DrO lzlo
11.1.1 checking comdlance when the angle of progresstvefloodi.tg Pl is greater
lhan /te
Example 5
M.V. Alrnar completesbading with a displacementof 26000 tonnes and an etrective KG of 8.86 m.
Produce a cuNe of staticalstability for the loded condition and vetfu that the ship complies with
the minimum IMO intact stabilitycritctia.
Sorrriirn
Enter hvdtostaticclala and obtain value for KM. CalculateetrecllveGM.
G[ FLUID 0.:160
i
UsitlgKN valuescalculatethe valuesof GZbr thel@dedcondlion.
t0 20 30 50 a0
t
154
o.l0 o.27 0.6t o.!0 6.54
L_
L_
L
t_
i
t
I
L_
Fig.14.17
t_ Us,l49Simpsor3 Rules calculate the ateas under the cuNe.
Areae to 3e
t A r e a= 3 x 1 0 x 1 . 7 2 0
l GZ SM
0 000 0.000 I 57.3
10 0.10 3 0 300
Aree= O.173mr
L 20
30
0.27
061
3
!
0810
Arcaeble
sus 1,7m
L
I
CLASS 2/1 STABILITY SECio{14 &$sing omdi.M of a shiCs leded d{ilj@ sifl lilo 141
I
L
GZ ss Arca = 7x1p x4.180 AEe=0.213mr
0 0.00 0.000 3 57.3
10 010 0,100 Arca3,,b4e
20 o27 2 0.go
30 0.61 Tal<e the ditrerence of the two ateas iust
40 040
3UT a,tco Area= 0.243 0.113= 0.130mn
Example6
M.V.Almarcompletesloadingwitha displacemant of 26000tontes and an etrectivoKG of 8.86m.
Prcducea cuve of staticalstabiliy for the loadedconditionand veify that the thip @mplieswith
the minimumIMO intact stabiliu ctiteia giyen tl'dl tl7€ angle of heel aa which p@gressive
f,oodingffi6 praceLs3e,
So/utb,
Enterhydrostaticdataandobtainvaluefor KM. Calculateefuctive GM.
L
L
L
L_
L
L Fig.14.18
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L_
L
L FBJ.14.19
L
L  sEcTloN 14As€shg
CfaSS 21 STABILITY MpliaE ola ships lod dnnbo wih lMo 143
L
slll erea =7.1! \3.590 Aree=0.2)gmr
0 0.00 1 0.000 3 57.3
009 0 360 ,/ea 3e b 3e
1A o.22 2 0_440
2f 0.51 2UO Tal<e the difrercn@ of the two areas just
oT5 0_750
SUI 3.!t90
Area= 0.209 0.113= 0.lxt6mr
oi$ vEg
0.al
dc&
X ,s 360,fhe ,esse. awre of Vogressivo fl@ding being less than 4C.
Ct €S 21 SIABILITY SECnON1. Asss$g omdirre of 3 slrp's l€ded dnns tith llilo 144
14.5 IIINIiIUM INTACT STABILTY CRITERIA FOR PASSENGERSHIPS
L
are summarisedas follows:
Theseaddilionalreouhements
L ' The angle of heel on account of ctowding of passetge/s lo one sde (as detined below)
shottlc!not exceed 1U.
'
L A mass of 75 kg should be assumd for each passengerexcept
that this vafue may be rcduced to not less than 60 kg wherc this can be justified. ln
addition, the mass and disttibution of lhe luggage should be detemined by the
Administtation.
' The height of the cente of g6vi, should be assumedegual to:
L_ (1) 1.0 m above cleck level lor passengersstanding upight. Account may be
taken. if necessary.of camber and sheer of deck:
L '
(2) 4.30 m above the seat in respect ofseatedpassergers.
L
wherc: V = service speed (ffi/s)
L = length of ship at watedine (n)
i__ W = displacemant(t)
KG = height of certrc of gravity above baseline(m)
L !le!e
This formula gives a valt@ of heeling moment in kNr'rr,.The valrc calculated must be
convefted into tonnesmettes and may then be plofted as a heeling am on the cuNe of
ightitv nonents whereby inte6ection of the heelhg moment and righting moment curyes
L wil hdicate the angle of heel due to tuming.
Use of this fotmula will be discussedtully in Section23 (There eists much Lonfuston
between the tems kN and tonnesatfr it is here that these tetms will be explained).
L_
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CLASS zl1 STABILITY  SECTION 14  Assins srlplbr of a ship s b.ded dldrlir ritl IMO 145
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1L5.2 tntact saabiritydltefia tot ttassetger srhs (/V.S. (Passenger Ship ConstucUon:
,, ,, arr.t I(A)) Regulations1998
Sttps of Cl&sses
Theseallemativerequiremenlsapply to UK registeredpasserEerslips and are similarto lhose
lor cargoshipslaid out in section14.3.2and are io be foundin Sdedule 1 of MSN
requirements
1698(M).Thes€areas follows:
(2) Ihe dghtirp bver (GZ) shanbe at leasl 0.20 m at an angle of heel equal to ol
greaterthan3e.
(3) The maximumtighting lever shal occur at an angle of hoel not less than 30
prcvided that this aryle nay be Wmilted to be rcducad,having regad b the
designof a parlicularship
(4) Theinfttd transversenetacentic heightshalltmtbe lessthan0.15m.
q r''ss Zl STAa[rrr ' SffflOtl 14 As*snE ompldE ora ships lo€deddrdabonwilh IMO 146
1. 14.6 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN Gll AllD THE ll'llTlAl SLOPE OF THE CURVE OF
STATICAL STABILTTY
When plotting the GZ curve it is usual to draw a vedical at 57.30(1 radian) from lhe baselineequal
lo the etfective GM value as measured on the GZ sc€le. This allows the construction of a line
emanatingfrom the origin that will indicatethe inilial lrend of lhe GZ orrve wilhin sma// atgles of
heel. The purpose of this is to
L simply aid in the sketchingof
lhe c[rve al small angles of
heel between lhe plotled GZ
L values as dedved ftom the KN
values provided.
(The actualdistinclionbetween fr d
L stabilily at small and large
anglesof heel is discussedin
t_ seclion16.)
L ... lnitialcM
16dian
= Gz ate
0 Edians
L
in ndians = GZat 0o
lnitiel Glt x 0 exDr?.s's€d
.L Considerthe deinitionof lhe term tratsversestatba/stability it Elatesto the abilityoI a shipto
rctum to the uptbht codition when it has be€n torcidy inclined by an ertemal force, is
nronentadtyat rcst and i9floa{ng in sd we&!r.
I
At s€a the ship will be subjectedlo forces and momentsthat are not laken inlo accounl in
c€lculalionslhal assume'stalic condilions.The ship will be activelyrclling,pitchingand heaving
and as such a more relevanldynamicapproac*ris more apprcpriaieto what is essenliallya
L dynamicproblem.The problemthat faces modemship designersis how such a moreaccurate
meansof siabilrtyass€ssment can be acfiieved.
11.7.3 Efrec'solteeUm
This is the effectof the ship changingtrim, usuallyfurtherby the stern,in responseto heelingto
such an agle that the fore and afr dislibulion of buoyancychanges.This is fully discussedin
seclion26 as it is particularlyrelevantto offshoresupplyvessels.
l';;.
(1) Wavec'!st anidships  ahenansterot wedgeot buoyancy shen shtPhaaledis sinila. to thal
,t the stil watercoftI$on as the ship is va skleclzmtclshhs.
(2) At the @ds of the ship (t ough) the tanster ot we.tgeot buoytncy is smalle.than that to. the
sti *atet conclitioncaustrg ova.a outboa.d movemontof B to be rcducecl.
Fig. 14.21
The diagramsin figure 14.21 show that the crest addships do€s not affect lhe amount of
buoyancy transfened across at amidships, but il is reduced at the ends of the ship. A reduced
outward movementof B implies a reduclion in BM value and reduced GZ value When the trough is
amidshipsthe oppositewillb€ t ue.
When the ship is beam on to the waves the ciresulrough influence on the position of B is
insignifcantbut the loss of buoyancyforce in the crestappliesthroughoulthe ship'slength.There
is a significanllossof sliabililydue to this causealone.
11.7.1.1 Paramefictesonance
This is the increasein roll (or apparentloss of stabilily)due 10 the periodicpassageof regular
waves thal causes lhe ship to pitch. lt is parlidlady associated with container ships lhal require
large deck spaces for @nlainer stowage and line lined hulls for fast service speeds. Such ships
have hull forms that feature fine lined bolvs and wide stems in order to maximis€ deck space afl.
This variation between bow and stern hull form is such that it causes a tendency for lhe ship's
pitching motionto induce rolfing a phenomenon known as parametnc resonance.
Ct .sS 21STAAIry SECTION 14 Aisding ompliae ota.hip s lod6d ondilts with IMO 150
L_
where: GGHis the distancelhat G has moved off the centre line as a result of the
fansversemovemenlof wateron deck.and:
0 is the angleof heelfor whichthe lossof GZ is beingconsidered.
(Thederivalionof thisformulais fullydiscussedin section17)
Since GClr= WXd
W
Lossof Gz = EgSSgL@Et&Eg!99_q[E! x cocine0
Displacement
: l
Fig. 14.22
11.7.16 Broachlng
Broaching occurs when a ship is
I
tavelling with the direction of approach
t of lhe waves fom a near aslem
dheclon. lf, when sailing away ftom
I waves the caest of a partidrlarly large
wave overlakes the ship and hits one R&ti'ddrauon dnr,lt 6 ard,lrttrd bssens ,Fsdadce it
quarter (rather than sqrarely onto the tunn4 br.e P;.'t!{l by tiate r'ed an
stem) the ship will tend lo be thrown
round into a direclion in which the
wave is moving. This will bring the ship
beam onlo the sea resulting in severe
heeling.
Sh4oldns leat ot io 'e !ea.
Fiq.14.23
L
CLASS 2]1 STABILIry SECTION 14 Aes6nE mdi.n€ of a shp s b6ded @rldilbn with lLlo
Once beam on to the waves stability is
severely compromised as evident in
figure 14.24. The effecl of waves acfng
beam on to the ship causes reduced
rjghting levers when comparedto lhose
that would have existed had the ship
been heeledto the sarneangle in still
water. Of @urse, the stability of the
ship will always be affec'ted when
waves approach the ship trom any
direclion, being different to the
assumed still water @ndilions for A..*.rrt
e'o.
raa.t
which the curve of stalic€l statility is !*r.bi...!rrrad
ptoouceo, Ifr udart'r*..u.N..
de'it
Fig. 14.24
Syndronism is anolhera problemassociatedwith waves wherebythe Friod of encour er of
\ /avesis similarto the naturalrolt pedodof the ship c€usingthe ship to roll excessivelyevenin
relalivelycalmseas.Theeffectof this is coveredin delailin Seclton25.
1L7.5 Summary
h is dear that a 'dynamic€lapproachshouldb€ adoptedfor determininga ship'sseaworthiness in
termsof stabihty.Invesligalions worldwideare ongoingto find a nore roalisticdynamicapproacfito
stabilityassessmentHowever,the problemto be overcomeis that of lhe mndomnafurein which
the environmentalfor@ssuchas wind and wavesoperale,and beingrandom,makeslhem very
diffcull to predictrealistically!
As technologyadvancesthe use of movenEntsensors'ray becornemorc widely adopted
wherebythe ship'smovementwill be monitoredin all planesof motionand ship accele.ations
will
be monrtoredto producsa more meaningfuldynamicalpictureof the ship's seakeepingand
Suchsystemshave beenin us€ for some25 yearsnow on Dynamically
stabilitycharacterislics.
Positioned(D.P.)vesselswherestationkeepingis achieved by computer@ntrolof mainengines.
thrustersand rudders.Thesesystemsdo nol haveany 'dynamicalstabili9 monitoting'capability,
but I am in no doubtihat suchsystemsare cunentiyunderdevelopmenl.
ct lsszl sIABlLmY SECiON A6*36tlq mprre of. shps lcd€d ondiltm *h IMO '152
l
L_
, questionmighttakethe form:
An examinetion
'Considerthe cuNesof staticalstabilityillustnted.For each statethe conditionot stabllilyof the
shipand identifythe angleof itrclinationthatthe shipwouldbe lyingat, indicatingthe causeof such
I inclinatbn.'
It is of particular importancethat the differencesin the shape of the drrve of statical stability at the
initial angles of heel are appreciatedand understoodfor each condition.
Leaming O}l€cttues
On comdetion of this sec'lionlhe leaher will adieve the following:
1. ldontify the features of the cuNe of siatic€l stability for a ship in a stab/econdition
2. ldentify the features of the drrv€ of statical stability for a ship in a nedral condition.
L 3. ldentifylhe teatures of lhe qrve of stalical stability lor a ship in an unstable condfion.
4. ldenlit the features of the crrrve of static€l slebiliiy for a ship in a ,isted mndition.
5. Knol / the safe proceduresfor conecting an angle of loll and an angle of list
L
:___
L
L
L
L_
 sEcTloN 15 cffs
ctAss ?/1 STABTLiIY or slatiel slabir'lyfd varyng onditims 153
I
15,1 CURVE OF STATICAL STABIL'TY FOR A SHIP IN A STABLE CONDMON
A ship is in a stab/e condition of stability if, when heeled by an exlemal force in still waterlo a small
angle ol inclinalid\ k rctums lo lhs l/pngrt when the odemal force is rdDoved.
Consider a stable ship being progressively heeled from the upright within small angles of
indinatim.
Fiq.15.2
L_
L_
(3)sw t'd'd wdtdFUI  cz bw
ill.6
t:
The c!rve of stalical stability for such a ship is depicted in fgure 15.4 where diagrams ( 1), (2) and
(3) are related io the curve shown.
L
!
L_ g.'
L_
l_
Fis.15.4
L
L
I
L_
L
ctAss 2/1 sIAB[mY  s€clloN 15 cury6 ot stal€l siahlrlyfor varyingondilids 155
L
I5.3 CURVE OF STATICAL STABIUTY FOR A SHIP IN AN UNSTABLECONDITK'N
(ANGLEOF LOLL)
(1) Ship lpright  GZ ls zerc (Ship (2) Ship iDctined b t smatl angle  6Z is
would not ..main uNlght, n wouE neg.aivo (.cting b capstze he shlg)
lol to eians port or 66.boa..t)
FA. 15.6
 sFcTloN 15 cuc
cfAss 2/1 STABILITY d staiicd siabilltyfo. €ryno @ndhohs 156
L
L ,I5.4 CURVEOFSIATICAL STABIL]TYFORA LISTEDSHIP
Whena shipis tisbd the centreof gravityof the ship is off th€ centrelineto porl or slarboardby a
L distanceGG"
Considera listed ship being progressivelyindined fro.n the upright. The initial transverse
metacenfe(M)is ab,oveG so the shipis stablein termsof melacerric height(Gll).
L
L
i (1) shlp uprighl with G ofr c.ntn lin  (2) Ship l'3',  GZ ls nog.tive
I GGs rcp'?s€,r.' . capsizlng lever
(Msetiv. GZ)
L
l
I
L_
L
L
Fig. 15.8
L ll sholld be noted here thal lhe curves tor unstable (loll) and a listed ship wilhin small angles of
heel are similar and must not be confus€d.
L
CLASSzi STABIITY SCTION 15 Cures ot siaU€l slabililyror varyingdditons 157
I
I5.5 PROCEDURES
FORCORRECIING
AN ANGLEOF LOLLAt{DUST 
During the course of a voyago the slability of the ship should be closely mofliio{ed.ll is
recommended lhat a calculalionof ituid GM and a cofiespondingGZ curvebe prcducedlor tle
wotsla bipabd conditior.Calculalionsshouldbe donefo. bothdepartureand anlicipatedanival
conditions,these being adjusled to suit any changesthal may take place as the voyage
progresses.
2. Check that poft and starboad listing momerts arc fhe same.
By verifying tank soundings and checking lbr cargo shift it should be po$sibleto accounl for
any listingrnomentsthat may causethe shiplo be in a listedsituation.lf it is calculatedthat
there are no nel lisling momentslhen a case of instability may be assumed and the ship will
L_ be ling at an angle of loll. Recalculation of the ship's effeclive KG should also be
undertrakento veriry lhe ship's GM.
L 3. Check for slack tanks
In c€rrying out (2) above it should also be evident if there are excessive free sudace
moments c€using a loss of GM suffrcientenough to make the ship unstable. In lhis cas€ a
I
lollsituationmay be confnned
Fig.15.9
L
5. Minimise Frce suiaces
Having sounded all the tanks any that are slack will be idenlified. lrinimise the loss of GM due to
ftee surface effect by topping up low down ballast tanks and lransferring fuel as necessary. This
aclion alone may remedythe sifualion
L_
SECTION15 Cwesof stat€lslatir'ry fdvarying Mditims
cL!.ss 21 STABTLTTY 159
I
Fill brks in oftle, shom flot sitL
Fi!J.15.10
Themovementof G aflercompl€t€lyfillingeachof lhe tanksis as depic'tedin ligure 15.11(ignodng
the upwardrnovementof G whidr arisesas a resultoI the intoducodfree surfaceat intermdiate
stagesof fillingthe tanks).
Fiq.15.11
lf the situationis not remediedthena secondset of tanksmustbe chosenforlilling,lhe processis
reoeated.
M._Once a lol situationis confirrnedonly ever fill one tankat a time. Alwayssl,tl by fi ing the
tow side tankfirsL
Theangleof kil may initiallywo6en becausethe intoducedfrce suhces wheninitialy staiing to
fill the tankmay causea grcater ise of G than the fall ot G aausedby the addedboftomweight.
Hencetheimpotknceof fr ing smal tanksfirst.
lf therc is any doubtas to whetherthe shipis lo ed or li&ed,alwaysinitialy assuneit is a blled
skuationandtakeawropriateaction,monitoingthe sifuationcatef'.tly.
Whenconectinga /ist it is sufficient1oshn a weightto lhe high side.This may be achievedby
shiflingweighlson deck or by transfeningballastfrom a listed side tank to a high side lank.
Ahematively, excessballastFomthe listedside (possiblylowdownin the ship)maybe discharged
ora lowtankonthehighsideshouldbefilled.
L 9E9!9!.@!ESE9EE!A
INTRODUCIlON
I ln previous sections lhe term 'small angles of heel' has been rep€atedlymentioned.gy
co']sideralio.rof the Wall'sidedFotmulatot calcrlatingGZ lhe dislinctionwill be madebetueen
at smallandlargeanglesof heel.
stability
A wallsidedindinationof the shipis onewherethe waterlineon bothsidesof the shipis in contad
withthe vedicalsidesof the shipi.e. the shipis not inclinedbeyondthe angleof heelat whichthe
deck€dge b€comesimmersedor an angleof heel wherethe tum of lhe bilgebecomeseposed
i abovethe walerline,
Leaming Oblecltves
l_ on complslionof this seclionthe leamerwill achievethe following:
'1. Understandthe dislinclion between stability at small and large angles of heel by
consideration of {he lvallsided Fotmula;
2. Calqiato the angleof loll and GMal the angleof loll for a shipthat is unstable;
3. Calcllaieihe angleof lisl causedby a transverseshifl of weightwhenthe GM is zero.
t_
I
I
L
L
ct ss zl sTAa[rY SEcTloN16n€*€[sidedMula 16' I
I
BETWEENSTABIL]TYAT SiIALL AND LARGEANGLESOF HEEL
16.1 THE DISTINCTION
. THEWALL.SIDEOFORiIULA
Fiq.16.1
The lineof acton of buoyancyforceactingupwardsthroughBl
passesthroughthe in fialtansversemekcentre(M)F.x small
anglesof heel(upto about60)it is assumedthat the movemenl
of B to the lowside{ollowsthe arc of a circle,BMbeingthe
radiusof lhe arc knownas lhe metacentnb radius.
