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Revision Notes CBSE Class XII MATHEMATICS 1

REVISION NOTES
CBSE Class XII Mathematics
Relations and Functions
Relation Types of Function
Let A be a non-empty set and let R ⊆ A × A. Then, R is 1. One-one (Injective) Function A function f : A → B
called a relation on A. If (a, b) ∈ R, we say that a is is said to be one-one, if x1 = x 2 , then f (x1 ) = f (x 2 ).
related to b and we write aRb. If (a, b) ∉ R, then we write
2. Many-one Function A function f : A → B is
a R/ b.
said to be many-one, if two or more than two
Types of Relation elements in A have the same image in B. i . e ., if
1. Empty Relation A relation R on a set A is called x1 ≠ x 2 , then f (x1 ) = f (x 2 ).
empty relation, if no element of A is related to any 3. Onto (Surjective) Function A function f : A → B
element of A i.e., R = φ ⊂ A × A is the empty is said to be onto, if every element in B has its
relation.
pre-image in A, i.e., if for each y ∈ B, there exists
2. Universal Relation A relation R on a set A is an element x ∈ A, such that f (x ) = y. This happens
called universal relation, if each element of A is when range (f ) = B.
related to every element of A i.e., R = A × A.
4. Into Function A function f : A → B is said to be
Both the empty relation and the universal into, if atleast one element of B do not have a
relation are sometimes called trivial relations. pre-image.
3. Reflexive Relation A relation R defined on set A 5. One-one and Onto (Bijective) A function
is said to be reflexive, if (x, x ) ∈ R ∀ x ∈ A. f : X → Y is said to be one-one and onto, if f is
4. Symmetric Relation A relation R defined on set both one-one and onto.
A is said to be symmetric, if
6. Composite Function Let f : A → B and
(x, y ) ∈ R ⇒ ( y, x ) ∈ R ∀ x, y ∈ A
g : B → C, then gof : A → C, such that
5. Transitive Relation A relation R defined on set A (gof ) (x ) = g { f (x )} ∀ x ∈ A
is said to be transitive, if
B g
(x, y ) ∈ R and ( y, z ) ∈ R A
f
C
f(x)
⇒ (x, z ) ∈ R ∀ x, y, z ∈ A x
6. Equivalence Relation A relation R on a set A is
gof
called an equivalence relation, if it is reflexive,
symmetric and transitive. (i) In generally, gof ≠ fog.
(ii) In generally, if gof is one-one, then f is
Function one-one. And if gof is onto, then g is onto.
Let A and B be two non-empty sets. Then, a relation f 7. Invertible Function A function f : X → Y is
from A to B which associates to each element x ∈ A, a
unique element of f (x ) ∈ B is called a function from A defined to be invertible, if there exists a function
to B and we write f : A → B. Here, A is called the f : Y → X, such that gof = Ix . and fog = Iy . The
domain of f, i.e., dom (f ) = A. B is called the function g is called the inverse of f and it is
codomain of f. denoted by f −1. Thus, f is invertible, then f must
Also, { f (x ) : x ∈ A} ⊆ B is called the range of f. be one-one and onto and vice-versa.
Every function is a relation but every relation is not (i) If f : X → Y, g : Y → Z and h : Z → S are
a function. functions, then ho (gof ) = (hog) of.
2 Revision Notes CBSE Class XII MATHEMATICS

(ii) Let f : X → Y and g : Y → Z be two invertible if (a ∗ b)∗ c = a ∗ (b ∗ c ); a, b, c ∈ S .


functions. Then, gof is also invertible with (iv) Identity Law An element e ∈ X is said to be
(gof )−1 = f −1og − 1. the identity element of a binary operation ∗ on
8. Binary Operation Let S be a non-empty set set X, if a ∗e = e ∗ a = a ∀ a ∈ X.
and ∗ be an operation on S such that (v) Invertible Law or Inverse Law
a ∈ S, b ∈ S ⇒ a ∗ b ∈ S ∀ a, b ∈ S . Let ∗ : X × X → X be a binary operation and
Then, ∗ is called a binary operation on S. let e ∈ X be its identity element. An element
(i) Closure Property We say that ∗ on S a ∈ X is said to be invertible, if there exists an
satisfies the closure property, if element b ∈ X, such that a ∗ b = b ∗ a = e
a ∈ S, b ∈ S ⇒ a∗ b ∈ S , ∀ a, b ∈ S . ∀ b ∈ X.
(ii) Commutative Law Operation ∗ on S is said Element b is called inverse of element a.
to be commutative, if a ∗ b = b ∗ a ∀ a, b ∈ S . Zero is identity for the addition operation on R
but it is not identity for addition operation on N .
(iii) Associative Law Operation ∗ on S is said to
be associative,

