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Poetry is the oldest of the arts. - Internal rhyme occurs within a line.

Poem Example:
- a thought or feeling expressed in rhythmic “In mist or cloud, on mast or shroud.”
and colorful language. - Coleridge
- appeals to our imagination “Whiles all the night through fog-smoke
- can be structured or free-verse white.”
- lines and stanzas - The Ancient Manner

Stanzas are a series of lines grouped together and - Eye Rhymes, also
separated by an empty line from other stanzas. called sight or spelling rhymes, refer to words
- couplet (2 lines) having the same spelling but different sounds.
- tercet (3 lines) Examples are: move and love, cough and
- quatrain (4 lines) bough, food and good, death and wreath.
- cinquain (5 lines)
- sestet (6 lines)
- septet (7 lines) 4. Rhyme Scheme is the pattern of rhyme
- octave (8 lines) that comes at the end of each stanza or line in

Elements of Poetry - Alternate rhyme occurs at the end of every

other line. Also known as ABAB rhyme
1. Sensory Images/ Imagery
scheme. This ABAB rhyme scheme is built into
- using words to create a picture in the reader’s
the famous poetic form called the
Shakespearean sonnet.
- words that help the reader see, hear, taste,
smell, and feel what the writer is describing.
I saw a fairy in the wood
He was dressed all in green.
- It was dark and dim in the forest.
He drew his sword while I just stood
- The girl ran her hands on a soft satin fabric.
And realized I’d been seen.
- “O, she doth teach the torches to burn bright!
It seems she hangs upon the cheek of night
- Monorhyme is known as the AAAA rhyme
Like a rich jewel in an Ethiope’s ear,”
2. Symbolism - Enclosed Rhyme is a rhyming pair sandwiched
- a word or image that signifies something inside of another rhyming pair. Also known as
other than what is literally represented the ABBA rhyme scheme. The ABBA rhyme
- the connotative meaning of the word varies scheme is found in the poetic form called the
based on the context they are used in Petrarchan sonnet.
Examples: Example:
chain Once in a forest, a long time ago,
there dwelt a young maiden, bright, sweet
and fair
Flowers she wore in her long wavy hair,
and each day she’d vanish into gloaming’s
friendship imprisonment glow
“All the world’s a stage, - AABB – when the first and second lines
And all the men and women merely players; rhyme and the third and fourth lines rhyme
they have their exits and their entrances; Example:
And one man in his time plays many parts,” Upon a nice mid-spring day,
Let’s take a look at Nature’s way
3. Rhyme Breathe the scent of nice fresh air,
- Rhyme is the repetition of similar sounds. Feel the breeze within your hair.
Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall, - ABCB – when the second and fourth lines of
Humpty Dumpty had a great fall. the stanza rhyme while the first and third lines
All the King’s horses, And all the King’s men do not rhyme with any others.
Couldn’t put Humpty together again! Example:
❗ Note: Most modern poems do not have rhymes. Here in your arms
is where I belong.
The beating of your heart
Kinds of Rhyme: is like a beautiful song.
- In poetry, the most common kind of rhyme is
the end rhyme, which occurs at the end of
two or more lines. See example above.
5. Repetition
- Words, syllables, sounds or phrases repeated 5. Dactyl: The dactyl is the opposite of the
in writings to produce emphasis, rhythm, and anapest, in that it has one stressed syllable
or a sense of urgency. They may appear from followed by two unstressed syllables as in the
beginning to end or in any part of the poem. phrase: FLY a-way.
1. To the swinging and the ringing Example:
Of the bells, bells, bells –
Of the bells, bells, bells, bells Double, double, toil, and trouble
Bells, bells, bells –
To the rhyming and the chiming of the bells! Fire burn and cauldron bubble

2. Valued Treasure by Chris R. Carey Example:

Time to spend For the moon never beams
Time to mend
Time to hate Without bringing me dreams
Time to wait
Time is the essence Of the beautiful Annabel Lee.
Time is the key
Time will tell us 8. Figures of Speech
what we will be - Alliteration is the repetition of the initial letter
or sound in words that are close to each
6. Refrain other.
- the repetition of a word, phrase, line, or lines Example: Once upon a midnight dreary while I
in a poem, song or speech at regular pondered weak and weary.
intervals. Refrains often appear at the end of
Example: - Assonance is the repetition of vowel sounds.
It was many and many a year ago, Example: My why should you lie
In a kingdom by the sea, I rely on your eyes so shy
That a maiden there lived whom you may know…
By the name of Annabel Lee
- Onomatopoeia – it is the use of words whose
I was a child and she was a child, sounds suggest their meanings.
In this kingdom by the sea, Example:
But we loved with a love that was more than whoosh, passing breeze
love— flags flutter and flap
I and my Annabel Lee… frog croaks, bird whistles
babbling bubbles from tap
7. Rhythm
- The word rhythm is derived
from rhythmos (Greek) which means, - Simile – a comparison between two usually
“measured motion”. Rhythm is a literary unrelated things using the words “like” or
device which demonstrates the long and short “as”.
patterns through stressed and unstressed Example: Joe is as hungry as a bear.
syllables particularly in verse form.

Types of Meter - Metaphor – an implied comparison between

two usually unrelated things.
1. Iamb: The Iamb is a pattern of one
unstressed syllable followed by one stressed
Example: Lenny is a snake.
syllable, as in the word: en-JOY.
- Hyperbole – an exaggeration for the sake of
2. Trochee: The trochee is one stressed syllable
followed by one unstressed syllable, as in the
word: CON-quer.
Example: I may sweat to death.

3. Spondee: Spondee is a pattern of two

- Personification – giving human characteristics
stressed syllables in poetry. The pattern may
to inanimate objects, ideas or animals.
cross over from word to word in a poem. An
example of spondee might be: GO! GO! Both
Example: The sun stretched its lazy fingers
1-syllable words are stressed.
over the valley.

4. Anapest: The anapest is a combination of

two unstressed syllables followed by one
stressed syllable. Take this phrase: to the
NORTH. The first two syllables are unstressed,
while the final syllable is stressed.