B[41
V
RM=(G x Sine0)xDisplacement
This measureof stabilityis refenedto as irrral slabi/ly bec€lse it is relatedto the po€ilionof the
initialtransvercemetacerfrethat is assumedlo be at a frxedpointwithinsmallanglesof heel.
whichis grealorthan the leverGX that wouldhave existedif the uplhrustdue to buoyarrcyhad
I beenappliedat & and pass€dthroughM.
Theformulafor thisnewGZthat appliesfor wallsidedinclinationsonly is:
i c Z = ( c M x S i n e o ) + { % Bx T a n b x S i n e o )
i.e. GZ= GX + xz
where GM and BM are the values for the ship in tle upright condition.
A rnore acruratedefinilio.r of a small angle of heel is one where XZ is a small (or negligible)value
when compared to lhe value of GX (where GX = GM x Sine 6, lhis being the value as calculaled
When using: GZ = GM x Slne 0 it should be roted lhat for a ship that has a large iniial G[4, the
eror in using this formula would remain small up to a larger angle of heel than for a ship having a
smallinitialGM value.
Example 1
A boxglaped vessel has ldlgth 12On, bteadth 18 m and floals on an even keel dnught of 8 0 n
in sak water. KG is 6.4 m. Caldlate the nghhp levet (GZ) whq the vessal is heeled by an
elemal fi)rce to:
h) v:
(h) w.
Solutbn
KM=KB+gM
L_
cr,Ass 21 STABLTY sEc IloN 16r}le Mrrsid€drmur. 103
l
\!@Even withinsnl€Ianglesot heel thercwi be a difuren@in the answars,becau* the v/ater
planearcaof a vesselwil increasein F,ality.The s,na anglefotmda for Gz shouldonlybe used
for anglesof heolW tu about5" or e.
(b) GZ valueat 3e
(The walLsidedfomula mu.stbe ued for thislargeangleof heel)
Example2
A boxshapedvesse/has bryth 116n, bteadth16 m, and de4h 9.8 m and is uptightffoafngon
an ewn koaldaught ol 57m in sallwater.KG is 6.0 m. Cdculatethe momentot sldical stabilily
rvherthe v6sse/,lsheeriedto theargle of deckadgeimmercion.
Sdulkl/'
KM=KB+BM
BMao"=td = 1 1 6x 1 d = 3.743m
12V 12x(116x16 x5.7)
GM = KM KG GM=6.5936.000=0.593n
; 1 . Shipupnghteib nagativ. Gn; 2 Ship s.'tts aocapstzeas a resurl 3. Ship wi settleat angle ol loI
c abov6U. of the negatie G1 B tuB wiahB balowG. GZB zerc
ouattrd.
Fig.16.5
A1lhe anole of loll GZ is zero. The acqrrate lormula for calqrlatnq GZ for wallsided inclinationsis:
IGZ=CFrTEnran'oFsin66l
A tormula for calcrrlalinglhe angle of loll value c€n be derived from this as follows:
Expandingthe above fomula gives:
GZ = (GMx Sine0) + (%BMx Tan'o x Sine6)
At he angle of loll GZ is zero;
O= (GM x Sine0) + (%BMx Tan'ox Sine6)
 (G[4x Sine0) = (%Bl!lx Tan'ox Sine0)
Dividingbolhsidesby Sine0 gives:
 cM = %BM x Tan'o, or  GM = BM x Tan'o
2
'IGU = Tan'o
BM
tn this eqlationthe valuesof GI\, and BMusedare the originaluptightvalues.Becausethe upright
GM is negative,the quantitywithinthe squarerootbecomesposltive.
Example3
ln theupdghtconditiala shiphasKB 4.26m,KG 7.15m andBM 2.U m. CdculaEtheangb d bn.
t_ So/utb,
KM= KB+ BM KM= 4.26+ 2.84= 7.10n
cM=KMKG GM= 7.10 7.15= 0.05n
Tand,^, = f.;Eff lan a ^, = F2 " iA'
IBM
V
lri4
Y
i
Tano,^,= fdiF =0.18765
l 2.u
otott = 10.63"(to p<tt or starboard)(Ans)
L
CTASS 2/1 SIABIIIIY SECTlOil 16 Th€ mllsid€d lmula 165
i
16,2,2 Calculatingthe fretiye G*t at the angle ot lo
lflhe shipis heeledbeyondtheangleof lollrighlingleversbecome posilive to acl lo dghl lhe ship
backto the angleof loll. lt followsthat the ship musthavea@uhed a new Dositive GM for this to
happenas shownin figure16.6.
fig.16.6
This new metacenhic height is the value shown as GM and is given by lhe formula:
Examole4
An uptbht ship displaces12500t atd hasKG 7.84m. 500t is dischargedfom a positionon the
centroline Kg 6.00n. Calculatethe lesuftingangleof ldl giventhat KB is 3.95n and KM is 7.85
m in he finalconditionand the etrediveGMat theangleof lo .
Sohrtkm
Calculatethe KG.
GG"= y,xC = 500xO.u6.00) = 0.077m upwards
12500 ffiO
* , 1I2^cM r* a^,,
r* a^,,  = l2,ooaz =0.18536
BM I "rN
oLoLL= 105lP (b porl ot stuboa'd, ans)
(1)
In the listed conditjonlhe hodzontal componentof GGr is representedby GX (igure 16.8). Had the
ship been heeled by an extemal force lo the sarne angle of h€el, instead of being listed by the
movement of lhe weight, a righting lever GZ would have 6xisted, being the san€ length as GX.
l
I GX=Co60t@H (2)
t_
 sEcTloN 16rlc Mllsited lmua
ct ss 21 STABILITY 167
I
(1)and(2)gives:
formulae
Combining
Gx=gggQxt!:C
w
SinceGZ (forthe shipheeled)= GX (dreho onlalcornponentof GGH),and lhe fomula for GZ at
largeanglesof heelbeingthe wallsidedfotmula;then:
GX= (cM + %BMTan,e)Sine0
wxd=BMTan'0
w 2
RearEngingthe abovegiv6s:
BMrW
Therefore Tan0u5rwHErq,o=
ExamDle5
Calculate the list of a ship d6placing 10000 tonnes when a weight of 20 rcnnes ,s sh,ifed
t.ansvercely thtough 10 m given that BM is 4.80 m, GM is O.0Om.
Sohnion
mr 8r,"r"*r""r=T@
J BMxw
Nole
In any calcrilationthat asks for the list to be cald.rlatedand a former part of lhe calculalion (ies a
GM of exacily zero, then the above formula musl be used.
Example 6
A ship initia y upright has displacement 12500 tonrcq KB 4.2 n, BM 4.6 n and a KG of 8.7 m has
a v'lebht of 50 t slowed on deck on the centte line at Kg 4.00 m. Calcuhte the lisl when the weight
is lifted by the ship's crane, the head of whbh is 29.0 m above the keel, and then swung outboad
10 m hom the centre line.
L
L =0.259@
t_
t_
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L CllSS 21 SIAaffY  S€CnON 16Th r*.tb lbda !0
L
CIASS2'1 STABiUW SECTON16ft€ walfsded roouh
I
INTRODUCTION
The shape and area under the curve of stalical stability is inffuencedby how the ship is loaded; it is
essential that the person(s) responsiblefor loading lhe ship understand each of the faclors thal will
affect its shape, GZ and area values. In this section eacfl of the vadous factors are discussed
separately in detail, but il must be appreciat€d that in praclice the curve will be affected
cumulatively by a number d these factors at any one time when changes in the condition of
loadingoccur.
This section is aimed al lhe leamer increasing his/her Iamiliarity with the curve of stalical stability
so that realisticdedslons c€n be made in order to reclify inadequate stabilily situations.
Leamit g Obj*tives
On completionof this section the leamer will achieve the follo /ing:
1. Understandthe effect of a ctange otKG on the curve of statical siabilily;
2. Understandthe effect of a trarsverse sbrll of tve&ht (/ist) on the curve of static€l stability;
3. Underslandthe efred oI a change of heeboard on the curve of stalical stability;
4. Appreciatethe differencesbelween stabilit of a ship in the light and loaded condrtions;
5. Understandthe iniuence of sh,b's beam on the curve of statical stabilily;
6. Unde6tand the effect of ldm on the curve of statical stability.
Considerligure17.2.
Intriangle
GG,Y Sine0 = QPe = GY
,a; i
HYP Gq Fig.17.2
' G,Y= GGzxSineo
L lf G were ,owered causing ,(G to t€duce then all values of Gz would be ircteas€d. Initial GM
would be increased. lvlostaspects of stabilitywould be improved!
I Example 1
M.V. Almar has a displacementot 230N tonnes and KG 8.34 m
L
Solutictl
dEihydrostatic data with disptacement23ooo tonnes and obtain value for KM. CalculaE
effactiveGM.
(n) Fromthe tuNgs dnvn, the nnge of stabiliy has reducrd fron e b W, b, e b
67 aw@\imady.
(iii) lnitial n@ximumGZ was apryximately 1.48 n at 48. Final taximum GZ is
apprcximately0.97m at 47'.
Fig.17.5
The dghling lever has been reduced from GZ
to Cl]Z as a result of the transverse shiff of
weight.
In triangleGGHX cosine0=ApJ=9X
HYP GGH
.. GX=Gq x Cosineo
Fig.17.6
lf the ship is listed the loss of GZ at any angle of heel can be determinedby:
L_
CL,€S 2/1 STABILITY  SECflON 17 F*loF anedrE GZ dre shap. 175
17.2.3 Efrecton the curve of statical stablllty ol lrst
Forthe purposeof explanaliononly,assumea shiphasa rarge otstabi',{yof 90".
lf G is caused to move off the cenfe line to qr the loss of GZ at any parlicular angle of heel can be
found by:
Loss ot GZ = GG"x Co3ine0
Note
TE IMO atld M.S. (Load Line) Rogtldions intact stability criteria do not sp€cify that the ship must
be upright at all times at sea. ll should be evidenl that list has a detrimental efieci on the slability of
the ship whereby area under the GZ oJrve at the smallesl angles of heel c€n be substantially
reduced; lhis might resutt in the ship being heeled to dangerous angles of heel on the listed side.
'fhe
lntemational Grain Code (/MO) recognises this fact and to minimise the adverse effects of
grain shift it is a requirement that the Master ensures lhal the ship is upright prior to sailing. 1l
should always be bome in mind that in extreme circumstanceslhere may be a potential for cargo
shiff, which may further signmcan{y reduce the stability of an already listed ship.
Cfr.ss Z1 STABTLITYSECTION17 Fsclqs altedingGZ cu@ shape t76
I
l Example2
M.V.Hmar hasa disdacement26000tonnesand KG 8.86m.
L o"a!o
Usingr toss of GZ = 66666GEx Cosine e cabulate the (tunections to apply to the initial GZ values
and hence calculab the final GZ values.
L_
nitialGZ 0 610 o 405 o 347 0 585
L
r'r!r ft!!
*'17.8
AnswaB
(b) (i) Aryoxinde aryb of lisi as a .€s.* olc€r90 shiftis7%'
(ii) Ratl@ot sability lrasrdncd tuto e b g,6,7%'b 67 .Wvhr.f,rf.
(ii) lnl,d naximumGZ ws 0.82n al4g awox@. Fitd ndxinum GZ b 0.n m
at 44oapqoximably.
(c) = 26AA0tunes
Displacaanbd
At 2A hpelinilialGZ = 0.270n
L OFA CHANGE
17.3 EFFECT IN FREEBOARD
t_
L
L
L
Fij.17.1o
L The effect of an increase in freeboard is as follows:
GZ values wilt be incrcasedat angles of heel byond the angle of heel at which deck edge
immersiontal@splace for the smaller lrceboard ship;
L
Dynanical skbility (area under the cue) is inoeased at atules of heel beyond the angie
of heelat which de* edge imnercion takes place.
L Range of sbbility is incrcased.
lf freeboard where to be redu@dlhen GZ values would be similady reduced
L_
CTASS 21 STABILITY SECTION 17 F&ioEaneciing GZ@@ shap€ '179
L
17.4 COIIPARISONOF STABIUTYOF A SHIP IN THE LIGHTAND FULLYLOADED
coNomoNs
tu ,Jtf ElacEffrc o,'gR v
Figwe 17.11 shows the metacentricdiagram
for M.V. Almar. As ile ship is progressively
loaded from the light condition (draugtlt 2.33
m) to lhe summer load condilion (draught
10.20 m) KM decreases (with a slight
increase ocdining for draughts 8.60 m
K =KB+BI,
&BM
3 4 5 6 7 4 9 10
urrugft (m)
'1::'!! E
Fi,.17.11
KB obviouslyincreaseswith draughtwhereasBM rcduces6
explained
below Conside(i,gurc17.12.
L Figure17.'13makesa comparison
of the curvesof slaticalstabilityfor
L_ M.VAlmarin thelightcondition
fully loadedcooditionassuminga
and
constrantvalueof KG (bluecurves).
The red qrve is for a lesservalue
L of KG hat would Drovidea rnore
;il
L Fitr 17 lrl
L
L
L
L
L
r
CLASS 21 STABILITY SECTION 17 FeioFafedjng GZdmshap€ 181
L
17.5 EFFECTOFBEAi'
BB,=y_x_pg'
Fig.17.15
where:v is lhe volumeof the transfenedwedgeof buoyancy;
b4 is th6 distancethroughwhidr the centroidof the transtefiedwedgeof buoyancy
haslravelled.and:
y is the voluaneof disolacement
of lhe vessel.
FO.17.16
;"
Fiq.17.17
The effecl of an increase in beam is as follows
* Initial GM is increased as a rcsunof the increasing BM.
" GZ values will be incrcased initially.
' Dynamical stabilily (arca underthe cuNe) is increased initially.
' Angle at which deck edge immersion takes place is ecluced.
L_ ' Range of stabilitymay indease not decrease. This wil de@nd on the initial freeboard ancl
incrcase in beam for that fteeboatd being considercd. The small'erthe frceboard aN the
IL greater the inqease in the beam. the futther the pduction in he angle of heel at which
deck edge immersion takes place; this may cause rcnge to reduce. It the frcoboatd is
substantial,any noderate incrcase in beam will result in the range of stabilityincreasing.
all of these in order to improve intacl stability. lmprcvements might be required with respect to
L damaged stability, possibly as result of introducedlegislativechanges.
When a major improvement in stability is necessary the ftting of sporso, larks is an option
L consideredfrequently by naval architects.Such tanks are fitted lo increasethe effective beam (and
water dane area) for the renge of operationaldraughts of lhe ship in order to increase BM (and
KM) as already descdbed. In order that sudden stability loss is avoided at larger angles of heel, the
/ower edges of the sponson lanks should be some dislance below the lowest operational waterline.
This ensures lhat the sponson does not @me out of lhe water when the ship is heeled (as the
benefts of their fitiing would immedialely be losl). A design criterion might be to ensure that te
sponson remains immersedwhen the ship is at its minimum design operating draught and rolled to
L at least510P.
Locationof the upper edge of tlle sponsonwill be govemed by whether the sponsons are frttedto
I providean increasein GM or whelher an increasein the range of stability(as well as GM) is required.
Figure 17.18shovvsa sponsonarangement that mighl be fitled to an offshore supportvessel where
tlEre is a need to operaleeqliprnent over the shiCs side or lhe addilionof a deck crane thal must be
t_ operaiedat s€a,wfEreby stabilityproblemsaroseas a resultof suspendedweiohts,
t_
L_
L
L
Sporsons ,tlted to an ofrsho€ suppott vesser. Tne tow6. hnk
in.'eases KM and inttial staunny;he smaller uqpar tttt ircteas€s
L Gz v.lug{;at la.oe! anctlesot heelaN tup'oves tha @qa ot s.ablliv.
Fiq.17.18
L
CLASS2/1 STAAUY SECTION17FeioEsteclins GZ@re shape 183
OFSTERNTRlltl
17.6 EFFECT
For the tdmmed condilion KB is slighty higher bec€us€ of the shape of the underualer volume and
BM is higherbecauseof the jncaeas€d momentof inertia(l) ofthe waterplanearea Consequendy,
KM is increasedand for any givenvalueof KG lhe valles of GI\, and GZ at smallanglesof heel
are ncre€s€d.
The improved initial stability (at small angles of heel) is however more than offs€t againsl the fact
thal the freeboard aff is reduced. When on an even keel and heeled to the angle al which deck
edge immelsion occurs, slrch immeGion occtrs simullaneously all along the length of the ship
(ignoringthe effect of sheer and superstructurethat is considered .eserve buoyancy). lf the ship is
fimmed by the stem and then heeled the afler deck becomes immersedilst (at a smaller angle ol
heel) resultingin reduced GZ values mid range in lhe GZ curve.
Fig 17.20
The erelanaion given so far is somewhatowr simdifred,but might probablysuffice for any
generalqrcstionthat mightbe askedon thistopic.A rnoredetailedexplanationis givenin sedion
26 wherethe effectsof sternirim can seiously affectthe stabilityof offshoresupPlyvesselsand
tugs,wherethe lowafferdeckcharacteristicsof the hullarc a feafureof suchvessels.
7.
Understandhowcompensation
(assumplions withrespectto Kg of the bulkgraincargowithina compartnent).
Understandthe procedurelo checkcomplian@wilh lhe intactslabilityrequhementsof the
Code
L 8. Methodsof improvingstabihtywhenthe minimumlntemationalGrcin Codec{iteriais not
mel.
9. Understandthe mainoptionalstabilityrequirements to be met by shipswithoutDocuments
L of Authorisation
10. Understand
carryingpadialc€rgoesof bulkgrain.
the useof simplifiedstabilitydatarequired for ship'sc€ryingg.ainbuilton or
afrer l't January1994 (on or afrerthe dale lhal the lntematlonalGnin Code cameinlo
L force).
CLASS Zi STABILITY SECION 13 hlerElid.lqmin cod€ (DrO) 185
L
18.1 THEEFFECTOF A SHIFTOF SOLIDBULKCARGOON THE CURVEOF STATICAL
STABILITY
The requirements for safestowageand shipmentof bulk cargo€sare lo be foundin lhe Codeof
SafePnclice fot SolidBulk Caryoes(BCCode).
Whenloadingsolidbrilk cago€s,the cargoshouldbe lrimm€dlevelin eadt comparlmontto limit
tho adverseetfeclsof a shit of the cargoduringlhe voyage.
Theeasewithwhichsucha c€rgowill shaftis dependanton theargle ofr9poseof the cargo
181.1Angle of Repose
Whensolidbulkcargoessuchas grainare loadedthey
are usually pouredinlo the ship's hold. f they are
pouredonto one spot a conicalshapedpile rvill form
which will have a cerlain slope profilo.The attgle of
reposeis the m€ximumslope angle of nonanhesive
(fre€flowing)granularmaterial.lt is lhe anglebetween
a horizontalplane and the cone slope of such a
material. Fig.18.1
l,
'h' must not exced B/10 wherc B ls tha bean ot the 6hlp in
i lmat/,as bul'h' musa novar .xceed 1.5 m. f h cannot be
deteminalt then toading must be canle.t out vith .Wrcved
timmino eoui0ment BC Cocle  Reoultlion 5.2.1.3t.
I Fiq.18.2
I lf the shiffoccursas shown (figure18.3)then the ship will retumto an angleof list and will now roll
aboutthe angleof list.
Subsequentrollingwill rosultin the ship being heeledlo greateranglesof heel on the listedside
t_ that will lead to furlher shiffs of c€rgo and increased angles of list if the angle of repose is
exceeded a furlher lime.
L
t
L
Fig.18.3 Fig.18.4
L
L
L
CI,!"SS 21 STABIUrY SECrON 13 lr'lemtdslqF c.de (lMO) 147
L
Ship .o s 6 incteased .ngles ot hael on tha lislect stcta.r tutrhar ctrgo shtft tz,oa place lhe tist vitl be
increts.d futrhet as shovn below.