Inverse Trigonometric Functions


Trigonometric functions are not one-one and onto on ∴ Its inverse is x = sin −1 y, i.e.,
their natural domains and ranges, so their inverse do Inverse
sin x → sin −1 x.
not exists in all values but their inverse may exists in
some interval of their domains and ranges. Thus, we
sin −1 x ≠ sin −1  
1
can say that, inverse of trigonometric functions are sin −1 x ≠ (sin x ) −1
 x
defined within restricted domains of corresponding  1 
trigonometric functions. Inverse of f is denoted by f −1. (sin x ) −1 ≠  
 sin x 
Let y = f (x ) = sin x be a function.
Domain, Range and Principal Values of Inverse Trigonometric Functions
Function Domain Principal value branch Other branch
sin−1 x [–1, 1] − π , π   – 3 π ,– π ,  π , 3 π 
 2 2   2 2   2 2 
cos −1 x [–1, 1] [ 0, π] [– π, 0], [ π, 2 π]
tan−1 x R − π , π  – 3 π ,– π ,  π , 3 π , ...
   2
 2 2 2   2 2 
cosec −1 x (−∞, − 1 ] ∪ [1, ∞)  − π , π  − { 0}  – 3 π ,– π  – [– π],  3 π , 3 π  – [ π]
 2 2   2 2   2 2 
sec −1 x (−∞, − 1 ] ∪ [1, ∞) π
[ 0, π] −  
π
[– π, 0] –  – , [ π, 2 π] – 
3π 
2   2  2 
cot −1 x R (0, π) [– π, 0], [ π, 2 π], ...

π π
Properties of Inverse Trigonometric Functions (v) cosec −1 (cosec θ ) = θ, θ ∈ − ,  − {0}
Property I  2 2
π π (vi) sec −1 (sec θ ) = θ, θ ∈ [0, π ] − { π / 2}
(i) sin −1 (sin θ ) = θ, θ ∈ − ,  (vii) sin (sin −1 x ) = x, x ∈ [− 1, 1]
 2 2
(viii) cos (cos −1 x ) = x, x ∈ [− 1, 1]
(ii) cos −1 (cos θ ) = θ, θ ∈[0, π ] (ix) tan (tan −1 x ) = x, x ∈ R
π π
(iii) tan −1 (tan θ ) = θ, θ ∈  − ,  (x) cot (cot −1 x ) = x, x ∈ R
 2 2
(xi) cosec (cosec −1 x ) = x, x ∈ (− ∞, − 1] ∪ [1, ∞ )
(iv) cot −1(cot θ ) = θ, θ ∈ (0, π ) (xii) sec (sec −1 x ) = x, x ∈ (− ∞, − 1] ∪ [1, ∞ )
Revision Notes CBSE Class XII MATHEMATICS 3

Property II Property V
−1 −1
(i) sin (− x ) = − sin x, x ∈ [− 1, 1] (i) sin −1 x + sin −1 y = sin −1 [x 1 − y 2 + y 1 − x 2 ]
−1 −1
(ii) cos (− x ) = π − cos x, x ∈[− 1, 1] (ii) sin −1 x − sin −1 y = sin −1 [x 1 − y 2 − y 1 − x 2 ]
−1 −1
(iii) tan (− x ) = − tan x, x ∈ R
−1 −1
(iii) cos −1 x + cos −1 y = cos −1[xy − 1 − x 2 1 − y 2 ]
(iv) cot (− x ) = π − cot x, x ∈ R
(iv) cos −1 x − cos −1 y
(v) cosec −1 (− x ) = − cosec −1x, x ≥ 1
or x ∈ ( −∞,−1] ∪ [1,∞ ) = cos −1 [ xy + 1 − x 2 1 − y 2 ]
(vi) sec −1 (−x ) = π − sec −1 x, x ≥ 1  x + y
(v) tan −1 x + tan −1 y = tan −1   , xy < 1
or x ∈ (−∞,−1 ] ∪ [1, ∞ )  1 − xy 
 x − y
Property III (vi) tan −1 x − tan −1 y = tan −1   , xy > −1
 1 + xy 
(i) sin −1 (1 / x ) = cosec −1 x, x ≥ 1 or x ≤ − 1
(ii) cos −1 (1 / x ) = sec −1 x, x ≥ 1 or x ≤ − 1 Property VI
−1 1 1
1  cot x , x<0 (i) 2 sin −1 x = sin −1 (2 x 1 − x 2 ), − ≤x≤
(iii) tan −1 = −1 2 2
x  − π + cot x, x > 0
(ii) 2 cos −1 x = cos −1 (2 x 2 − 1), 0 ≤ x ≤ 1
Property IV
 2x 
−1 −1π (iii) 2 tan−1 x = sin−1   ,| x | ≤ 1 or − 1 ≤ x ≤ 1
(i) sin x + cos x = , x ∈ [− 1, 1]  1 + x2 
2
π  1 − x2 
(ii) tan −1 x + cot −1 x = , x ∈ R (iv) 2 tan −1 x = cos −1  , x ≥ 0
2 1+ x 
2
−1 −1 π
(iii) cosec x + sec x = ,
2  2x 
(v) 2 tan −1 x = tan −1   , − 1< x < 1
x ∈ (−∞,−1] ∪ [1, ∞ ) 1− x 
2