Fig.18.5
In section 17 the effecls of these individual components of shifr was described. The original GZ
values will be reduced as a result of both componentsof the shift of the ship's cenfe c, gravity to
give the flnal conditionafrer the shift of cargo has taken place
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L CLASS21 SfAEIUTY SECTION13 kne@krol gEin cod. (lMO) 't69
L
18,2 ASSUIIPTIONS OF THE 'AIIER'{A77OA'TLGRA'N CODE wlTH RESPEGTTO
ANTICIPATEDSHIFTOFGRANCARGO
l_
tG Co<te R.gulrtion
L A 112
Fig.18.10
L
L
L
L lG Co.tc  Ragu/.ai.n. A 23 & B 5 1
L Fiq.18.11
(d) Manybulkcargoeswill settleas lhe voyageprogressesso it is assumedlhat vod spaces
will a/M/aysexist,even in full compartments,so it is anticipaiedthet any cargo will have
L sonE polcntialtoshifrshouldlhe ship h€elGxcessively.
L
L
L
L
L CfASS 2/1 STAAILIY  SECTION 13  lrietrEij@l g6in @de ([tio) 191
L
18.3 GRAINLOADING
INFORiIATION
TO BESUPPUEO
Thisinfomalionsfrallindude:
6.2.1 ship'sparticulars:
6.2.2 light shipdisplacement and KG;
6.2.3 table of liauidfree suface fioments (or I varues)for shrp'starks lo allow a free siace
corecl'on to be calculateal:
6.2.4 capacitiesand centes of g@vitbsof compaftmenE:
6.2.5 cuNeor tableof angleof fl@ding,wtterclessthan4e, at all petmissibledisplacements;
6.2.6 hydroslaticdata curyesor tablessuitauefor the 6nge of opera{nEdnughts;and
6.2.7 ctosscuNeso{ stability(KN cuNes)that arc sufrcientin numberto verify stabilitycriteia
complianceandto irrcludecuNesfor 17 and 4e heel.
ln additionto the above:
The intad stabilityrcquienents that mustbe met throughod the voyagefor any *ip carrying
Win issuedwith sucha docum$t arc detailedin lG Cde  RegLtalbnA 7 bebw:
I 7.11 the angteof heeldue to the shiftof gnin shall nd be gEater than 12, or in the caseof
slrips corstructed on or aftet lt January 199/. the angle at which the deck edge is
immarsed.whicheveris the lesser:
i 7.1.2 in the slatbal stabililydiagtam,tle net or residualatea belweenthe heelingatm cuve and
the ighting arm (GZ) drNe up to the angle of heel of naximum differencebotweenthe
odinatesof lhe two cuves, ot 4U' or lhe angleof flooditE@), wlticheveris the least,shal
in a conditionsof badig be not lessthan0.075neteEdians; and
7.1.3 the inittalmatacenticlEight (GM),after canectionfot the ftee suface effecb of liquiclsin
tank, shallbe not lessthan0.30metrcs.
7.2 Beforeloadhgbttkgrainthe mastershall,if so requied by tha ConfiadingGovemment of
the @unttyof the pl d loaditg, demonstratethe abilityd the shipat a stagesof any
voBge to condy withthe slabililyuiteria requied by this section.
7.3 Afterloading,themastershallen re that tlr€ shipis uptightbeforeproceediryto sea.
with respeclto the curveof stalicalstability.
Figure18.12dotailsthe stabililyrequirements
L
i
Fi9.18.12.
t
 S{CTIONr3  lrrob€r
CLASSZr s]IABTUTY gE n 6d. (rMO) 193
i
I8.5 DERIVATIONOF THE HEELINGARM
cX = loss of rightinglever.
Intriangle
GGHX Cosine0 = AQJ=.9X
FTYP GGH
.. Gx= Gqr x cosineo
ThelntemationalGnin Code(IMO)substitutesthenotationGGHfortheswbol L
Therefore,for the horizontalcomponentof a shiftof grain:
The loss of cZ at e hd = 1a
The loss of GZ at 1(P heel = ^a
whereL and Lo are the valles lhat createthe heelingarm to be plottedon the curveof slalical
(s€efgure '18.12).
stability
fo calculatek
SinceL = GGH and; GGH=wxd itfollows
lhat la=wxd
W W
Sincethe stowagefactorof the graincargois not knownunlil anivalat the loadingportthe aclual
weight of cargo loadedis not known. Consequefllly,lhe weight of the wedgeof grain that is
assumedto shiffis notknowneilher.
i values of VolumetricHeelingMoments
(yHM's) are calculatedfor each hold or
compartrnent designatedfor the caniage
of grain by ihe naval archilectand are
l_ basedon the movementof a volunv of
grain in cubb netes through a
hoizontal distancein mefes asoss lhe
t__ hold. The volume of grain shned is
basedon the assumed15' and 25oshifr
of grain srrface (dependingon whether
L_ a compartneris fullorpartfull).
A straightline is usedto join the two pdr s of the heelingarm {the Codeignoresthe fact that it
t shouldreallybea cosin€Clrve).
i
l,_
I
I
L
I
t_
I
'18.6 COIIPENSATION OFSHIFTOFGRAIN
CO PONEIIT
FORTHEVERTICAL
18.16.
Considerfgure
Fig.18.16
of the ship'seffectiveKG (and GM) it is commonlo use the heightof the
In the calculation
geomehiccentreof the total\olumeof the hold(whichalsotakesaccountof the spacewithinlhe
6atdf coaming).Thiswill lre hqher than the actualf\g ol thecarypiI anyvoldspacesal t1etop of
the grainstoware alsoconsidered.
ff this high* ggomet'lc cenbe Fsition is us€d ten arry adv€'se efuct of lhe veftical
componentof lhe shin ol Win can be ignored
However,if the /esservalueof the Kg of the aclualgraincargois usedfor the calculalionof the
ship'seffecliveKG (andGI\r)thenthe volumetricheelingrnomentsfor that @mpartmentmusl be
increasedby a factoras follows:
l^ a full compatunentlhe VHMs are increased VHM'Sx 1.06 (lG de  RegulationB'1.3)
ln a Dart full comDaftmenllhe VHM'Sare increased VHl,'s x t.l2 (iG Code  RegulationB
1.5)
The reasoningbehindthis is as followsl
Figure18.17(a) showsthe basiclistliangle GGHMwtere: Tanous = Sr
Gll
(a) Basic tist tiangle
lhstara in
F4.18.17
(1) Shiffinga weightupwardscausingG to rise to GJ(this beinglhe lrue effectot the vertical
I
j.._ componentof the shii of grainas depicledin figure 8.17(b)),or;
e\ hcreasingthe lislingmomentsfurher to give a greatervalueof Gq (theeffectis realised
by increasingthe valueof the VHM'Sof the grainto givea greatervalueot 1"d,sinc€:
la = t vHM's
S Fx W
in figure18.17(c))
as depicted
The factors1.06 (for full compartments) and 1.12(for pad full compartnents)are suchthat they
will createan increasein the lisi ot the shipthat is equivalentto the effectof the verticalcoriponent
ot the shii ol the wedgeot grain,shouldlhe grainsurfaceshift as assumedby the code i.e. 15o
and25ofor partfull andfull compartments respeclively.
L In practice il is nomal to use the Kg of lhe hold (the volurnetdc centre of the hold) when the
comparlmentis full and to use the Kg of the actual grain as ot{iainedftom the hold data for
conparlm€nts that are only partially filled. lt is essedtialthal these conection factoF are
t understoodand appliedas appropiatesincevaluablema*s for a questionwill be lost otherwse.
L
Thisaspectof the Codeis widelymisunderstood!
I Under no circumstancesmust the Kg of the grain catgo be increased by these factot  a common
mistakemade by many!
L
L
L
l
L_
L
L
L
L
CLASS 21 S I Aall TY . SaCTION 13  lnle@t .al O€h cdc (rtro) 197
L_
18.7 PROCEDURE TO VERIFYCOMPLAI,ICE OF A SHIP'SLOADEDCONDTTION
WTH
TIINIMUMT,TER,I,T',OA,ALGRT,,I,CODECRITERIA"
Patl B
91 ey carcuUting the GZ vatues for the ships loaded conditbn plot the cuNe of slatical
slabilty and the heeling ann due to gtain shift (using values calculated in Patl A (d)).
0 Vetity that the ship's loaded condition meets the intact stabiltty requiremenE specifredin
lhe IntemationalGnin Code.
Soluton  Part A
A labulat approachis adopled.
(1) Enter the caryo hold data tables with ullage given and obtain values for gnin volume, VCG
t Ullag.
lll
0.0 5010 s.2m 370 1.00 370
2 0.0 5490 4!t5 7.650 341 't.m 341
i
l_ 3 0.0 5350 3!t!4 7.650 371 1.(re 371
5&n 2730 't.t2
3250 7 050 565 '1.12
5640 4176 408 'l_00 4{6
00
l__ 6
z'tft5
7.7Q
* :
Solulkm PaftB
(6) and calculatevahresof GZ (usingthe
ObtainKN valuesfor the ship'sloadeddisplacement
etrectiveKG!).
Heel 10 20 30 40 SJ 80
405
L_ <N
(G'Sin H€€l
165
1.44
331
2.U
4.84
4.'t6
6.2'1
535 7.20 E19
GZ o.21 ol7 o.72 0.66 0.59 0.14
L
(8) Ptotthe cutueot staticalslabilityandheelingarm(frgure18.18).
Fig.18.18
Fromthe cuNe it can be seenthat the angleof heelif gnin shift takesplace as assumedby the
Cdo wi be apryximately e.
(9) Veily 6mplian@ withthe Code
ft is re@mmen<ledthat odinates (GZ values)be taken frcm the curye to allow simpson's
muftiplieEol 14241to be used.
Gz valuesare takenhom the cuNeploftedfor anglesof heel e, 14%",23, and 31%' as shownin
figurc 18.19.Thevaluefor 4e hasalreadybeencalculatedusingthe KN vatueWen
Oncethe areautdor the GZ cuNe has fuen deteminedhelween 60aM 4e) the arca undetthe
tnpeziumboundedby the GZ valueat 60,the heelingatm and )aais thencalculated.Thisis taken
away {rdn the area unalerthe GZ cuNe to give the residualarea value b be comparcdfor
.\
"""1
li
A i
*CL''r
Fig.18.19
L
l'he shlp's loededcondition complles wlth the minimum lnbct statiry of ah. InfunaUonat
G'?in Cde.
In the event that stability calculalions for a proposed loading condition do not meet the stability
requirements of lG Code  Rogulation A 7, altemative stowage arangernents should be
considered. lf this is not successful, other, usually more cosl efective ahemalives te available as
follows:
18.8.1Bauastng
loadlinedraught
andthe shipis not at the respective
lf thereis sufficientreservedeadweight
taking on ballast will be helpful. Double bottom tanks should be flled to eliminate tree surface
effects. The added low weight will increasethe displacem€ntand reduce the KG.
t8.&2 Srucers
14.1 For the pupose of rcducingthe heelingmomenta saucer may be used i1 place of a
bngnudinaldiision in way of a hatch openingMly in a fi ed, timmed, conpattnent as
defrnedin A 2.2, exceptin the caseof linseedand dlEt seedshavingsinilar propefties,
wherca sauer may not be substlutedfor a longitudinaldivision.lt a longitudinaldiision is
of A 10.9.
it shallmeetthe rcauirements
Droviclec!.
14.2 Thedepthof the saucer,n'c'asuedfromthe bdtc,n of the saucetto the deckline, shdl be
14.3 The top (ntouth)of the saucershall be fotmedby the underdecksttucturein way of the
hatdway, i.e. hatch side gitde6 or coamitrysand hatch end beamg The saucerand
hatchwayabove shallbe completelyftled with baggedgnin ot other suiktle cargolaid
down on a separafrcnclothot its equivalentand slowedlightly againsladjacentstructure
so as to havea beaing contactwithsuch sttuctu/eto a dedh equalto or $eater thanone
haf of thedepth specifiedin A 14.2.If hull structue to Wvide suchbearingsulace is not
available,the saucer sha be tixed in positbnby steelwire rope, chain,or double steel
straryingas spcifred in A 17.4and spacednot morethan2.4 m apatt.
154 The saucetshal be ed with b!.tkWin anc!secued at the top exceptthat when usitu
mateial awrovetl undarA 15.3 fufther dunnageshall t)e laid on top afler lawing tha
mateial befoe the sauceris securedby seftingup the lashings.
15.5 lf norc lhan one sheetof materialis used to line the saucerthey shal be binod at the
bottomeiher by sewingu by a doublelap.
15.6 TheW of the saucetshanbe coincidental wilhthe bltom of Ale bedns whentheseare in
placeand suitablegeneralcargoot bulkgrainmay be placedbetweenthe boamson top of
L
fgure 18.21.
Consider
I
L
l
ctass 2y1sTAaLrry sEcroN 13 InleirElimlgBin @d€(lilo) m3
SAUCER SECUREDBY BUNDUNG OF aULK GFlAlt'l (lG Code  Regulation A 15)
ttc(
t'9!!@.349&lb3!tbiz 09ldA9f.'t!!gs
aalwean9.1 m .n 118.3m
Fig.18.21
18.8.1 Ove's.ow ing eriange menE
lf one or more of the grain compartments is parfly flled, the grain heeling momenls tor such
compartmentsis much greater than it is for the filled compartm€nts.The grain heeling momer for
a paaty filled compartnenl can be eliminated, i.e, reduced to zero by sec ring the slack surface
against shifling by overstowing it with bagged grain or with olher cargo which will have the similar
effecl of restrainingthe g€in surface against any movemenl. A rcducfon in the total grain heeling
moment, adieved by this rneans, may be suffcied to bring the proposed stowage anangemenl
within acceptable limits.
This option does not require any special infomation or endorsemeri in lhe Gftin Loading Manual.
The specifc requirementsfor overstowingare given in lG Code  RegulationA 16, as follows:
16.1 Whore bqged grain or other suita e catgo is utilized for the pupose of secuing paftly
frlled Mnpaftment' the free gnin suiace shall be level and shall be covered with a
sepa.ation cloth or equivalent or by a suikble platform. Such pletfom shall consist of
bearcrsspaced not n:&,relhan 1.2 m apatl and 25 mm boardslatCthercon spaced not morc
than 100 mm apai. Platfoms rnay tE construcEd of dher mateials $ovided they are
deemed by the Administrationto be equivalent.
16.2 The plattdn or separatidl cloth shall be toppd otr wik bagged grain MW stowed and
extending to a height ol not less than one sixteenth of the naximum breadth of the fiee
gtain suface or 1.2 m, whicheveris the greaEr,
16.3 The baggedWin slr6' be canied k sourrdbagswhich shdl bewel finedaN *cuely dosed.
The use of lhis option does nol requireany specialinformationor endorsementin lhe 6ra,h
Loadingttanual fhe specificrequirernentsperlaininglo ihe detailsof coistrucion are givenin lG
fue  RegulatonA 'l7, as givenbelo$,:
When,in orderto diminateheelingmomenBin pa y frlled@npaftnens, stapping ot lashingis
utilized,the secudngshallbe accomplished
as bllows:
17.1 Thegnin shal be tifitme.l ancllewlled to the extentthat it is very slighw qowned and
covercdt/t/ithbulap separationcloths,Eryaulinsorthe equivalent.
toat6
?jhrlltObSrd
lLal
:=
* , . . o i r ^ r *\ \ +l l83M.e
\ i ct/tElt I
:
IUtI GIIIIN )t lcN,aJsl t€
Ct6O!vl€.a
lwan !Ec( a
'ATNYruD
TTANVANSE$ICTION
i ' i .t
loarcrluo,
' I
; ' 1 t .. j
\\.\llj
r N^rttD: . r .
Ptt${ vtElY
Fb. 18.22
L The use of this option cloesnot requireany specialinformalionor endorsernentin the Gra,h
LoadingManualfhe so€cificrequirements pertainingto the detailsof construclionare givenin lG
de  Regulation A 18,as giv6nbelow:
L when, in order to eliminategrain heelingmonents in paftly frlled comparlments,strappingor
la$ing is ulilized,the secuing nay, as an af.bmativeto the nEthod des.'ibgd in A 17, be
accomplished as follows:
18.1 Thegrain sha b timmed atfr levelledto the extentthatit is very slighw ctowned along
the fo@aN aft cantrelineof the compaftment,
L 18.2 Theentitesuface ot the gaainshallbe covetedwilhbudapsepafttioncloths,taryEulns,or
the equivalent.ThecgveitE matetialshalllBve a tensilesttengtllof not lessthan 1344N
t_ per5 cm strip.
18.3 Two layercof wirc rcinforcenentn:FJsh sha be laid ot1top of the bulap or olher covering.
Thebottomlayetis to be laid athwartships and the top layeris to be laidlongitudinaly.The
L lengthsot wirc nesh are to b ovedappd at least75 mm. Thetop layerof.nesh ,s to be
positionedoverthe botton layerin slrcha mamer that the squarcsfotmedby the allomato
layesneasure approximately 75 nm x 75 mn. The wirc reinforcenEntmedl is the type
useclin rcinforcedcduete constuction.lt is labicatedof 3 mm diametersteelwitehaving
a brcakingslenglh of not tessthan52 kMcm' weldedin 150mm x 150mm s{t]€'rcs.Wie
meshhavingmill scalemaybe usedbut meshhavingloose,flakingrustmaynot be used.
L 18.4 Theboundaiesof tlp wire nesh, at the pft and statboa'dsideof the comparbnentshall
be retainedby woodplanks150 mmx 50 mm.
18.6 TI1@ hdd4own lash,i"gssha//co,s,st of stee/ wirc rope (19 mm dianeEr or equivalent),
doublesteelstrappit:g(50 mm x 1.3tnm and havinga breakingbad of at least49 kN),or
L chain of equivalentstretvth, each of which shall be sot tight by meansof a 32 mm
tumbuckle.A winchtightener usedin conjunctionwith a loakingatm, mq/ be substituted
for the 32 nm tumbucklewhen st*l staff'ing is used,providedsoitablewronchesare
availabb for seftingup as /tecossary.Wh@nsteelstapping is used,not less than three
L dimp sealsshallbe usedfor secudngtheends.Whenwite ropeis usea!,not lessthanfour
clipsshallbe usedftt foming eyesin the ashngs.
L 18.7 Duing the wyage the holddownlashingsshal be egulady inspectedand set up where
/)ecessary.
L
L CIASS 21 STABIUTY SECTION13 Inlsruttml g€in @de(lilo) m7
L
Figure'18.23
ilbstrates
thes€anangemenb.
Fig. 18.23
A ship withoot a Documentof Authorisationmay cany a partial cargo d bulk grain without
performingall the delailedcalculationsrequiredunderoplion(a) above,by utilisingthe provisions
of lG fue  RegulationA I quotedbelo$'.Authorilyio usethis optionmustbe obtainedfromthe
.1 the totalweightof the bulkgrainshal not exeed one thirdof the deadweightot the
shtp;
4 all free gain sufaces in paftly fiIed carga space shallbe timmed level anc! secured
in accodance with A 16.A 17 or A 18:
.5 throghout the voyage the metacentic height after cotrection for the frce suiace
etrects of liquids in tanks shall be 0.3 m ot that given by the following fomula,
L whicheveris the greater
l wnete:
L = totalnnbined lensthof all full comparnents(me0es)
B = mouldedbreadthof the vessel(netres)
SF = stowagefacto.(cubicmetrespertonne)
crass zl sTABlLlTY' sEcTroN 13 Inramrio.lgmin code(li,lo) 209
Vd = caldiated aveage wid dapthcahulatedin accoadance
with rcgulationB 1
(metes Not6:not millimetres)
a = displacenent(tonnes):anc!
L_ ttsPtacElflft
650 6.. G7t 6.E0 6.gl 7lo 72n t.:tt
5420 5499 517S 4a5a 3255
L
4132 3a34
5359 tu72 ,1209
L
4630 12ffi 39Sg
These tables (or cuNes) are produced by the naval archilect. Pmvidedthat the actual grain heeling
momentsare lesslhen the maximumpermissibleas tabulated,thenthe shipwill meetall the intact
stability criteria specifed in the Code. The values given in the tables are based on the same
essumptionswith respect lo grain movemenl as prcviously discus.sed.
(the term 'displacemenf is simply removedftom the formula for calculaling lhe value of L0).
Fdlow the example that iffuslrates thoir use Noie that the table of maximum permissiblegratn
heel,]agmomenls used is not that for the ship [r.V. Almar, such data was not available for lhe ship
on whici the datiabooklet providedwas based.
Example 2
A ship displaces4200 tomes and l]6'seffective KG 71m m. GEk of SF 1.42 ttf/t is loded as
Solution
A tabular approachis adopted. Calculate lhe aclual weight of gain in each hold and take momenE
about the keel to detennine the final clispkcement and KG.
Calcuktethe actualgrainheelngmonents(AGHM'S)(tm).
AGHM'9(tm)=zVHMb
SF
(c) KG andaclualgrainheelngmomentvalues.
EntertablewithDisplacemenL
'.,r: ' (trl _
taBLEoF l^innrt GR ll fiEgrt*tfolELTs
DISPLACEXE'{t
6.3' 5.6t1 6.70 6.80 6.90
'r.00 7,r0 720 7,9
5491 5614 $34 5062 4745 4509
l2i0
r$40 5891 5639 4622 4113 3459 3605
5457 5214 4T2A 4241
10300 5716 5251
lttoto
5951 5751 55,11 5331 5121
5A2A
(d) To calculate the apprcximate angle of list should assumed grain shift takes place
tnlerDolaton is reoured. The fotmula is
105{to 5944 4716 548/ 5251 5019 4555 4323 ,1090 3854
ltnD
5751 5541 5331 5121 4911 4241
5l)32 1a3 4236
ln Naciice it is sufficientto vetily that the aclual grain heeling momenb are within
accaptablelimits,howevertheapp@ximate angleof Ist hasbeenaskedin examinations
on
pasl occas,brs,
Note
of the Codeat arl
It mustbe emphasis€dthat the ship mustcomplywith the stabilityrequirements
stagesof the voyageand nol just on departure.Complianceshouldbe testedfor the ship'sworst
anticipatedconditionand recheckedas circumslances
dicbte duringthe voyage.
L SECTIOI t9  INCUNINGEXPERIflENT
INTRODUCNON
L_ Chapter2 of the Codeo,nhtact Stabililyfot a Typesof ShipsCovercdby IMO lnslrumenb(lMO),
hereafrerbeingrefered to as the fue, detailsthe informalionthat mustbe p.ovidedb the master
of all shipsin oder that stabilitycalculationsmay be acqJratolyconducledto ensurethe 6hip's
I sale op€ralion.A key elementof lhis infonr€lion is the Inclininglesl Reporlthat detaib the
L_ calculatonprocedureconducledto deteminethe ship'slightKGand displacement.
Leamlrv ftjeclives
IL_ On completionof this seclion,ihe l€amerwill achievethe tollowing:
1. Knowthe stabilaty info.mationtfut mustbe providedfor the master.
2. Understandthe co.reclprocadures tor conduclingan indiningexp€riment.
L_
L_
L
L
L
L
L
I
L_
L
L
l_
t_ CLASS2/1 STABIUTY SECTION19 Indhr\O Erpeh@l 215
L
TOBEPROVIDED
I9.1 STABIUWINFORMATION TOTHEIASTER
as follows:
Therogulationsin Chapter2 of the Codedetailsthe stabilityinformationrequirements
19.21 Purpose
Chapter7 Regulation7.1.'1of the de requiresthal everypassengership regiardless of sizeand
everycargoship of 24 m or over be inclinedon @mpletionin orderto determinethe valueof the
KG in the light condition.thb must be detemined accuratelybec€usetrle light KG and
valuesare the basisfromwhichthe KG is deleminedfor everyolher condilion.An
displacernent
enor in the KG calculatedfor any conditionof loadingwill resuh in all sliabilrtyparam€ters
dependanton this value being incorect also i.e. GM, GZ valles and dynamicalsLability
pararn€ters
will be in enor.
!
In tiangle MGGr: Tane = qeP = @"
ADJ GM
1 In triangleOXY: Tan€ = qPP = &
l_ ADJ OX
I Therefore 998 = xY
L GM OX
Fi1.19.2
so: GGH= Deflectionofthe pendulum
Gl\4 Pendulum length
thisgives:
Rearranging (21
Dofec{ion of the pendulum
class zl STABILITY sEcnoN 19 IndiningE4.nm€nl 217
lormulae(1)and(2)gives:
Combining
W x Deflection
The GM in the inclined condilion will be a talid 6M as it will include the etfecb ot any free liquid
surfacesin slackianks.
Sorutirn
CalculatecM as inclined: GM =wxd x Pendulumlenqth GM = 19_4J24_49!= 1.088n
W x Deflecti<rn Um x 0.142
CalculateKG as inctined:
KG = KM GM; KG = 7.420 1.088= 6.332m&es (Ans)
Example2
A RoRoyesse/,blo be lrclh@dat a displacenenlof 11100t, KM 11.70n. Duing the expeiment
Iiquidin the tanksare as follows:
t Soruton
(a) CalculateGMas idined: GM = yZ!!]j29@4!PJeM GM = 1!Z422129= 2 211n
W xDefredion 11100x0.152
I CabulateKG as inclined:
KG = KM GM; KG= 11.7002.211= 9.189m (A^.)
 110l) 105324
L
i
L__ 5SO
105
to{o2 9l5l 10:1051
L_
Lightshipdisplacenant= 10902a(Ans)
LightshipKG = 9.152m (Ans)
L
lgQ The ftee surfacernomenlsmust also be removed,since in tho lightshipconditjon,if all the
ianksare empty.nofreesurfacernomenlscanexist!
I
19.23 Prcpa,atiots for he inclining @t
Beforethe indiningtesl can be donethe ship'spersonnelrnaybe requiredto assistin the follo\a/ing
preparalions:
L_
(1) The ship shouldbe mooredin quiel shelteredwalers free from the effectsof passing
vessels.Theremustbe adequatedepthof $/aterto ensurelhat the shipwill not contactlhe
botlomduringthe inclinalion.
(2') Mooringsshould be slack and any shore side gangwayshndedto allow unreslricted
heeling.
(3) All temporarymal€daland €quipnEntsuchas toolbox€s,staging,weldingequiprnentetc.
I should be redlced to an absoluteminimum.Excesscrew and personnelnot directly
t involvedin lhe testshouldbe sentashore.
(4) All fittingsand equipmenlsuchas accommodalion ladders,lifeboatsand denickdcranes
shor,rld positions.
be stor/edin theirnormalseagoing
l_
CTASS2t1 STABIUIY SECTIOiI19 IndiningExp.riMl 219
!
L
(6) Decksshouldbe free of waler.Any waler trappedon deckwill move duringthe test and
reducethe acdracy of lhe resuh.Snor and ice muslalsobe removed.
l7l Thefollowinginformationmustbeprovidedto lhe personin chargeof the incliningtest:
(a) linesplan;
(b) hydrostaticcuNesor hydrostatic data;
(c) generalarrangement plan;
(d) capacityplanshorringthe VCGand LCGof all cargospaces,tanksetc. Whenthe
ship is to be inclinedusingballaslwaiertransferlh€ lransverseand verticalceilres
ot gravityfor the applicabletanks,tor eacl,angleof inclination,mustbe available;
(e) tanksounding tables;
(f) draughlmarkloc€lionsiand
(S) dockingdrawingwith keelprofleand draughtmaft conections(if available).
(8) Effcient twowaycomnunicalionmustbe establishedb€tweena personin cfiargeof lhe
operalionat the cenlralcontrolsiation,tho w€ighlhandlersand eachpendulumslaton.
19.2.1Prccaullonsbken by 8E surveyor b ensurc .ccuracy of rhe calcuta$on
Annex1 of the Codeprovidesdetailedguidancelor the conductot an indiningtest and lhis should
to ensurean accuEteresullare summadsedas follows:
be refenedto. Therequiremenls
1) The ship shouldbe as completeas possibleat the tirneof the test. The massand Kg of
itemsrerminingto be fitted mustbe accuratelyknown,if this is nol the casefor any item,
the testshouldbe conductedafterthe itemin ouestionhas beenftted
2) Theshipmustbe as uprightas poGsible and havesufficientdraughtlo avoidanysignificanl
changesin walef planeareaas the ship is listed.A deviatioflfrom designlnm of up to 1%
of LBP is normallyacceptablewhen using hydroGtatcdat€ caldiated for a dqsigntim.
Othe{wise,the hydrostaticdata shouldbe calculatedfor the actuallrim oI he shipdudng
lhc cxDedment
4) The us€ of three pendulums (but no less than two) is recommendedlo allow bad rcadings
at any one staton to be idenlifred.The pendulum weighl should be suspended in a trough
of hydraulicoil to dampen movement.The pendullms should be long enoughto give a
rneasurcd defeclion to each side of updght of at least '15cm. This will require a pendulum
length of at least 3 metes. Usually,the longer the pendulumthe grealer the accuracy of the
tesl; however,if excessivelylong pendulumsare usedon a tendership the pendulumsmay
nol setde down and the accuracy of the readings will be queslionable. On large ships with a
high GM, pendulum ler€lhs in ex@ss of lhe abov6. recommendd lenglh rnay be requhed
lo obiain the minimum deflection. ln such cases the lrough should be flled with a high
viscosityoil.
The pendulum wire should be piancwire and the top conneclion sholld allow unreslticled
rotation at the pivot point (a washer with the pendulumwire altaded suspended from a nail
would suffice).
5) Battens should be smooth, light coloured wood, '12crn thick, and should be seqrely fxed
in position to prevent inadverlent movement by the pe6on making the measurerpnts. The
batten should b€ aligned dose to the pendllum wirc but not in contact with it. A suitable
anangementis shownin figure 19.3,
. !.
Fi9.19.3
6) It is recomrnended that at least fve fieetoad readings approximatelyequally spaced on
each side of the ship be taken or thal all draught rnarks (forward, aft and amidships) be
read on each side of the ship. Draught rnark readings should be taken to assrsl in
determiningthe watedine defined by freeboard readings. or to verit the vertical location of
draught marks on ships where lheir location has nol been confrmed. A small boat should
be avaiiablefor this purpose. Such eadings allo / determinalionof the displacem€ntof the
ship immediately prior to the test Dock water denslty readings will also be taken from
sufficient deDth (not lhe surface as this may be affecbd by rain runoff) to allow the
displacemeniobtiined from the hydrostaticdaia to be conected for the actual waler density
oDseryeo.
7J The rnean draught (average of port and starboard readings taken in (6) above) should b€
calculatedfor eacfr of the localions where the freeboad and draught readingswhere taken
l and plotied on the ship's line drawings or outboard profle io ensure thal all readings are
consistent and together defne lhe conect waterline. The plot should give a straight line or a
waterline that is hogged or sagged whereby a hog/sag conecton must be determined and
applied. lf inconsistentreadingsare obtained, the freeboardsrdraughtsshould be retaken.
8) The standard test employs eight distinct weight movements whereby a straightljne plot
must be achieved as illusfated in fgure 19.4. lf a straightlineplot is nol achieved, lhose
weight movem€ntsthat did not give an acceptableplot lnusl be repeated.
FA. 19.4
t
19.2.5The @casions when an inc nlng exprime aN lighfuielght sudett must be
conducted.
Chapter 7  Regulations on whidra shipmustbe indinedand
7.1.1to 7.1.6detailstheocc€sions
is as follows:
7.1.4 The Adninistalion may allow the inclining test of an indlvidualship as rcquhed by
paragnph 7.1.1to be dispensedwith providedba$c stabw data ae availablefom the
incliningtesl of a sislet ship and it is shownto the satisfadionof the Administmtionthat
reliablestabilv kfomation for theexemptedshipcanbe obtainedftom suchbasicdata.
7.1.5 Th6 Administrafion may allow lle hblining test of an indivklualship or c/ass of slt,ios
especiay designedtot the catriageof liquidsor ore h bulk to be dispensd with whon
refercnce to existingdata for similar ships cleady indicatesthat, due to the ship's
propotlionsand affangement' more thansufrcfutt metacentticheoft wi be availablein
aI probableloadingconditions.
71.6 The indinhv test prcscibed is adapta e fot shipswith a leng[l below 24 n it sftecid
precaulionsare lakento ensurethe accuracyd the testproceclure.
INTRODUCNON
Thisseclioninfoduc€sthe methodsusedfor calcltlatinglrim in realsituations.Useis rade of the
hydroslalicparticufars
foundanthe stabilitydaLabooklor M.V. Almarp'or'ided
l l5
l l0l 81.26 1.60 14.58
1.20 l 8171 14)3
l 8?33 LJI 5ll 11.92
't3.62
3 37.:12 37.11
87.t2 t.3l 11.32
For consistencythe acdracy used when intelpolating tor hydrostaticvalues in lhis seclion shall be
as follows:
' DraLghts wi be cdculated to three decimal places e.g. 7.236 n.
' A other hydtostatb data vahtes wil be calculatedto the samenumbet of decimal places as
adopted in the table.
' Wtten cahLlating noment' values will be rcunded to the nearestwhole number
I
Leamirrg Obl*tiv*
On complelionof this sectionthe leamer will ad eve the follot /ing:
l_ 1. Underslandthe termsArilhnetb ,tean Drawht (AMD)and TrueMeanDraught(TMD)and
recognisethe importanceof usinglhe true meandraughtfor oblaininglhe ship'saclual
displacement whentrimmed.
i 2.
3.
Calculatethe truemeandraughtfor a trimmedship.
Calculalelhe inal draughtstor a ship when loadingand/ordisdrargingweightsby taking
monentsaboulthe meanLCFusinghydroslalicdata.
4. Calcirlalelhe final draughts for a ship when loading and/or dischargingweights by
L consideration of the relativepositionsof the longifudinalcentreof buoyancy(LCB)and the
longiludinalcentreof gravity(LCG)usinghydrostalicdata.
5. conducta vadetyof calculalionsthat mightbe encountered in examinalionsitualions.
L 6. Caldiate the changeof draughtandtrimdueto changein waterdensity.
L
L
L
L CLASS2y' SIAAUTY SEC]lo,,l20 Tnmusg hldosd"daL 223
L
 DISPLACEMENT
20.1 TRUEMEANDRAUGHT WHENTRII{IIED
Considerthe shipsholvnioating on
an even keel with lhe longitudinal
centre of iotation (F) amidships
where a weighl is mov€d along the
oecK.
Fig.m2
lf the weight is rnoved aft the
walerlinewill mtate about F as
shown.In this c€se th€ draught
amidships, being the AMD,
reduces.Entedngthe hydroslatc
particularswif this reducedAMD
will resull in a /esser
displacementvaluelhal will be in
Fig.2O.3
The enor jn the displacem€ntwill be equivalent to the \Neightof the slice or /ayer of waler shaded.
For this rcason the displacement value should alway, be obtained using the True Mean Draught,
being the draught al the position of the longttudinalcentre ol flotation.
The difference between the displacement obtained for the Arithmetic Mean Draught and that
obtained for lhe True Mean Draught is termed lhe layet coffection and will be addilive or
sublractrvefrom the Arithmetic Mean Draught displacementdep€nding on whelher the LCF is afl
or forward of amidshipsand whelher lhe ship is trimmed by the head or by the stem.
Examole1
AshipLEP148nfroatsatdnughtsF4.60mA5.8OmandhasLCF69.0mfoap.Calculatethe
TtueMeanDnught.
Sohrtbn
ddiTsimple s*etchl
fMD=AMD+Corection
Conectionto AMD
! Timrd = 1.20xft4.0 69.014.41m
IBP 148
Fig.m.5
I Thercfore;TnE MeanDnLqht = 5.m0 + 0.U1 = 5.U1 m (Ans)
ln all cas6s the coreclion to the ALilDwill be addedor srbfracted depending on lwo factors:
I
(1) whetherthe ship is timned by the head ot bythe stem;
(2) whethet LCF is foNard or aft of amidships.
r*
0 {
(1) Ship tinme<l by stem, LCF afl (2) Ship Limned by stem, LCF
tol1,/ento, amidshlps:
fttD=AUD+Corectton ftD=AtlDCorection
fllD=AUDCot'€ction fnD=AnD+Coflection
Fig.m .6
Exan Dle2
A shipLBF 120n floatsat drarghtsF 4.62 m A 5.40m. Calculatetl?€true meandnught if tlre
LCFis 66mfoap.
glution
TMD=AMDConection
,lr.r...
AMD= 4.62+ 5.40 = 5.01n
";'#;=_==
Cbrrectionto AMD= EnJ!.
LgP I
qf,gjJ@9lAgP) = 0.0sen
1m Fig. 20.7
So/uton
fMD = AMD'Coftection
AMD=z32:_93!= 7.08
n
2
Provided that a simple sketch is made lhis method shown for caloiating the true mean draughl is
very useful because the formula can be easily dedved. Ho,ever, lhe following formula may be
us€d as an allemative providedthat it is applied exactly in the form in which it is stated b€low:
T M D = d a  f t d a  d H r L c Ft o a DI
LEBF )
cfrss  sEcTloN 20 Tnm6Dg hyaGiatc dala
2/1 STABILITY
l
t
It is importar thal lhe epression (dA  dF) is lefr as it is and not reversed. lf lhe lrim is by the
head then (dA  dF) will give a tegalive value
Example 4
A shh LBP lm n floats at draugltts F 4.62 m A 5.40 m. Calculate the hue nean dnught if the
LCF is 66 m foao.
( uean 'tcrwp )
LrBP )
TMD=5.40( rc.aO
 t.AZt" aA]
l l n l
TMD=5.40 0.78'66 
l1n )
ThlD=1.971m(Ans)
Example5
A *ip LBP 166m floab at dtaughtsF 7.32m A 6.U m. Calculatethe tnle meandftught if the
LCFis 80 m foap.
L
Solution
To = ae   MA  dH, LcF roap I
I LBP I
! ,/
TMD= 6.84 ( 6.At.SZ .eO]
166
L l
!
l
_,/
TMo=6.u(0.c8" ao]
I t66 
L TMD=6.84C0.231)
l  /
TMD=6.84+0.231
L TUD=7.071m(Ans)
formulawill be usedfor calculatjngthe lrue meandraughtin all the following
The aforemenlion€d
L examplesthat appear in this section.If you prefer the previousmelhod then use that, but
rememberto drawa sketchto ensurethatlhe coneciionis appliedlhe conectwayl
L
L
L GLASS 2l1 STAATLIY  SECTION 20  Tim cinq hydGrdic dar. 227
L
m2 DATA  TAKll,lG ]{OMENTSABOUT
TRIM CALCULATIONSUSINGHYDROSTATIC
THEMEANLCF
'fiE
hydrostaticpafticulaBin the trim and stabiliv bcc,u<let
fot M.V.Almarwill be usedthroughout
the remaind€rof this section.Whenloadingand dischargingweights,if the differencebetweenthe
initialdraughtand finaldraughtis substantial,it is ess€ntialthat mea, hJdtostalicvaruesare used
io ensureas ac.uate an answgras pGsible is obtainedfor the fnal draughts.Intemolaiionwill
alsobe necessaryfor exhaclinginlermediatedalavaluesnottabulated.