Matrices
Matrix We shall consider only those matrices whose
elements are real number or function taking real
A matrix is an ordered rectangular array of numbers or
values.
functions. The number or functions are called the
elements or the entries of the matrix. Addition of Matrices
Order of Matrix Let A and B be two matrices each of order m × n.
Then, the sum of matrices A + B is defined only, if
A matrix of order m × n is of the form
matrices A and B are of same order.
 a11 a12 a13 K a1n 
a a22 a23 K a2n  If A = [ aij ]m × n, B = [ aij ]m × n
A =  21
K K Then, A + B = [ aij + bij ]m × n
 
K K K
am 1 am 2 am 3 K amn Properties
Its element in the ith row and jth column is aij. If A, B and C are three matrices of same order
If m = n, then matrix is a square matrix. m × n, then
A matrix is denoted by the symbol [ ]. (i) Commutative Law A+ B=B+ A
i.e., [A] = [aij ] m × n. (ii) Associative Law ( A + B) + C = A + (B + C )
4 Revision Notes CBSE Class XII MATHEMATICS

(iii) Existence of Additive Identity A zero matrix Transpose of a Matrix


(O) of order m × n (same as of order A), is The matrix obtained by interchanging the rows
additive identity, if A + O = A = O + A and columns of a given matrix A, is callled
(iv) Existence of Additive Inverse If A is a square transpose of a matrix. It is denoted by A′ or AT .
matrix, then the matrix (− A), is additive inverse,
if A + (− A) = O = (− A) + A Results on Transpose of Matrices
(i) ( A + B)′ = A′ + B′ (ii) (kA)′ = kA′
If A and B are not of same order, then A + B is not
(iii) ( AB)′ = B′ A′ (iv) ( A′ )′ = A
defined.

Difference of Matrices Symmetric and Skew-symmetric


If A = [ aij ], B = [ bij ] are two matrices of the same Matrix
order m × n, then difference, A − B is defined as a A square matirx A is callled symmetric, if A′ = A.
matrix D = [d ij ] where, d ij = aij − bij∀i , j . A square matrix A is called skew-symmetric, if
A′ = − A.
Multiplication of a Matrix by a
Scalar Properties
(i) For any square matrix A with real number entries,
Let A = [ aij ]m × n be a matrix and k be any scalar,
A + A′ is a symmetric matrix and A − A′ is a
Then, the matrix obtained by multiplying each
skew-symmetric matrix.
element of A by k is called the scalar multiple of A
by k, i.e., kA = [ kaij ]m × n. (ii) Any square matrix can be expressed as the sum
of symmetric and a skew-symmetric matrix.
(i) k( A + B) = kA + kB
(ii) (k + l )A = kA + lA Elementary Operations
of a Matrix
Multiplication of Matrices
There are six operations (transformations) on a
Let A = [aij ] m × n and B = [bij ]n × p are two matrices such
matrix, three of which are due to rows and thre
that the number of columns of A is equal to the
due to columns, which are known as elementary
number of rows of B, then multiplication of A and B is
operations or transformations.
denoted by AB, is given by
(i) The interchange of any two rows or two
n
c ij = ∑ aik bkj columns Symbolically the interchange of ith
and jth rows is denoted by Ri ↔ R j and
k=1
interchange of ith and jth columns is denoted
where, c ij is the element of matrix C and C = AB by Ci ↔ C j.
(ii) The multiplication of the elements of any
Generally, it is not commutative AB ≠ BA .
row or column by a non-zero number
Properties Symbolically, the multiplication of each element
(i) Associative Law ( AB)C = A(BC ) of the ith row by k, where k ≠ 0 is denoted by
Ri → kRi. The corresponding column operation
(ii) Existence of Multiplicative Indentity
is denoted by Ci → kC i.
A ⋅ I = A = I ⋅ A, I is called multiplicative Identity.
(iii) The addition to the elements of any row or
(iii) Distributive Law A(B + C ) = AB + AC
column, the corresponding elements of any
(iv) Zero matrix as the product of two Non-zero other row or column multiplied by any
matrices non-zero number Symbolically, the addition to
0 –1  3 5 the elements of ith row, the corresponding
Suppose A =  ≠ 0, B =  ≠ 0 the
0 2  0 0  elements of jth row multiplied by k is denoted
0 0  by Ri → Ri + kR j. The corresponding column
AB = 
0 0  operation is denoted by Ci → Ci + kC j.
Revision Notes CBSE Class XII MATHEMATICS 5