The frst approachto sofuingfim problemsis by the rn€thodusedin Section12  lntroductionto
hi?r, \ /heremornentsarc takenabod th€ LCF
The scenariolo be consideredis as follows M.V. Almar amvesin pod with cerlaindraughts
foMard and afr. Cargois $/orked,beingdischargedand/orloaded.The anticipatsddralghts on
completionof caBo must be caldlated and if necessary.ballastmay haveto tte transferredto
ensurea suitabletim for deparlure.
The procedurefor calculationby takingmomentsaboutthe meanLCFis as follows:
'1. CafoJfate the irdralttue meandraught(TMD).
2. Enierlhe hydrostaticparticularswith the initialTMD and oblainvaJ6 fo( Displacement,
MCTCandLCF position,interpolatingas necessary
3. Cafo.ialethe rinaldisplacenent.
4. Enterthe hydrostaticparlidlars wltn the final displacementvalue and obtainvaluesfor
TMD,MCTCand LCFposilion,interpolating as necessary
5. Calcufalethe meanMCTCandmeanLCFposrfirnvalues.
6. Take mornentsaboutthe mea, LCF posiltonto detenninethe net fimming momenb(by
the heador by the stem).
7. Usinglhe rn€anMCIC value,caldiate the changeof tim (COl).
8. Applythe COTcalculatedin (7)to the t tL'allim and caldiale the ,ital t im of the ship.
9. Calculatethe changeof draughtsaff and forwarddue to trim (Ta and Tf) by apMior ng
the ,iral tnimin accordancewiththe posilionottlre LCFfot thefnal watedine. 
10. ApplyTa and Tf to the fnal TMD that was obtainedin (4) to obtainthe fnal antidpated
draughts.
11. lf necessarycalculatethe changeof lrim requiredto bdngthe shipto the desireddepa.lure
trim,andusingthe formuta: COT= ql_d
MCTC
catculalethe weightof ballastto be transfenedbetweenthe ciossn tanks.
Followexample6 refeningto the hydrostaticpanicula6wherenecessary.
Examph6
M.V.Almarafiivesin port wilhdraughtsF 4.@ m A 4.20m.
Caryois to be loadedas bllows:
Holdl,lo. 1 1400t at lcg 144.94n foap:
Hold No.3 t300 t at lcg 103.94n toap:
Hold No.5 31M t at kg 62.05n foap;
Hold No.6 3285t at lq 42.31m foap;
(a) Calculatethefrnaldraughts.
(b) Calculatethe vlei!)htof bdtastto transferftom 6 P+S DB batlasttank(bg 42.19m foap)to
the torc peak tank(bg 162.U m foap)to ensurethat the shipsailswitha trim of 0.60m by
the stem.
 seegeneralpaiicularcin slabilitydatabook.)
(LBPis 167.87mfor a calculations
T M D= d A ( H A  d F ) , r c F f o a p l
I L B P I
I ,/
ruo=t.zo( o.2o' e6.78]
I tat.et l
I  /
TMD= 4.2(n 0.103= +N7 m
(2) EnterdatawithTMD4.097m
= 11930+ (310x QIDI = 12231t
lnitialdisplacement
3285
ztltb
(4) Enterdatawilhfinaldisplacenenl22920t
TMD= 7.4oam; MCTC=343ta; LCF= 85.19mfoap.
(Noinbtpolationneeded)
85.99
at211
(7) Calculatethe changeof lim usingthemeanMCTC
COT(cms)= TdmminsnomenE = 9324 = 2553 cns
MCTCTaN 326
COT .2553 m by lhe stem
Ct ss zl sTABlLlry SECTON20 Tnm Ginq hldbslrlic dara 2n
L_
18) Calculatethe finaltnm
1.356 1 397
6r',,. t.ttt
Solutionb)
Trimon conMion ot caeo 2.753m by the sr€.m
ReSui.Bd
cOT.equired 2.153m bv theHEAD
l
Usingmeanvaluesof MCTCand the LCF positioncertainlyimprovesaccuracy\flhencalculaling
whenusinglhe mea, valuesof MCTCand LCFposton il is assumed
tlle fnal draughts.Horvever,
that their vafueswill changelinealy betweenlhe draughtsconcemed.This is rarely the case
I becausethe shapeof a slip's hullseldomchangeslin€adywithdraught the hull is curvedin form,
especiallyat the ends.
Anotherploblemwith takingmomers aboutlhe positimof the LCF is that it is easyto mistakenly
applythe momentsof individualweightsin the tablethe wrongway.We haveall doneit and it c€n
be veryfrustating.
Figure20.9illusl€tes a shipfloatingon an
eve, keelwitha weighton deck.
Fb.20.9
For the ship to ioat at ev6n keel it c€n be seen that the longitudinalposrtionsof the centreof
gravity(LCG)andthe centreof buoyancy(LCB)mustbeihe same
GGj is the horizontal distance between the LCB and the LCG. reptesenting a trimming leverthal
will act to trim the ship by the slem.
Example7
M.V.Almarhasan evenl<eddraughtof 5.10n. Cargois wo*ed as follows:
Discharge356t homlcg 148m toap;
Discharge4A t fromlcg 59 n foap;
Load566t at lcg 120m foap;
Load800t aI lcg 102m foap;
Load2@ t at LA 81 m foap;
Lod 16@t at lcg 44 n toap.
CalculatethefrnaldraughE.
Soll/iion
(1) CalculatetheinitialTMD
Becausethe shipis on an ewn kol:AMD = TMD= 5.100m
(2) Entetdatawith TMDandobtainDisplacement and LCBvalues
lnitialdisplacement
is 1*40 t
LCBis 87.09m foap.
Becausethe shipis on an evenkeelthe positionsd the LCBatfi LCGwi be the same.
Therebre:
lnitialLCG position= LCBposilion= 87.09m toap
(3) TakemomentsabouttheAP to findthe frnalLCG position.
l€
1600 44 00 7040t)
lt6a6 1511266
(4) Enter data with final displacementand obtajn TMD, MCTC. LCB and LCF posilions.
Finat TMD = 5 80 + (0.1 x 1!9) = 5.847 m
fia
MCC=319tn LCB=86.98mfoap
(5) Calculatethe change of tim from even keel for the final condntan.
= w I LCBLCG)
coTFRoNEw (EEL
MCTC
Asimple sketchwi indicate whether the COT is by the head or by the stem
L. aP
F 86eEm
i_ Thc shtpwi ttin by ahesrem.
< E4.29m
Fig.m.l0
L
(6) Appoidbnthe changeof trim from even keelto the forwad and aft d6ughls, applyingTa
and fl to lhe finalevenkeeldraught(TMD).
Ta=COTxB Ta= 150.5x Eg11 =77.2cms=0.772m
LBP 167.87
77.2 = 73.3cms= 0.733m
Tf = COT Ta n = 150.5
o772
5.fi4 6.61S
Usngthe formula:
COTFrcMEK=wx(LCBLCG)
MCTC
I To allow comoarison of the two differenl methods, example 6 will be reworked using the
(LCBLCG)rnelhod.
Sol,]fionh)
0) Calculateinilial TMD
AMO = 4.10n
Enter data wlh AMD and obtain LCF poskion.
LCF = 86.78m foap.
Use this to calculate the TMD. )
TMD = dA  ( tdA  dH ' lcF toaD
I LBP I
o.2o/06.78Y
TMD=4.20\(
I rant I
TMD= 1.N7 i
(21 tuner datawithTMD4.097n
lnitialAsplacement= 11930+ (310x 9:1p9?J
= 12231t
0.1
MCTC= 308t+n LCB=87.27mfoap
(3) Calculatetheinitialtimminglevet(LCBLCG)
CoTrew*u net= W' LCBLCG) 20.0= 12231\LCBLCG)
MCTC 308
t7) Calculale lhp chartse of tim from even keel for the final conddion.
1 cornoBeENKEa=wx(LcBLCG)
r_ MCTC
\' COTfuMMKEa=22920',,86.7082.7&=261gcms
343
A sinple sketch wi indicate whethe.lt e COT is by the head or by lhe stem
AP
F 86.70m
Ship eiI trim try ttta ste.n
k 
sz.zg
F4.20.12
(8) Appoftion lhe change of tim f@m even keel to the forward and aft draughts, applyiE Ta
and Tf to the final even keel draught (TMD).
t 1290 1.329
6.ito cta
I Solu/ionh)
Tim on compbtitmof cargo 2.619m by the stem
Requied 0.600m bv the stem
L COTrequired 2.019m bv the HEAD
L_
CLASS2/l 9TABllITY SECIIONm Inm Ghq htsbsr.t. dats 7J5
I
Whencaldllatingthe draughlsand tfim for a proposedconditionof loadingit is usualto completea
'loadingstpet itemisinga/ itemsot deadweightand their momentsaboutthe aiter peDendicular.
Differentorcumstancaswill dic'tatethe appoach that sholld be adopt€d.When loadingand/or
discfErgingonlya few weightsto modirya baded condilionit may be appropriate lo start$/iththe
arival draughtsand modirythe 'loadingsh€et'lo fnd the departuredraughls.Onthe otherhand,if
the departurecondilionis goingto be significandydifferent,it may be mor€appropriateto redolhe
fuff ship cafdiaton. Examplesof this will be coveredin Ssciirt 30  Pnc:tical shb loading
m.41 ,taxtmum cargo to load in each space for the ship to cofideb at alremaximum
draught
L_ ExamoleI
M.V. Ahnat is loading a bulk cdgo in poi and has draughts F 7.36 n A 8.24 m in saft water.
Calculate the maximum amount of cargp to load in each of the spaces available so that the
L maximum draughl on depanute will be 8/n n. Space is available as follows:
No. 2 tlold, Icg 124.38m foap:
No. 6 ,old, Icg 42.31 m foap.
(Note: the tequirement is that the maximum amount of cargo be loaded and the draught is not to
exceed 8.40 m. This means that the ship must compleE an even keel dnught ot 8.40 m.)
u.9 42.31
Fig.m 13
L 6) Enterdatawithrequiredevenkeeldnught (FinalTMD)8.40n
Finaldisplacenent= 26270t MCTC365trn
, LCB =86.44 n foap LCF U.17 n foap
L
n calcutate cargoto ,rad
Caqo to load = Final displacenent lnilial clisplacement
Cago to load = 26270  24X4 = m36 t
_
(7) Determinercguied frnalLCG
To completeon even keel LCG = LCB = 86.44 n foap
l Let x = cargo to loac!h No.2 Hold; (20B6 x) caryo to bad in No. 6 Hold
1
42.31
26t270
Note that the final displacementand final LCG are already known
.. 86.44= 2068130
+ 124.3U+ 8614342.31x
26270
... = 2068130
2270779 + 124.38x
+ 8614342.31x
.. 2270n9 2068130
 86143= 124.38x42.31x
Exartple 10
1 M.VHmar has draryhts F 9.46 n A 10.14m in salt watet atfi is to completeloadingto the
summetdiqla@menl Thercmainitrycargois to be baded into hold no. 2 and hold no. 5. How
muchol theremainingcargomustbe loadednto aachhold fot the shipto completecaryo witha
\ trim of 02 m by the stem.
{2) EnterdatawithTMD9.845m
= 31090+ (350x 9p9!} = 31108t
InitialDisplacement
o.1
MCTC= 401 + (3 x 9@9 = 401 tn
01
LCF= 82.70+(0.1xE@9 = 82.70m foap
o.1
(5) CalculatemeanMCTCandmeanLCF
MeanMcTc = 4E!:itU = 406 tm
2
MeanLCF = 922!l_9232 = 82.51m foap
2
(6) CalculateCOI rcquhed
lnitialtim 0.68m by the stem
Requitecl trim 0.m m bv the stem
COTrcquired 0.48m by the head
48 = Timminqnoments
406
32.51
(2a173m.46tl
AMD= 9.80m
EntetdatawithAMDandobtainLCFposilion.
LCF= 82.74nfoap.
I Usethisto cahulatethe fMD.
(2) EntetdatawithTMD9.805m
= 31090+ (350x 9@.) = 31108t
lnrtialDisplacement
4.1
MCTC= 401 + (3 x 9!@9 = 4o1tn
o.1
LCB = 85.97+ (0.M x 9.1@9= 85.97n foap
L 0.1
(LCBLCG)=N'101 = 088
m
31108
(4) CalculateintttalLCGposttion.
The shipis tintmed by the stem.LCBis 85.97m foap
L (LCBLCG)is 0.88n.
AP
L_ ,l+ as.gz
Fot ship to E timnect by tlte stoft ICG
must ba an ol LCB,aherctde:
K LCGfoae
t_
Fig.20.14
(8) Takemomenbaboilhe AP
Let x = caryo to l,5adin No.2 Hold: (1377  x) cargo to load in No. 5 tlold
From stabilv data b@k: lcg No.2 Hold = 124.38m foap;
lcg No. 5 Hold = 62.05 m f@p.
lcg
.. + 124.38x+85443 62.05x
85.57= 2646980
32485
+ 85443 62.05x
 2U6980+ 124.38x
2779741
 85443= 124.38x62.05x
 2646980
2779741
47318= 62.33x
i Example11
L M.V. Alnar has draughts F 4.24 n A 4.98 n and 436 tonnes of deck caryo rcmains to be k aded.
Calculate:
(a) the positionfoap to load the weight in oder that the aft draught ren ains constant
(b) the final dnught toftrad.
Soll]/io/l (a)
(1) Calculate inttial fMD
AMD = 4.61m
I Enter data with AMD and obtain LCF position.
i (3) Considerfigure20.16
L
Thus,to keepthe draughtafrconstantwhenloadinga kn(i /n weight:
x3
TPC L
'd' will allow lhe positionfoap to be determined.
Calculafng the distance
Calculatethefinaldraughts.
o 137 o 137
0129 0 137
agt6 :l.160
m.41 Calcuhting the weight to loadto tduce the d€€pestdaught by e given amount
Example12
M.V.Alnar hasdftughtsF 5.62n A 6.48m.
(a) Calculatethe anount of ballastto pump into the forc peak tank (lq 162.04n foap) to
@ducethedraughtafl to 6.m m.
(b) Calculatethe finaldaught foMard.
Solutionhl
tl) Calculate
inftialfMD
AMD=6.05m
TMD= 6.039m
(2) EnterdatawithTMD6.039m
l = 18340+ (320x 9JI9 = 18465t
tnitialDisplacernent
0.1
TPc = 32.34+ (0.04x A!39 = 32.36
I 0.1
L MCTC= 321tm
LCF = 86.05+ (o.Ux 9@) = 86.03m foap
o.1
N@ Withtris typeof problemit is nol usuallyrequiredto usemeanhydrostalicvalues.
(3) Considetfigue20.lT
lf the weight (ballast) is initially
loaded al the LCF the vessel will
experienceunifom sinkage.
For the draught afl 1obe reduced: I = **'c. l=r. I =rrriri.d rcddio *ldl
 ltilt t v€lrllnE
Reduction in dA = Ta  Sinkag€  trrln dtlr td#g rri8lt.t !h. LCf ldEilion
 FJ ,k ttE
Fiq.20.17
where Ta is the change of draught aft dueto trim causedby movingthe weight(ballast)
Therefore: in dA =
Reducrion cor ' al  w
[ LJ rpc
L_ Thus,to reducethe draughtafl: Roduction in dA =
I I rpc
Itutbn h)
Theweightof ba ad waterin the forc peakis nowknown.
=s
Sinkage = 3111 =9.6cms
Sinkage
TPC 32.36
Cahulatethe frnaldnughE.
o 0s6
0 359 0 378
L
Fiq.20.18
lf LCBand LCFwereto be in the samelongiludinalposition(aswouldbe the casefor a boxshaped
vesselon anevenkeel)andthe ve*selwereto movefromwalerof onedensltyio waterof a dfie€nl
density,the changein densrtywouldresultonly in bodilysinkageor rise. WhenLCF is nol in lh€
samepositionas LCF,as is usuallylhe case. a shipwill alwaysexperiencea cflangein lim also
t_ whenpassingbetwe€nwaterof differentdensities.Thereasonforthisis explainedas dlows.
Figure20.19(a)sho\,sa shipon an evenkeelin saftwal6rat waterline WiLiIn thiscondition the
I belo,v
LcB is vedically lhe LcG. on passinginto iesh waler,beingless dense,lhe shipwill initially
W,L?(fgure20.19(b))
sinkbodilyto waterline
l
L
L
I (a)
l (b) On passing into ftesh 'rter ship etpedences bortlly sinr.ga towata lne W!L1
Fig.20.19
The added layer of buoyanry due to lhe sinkage will have its centoid al b i.e. al lhe same
positrons
longitudinal as F and F,.
Because a volume of buoyancy has been effectively dded, B will mov6 in a dirEclion dirsc{y
towards the centroid of the added slice of buoyancJ to B. This creates a lrimming couple that in
thiscasewill causethe ship lo idm by the head.
This will be the fresh water allo\ /ance for the displacement in questjon if the ship passesfrom salt
water lo fiesh water, or; the dock water allowance if the ship is passing from s€lt water to dock
toa(mm)=qEp!3@94
,l x TPC*
The abbrevialions f$/a a'ld dwa are so tremed to dislinguish belwe€n the ini€ fresh waler
allowance (and dock water allowance) values lhat would apply to the ship when d the summer
displacement.The displacement and TPC values are those conesponding lo salt water for the true
meandraughtin queslion.
The MCTC musl always be tor the second densily sancethe ship only trims when al the new
waledine after accounlingfor the sinkage.
(5) Apportrcnthe COT to find Ta and Tf according ta the positbn of the LCF
(6) Apply the sinkage, Ta and Tf to the intial daughts to frnd the draughts in the new water
Note thal sleps (3) and (4) may be comuned for ease of c€lculalion
Solution
(1) CalculateinitialTMD
AMD = 9.80m
EnterdatawithAMDandobtainLCF positbn.
LCF=82.70mtoap
Usethisto calculalethe TMD
l
TMD= dA  ( IdA. dN XLCFfoAD)
J
MD= 1032\( 1..04, a2.70)
!
Paztt )
TMD= gun m
 (2) Entetdatawith TMD9.BOB n
Displacement= 31090+ (350x g@g) = 31118t
': 0.1
rPC= u.Bs+ (o.otx L@g = uso
o.1
i t . t . d = g 1 1 1 8 = 2 2 3m m= 2 2 . 3c m s
I t S+gO
L w=22.3x34.90xL@ = 759.3tonnes
1.025
L
(6) Appodionthe COT to fincl 7a and Tf according to the positionof the LCF
O) Applythe sinkage,fa and Tf to the intial dnughts to frndthe dtaughEin the new watel
density.
I240 10 320
o223 o.223
9.503 10.543
Trim o.o32 0.032
s.sit5 t0.5tl
IbE
ln this examplethe shiplrimmedby the head.Hadthe LCFbeenforwardof the LCB the ship
would havetimrned by the stem! Fo( eacfi scenarioit is advisableto do a sketchto verity lhe
directimof the changeof trim in eachcase.Altematvely,usethe formulain section20.4.3
ml3 Arwnatiye toftnula for catculadngthe changeo, tim
Havingcalculatedthe sinkag€the dange oI lim that arisesdue to the dlange of waterdensity
maybe calculatedusrngthe follol/ving:
=!!lBq_!q)l!gE_l!9)
cor (cms)
RDI X T{GTq
Example14
M.V.Ahnaranivesis pott withdraughEF 8.60m A 9.10 m in saftwateLThoaft peak tankis fuu.
Calculatethe ano@t of ballastwaterto dischatgefr.rn the aft peak tank in order that the ship
aftive$at the benh with a tim by the stemof 0.20 n. TheRD of the dock waterat the bedh is
1.006.
Sohnion
tl) CabulaeinitalTMD
AMD= 8.85m
Enterdala withAMD andobtainLCF Dositton
TMD=dAftdAdH , LcFloap )
I tap I
! )
cor =4gEzJJ.9291@)l&g=@3!
( 1.025x 377x1.006]
 ffil
Becausethe shipwi Iim by the head whenit g@s fron saltt/ater to the dockwatet,lha
changeof tim raquircdby dischagingbalasl fron the aft Pak tank wi be less.lv,ithlh,s
wbEm, considetthat the ballastwateris discharyedin the saltwatercausinga changeof
l tim of 26.3crnsby thehead;thefulher 3.7 r,ns is achievedon passagefrom saftwaletto
w = 125.5bnnes (Ans)
l
CTASS2/' STABIUTY StCl Ori 20 Tnmus,nghrdrcslalicd€b 251
I
CLASS2/1 STABIIITY SECTION,0  Tim usins hydrcsiaticdata 252
i
l
L_ 9E9!!9!€!&S!!!e
It{TRODUCTTON
thatall shipsbe drFdockedfo( inspectionand maintenancebelowlhe watedine.
ll is a requirement
Whena ship is beingdrldocked additionalforcesaclingat the keeltake effecl,beingthe reaction
or upthruslafiordedby the blocksmto whichthe ship is beinglanded.Theseforcescan create
undueloadson lhe stemslrudureand causelo6sof stabilityof the ship.This sectioninvestgates
L_ lhesesfiects.
L.amlng Objec,Jves
i On compl€tionof this seclionthe leemerwillacffevethe following:
1. Understandthe sequenceof eventsthattakesplacewhilsta shipis beingdrfdocked.
2. Calculatethe upthrustat the blocks(P force)at anystageduringdrfdockjng of the ship.
3. L,nderstand the loss of slabilityduringdrfdocking and calqilate the loss of stabilityas
eithera rise of the ship'scentreot gravity(indeasein KG) or as a fall of the motacentre
(reductionin KM).
4. Conducldrldockingcalculations.
L 5. Understand the praciic€lconsideralionsduringthe drfdockingof a ship.
L
L
l
l
 SECTpN21  Dry dockr\o
CLASS21 STABILITY 253
l_
2l.l OFEVEiITSDURING
SEQUET{GE DRYDOCK],G
Figures21.'l to 2'1.3iliustralewhat happensas the ship eiters the dry dock and tle water is
ourno€doot of the dock.
1. Theshipentarsthe drydockwitha smalltim by the stemandis foated intoposition.
F*1. 21.1
As rnorewateris pumpedout of the dockthe tue nean dtaugrl will startto reduceas the
ship e)sedencesmoreand moresupportat the stemThe upthrustaffordedby the blocks
at the stem is termedthe P forcel this continuesto incteaseas lhe buoyancyforce
redoces.Throughoutthe dockingproce$sthe ship will displacea progressively lessening
volurneof water as the ltue rm]6ndraughtreducesand the P force increaseslo provide
moresupportfor the ship (in effect,the P forcetakesoversupportingthe shipand lhe role
of the buoyancyforce in supportingthe ship reduc€s).At this stagethe aft draughtwill be
reducingat a greaterrale lhan what the forwarddraughtis increasing,the ship will be
trimmingby the head as lhe overalltrue meandraughtreduces.For reasonsdiscussed
later,the lossof stabilitywill alsobe increasingas the P forceincreases.
i
3. Dodng ahe cftlc.l p.rlo.l P torce in.'ets's as rhe effect ot the Bt
r..tucas  ovanl fUD re.luc€6 as the ship trims by the hea.t.
1 On touching the btocb fore and an he .ughb saaft to ,.ctuce
unilornly toNaftt aN all
Fiq.21.2
Afterselting o the blocksfoMard and aft water conlinuesto be pumpedfrom the dock
and the draughtreducesal the sarie rate fo&ard and aft. The upthrustP becornes
uniformlydistributedalong lhe ship's lengh and continuesto increaseas the effeclive
buoyancyforcereduces.
Fiq.21.3
t_
THEP FORCE
21.2 CALCULATING
The P force may be considered lo have lhe sane effect on true mean draughl as if a weight had
aclually been discharged,therefore: Reduclion in Tl!!D (crns) = e&@i0
TPC
P forc€(t)= Reductionin T O (cms)x TPC
This formularnay be used to calculatelhe upthrustal the block"sat aty stage in the docking
processsincelhe lrue meandraughtis alwaysreducingas wateris takenod of the dock.
P=9!IL(E):U9IS
Dist LCF foaD
This can be used to c€lculate the P force during the crittcalpeiod only
Use of both of these fomulae will be seen in subsequentdry docking calqialion examples.
(lt should be noted also that KM changes as a result of a reduction in the ship s dralght.)
lf the P force is consideredto have lhe same etfecl as disdtarging an equivalent weight from the
keeltfen:
LossofGm=PxKG
Pxx=(wP)xy (1)
Fig.21.6
MMj representsthe resultingfall of the lransversemetac€nlre(or lossof GM)
Considerihetwosimilartriangles:
S i n e o =y therefo.e: y=SineoxMM el
MMI
S i n e 0 =I iherefo{e: x=SineoxKMl (3}
KM
Combiningformulae1, 2 and 3 abovegives:(W P) x Sine€ x MM = P x Sine0 x Kful
LossofG =e_:_EU
w
NglE In lhis fomula the KM value is that whichcorespondslo the true meandEught for the
instantthat the lossof GM is beingcalculatedand not that for lhe inital truemeandraughtthatthe
shiphas priorto docking.lt is foundby enteringthe hydrostalicdala witha displacement valuethat
conespondsto that givenby (W P).
W in this fomula is the ship'sinilialdisplacement.
sEcTro! 21 Drydodirc
ct ess2/1STABLITY, 254
2,I.4 TYPICALDRYDOCKINGPROBLEMS
Examole1
Pior to eftetitv drydockM.V.Nmar hasdraughtsF 4.86n A 5.24n atfr an efreeliveKGof 9.16n.
CahulaE:
(a) the GMwlrcnthe shiptakesthe bkrcksfoMad ati aft (at thectiticalinslant);
(b) thednughtsatthe sameinstant;
Sohrtionb)
(1) CahulaleinitialfMD
AMD= 5.05m
EnterdatawilhAMD andobtainLCF position
LCF = 86.32+ (0.02x q9!, = 86.31m foap
a_1
Usethisto calculatethe TMD.
TMD= dA  ftdA dH' LcFtoao )
=
I r.eP '86.31  j
TMD 5.241438 I
lrct.et I
TMD= 5.(Y5d
(2) EnterdatawithTMD5.045m
Displacomont= 15120+ (320x 99 = 152U t
0.1
MCTC= 312tn LCF= 86.31n foap
Both answefsare cliffercntbut arc both valid sincea truemeasureot a ship's sfabi/,tyls itb
righlingmomentvalueat anygivanangieof heel.
Wtthin6na anglasof heelthe rightingntonentis givenby:
Righting moment (tfi) = Displacement x G[ x Sin€ 0
By method 1
At theditical instantthe etrectivedisdacenent= W P = 15126t sincethe P forceactsas
a weightbeingdischargedfromthe keel.
RM = Displacenenlv GM \ Sine0
RM = 15126 x 1.454x Sineo = 21993sine0 tm
By method2
By cAnsideingthe lossof GM asa resuftof thefa ofthe metacente:
RM = Displacement x GMx Sinee
RM = 152U x 1.441x Sinee = 219!Eslne0 arn
(Theslilht ditrerenc€aises due to roundingup of valuesin the calculation.)
Solution(bl
At the ditical inslantthe shipwillbe on an evenkee Thednught atthe sameinslantmry
be cabulatedby one ot two mothods.
Method1
TheinitialTMDhasalrcadybeencdculatedas being5.045m.
EntetingthedatawiththisobtaintheTrc value. Trc=31.96+(004xEElg=31.98t
0.1
Reduclion in TMD(cmsl = P forc€ lr)
TPC
in TMD=1@ =4.3cms
Reduclion
31.98
.. Daught at citical instant= s.US  0.043= 5,@2n (Ans)
Method2
If theetrectNedisplacement at the criticalinstantis (W P)
Etrectivedisplacement W P = 152U  138= 15126tonnes
=
Enterthedak with fl1isdisplacenentvalueto obtainthe TMDat the criticd insbnt.
TMD= 5 00 + (0.1x 6 ) : 5.002n
320
Thereforethe dftught at the criticalinstant= 5.002m (Ans)
(Aeattymethod2 is mucheasiet!)
L
It is dear from ihe atove that P fo.ce is direcdy proportional1othe change of bim that the ship will
undergo. Limiling the trim will llprefore limit the maximurn loads that will be experienced by the
slem frame. The grealer the displacernentof a given ship, the more important will t€ the need tro
limillhe dockingtrim.
L
21,5.2 Limiflng the loss ot GH
Consideratjonof the formulae will indicate thal the greater the lnm of the ship when docking, lhe
greaterwill be the loss of GM.
LosBof c =q4!'
wP w
Clearly,the greaterthe trim,the greaterthe P force;the greaterthe P force,the greaterthe lossof
L GM!
Altematively,the ship shoolddrlidock with a greatereffectiveGM that will ensurethat stabilityis
maintained.lmprovinglhe ship'sinilialGMwill be achievedby:
(1) Lovveingthe effectiveKG by low€.ingweightswilhinthe vessel,dischargingweightsfrom
highup dr takingon an acceptableamountoI ballastin doublebottomtanks,oq
(2) Minimisingfreeslrface effectsby toppingup slacktankswhereverpossible.
I Example2
M.V. Almarabout to dry cbck rcquircsa minimumGM of 0.3 m at the time the ship takes the
are F 6.89m andA 8.47n. KG is 8.86m
btocksfoNrardand an. CurrcntdraL€,hts
Calculatethe maximumpermissible
Um by the$em on entedngthe dry dock
t*
' SECION 21 Drydo€Lng
Ct .sS 2'1 STABILITY i61
Solrtklr't
(1) CalculateinitialTMD
AMD=7.68 m
Enterdatawitl AMDand obtainLCF po.sition.
Calculatethe maimum albwed P force and hence the maximum intial tim
Method 1
Loss of GM  P x KG 0.203 = P x 8.8ffi
wP (23821 P)
.. 0.203(23U1 P)=8860P
.. 4&35.6630.203P= 8.86OP
.. 4835.663= 8.860P+ 0.203P
.. 4835.663= 9.063P .. P = 5U t@r,€s
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L CIASS ?/l snI^alUTY *Cloa / O.'t.dd*c 2dl
L
CIT"SS21 STABILIIy SECiON 2l Drynodjng 264
SECTION22 BILGING
INTRODUCTION
A bilged' ship is one that has suffered a breach of the hull through grounding, collision or other
meansand waterhas beenadmittedintothe hull.Whenevera ship suffersdamageand foodingof
comparanenlstakes place there will ah/vaysbe an incease in the draught. However, it does not
always follow that the ship's inilial stabilitywill be worsened;in some instancesstabilityis
rmprovecl.
This section investigales lhe way fooding of compartments c€n affect the ship's draught and
stability for a number of differenl scenarios Although calculations involving boxshaped vessels
are considered,the principlesdiscussedwillapplyequallytoship shapes(in facl many ship'shulls
almosl representboxshapedvessels if the curvatureof the hull form at the ends is ignored!)
L
t
t
Leeming O@tives
On completionof this section the leamer will acfiieve the following:
1. Calculate the change in draught and stability of a boxshaped vessel when an empty
amidshipscompartment is bilged;
2. Calculate the effects of bilging an empty amidships compartmentwith a watertight (double
bottom);
3. Calcutalethe effectsofbilginga compartment when permeability
is lessth€n 10O%;
4. Calculatethedraughtswhen an end comparbnent becomesbilged;
5. Calculatethe lisl whenan amidshipssidecompartmenlis bilged,permeability 1000/";
6. Reviewthe principlesof bilgingto be appliedto differentflooding scenarios.
 SECTION22 BirqirE
CLASS2]1 STAAILTY 265
22.1 THEEFFECTSOF BILGINGAt{ EMPTYAIIIDS]IIPSCOIIPART ENT
becomesffoodeddueto damagecan be
Thecfiangesin draughtand stabilitywhena compartrnent
investigatedby eitherof 1womethods:
(1) the lostbuoyancy(constantdisplacemeri)rnethod,or;
.
(2) the addedweightmethod.
2. w.ter ,loo.rs into ahe comp.rnnenL The 3. fhe etcass ol weight torce ca,rsos are vosser to
buoyancyatfo.ded by the danage.t cornpattment sink to .ogatn a volune ot buoytncy equivatent to
i6 ,o6t crcating an excess ot weight torce. Since
ahe.lamage ls subtantial the compaturcnt may
now be considercdas being 'op€n to t r€ ser'.
a. The volume of buoyancy lost = fhe volume
Fig. 22.2
 S€CTo 22BEing
CLr€S 21 STABTLITY 266
L
L_ So it is assumedhat the sinkageof the vessel is causedby lhe redistibulionof the antact
underualervolume.Sincenolhinghas been loadedand the efiectivevolumeof displacementis
lhe same,the assumptonsof lhis approachare:
L (, Votune of displacement(and displeccmen' rcmain constanL and;
(2' KG remainsconstant
L We must now consider the change in the
vess€{sinitial stabiliv. Considerthe dtangc in
effectivewalerpianeareain fgure 22.3.
L In this casethe parl of waterplanearea of lhe
bilgedco.npartment hasbeenlost.Since:
L BM= L vessel:
andtora boxshaped = LB3
Bir$ox
v 12V
L BM n ill redlce direclly as a resull of the reduced wEter plane area. V, the volume of displacement
of lhe vessel, has not changed, since if displac€ment remains constanl; so does lhe volume of
displacement,
L In addilion, because the draught has indeased due to the sinkage, KB will inciease.
I KB&x = Drauqht
2
'This
b slill valu br t€ b ged conditionsincef€ KB of edr of tte end cornpdtnenb will be tle san€.
L Since: KM = KB + BM; it is most probable that KM will change as a result of lhe increasing KB and
the dec.easing BM; the changes in boih unlikelyto be lhe same.
L lf KM danges and KG is assumed to remajn @nsl,ant,any charEe in KM will be lhe same as the
change in GM, being either an increase or decreas€.
L Considerexample1.
Example 1 lBv losl buovancv constantdisplacenent methocl)
L A boxdtaped vessel has length 140 n, brcadth 36 m and is on an even keel drcught of 6 m in saft
water ln the ptes€'ntcondition the KG is 12.80 m. An ampty amidshipsconpaimant extending the
fu brcadth and depth of the vessel 60 m in letglh is Wed. Calculate:
L (a)
6
the draught in the bilged condition:
the initial GM;
(c) the GM in the Wad condition;
L (d) the moment of statical gability ifthe vesselis heelod to E.
Soltnicnh)
L Do a simple sketch
L
L lt.xlxrn ***r*.F i..
I FiJ.224
l_
ctass 2/1STABLTY,
sEcTtoN22 BirglrE 267
L
LOST= VOLUI{EoF BUOYANCYGAINEO
voLUME OF BUOYAT{CY
Solutbnh)
Tocalculatethe initialGM,fitstcalculateKM.
KMNX=KB+ BM
Calculate GM
Salutionb)
To calculate the GM in the bilged condkion.calculate KM.
KG remains agnstattl:
Disptacement (anal vatame of displacement) .emains constant
KM6x= KB + BM
Sohnbn(d)
Rightingmoment(tn) = GZ x Displacenent
Displacemenhq= Lengthx Breadthx Draughtx Oensityd water
Sincethe clisplacement rcmainsconstant:
Displacement = 140x36 x6 x1.025= 30996tonnes
At 5', a smal atqle of heel: GZ = GMx Sinee
Rightingmoment (tm) = (GM x Sine q x Displacement
Rightingmonent (trn) = (2.736 x Sine 5o)x 30996 = 7391 tm (Ans)
Solution(a)
L Do a sketch
Calculatethefrnaldraught(X).
LT Newdisplacement (3) = Initialdisplacenent(2) + massoffloodwater(1)
516?X=30996+2214X
.. 5166X  2214X= 30996
t ..
...
2952X= 30996
X = draughtin thebilgedcondition= 10gn m 6ns)
L Solutionb)
TocalculatetheinitialGM,tirstcalculateKM.
KM*=119*BM
L KB = Dra@ht = A@ = 3.000n
2 2
BM= @ = 140x36' = 18.Unn
L 12v 12x(1a0x 36x 6)
Thercfore: KM= 3.000+ 18.000= 21.Unn
L CalculateGM
GM= KMKG GM=21.000 12.800=8.2(nm @ns)
I Solutionb)
CalculatethefinalKG.
= 30996tonnes
Initialdisplacement
Massof ffodwater = 60 x 36 x 10.5x 1.025= 23247tonnes
I
L
Ct .SS?]1STAEIUTY SECTION22 Bilging 269
Kg cf the floodwater= 105 = 5.25m
2
Takenomentsaboutthe keel.
757!x)a
calculatethefrnalKM
KMsx= KB+ SM
Sohnion@)
Righlingnoitent (In) = GZ x Displacement
Finaldisplacement = 54243tonnes
At 5', a snan angleof heel: GZ = GMx Sinee
.. Rightingmonent (tm)= (GMx Sineg) x Displacement
Rightingmonent (tan)= (1.5U x Sine5o)x !'4213= 73!X lrn (Ans)
22.21 Flooalweter confined t€,low a weteflighl f,at t€/ow the odgind waMlne
L_
Example 2
I A boxshaped vessel floating on an even keel in saft walet has the following pafliculars; length 110
t_ m, breadth 22 m and dnught 5.00 m.
There is an empty amidships bdtom conpaftment 20 n in lenglh extendittg the fuI brcadth ot the
vessel with a wateftght frat 4.80 m above the keel.
L Calculate the chatBe in GM if this cornpathEnt becones bilgecl.
t_ Solution
By the ktst buoyancy (conslant displacement)methoa!:
KG remains coas,art;
U*lacefient (and volume of tlisptacement) remains constanL
Do a simple sketch.
L From the sketch it can be seen that the water
plane area will rcnain intact since no paft of h,'.a,P.
:r,....r'qr *i
the hun is flooded above the wateftight f,at.
F4.22.6
LOST= VOLUiIEOFBUOYANCY
VOLUIIEOFBUOYANCY GAINED
L Let x = sinkage 20^22^4.8=110\22.x
2112 = 24mx
x = 0.873m
L_
Therefore the daught in the Wed condition= 5.000 + 0.873 = 5.873 m
L_ To calculate the change in initial GM. calculale KM far lhe intact cond6on and then KM fot the
bitged condition. The differcnce in the values calculated will give the change in GM
L lntact KM
KMBox=KB+BM
KB = Drauoht = 9@ = 2.500 n
L 2 2
(Note that the final wlume of displacentent(in red) is the same as lhe initial wlME of
displacement,so just usethe onginalvahEs!) BM = LE
12V
However,sinceth6 watetplane area has ranained fuIy intactand the volune of dsplacement
aloesnot change:lnitialBM = Find BM = 8.067m
Thereforc: FinalKM = 3.030+ 8.067= 11.097m
Charye in GM= Chat]gein KM
GM hes increesedby 0.530m (Ans)
1 10 S 7
055
ln this instarrcethe initial &ability of lre vessel has increasedas a resu/l ot bilgitg the
compartment. Thisis due to the addiltonof botlomweightwithN intoduc.d free surfacemomenls
(if the addedvleghl nethod wereto be @nstdered}
So/utio,
By the loslbuoyancy(constantdisplacetrrent)
method:
KG remainsconstant:
Displacetuent(and volufie of displaaement)rcmains constanL
Therefore, any change in KM will equal the
change in GM
Do a simple sketch.