Invertible Matrices Properties


If A is a square matrix of order m and if there Let A and B are two non-zero matrices of same order.
exists another square matrix B of the same order (i) Uniqueness of Inverse If Inverse of a square
m, such that AB = BA = I, then B is called the matrix is exist, then it is unique.
inverse matrix of A and it is denoted by A −1.
(ii) AA−1 = A−1 A = I (iii) ( AB)−1 = B −1 A−1
−1 − 1
❖ A rectangular matrix does not possess inverse (iv) ( A ) =A
matrix.
(v) ( A′ ) = ( A−1 )′ or ( AT )−1 = ( A−1 )T , where A′ or AT is
−1
❖ If B is an inverse of A, then A is also the
transpose of a matrix A.
inverse of B.

Determinants
1. Expansion of determinant of order (3 × 3 ) a11 a12 a13
If A = a21 a22 a23 , then
a11 a12 a13
a31 a32 a33
a21 a22 a23 = a11 ( a22a33 − a32a23 )
a31 a32 a33 − a12( a21a33 − a31a23 ) (i) Minors of A are
+ a13( a21a32 − a31a22 ) a a a a
M11 = 22 23 , M12 = 21 23 ,
a32 a33 a31 a33
Similarly, we can expand the above determinant a a
M13 = 21 22 , etc.
corresponding to any row or column. a31 a32
2. Properties of Determinants (ii) Cofactors of A are Cij = (− 1)i + j Mij
(i) If the rows and columns of a determinant are where, i = 1, 2, 3 and j = 1, 2, 3.
interchanged, then the value of the determinant
does not change. But only the sign of (i) If elements of a row (column) are multiplied
determinant charges. with cofactors of same row (colunm), then sum
is equal to the value of the determinant.
(ii) If any two rows (columns) of a determinant are
(ii) If elements of a row (column) are multiplied
identical, then the value of the determinant is
with cofactors of any other row (column), then
zero. their sum is zero.
(iii) If each element of a row (column) is multiplied
4. Area of Triangle Let A(x1, y1 ), B(x 2 , y2 ) and
by a non-zero number k, then the value of the
determinant is multiplied by k. By this C(x 3 , y3 ) be the vertices of a ∆ABC. Then, its area
property, we can take out any common factor is given by
from any one row or any one column of a x y1 1
1 1 1
determinant. ∆= x2 y2 1 = ⋅ { x 1( y2 − y3 ) + x 2( y3 − y1)
(iv) If A is a n × n matrix, then | kA| = k n |⋅ A|. 2 x y3 1 2 + x 3 ( y1 − y2 )}
3
(v) If each element of any row (column) of a
determinant is added k times the (i) Since, area is positive quantity. So, we always
corresponding element of another row take the absolute value of the determinant.
(column), then the value of the determinant (ii) If area is given, use both positive and negative
remains unchanged. values of the determinant for calculation.
(vi) If some or all elements of a row (column) of a 5. Collinearity Three points A(x1, y1 ), B(x 2 , y2 ) and
determinant are expressed as sum of two C(x 3 , y3 ) are collinear, when ∆ = 0.
(more) terms, then the determinant can be
x1 y1 1
expressed as sum of two (more) determinants.
i . e., x2 y2 1 = 0
3. The minor of an element of a determinant of order x3 y3 1
n (n ≥ 2 ) is a determinant of order n − 1.
6 Revision Notes CBSE Class XII MATHEMATICS

6. Let A = [ aij ] be a square matrix of order n, then  d1 


adjoint of A, i . e ., adj A = CT , where C = [Cij ] is the and B = d 2 
d 
cofactor matrix of A.  3
(i) A(adj A) = | A| In = (adj A)A A system of equations is consistent or
(ii) | adj A| = | A|n − 1, if | A| ≠ 0 inconsistent according as its solution exists or
not.
(iii) (adj AB) = (adj B) (adj A)
(i) For a square matrix A in matrix equation AX = B
7. A square matrix A has inverse, if and only if A is a
non-singular (| A| ≠ 0 ) matrix. (a)| A| ≠ 0, then system of equations is
1 consistent and has unique solution.
(i) A−1 = (adj A),| A| ≠ 0 (ii) adj ( A−1 ) = (adj A)−1 (b)| A| = 0 and (adj A) B ≠ O, then there exists no
| A|
solution, i . e ., inconsistent.
8. A matrix A is said to be non-singular, if | A| ≠ 0.
(c)| A| = 0 and (adj A) B = O, then system of
Otherwise A is said to be singular.
equations is consistent and has an infinite
9. Let the system of equations is number of solutions.
a1x + b1 y + c1 z = d1, 0 
a2 x + b2 y + c 2 z = d 2 (ii) When B = 0 , in such cases, we have
0 
and a3 x + b3 y + c 3 z = d 3 .  
Then, this system of equations can be written as (a)| A| ≠ 0 ⇒ system has only trivial solution
AX = B, i.e., x = 0, y = 0, and z = 0.
 a1 b1 c1  x  (b)| A| = 0 ⇒ system has infinitely many
where A = a2 b2 c 2 , X =  y  solutions.
a b c   z
 3 3 3  