Calculate the $oblem on this basis and if it were found that the new dnught is aclually less than
the hedht of the wateftight flat, rewrk the problem as if il were an odinary amidship$
cdnpatTnent as in example 1, since the initial assumptionmade wouldbe incoffed.
 SECTION22 Bilqiro
CTASS21 STABILITY
i
L
l,lote t@t he spacein tl]€ bilgeddrnpaftnst belw@1 the initialwate,line d the wa@tightflat is t ot
padot tE volune of bloyancy gained, skce the atumpatulentb now open to the seawhen bilged.
L VOLUME OF BUOYANCY LOST = VOLU E OF BUOYANCY GAINED
Intact KM
KMfux=KB+BM
KM= 2.750+6.061=8.811m
L BM= LB = 1nx2d
12V 12x(100xm x 5.5)
= 6 . 0 6 1 m Therefore
t_ Bilaed KM
KMBox=KB+BM
At lhe ,inal wabrtine KB * @!90!
r
22.3 BILGINGA COiIPARTMEI{TWHENPERMEAAIUTY IS LESSTHANIOO7.
fhe 1F]tmpemeabililywithrcspect1oanycompartrnent on a ship rolatosto lhe amountof spac€in
thal compartmentthat is capableof beingflled with ffoodwater.An emptytank has a p€fmeability
of100o/o(or 1.00).A completelytulltankhasa penneability of 0olo(or0.00).A widelyusedvalue
forpenneabilily
of theengineroomin a shipis lakenas 850/6 (o.0.85);wheGby 15%of theengine
roomis takenup by the madrinerywithinit and85%is vordspacl capableof beingnooded.
Examplo4
A boxshepedvesselhaslength120 m, bteadth16 m and floatsat an evenkeeldraughtof 6.00m
in saftwater.Thereis an empty amidshipscompatlnentof lenglh20 n extendingthe fu breadth
of the vesselthat hasa pemteabilityof 40%.ff thisfumpaftnentshouldbecomebilgedcalculaE:
(a) the newdnught,and;
(b) the changein GM.
gltJtion hl
By the loslbuoyancy(conslantdisplacement)
method:
KG remainsconstane
Disptacement(and votumeat disptacement)remainsconstanL
TherefoQ, any change in KM wil equal the
change in GM.
Do a simple sketch.
Fiq.22.10
Solutionb)
To calculatethe changein inkal GM, calculateKM for the intactconditionand then KM for the
bilge.t..ndftion.
s M =E = 120x163 = 3.556m
L 12V x16x 6)
12x(120
t_
Example 5
A hdd has length 30 m, breadth 12 m
and a depth of I m. Coal haing a
stowage facbr (SF) of 1.36 n"/t is
baded into the hold until cornpletelyfulL
ff the tne density of the cnal is 1.20 Um',
calculate the petmeabil'ty of the
@mpaftment.
Sddion Method 1)
Compaftrnentvolmte = 30 x 12 x I = 2880n:'
Maximum mass of coal that compatTfirentcan holc!= WlEe = @= 21 18 t
sF 1.36
Therefore: Permeability=@e!9lSE)=.t03994C!9&)
massx sF
where:mass = the'solid'SF
density
= EAES!9E_=lldq4g!)
Permeability
massx sF
L $nfu61*rGr Kr.r,r",.r.,,.rr.*
v.btbrr... t 4iturt"...n'.''.'.1
L Fiq.22.13
L KB = D.&4A = '9@=
2 2
2.9@ n
BM= LE = 140x26' = 9 . 7 1m
3
12V 12x(140 x 26 x 5.8)
!_,
Bloed KM
KMsox=KB + BM
 1 3 6 x 2 6 x 4 4 6 3 x0 4 5 1 BM=E
65634 12V
Fig.22.15
Change in GM = Change in KM
lf an end cornpartmer{ becomes bilged the vessel will suffer both bodily sinkage and a change of
!
fim. The bodily sinkage is calculated as if the comparfnent were siled amidships. The
'shned' in ihe calculelion to allow the change of tdm to be calculated. The
compartment is then
change of trim lhat takes place will depend on the MCTC vabe for lhe bilged condition.
L Do a simphesketch.
1. Calculatethe newmeandraught
1_: v*c!.r.gtd
:rdrr:.'..,rr
L
Fis.22.16
LOST= VOLU E OFBUOYANCY
VOLU E OFBUOYANCY GAINEO
t
6 x 1 2 x 2 . 5 = (f 7 5  6 )x 1 2 ) x
I t18O= 828x r
x = 0.217m
Thercfotethemeandnught in the biged conditidl = zsN + 0.217= 2.717n
2. to itsactualposilionandcalculatethetimmingmoment
Movelhe compaftment
consider frgure22.17.
lnhially the LCG and LCB arc in the
sane longitudinal positionat amidships
(sirce fre vess6/ ,:so/l an even keel),
The change of tdm is caused by the
I loss of volune of buoyancy foNad
which causes the LCB to move aft (B
to B). This crcates a tnmmingmoment
gMen oy: Fig.22.17
L*
CLASS211STABLTY,SECTION22 Br€ing 279
Trinmingmonent (tn) = W' BB,
Becauseof tl€ symnew of the intactvolune it ffiows that the timming lever (BB) = 3 n, beinS
hdt theleryth d thebilgedcomparunent.
.. Timmingmoment= 05 x 12 x 2.5x 1.025)x 3 = 691a.75trn
(Di splacene nt remains constant!)
3. MCC
Calculale
MCTC=W xGMl
100L8t
whereGML KML KG
FiAi calculatethe KMLfor lhe bilgedcondition
KML= KB + BML
MCTC=W xGM,
1@LBP
ctass zl STABILTY
sEcron22 sirqinq 2W
L
I
L 22.1.2 Bllging an extr"lme .nd comparln'ent with a waf€ tiglrt ltat  1@96lE,rne€bility
Example I
L A boxshaped vessel has length 100 n, breadth 18 m and is froatingon an even keel draught in
saftwater of 4.0 m. tn this condition the KG is 6.8 m. An empty foNad end compaftnent ot length
10 m below a wateftight flat 3 m above the keel atd extending the full breadth of the vessel is
t_ bilged. Cdculate the daughls in the fl@ded condition.
Sdution
@76tost ouoyancy lanstant displacement)m ethd:
L_ KG ,emains constanl:
Displace,rent (and voluhe of disptaaement) rernarlnscotstatt
Do a simple skelch
Fig. 22.18
2.199
MCTC=W xGMl
lNLBP
MCTC=(10!: x 203.732=
\18 ' 1, t.a2a) 150.3ytm
100x 100
4. CalcLlatethechangeoftrim
COT(cms)= Tnnminonan ent = @ZJ = 165.7cmsby thehead
MCTC 1fi.354
 SECTION22 Blging
CIASS 21 STABILITY 242
L
i 22.5,1Noment of inerta
We knov,thatfor a boxshaped vessel: Bl\&o.= tq' where:tEr
12V 12
is the momentof inertiaof the walerplanearca,andV is the volumeof displacemenl
of lhe vessel.
Fiq.22.21
L_
The moment of inertia about an axis passing a/ong ore edge of the water plane area can also be
found.
These values may be calculated
rr
as follows:
L
clAss 21 STABIUTYSECION22 aibino 243
L
22.5.3The patallel axes thaorem
This states that:
llP monent of inedk about any axis passitu thtough the centoid of a water plane arca is equd to
the nonent of ineftia of the same water plane area about any paftllel axis, minus the area of the
water plane muftipliedby the distance betweenthe:L{es squared'
considerfgure22.23
The momentof inertiaaboulthe axis ll (whichpasses
throughthe cente of flotaton)is equalto the moment
ol inertiaaboullhe axrs XX minusthe prcductof the
waterolaneareaand the distancebetlveenthe axes
squareo r.e. Fig.22n
l,r=lxx(Axd')
For this fomula to be tauethe two axes must be pararle/and one of them must passthroughllie
centoid of the area concerned.
Exanple 9
A boxshaped vesse/has lenglh 20 m and breadth 6 m
Calculate:
bJ the moment of inetlia for all the axis' of rotation shown;
(b) the noment of ineftia about the two axis'passing thtough the centre of flotation using the
parallel axis' theorem.
Sohrtionh)
L,
LT =nze = 3O0m'
12 12
Solutionb)
the paralletaxis
lJsing theorem: I= Iv(A xt) whercd= 3 n:
ttt = 1440 (20x 6 x !) = 3@ n'
Usingthepanllel axistheorem: ILL= lw  (A x t) whsred = 10n:
ILL = 1ffim  (20x 6 x 10') ='1000m'
22.5.1 Calculatirrgthe momentot inettia of a waEr plane arcaof e boxsh.ped vessel with a
bitged side compaftnent
The parallel axis theorem previously describ€d
will be used to calculale the moment of inertia of 1
the waler plane area of a boxshapedvessel l,
where an amidshios side comoartmenlhas .
becomebilged.This will be necessaryin order I
to fnd the KM, and hence GM of the vessel in l,
the bilgedcondition. 0
Considerfgure 22.25. Fig. 22.25
In order to calculale the Bl\, in the bilged condition it will be nec€ssaryto calculale the new value of
lhe transverse moment of inerlia of the remaining intact water plane area aboul the new
longitudinalaxis of rotation passing through the new position of the centre of flotation (aboul axis
ll). This is adrievedby usinglhe parallelaxislheoremwhereby:
Example 10
A box slraped vessel has bnglh 96 n and bredth 18 n anc! floats at an even keel dnught of 4.6
i m in saft water. An amidsllips side conpartment of length 24 m extending in frcm the side 6 m b
bilged. Calculate:
(a) the initial BM value;
(b) the BM in the damaged condition.
Soldion b)
'iili6li6it
andition:BM= Ld
1w
BM = x1e = 5.870m(Ans)
I
L 12x(96x18x4.6)
t."
Sohnionb)
L fo cdculaE the BM in the damagecl
condilion:h =l^(Ax d'l Fil.22.26
L '{5'g)'[r'"'.r'*
]
Calculatethe distance of the new LCF frcm one side of the WPA (rc<in figure 22.26)
L 1.
Take momonts of area about side)A
L
L clr"ss zl1 STABTY  sEcIoN 22 Bitghg 245
L_
2. Calculatethe transversemomentof inertiaaboutthe axis passingthroughtlle now position
of theLCF
t , ,= ( L E  t b )  ( 'r L B  l b ) . d I)
L3 3J'
t . . = ( t % ^ 1 d t e 4 ' d )  f ( r 9 6 . r s ,  r 2 4 ' 6 , 1' 9 . 5 1 5 ' I
L 3 3 J L ' 't )
l
h , = ( f t a a z q  t t n )  ( n 7 2 8 1 1 4 ) , s s 4 5 )
L J L )

,t= 184N6 (15u x9.54e)
ht= 4O582n'
3. CalculatetheBMlot thebilgedconditionBM=!
22.5.5 Celculaling lhe arrgle of li6t ,esulting from an amidships side comparknent
becomlng b ged.
Considera boxshapedvesselwith side compartments
amkJships as in figure22.27.F is the cenlreof iotalion
initiallyon the centreline.Thevesselis ioatingupright
on an even keel when a side compartmentbecomes
bilged.Thevolumeof buoyancy loslis shown
Fiq.22.27
The vesselwill sink to regainthe buoyancylost. Figure
22.28 illustratesthe shape of th€ buoyancy gained.
Fiq.22.28
Figure 22.29 shows the vess€l after it has exp€rienced
sinkagebut beforeit lists. l l
The transfer of the volume of buoyancy (b to br) causes
the cenlre of buoyancy, g, to move off the c€nlre line
(and upwards) to 81. fhe horimntal @mponent of this
shift creates the listing lever, whi(*r is equal to Gx.
Fig. 22.29
CIA.SS21 STABLTY  SECTION 22  Ailgihg
The vesselwill now list over to the bilgedside (tigure
22.30\.
Tan0L6r= oPP = Gx = 99"
ADJ XM XM
Therefore: Tanousr= Er
Gltgreo
Note
When calculating list arising ftom the loading,
disdErging or shifring oI weights the formulal Fiq.22.30
Tanour = 99r
Gtl
In this insiance, GGH is the cause of the list, whic* represenG the distance that the centre ot
grawly of the ship is off the centre line at the tirne for which the list is being calculaled.
When calculatingthe list caused by the bibing of a side comparlnent lhe formula:
Here the lisl is being caused by lhe hodzontal component of the movement ot the cente of
buoyarcy and the GM is that which appliesto the vessel's damagedcondition.
Example 11
A boxshapedvessel floating uptight on an even keel in sallwater has the folowing patlbularc:
Lenglh 120m *eadth 25m Dnught 6.00 m KG 5.80 m
The vessel has a centrc line wateftight bulkhead wkh an empty amidships side conpartnent of
20n lenglh.
So/ufion
By the lostbuoyancy (constantdisdacement) nethod:
XG retaainsconstant;
Displaatment (and volume .rt disptacetrant) rcmains constant
Do a simple sketch.
I
l
i,
Fb.22.31
 SECTTOU
CLASS21 STABTLITY 22 B'long 247
1. Calculatethe sinkage and new uptight draughl.
Fig. 22.32
VOLUIIE OF AUOYANCYLOST= VOLUMEOF BUOYANCYGAINED
3 Calculate the tqnsverse mcnent of ineftia about the axis passing through the new posilion
ofthe LCF l,= In(A x d')
Itt= 112391ma
L 7. Cdcdalefrre list
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L CIASS2xsnaLlTY SECIIo{22 g*tno a9
L
22.6 REVIEWOF PRINCIPLESOF BILGINGTO BE APPLIEDTO CALCULATIONS
The accepled method of conducting bilging calculations is by using the Lost Buoyancy (Condant
Disrlacernenf) method.
This assumes:
t. n/habver cqnparfnert is brged,trle vdurne of disphrn€i (anddidacen'ent) does rDl cttarEe.
3. lf the tilged compartmenlexlends the full depth of the vessel, KB in the final condilion will
always be half the inal draught.
4 lf iooding of the compartnent is restrictedby a watertighl flat below the final waterline fnal
KB is nol half the draught;it must be found ry taking momenlsol volumeabout the keel.
Doing a sketch for the final watedine conditionwill mnfim lhis.
5. The cenlre of flotation is always at the centroid of the intacl water plane area. lf the bilged
compartmentis amidshipsthe centre of tlotation will always be amidships.
lf ihe bilged cornpartment is at the end of the vessel and lherc is no reslncting watertight
iat, then the LCF will be at half the lengthof lhe remainingintactwater plane i.e. it will
move a distanceequal lo haff the length of the bilged compartment.
lf the bilged compartrnentis at the end of the vessel and there is a reslricling waterlighl
iat, then the LCF will remain at amidshipssince the water plane a@a will not be affected.
6. The posffon of B will be vertic€lly belo\ / the centre of folation if the bilged compartmenl
extends the full depth of the vessel. ln this instance any shiff in B and F will be the same.
7. lf the bilged compartrnentis al the end and llooding is restficted by a watertight flat B will
not be in line with lhe LCF in th€ fnal condition i.e. LCF will remain amidshiAs bul B will
move away from amidships (away from the position of the centroid of the bilged
compartment). The LCB must be calculated by taking moments of volume about the aft
perpendicular.Doing a sketdr for the final watedine conditjon will conim this. 
listrc moment of inertia of lhe ,inlactwater plane area taken about an axis passing through
lhe centre offfotation.
V is f^e volunE d displaenent WhenusirE the consbnt displacen€r{ (losl tuoyancy) nEthod
V rermins constari so alway€usete ort inallerEth,bEadh and draughto{t}le \essel
o","n thebirsed
ilT;B?frt;:i"',i5$"hLi""il?'11"'" norsr,icry
dtausht.'thisis ruc
sinc€ this only applies when the centre of ffotation is on the centre line (where lhe water
plane area remainsinlact).The vesselwill heevlistabout a longifudinalaxis that passes
through the centre of flotation whereby lhe increase in draught on the heeled side will equal
the decrease on draught on the high side. lf the centre of lloiation is off the centre line (F,),
as in lhe case considered,lhen there will be a greater increase of draught on lhe heeled
side than dedease in draught on the high side. However, provided that the list is small, any
enor is assumed negligibleso may be ignored.
Finally,the list is calculatedusing: Tanousr= ggH
G;1"'.o
where the fist is caused by lhe movement of the cente of buoyancy olf lhe centre line and
not lhe rnovementof a weight as in a normal list problem.
?11sTABtLrvsrcTloNz  Birging
cta"ss 290
t_
L @
lNtRout cTloN
i When a ship has achieved a steady rate of tum it will he€l in a direction away from lhe centre of
tfl€ tuming circle i.e. a tum io sta.boad vrill cause a heel lo port. However, at the initial stages d
the tum the dirsc{on oI the heel is in fact opposite lo this! This section idenlifies lh€ folces that
arise when a ship is undergcinga fum and explains lhe fomula that can be us€d to determinethe
angle ol heel lhat will occur.
Leaming Ohjactlvea
i On completionofthis s€ction the leamerwill achieve the follo/ving:
'1. Understandthe terms relaiing lo a ship s fuming cirde.
2 Understandthe forces that c€use the ship to heelwhen tuming.
i 3. Caiculatethe angleot heelwhenluming.
4. Calculatethe increase in draught due to list or heel when fuming.
cllss 2ll sTABlLlw ' sEcIoN 3 Angb or her *hs ruhino 291
t
23.I TERMSRELANNGTOA SHIP'STURNI]'IG CIRCLE
Figure23.1showsthe pathtaced out by
ihe ship'scentreof gravityduringtuming
r
!
t'
I
I
Fiq.23.1
2t.1.1 Advance
Thisis lhe distancetravelledby lhe ship'scentreof gravityin a directionparallello lhe ship'sinitial
course.lt is usuallyquotedfor a 9C changeof heading.
23.12Tra,rsfer
Thisis the distancetravelledby the ship'scentreof gravityin a directionperpendicular
to the ships
inilialclurse. lt is usuallyquotedfor a g0' changeol heading.
X1.1.3Tacticatdi.n e'€r
This is the distancetavelled by the ships centreof g€vit in a directionperpendidiarto lhe ships
initial@urse whentheshiphasaltereditscourseby 180'andis on a reciprocal heading.
Z'l ,5 Yaw(*)
Thisis the anglebelweenihe ship'sforeand aft lineandthe directjonof travelof the ship'scentre
of gravityat any instantduringthe tum.
add&.r*t .@8.,,nt a
FO.23.2
An equal and opposite force, Fr arises,
resisting the athwartships motion set up by
the force on the rudder. This reaction actson
the oort side al lhe cente of lateral
rosistance (CLR) and is loc€ted at the
geometric cenfe of the undeMater
longitudinalarea and is invariablyhigher
than P.
Fig.23.3
L
Fiq.23.5
(wxGz)=WV?xd
gR
.. gRxWxGt\rxSins=WVxBGxCosO
Dividingbothsidesby Cosogives:
qRxwxGMxSine=wt'xBG
Coso
gRxWxGMxTane=WVxBG
Tano= llfnBq
gRxWxGM
Thus: ranO= @
gxR).Gil
It should be noted that in practice the outward angle of heel developed in the tum will be slightly
/ess than lhal given by the tormula because of the small inwad heeling moment sel up by lhe
athwartshioscornDonenlof thrust on the rudder.
However, the initial tendency for the ship to hed inward must nevet be ovedooked. ff, duing a
steady tum, the ,uddet is qui*ly retumed to amidships, the outward heel wil instantaneously
iwease. If the tudder is suddenly reversed i.e. pd hardapott on a slatboatd fuming circte, an
even rbrc seious oLlvvardangle of hed would an6e @lbeit tgnporarily) which could cause the
ship to heel excessively
The followingexampleswill demonstratethe use of the formula.lt shouldbe notedthal lhe speed
(V) is in metresp€rsecondandnot in knolsThefdlowingwill help.
1 Knot= 1852metresperhour
: To converlmetresper hourinlo mefes per seconddivideby 3600;sincethereare 3600seconds
tnannour.
12 Knots= (12_Xl85?!
= 6.173rn/sec.
3600
Example1
Calculatetheangleol heeldevelopeduhen a shipdokg 20 knotsachievesa steadyrcte of tum to
statboafuand the ndius of the tumingcircleis 300m giventhat
KM=8.0Om KG= 6.00m KB=2.5m
Solution
20 tlJr,o's= lAZJ.gE) = 10.289n/sec.
3ffi0
e.3.f Pott(Ans)
L Example2
Calcutatethe maximumWeed on a turningcircle ot diameter620 m in oder that the heel
developea! doesnot exceedf giventhd:
: K M= 1 5 . 8 8 n KG=14.26m KB=8.05m
Soldion
GM= KM KG GM= 15.88 14.mn = 1.62n
... v=1ffi382=9.131n/s
L
=gee=
Sino X/
f{YP l,Beam
coso=A!!=Yz = Yz Fig.23.7
Ff/P YW Upight draught
. . YZ = Updght d.aughtx Coso (2)
Bdngingtogetherfomulae (1) and (2) gives the fomula for calcriating the draught when heel€d:
A marginof safetywill be affordedby the tum of the bilgeof the ship that is ignoredwhen using
thisformlla.
Example3
A ship heds 5oas it makesa tum. lf the dftr,eht wl6n u$ight is 7.60m calculatethe dtaught
whenheeledgiventhat thebreadthis 18m.
Sohfiirn
Draughtwhenheeled= (% Aean x SinO)+ (Uprightdnught x Cose)
Draughtwhenheeled= (%x 18x Sin 5o)+ (7.60x CosA)
= O784+ 7.571= 8.355m (Ans)
L
I
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
CL,€S 21 sTABlUw sEcTloN 24 wind lEdinq, ie @ljon aid.drrE 297
L
24.1 WND HEELING
Becauseof the confusionoften @used even io the adhor) both ve6ions ot the wind heeling
cdtedaare fullyexplained,ho$,ever,tho approachto be adoptedin any particularcasewill depend
uponthe legislationapplicableto any parltcllarship.
Becausethe MCAapproachappea6 to many to be a litde simpler,this will be discussedfirst,
folloNedby the IMOappmach.
12) the largeanglesof heel causedby strongbeamwinds actingon lhe large lateralarcas
abovethewalerlineafford€dby the shipand coriainers.
Wth respectto (2) above, Part 8.2 of'Load Lines Instuchonsfor the Guidanceof Sutvoyots
/MCA) stales the minimumrequirementsto be nlet by containerships likelyto €xp€dencethe
adveFeeffecbof windheeling.
2L1.1.1 Wi d hdlrrg ctibfie ror container ships qlCA)
Parl 8.2 of 'LoadLtnes lnstructionsfor the Guidanceof SuNeyorc(MCA)stateslhe minimum
cnteriaapplicable shrpsasfollows:
to contiainer
8.2.3 lhen the heightof the lateal windqe arca neasued f@n the bad watedineto tl,e top of
the catgo containetssituatedon the weatherdeckis gr€al€/ tl'dn 3U6 of tlre beem,the
shipbuildetsshouldpreparca cuNe of slatical stabilityfor the ship in tie h@rstsel,be
condtion (takinginto &,coutitthe advgrseeffectsof icitg as apwpriate). The windage
arcaand itscentreof graity andleverto mid4aught shou/dbe staled.
8.2.3.1onwatdsdescribesthe criteriathal mustbe salisfiedand is simplified
in lhe restof thissubsection.
L
lf lhe laieral exposed area on
L one side is A (m') then the
force acting at C due to tlle Win t assumed to act at gaomatr'tc centre ot tate',t exposed area on
steadywind is given by: one sLte abova the lotcl eatedine (c).
L Steadywind force (tonnes) = (Ax 48.5)
Fig.24.2
1000
L Considerfigure24.3.
Thesleadywindiorce of 48.5 Kgtm' acting
L at C is resistedby an equal and opposile
reaclionat halfdraughtdepthwhichsetsup
a sleadywindheelingmomentgivenby:
L Fig.24.3
Steadywind heellngmoment(tfl) = (A:l!qD x PO
'1000
L
This steady wind heeling moment is plotted as a horizontal heeling arm on the cu e of dghling
momenb.This is shownin figure24.4,whereit c€usesthe shipto heelto sta/board
L rhe angteorsteadyheelduq!914!9!!9e!! wind is0j, wherethe ship'srightingmomentsand wind
heelingmornenlare equal.
L
clAss 2l1 STABUr} $anON 2! Wnd h*lhg. G sclio. and'olling 299
l
L__
Becausethe ship is likelyto be rollingdue to the actionot wavesil is lhen assumedthat the ship
rolls15' ,lalo,t e dnd (to port)fromthe angleof steadywind heelto an angle0r.
The vesselwifl right itselfbrrtin so doingrvill iniliallyheel overto U,lhe angleof dynamicheel.
This angleof dynamicheelis at a positionsuchthat the shadedarea Sr equalsshadedarea 52.lf
it is bome in mindthat area underthe ighting momenlcurveis a measureof dwanicd stability
(beingthe \wo* required by thewindandwavesto heeltheshipto a particular angleof heel) then
it willhelpin the undersianding of whythe shipwouldheelto 03underlhe conditions assumed by
theseregulalions.
Thefinal requirementis that:
03  beins th6 angle of dynamic heel, must not angle oI heel at which
progr€ssivefloodlng would take place (0r).
FiJ.24.4
.'.1,'jc!b'.!hi*i,$,:,e']
Fig.24.5
1, Caldilateareaq usingSimpson'srules.
FromshiCsdaladeterminethearEleofprogressivefloodirE(q)fortle ships baded condition
L 2.
3. Calculatethe area boundod by the gust vind heeling moment am andthe ighting moment
culve betwe€n0y and 0r usingSimpsons rules.
4. Provided that Area Sr < Area S, (0y to 0r), the ship will comply with the recommendalions
L In many inslances ii will not be necessaryto us€ Simpson's rules to veriry compliance, since it will
be obviousthat the shipcomplies.Considerthe followingexamde.
L Examole 1
A (;.,nainer ship displacing32NO tonnes has KG 9.80 n at a drcught of 9.90 m and has a latenl
windagp atea of 1400 trf ti/here the geometnc cenlre of the windage arca is 16.2 m above the
L keel KM is 10.15 m. The angle of deck edge im'''ersion is lf and the angle ot progrg$sive
downfloodingis 2e. Detetminewhethet u not the stabw is adequate in tetms of the etrocts of
slrotl4 beam winds if he ighting levets (GZ) tot the bded conditionate as fdlows:
e e 1 a 2 0 3e
L Gz (m) 0.00 0.06 0.14 0.24
Solulkm
L 1. Calculateighting rnomentvalues
Steadywindheelitgnornent(tm)= (AZigD x Pa
1000
L Steadywindheelngnnment(ta) = (LgI:lLg x 11.25= 7A Ln
1000
Gustwindheelingnoment (un) = 1.5 x 7U = 1146tm
L ts
Plot the cue af ighting
moments lot both 1s
L sides of the up,ight
condtion ".nd, n
w
supenmpaselne wlno
heeling ams (Figure n
L 24.6)
Fron ke fisutelhe.ansteot Z:
L saeitdltwtEt neetts 1'.
; .
e, is 11oon the othersideof ,6
L uptighl (being 15o into the Z.n
windfromei t*
Hr.l l&!.1
Figure24.6
t:
CLASS 211 STABIIITY S€CTloN 24 Wind tEling i@ adrclo. and blling 301
l
4. Veify complianceby inspection(or Simpsons tulesil rcquied)
ft is evidentttumfgure 24.6thattheship@mp[essitrceS, is greateat ttn Sr.
i.e. Ship comples (Ans)
Weight is expressed in /Ve${ots where: weight (N) = a$s (t) x Accal.r.tion (nvs')
ld='1.5x1,
Thewindheelingleversare
thensuperimposed onlothe
l clrve of staticalstabilityas
illustrated
in fgure24.7.
Area b shouldbe equal to
orgrcaterlnanareaa.
c* ranl lcct. 1.6 a$.rrt grn !tar
The anglesin fgure 24.7
aredefnedasfollows: Fiq.24.7
eo is the angle of heel due to steady wind;
0r is the angle of roll to windward due to wave action (' see note);
e2 is the angle of progressivedou,nfooding(0r) or slP or 0" whichever is iess,
L where: 0i is the angle of heel at lvhicfi openings in the hull, superstrucluresor deck
houses which cannol be clos€d weathertighlimmerse.In applyingthis
criterion, small openings through wtrich progressive fooding cannot take
L place need nol be consideredopen.
e. is the angle of heel of lhe second intercepl between the gusling wnd
heeling lever (la) and the GZ crlrve.
L ' Note:Theangleofroll(0i) shouldbe calculatedas follows:
where:,x''is a factorwhichdependson lhe Breadth/draught ratiowherethe
as lhe B/d ratio increases;
'X,' is a factorthat dependson the blockcoeffcjenlof the ship wherethe valueof
)Gincaeases as theCBratioincreases;
I
'k' is a factorthat dependson the roundnessof the bilgeand whetherthe ship has
bilgekeelsfittedor not ( the more roundedthe bilgethe easierthe shipwill roll and
thegrealerwitlbelhevalueof k (having a valuebelween 0.70and 1.00).
f is foundbytheformula:r = 0.731(0.6xOG/d)with:
] 'OG'being the distancebetweenlhe cenlrcof gravityof the ship and the waterlane
in metres(being+ if the centreof gravityof lhe shipis abovethe watedineand  if
below);?'is themeanmoulded draughtof lhe shipin metes.
I 's' is a fac{orwhic+rdependson the rollingpedodof the ship where s' reducesas
therollingpedodincreases. Therollingperiodis givenby:
Rolling period O secs) = ?9q
,,/c
L where:
C=0.373+0.023(B/d)0.043(U100)
ts'is themoulded breadlhol theship(m);
'G/lt'is lhe metacentricheightcorecledfor freesurfaceeffect(m).
Clearly, the tables in Chapter 3 of the Code must be consulted in order that lhe values for the
various aforemenlionedfaclors can be ascertained.
With respecl to icing regulation 8.28 of the MCA publicatjon toad Lines  lnstuctions for the
Guidance of Sutvetprs'details lhe circumstancesand method for making allowancefor iclng in lhe
calculationof the ship's etfeclive KG.
The stability information book of any ship, which may trade in an area where ice may form should
contain infomation thal indicates the effect of the formation of ice on exposed hull,
supeGtructures,holses, dec* cargo etc. This musl be calculated as eithet afull icing allowanceor
a hall bing alLwance.
{ Mainde*3100m' at Kg 16.2n:
2nd deck N n' at Kg 18.6 n;
3rd deck42 m' at Kg 21.0m;
&idge deck 48 m' at Kg 23.4 m;
L Funnel cLeckS m' at Kg 25.8 m;
Solution
Calculateweighto{ ice on de*s usingfull icingalbwance
L Main deck: 3100x 30 = 93000KS= 93 tonnesat Kg 16.2m
2nd cleck: 60x 30 = 1800KS= 1.80tonnesat Kg 18.6m
42x 30 = 1260KS= 1.26 t(mnesat Kg 21.0 m
L 3rd deck:
Bndge deck: 48x 30 = 1440KS= 1.44 t@nesat Kg 23.4m
ffi x 30 = 1680KS= 1.68t,nes at Kg 25.8m
10%=lJPa!9= 18trn
L 100
4. Take montents about the keel to calculate etrecive KG and GM.
L @l".*l
EA_lJ3gJ
IGM I 0210 
I
t
33 7(
t_ Finally,
anev€minetion queslionmightbephrased as follows:
A ship operathuin severcwinter coditions nay sufrerfrcm nonsymmeticalice accret@non
decksand supedructure.Desqibethe effeclson the ovetallstadlityof the ship,makingparlicular
efercnce to the ship'scuo of staticalstabilitt.
L CtaSS 2/1 STABILITY  SECnO N 24 Whd h€€lrng ic6 al:did and ollinq 305
When iong occurs as previouslydescribed the following may be expectedto happen:
(1) lcing on horizontal decks and cargo surfaces will cause G to rise resulting in an increas€d
Kci/decreasedGl,l.
(2\ lcing on the lateral areas of the ship on one side above the watedinewill cause lhe ship to
list.
(3) Both (1) and (2) above will c€use an increasein the ships disdacementresullingin a
reduced ieeboard (arguably the effects of this will be dependanl on the ship's overall size
in relalion to the mass of ice accumulated).
Figure 24.9 illustratesthe overall effects of icing on th6 oirve of statical stability.
'tl, . 
4l
xi.r ftt grl
Fig 24.9
icingwill c€use:
In summary.unsymmeldcal
' lnitial GM to be reduced;
ffi&a
completeoscillationi.e. the
L time it iakes for the ship to
roll from one side back
through the upright to the
extent of il's roll on the other
t sideand backagain.
,aaa! Prrs ar't, *d6
The amplitude of the roll is F8.24.10
L deined as lhe extent of the
rollin degrees.
L
CLASS 2yl STABILITY SECIION 24 wind helinq. i6mlin and olling 307
L.
Underthecircumslances therollperiod(T)is approximated
described by thefomula:
T (secs)= 2t
Wxsicn
where: 7 is the momentof ineniaof lhe ships slructureand all deadweight
components
aboutlhe rollingaxis(G);
'lf istheship'sdisplacement in tonnes;
?' is theaccelerationdueto gravity(9.81 nvs'),and:
'Gll is the ship'seffectivemetacentricheight.
The formula shows that for a constant value of  (or k) the rolling period is inversely proporlionalto
the square rool of the GlVl(so long as GM is positive) i.e.
The fo.mula also shows that the rolling period is direc'dypropo.tionalto the radius of gyralion (k) i.e.
L
L The long pole tnakes tightrope etlking aasy!
Fig.24.14
l_ 21.3.1 Deterrnining he GH by means of rolling p€.iod aests
Annex 3 of the Code o, lntact Stabilityfor all Ships cove@dby IMO lnstrumenrs(/MO.)detailsthe
method of determining the lighl ship GM (and hence KG) by means of a rolling period test. This is
L permitted for ships up lo 70 metres in length. lt c€n be sholvn that the roll period is very much a
function of the ship's beam and the formulae used for the rolling period test is:
L T l3ecsl= 16tl
tx Beam
where ? is a factor 6lFEl6mlgE6t&fRlt6lvn as the rc/iing coe,fderf. For coasters and lishing
vessels th€ average values of t range between 0.60 and 0.88. Annex 3 of the Code should be
consultedfor more detail if required
Example3
L Calculatethe naturclrollingperiodof a shipfor whichk is 4.0m and GMis 1.20m
Sdulion
L T (secs)= 2* T (secs)= Zt x4 = 7.3 seconds lAns)
/s'EF !31tx tzo
L Example4
A ship disdaces15000tonnes,has GM 1.20m and a rcI perid d 12 seconds.The shipl@ds
100tonnesin psition 6 metesaboveG. Calculatethenewrollperiod.
L Solution
T(secs)=4
I /stTW
t
Calculatelhe initial radius of ovralion (k)
x=r."6,au k  f l a f  s i l , 1 . 2 0= 6 . s s 3 n
L 2E 2n
3. Calculatenewvalueof k
t? =L = u7703= 42.894
w 15100
k = 1/42N4 = 6.!49 n
clAss 2/1 SIABILITY srcTIo N 24  wifld h€elinq,@ adet@ and rollrrg 310
t__ 2i1.4 ROLUNGlN WAVES
21.1.1Wavetheory
Verysteepwind generatedsea
waveforms are essentially
trochoidalin nature. A point
I ma*ed on a bicycletyre will
appearto tac€ out a trochoidal
cuNe as the bicydeis ridden
I past an obse er, as illustrated
in fgu€ 24.15. Invert thal
paltemand you havethe profle
of a trochoidalwaterwave.
L
I Fiq.24.15
L Fig.24.17
When on the crest of lhe wave the ship will be moving in the same direclion as wave lravel, when
in the trough the ship will be moving in the oppositedirectionto that of wave movement.In
L advan@ of the wave crest the ship will be being lifted and immediatelyafrer lhe wave cfest has
passedlhe shipwill be dropping._
In openwater:I = 0.17Y = 'l.f'6T'
21.1.3 Sy'rclvonism
Synchronism is the namegivento the conditionthatariseswhenthe ship'snaturalrollingperiod
equalsthe peaodof ercorrfar of lhe waves.The natural'stillwater'oscillationof the shipis added
to by the forcedoscillationof the wavesand the amplftudeof the mll increasesby approximately
(n/2 x waveslope)betweensuc@ssivewavecrestsand troughs.A waveslopeof say 40,causes
each angle oI roll to increaseby about 60, and the oscillalionincreasesabout 12' between
successivewavecresls(or toughs).
Synchronism whenlhe shiphasa longnatural
is lesslikely,andif it doesoccur,is lessdangerous
rollingperiod.The nec€ssarylongperiodwave\Nouldhavea comparatively lovvslopeangleand
lhe blild up of the rollwouldbe relativelyslow
clrss 2/1 STABILIIY SECIION24 Wnd heeri.g,E addon and m$E 312
!
canbe remediedby:
Synchronism
I
(1) an alteralionof course;
L (a) lheship'sG[r, or
changing
(b) changingthe radiusof gyralionof the ship(suchas by \^,ingingout
weights').
L
L_
L CLASS 211 STAAILITY  SrcTlO N 24  Wind h4ring, @ a@@lim at\d tdlng 313
L
24.5 TIETHODSADOPTEDTO MINII'ISEA SHIP'SROLLINGiIOTIOI.IAT SEA
Stabilising systsms fall into two categories; being either passrve or aclie syslems and within each
category the method adopted will be either by the frtting of'fins' or tanks.
4.5.1.1 A ge keds
'fn' type) stabilis€rs provide lhe best means of reduction in roll amplitude when a
Bilge keels (or
ship is operating at speed. ldeally, bilge keels should be ftted to all ships and be carefully sized to
give optimum effect and align€d so as to give the least addition to iiicllonal resistance. The effect
of increas€d resisliancewill occur as the she ship actively rolls as the line of the bilge keelwill no
longer be in line wih lho fow of water along the hull and lhe more ihe ship rolls the grerler will be
lhe effect of the increas€d resistance.
Bilge keels should be fitted lhroughout the length of the parallel midbody of the ship at the lum of
the bilge. Roll amplihldes may be reduced by up to 35% and are lh€refore a very @stefieclive
meansof limitingroll amplitude.
Eilge keels should always be ftted to 9rips having a large welFrcunded bilge radius, whereas
ships having a more square bilge shape will be more resistantto rolling.
The slabilising forces that a.e set up in 1, WigbL roling ,o stubotd. 2.Al extenaol rcll lo .E b.Rl
these lypes of passive free surface
elTectlanks are a combinalion of the
mass of liquid shiffing and the
horizontal acceleration forces
generated as the liquid moves. The
size of the stabilisinghoment due to
the unsymmetrical dislribution of liquid
can be increased by a faclor of lhree
by the action of lhe wave moving
across within the tank. An oplimum fill
level will ensure that lhe wave
movemenlwithinthe lank is 90pout of
phase with that of the ship's rolling
period. There should be a ma{mum
difference in the ouanlities in the two
sides of the tank when he ship is
upright, and equal quanlilies in the two
.o ingtopon. l.At*t nrotrolltopnt
sideswhen lhe ship is at the limit of its 3.ItFright
Fil 24 21
ro4l(fgure 24.21).