Continuity and Differentiability


1. Continuity Suppose f is a real valued function (d) fg is continuous.
on a subset of the real numbers and let c be a (e) f / g is continuous in domain except at the
point in the domain of f. Then, f is continuous at c, points, where, g(x ) = 0.
if lim f (x ) = f (c )
x→c (v) If f is continuous, then f is also continuous.
i.e., if f (c ) = lim f (x ) = lim f (x ), then f (x ) is (vi) Every rational function is continuous.
+ −
x→c x→c
continuous at x = c. Otherwise, f (x ) is (vii) Suppose f and g are real valued functions such
discontinuous at x = c . that (fog) is defined at c, if g is continuous at c
and if f is continuous at g(c ), then (fog) is
2. A real function f is said to be continuous, if it is continuous at c.
continuous at every point in the domain f. 4. Differentiability
3. Properties of Continuity (i) Right Hand Derivative
(i) Every constant function is continuous. f (a + h ) − f (a)
Rf ′ (a) = lim
h→0 h
(ii) Every identity function is continuous.
f (a − h ) − f (a)
(iii) Every polynomial function is continuous. (ii) Left Hand Derivative Lf ′ (a) = lim
(iv) If f and g be two continuous functions in
h →0 −h
domain D, then f (x ) is differentiable at x = a, if Rf ′(a) = L f ′(a).
(a) (f + g ) is continuous. Otherwise, f (x ) is not differentiable at x = a.
(b) (f − g ) is continuous. 5. Every differentiable function is continuous. But a
(c) cf is continuous. continuous function need not be differentiable.
Revision Notes CBSE Class XII MATHEMATICS 7

6. Differentiation The process of finding derivative dy


(v) y = [f (x )]g( x )
is called differentiation. dx
Derivatives of Standard Functions  g( x ) 
= [f (x )]g( x )  f ′ (x ) + log f (x )⋅ g′ (x )
d d  f ( x ) 
(i) (x n ) = nx n −1 (ii) (constant) = 0
dx dx dy
(vi) If y = f [g(x )], then = f ′ [g(x )] g′ (x )
d d dx
(iii) (cx n ) = cn x n −1 (iv) (sin x ) = cos x
dx dx dy dy / dt
(vii) If x = f (t ) and y = g(t ), then =
d dx dx / dt
(v) (cos x ) = − sin x
dx 7. Useful Logarithmic Formulae
d (i) log a mn = log a m + log a n
(vi) (tan x ) = sec 2 x
dx m
d
(ii) log a = log a m − log a n
(vii) (cosec x ) = − cosec x cot x n
dx (iii) log a mn = n log a m
d
(viii) (sec x ) = sec x tan x (iv) log a a = 1
dx
(v) log a m = log a b + log b m
d
(ix) (cot x ) = − cosec 2 x (vi) log a m × log m a = 1
dx
1
d (vii) log bm a = log b a
(x) (e x ) = e x m
dx
1
(xi)
d x
(a ) = ax log a, a > 0 (viii) log b a =
dx log a b
d 1 log m a
(xii) (loge x ) = , x > 0 (ix) log b a =
dx x log m b
m
d 1 (x) alog a = m
(xiii) (log a x ) = , a > 0, a ≠ 1
dx x loge a
8. Rolle’s Theorem If a function y = f (x ) is defined
Chain Rule Let f be a real valued function in [a, b] and
which is a composite of two functions u and v, (i) f (x ) is continuous in [a, b].
dt
i.e., f = vou . Suppose t = u (x ) and if both and (ii) f (x ) is differentiable in (a, b) and
dx
dv df dv dt (iii) f (a) = f (b)
exist, we have = .
dt dx dt dx Then, there will be atleast one value of c ∈(a, b)
such that f ′ (c ) = 0.
Algebra of derivation
d du dv 9. Lagrange’s Mean Value Theorem If a function
(i) (u ± v ) = ± f (x ) is said to be defined on [a, b] and
dx dx dx
d du dv dw (i) continuous in [a, b] and
(ii) (u ± v ± w ± K ) = ± ± ±K (ii) differentiable in (a, b), then there will be atleast
dx dx dx dx
f (b) − f (a)
(iii)
d
(u ⋅ v ) = u
d
(v ) + v
d
(u ) (product rule) one value c ∈(a, b) such that f ′ (c ) =
dx dx dx b−a
d d
v (u ) − u (v ) Lagrange’s mean value theorem is valid
d u dx dx
(iv)   = (quotient rule) irrespective of whether f (a ) = f (b) or f (a ) ≠ f (b).
dx  v  v 2
8 Revision Notes CBSE Class XII MATHEMATICS

Application of Derivatives
1. Rate of Change of Quantities When one (c) If f ′ (x ) = 0 for each x ∈(a, b), then f is said to
quantity y varies with another quantity x satisfying be a constant function in [a, b].
dy (iv) A monotonic function f in an interval I, we mean
some rule y = f (x ). Then, [or f ′ (x )] represents
dx that f is either increasing in I or decreasing in I.
the rate of change of y with respect to x and
 dy  3. Tangents and Normals
  [or f(x 0 )] represents the rate of change
 dx  x = x (i) Equation of Tangent and Normal Let
0
y = f (x )be a curve and P (x1, y1 ) be a point on it.
of y with respect to x at x = x 0 .
Then,

Here,
dy
is positive, if y increase as x increase and
(a) Equation of tangent at P(x1, y1 ) is
dx  dy 
dy ( y − y1 ) =   (x − x1 ).
is negative, if y decrease as x increase. dx ( x1, y1 )
dx
∆y
(i) Average rate of change of y w.r.t. x = (b) Equation of normal at P (x1, y1 ) is
∆x −1
dy ( y − y1 ) = (x − x1 ).
(ii) Instantaneous rate of change of y w.r.t. x =  dy 
dx dx 
( x1, y1 )
dy dy / dt dx
(iii) Related rate of change = = , if ≠0 (c) If a tangent line to the curve y = f (x ) makes
dx dx / dt dt
an angle θ with x-axis in the positive
2. Increasing and Decreasing Functions direction, then
(i) Increasing Functions Let I be an open interval dy
= slope of tangent = tan θ.
contained in the domain of a real valued dx
function f. Then, f is said to be
(ii) Angle of Intersection of Two Curves Let
(a) increasing on I, if x1 < x 2 y = f1(x ) and y = f2 (x ) be the two curves and let
⇒ f (x1 ) ≤ f (x 2 ) ∀ x1, x 2 ∈ I φ be the angle between their tangents at the
(b) strictly increasing on I, if x1 < x 2 point of their intersection P (x1, y1 ).
⇒ f (x1 ) < f (x 2 ) ∀x1, x 2 ∈ I m1 − m2
Then, tan φ = ,
(ii) Decreasing Functions Let I be an open 1 + m1m2
interval contained in the domain of a real valued
 dy 
function f. Then, f is said to be where m1 =   for y = f1(x )
dx ( x1, y1 )
(a) decreasing on I, if x1 < x 2
⇒ f (x1 ) ≥ f (x 2 ) ∀ x1, x 2 ∈ I  dy 
and m2 =   for y = f2 (x ).
(b) strictly decreasing on I, if x1 < x 2 dx ( x1, y1 )
⇒ f (x1 ) > f (x 2 ) ∀x1, x 2 ∈ I (iii) (a) If m1m2 = − 1, then tangents are perpendi-
(iii) Theorem Let f be continuous on [a, b] and cular to each other. In this case, we say
differentiable on (a, b) 1. that the curves intersect each other
(a) If f ′ (x ) > 0 for each x ∈(a, b), then f (x ) is said orthogo-nally.
to be increasing in [a, b] and strictly This also happens, when m1 = 0 and m2 = ∞.
increasing in (a, b). (b) If m1 = m2 , then tangents are parallel to each
(b) If f ′ (x ) < 0 for each x ∈(a, b), then f (x ) is said other.
to be decreasing in [a, b] and strictly (c) If φ = 0, then curves touch each other.
decreasing in (a, b).
Revision Notes CBSE Class XII MATHEMATICS 9

4. Maxima and Minima Let f be a real valued function 7. Second Derivative Test Let f be twice
and let c be an interior point in the domain of f. Then, differentiable at c, then
(i) Local Maxima Point c is called a local maxima, (i) x = c is a point of local maxima, if f ′ (c ) = 0
if there is a h > 0 such that and f ′′(c ) < 0. Then, f (c ) is local maximum
f (c ) ≥ f (x ) for all x in (c − h, c + h ). value of f.
(ii) Local Minima Point c is called a point of local (ii) x = c is a point of local minima, if f ′ (c ) = 0
minima, if there is a h > 0 such that and f ′′(c ) > 0. Then, f (c ) is local minimum
f (c ) ≤ f (x ) for all x in (c − h, c + h ). value of f.
5. A point c in the domain of a function f at which either (iii) If f ′ (c ) = 0 and f ′′(c ) = 0, then the test fails.
f′ (c) = 0 or f is not differentiable, is called a critical As f is twice differentiable at c, we mean
point of f. Note that, if f is contiuous at c and f′ (c) second order derivative of f exists at c.
= 0, then there exists a h > 0 such that f is
8. Function in a Closed Interval [a, b]
differentiable in the interval (c − h, c + h).
Let f be a differentiable function on [a, b] and let
6. First Derivative Test c be a point in [a, b] such that f ′ (c ) = 0. Then,
(i) If f ′ (x ) > 0 to closely left of c and f ′ (x ) < 0 to find f (a), f (b) and f (c ). The maximum of these
closely right of c, then c is a point of local values gives a maxima or absolute maxima
maxima. and minimum of these values gives a minima
(ii) If f ′ (x ) < 0 to closely left of c and f ′ (x ) > 0 to or absolute minima.
closely right of c, then c is a point of local
9. Let f be continuous function on an interval
minima.
I = [a, b]. Then, f has the absolute maximum
(iii) If f ′(x ) does not change sign as x increases
value and f attains it atleast once in I. Also, f
through c, then c is neither a point of local
has the absolute minimum value and attains it
maxima nor a point of local minima. This point
atleast once in I.
is called a point of inflection.

Integrals
1. Indefinite Integral Let F(x ) and f (x ) be two (vi) ∫ cos x dx = sin x + C
functions connected together, such that
d (vii) ∫ tan x dx = log|sec x| + C
[F(x )] = f (x ), then F(x ) is called integral of f (x ) or
dx (viii) ∫ cot x dx = log|sin x| + C
indefinite integral or anti-derivative. Thus,
(ix) ∫ sec x dx = log|sec x + tan x | + C
∫ f (x )dx = F(x ) + C,
= log|tan (π / 4 + x / 2 )| + C
where C is an arbitrary constant.
2. Important Results
(x) ∫ cosec x dx = log|cosec x − cot x| + C
= log|tan(x / 2 )| + C
x n +1 (xi) ∫ sec 2 x dx = tan x + C
∫ x dx = (n + 1 ) + C, n ≠ − 1
n
(i)
∫ cosec x dx = − cot x + C
2
(xii)
1
(ii) ∫ x
dx = log| x| + C, x ≠ 0 (xiii) ∫ sec x ⋅ tan x dx = sec x + C
ax (xiv) ∫ cosec x cot x dx = − cosec x + C
∫e dx = e x + C ∫ a dx = log a + C
x x
(iii) (iv)
dx
(xv) ∫ = sin −1 x + C
(v) ∫ sin x dx = − cos x + C 1 − x2
10 Revision Notes CBSE Class XII MATHEMATICS

1
(xvi) ∫ dx = − cos −1 x + C Form of the Form of the
1 − x2 Rational Functions Partial Fractions
px2 ± qx ± r A Bx + C
dx −1
4. + 2
(xvii) ∫ 1 + x 2 = tan x + C (x ± a) (x2 ± bx ± c) (x ± a) x ± bx ± c
where, x2 ± bx ± c cannot be
1
(xviii) ∫ dx = − cot − 1 x + C factorised further.
1+ x 2
dx 6. Integration by Parts Let u and v be two
(xix) ∫ = sec − 1 x + C differentiable functions of a single variable x, then
x x2 − 1 the integral of the product of two functions is
1 −1 d 
(xx) ∫x x2 − 1
dx = − cosec x+C ∫ uv
I II
dx = u ∫ v dx − ∫  u ∫ v dx dx
 dx 

3. Properties of Indefinite Integral If two functions are of different types, then


consider the 1st function (i.e., u) which comes
(i) The process of differentiation and integration
first in word ILATE, where
are inverse of each other.
d I : Inverse trigonometric function
dx ∫
i.e., f (x )dx = f (x ) and ∫ f ′(x )dx = f (x ) + C e.g., sin −1 x
where, C is any arbitrary constant. L : Logarithmic function e.g., log x
A : Algebraic function e.g., 1, x, x 2
(ii)∫ { f (x ) ± g (x )} dx = ∫ f (x )dx ± ∫ g (x )dx T : Trigonometic function
(iii) ∫ K f (x )dx = K ∫ f (x )dx e.g., sin x, cos x
(iv) In general, if f1, f2 , ..., fn are functions E : Exponential function e.g., e x
and k1, k2 , ..., kn are numbers, then 7. Some Important Integrals
∫ [k1 f1 (x ) + k2 f2(x ) + ... + kn fn(x )]dx dx 1 x−a
(i) ∫ (x 2 − a2 ) = 2 a log x+a
+C
= k1 ∫ f1(x )dx + k2 ∫ f2 (x ) dx + ... + kn ∫ fn (x )dx
dx 1 a+ x
where, C is the constant of integration. (ii) ∫ (a2 − x 2 ) = 2 a log a−x
+C
4. Integration by Substitution The method of
reducing a given integral into one or other dx
standard integral by changing the independent
(iii) ∫ (x − a )
2 2
= log| x + x 2 − a2| + C
variable is called method of substitution.
dx
Thus, ∫ f (x )dx = ∫ f { g (t )} ⋅ g′(t ) dt , if we substitute (iv) ∫ x 2 + a2
= log x + x 2 + a2 + C
x = g (t ), such that dx = g′ (t ) dt.
x a2 x
5. Partial Fraction (v) ∫ a2 − x 2 dx = a2 − x 2 + sin −1 + C
2 2 a
Form of the Form of the x
∫ x − a dx = x −a
2 2 2 2
Rational Functions Partial Fractions (vi)
2
1. px ± q A B a2
,a≠b + − log x + x 2 − a2 + C
(x ± a) (x ± b) x±a x±b 2
px ± q A B x
2. +
(x ± a)2 (x ± a) (x ± a)2 (vii) ∫ x 2 + a2 dx =
2
x 2 + a2

3. px2 ± qx ± r A
+
B
+
C a2
(x ± a) (x ± b) (x ± b)2
+ log x + x 2 + a2 + C
(x ± a) (x ± b) 2
2
Revision Notes CBSE Class XII MATHEMATICS 11

8. Integration of Irrational and Trigonometric Functions


Integral Substitution
(i) x2 Let x2 = y and proceed for partial fraction of
y
∫ (x2 + a2 ) (x2 + b2 ) dx ( y + a2 ) ( y + b2 )
dx x
(ii)
∫ a ± b cos x 1 − tan2
2 , then put tan x = t
Put cos x =
x 2
1 + tan2
2
dx x
(iii)
∫ a ± b sin x 2 tan
2 , then put tan x = t
Put sin x =
x 2
1 + tan2
2
dx Put a = r cos θ and b = r sin θ
(iv)
∫ a sin x + b cos x
a sin x + b cos x + c d
(v)
∫ p sin x + q cos x
dx Put a sin x + b cos x + c = A
dx
(p sin x + q cos x) + B (p sin x + q cos x)

a sin x + b cos x d
(vi)
∫ p sin x + q cos x + r
dx Put a sin x + b cos x = A
dx
(p sin x + q cos x + r) + B (p sin x + q cos x + r)

dx px + q = t
(vii)
∫ (ax + b) px + q
Put

dx px + q = t
(viii)
∫ (ax2 + bx + c) px + q
Put

dx 1
(ix)
∫ Put px + q =
(px + q)( ax2 + bx + c ) t
dx
(x)
∫ Put x =
1
(px2 + q) ax2 + b t

9. Definite Integral A integral is of the form of Theorem 2 Let f be a continuous function


b defined on the closed interval [a, b] and f be an
∫a f (x )dx is known as definite integral and is given
anti-derivative of f.
b
by ∫ f (x )dx = g(b) − g(a) b
∫a f (x )dx = [F(x )]a = F(b) − F(a)
b
a Then,
where, a and b are lower and upper limits of an 12. Evaluation of Definite Integral by Substitution
integral. When the variable in a definite integral is
changed, the substitutions in terms of new
10. Definite Integral as a Limit of Sum Let us define variable should be effected.
a continuous function f (x ) in [a, b] divide interval b
into n equal sub-intervals, each of length h, so that
To evaluate ∫a f (x )dx, by substitution, the following
b−a steps are given.
h= , then
n Step I. Consider the integral without limits and
b substitute, y = f (x ) or x = g( y ) to reduce the
∫a f (x )dx = hlim
→0
h [f (a) + f (a + h ) + f (a + 2 h )
given integral to a known form.
+ … + f (a + (n − 1 ) h )] Step II. Integrate the new integrand with respect to
where, nh = b − a the new variable without mentioning the
constant of integration.
11. Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
Step III. Resubstitute for the new variable and write
Theorem 1 Let f be a continuous function the answer in terms of the original variable.
defined on the closed interval [a, b] and let A(x ) be Step IV. Find the values of answers obtained in step
x
the area of function. [i . e ., A(x ) = ∫ f (x )dx ]. III at the given limits of integral and find the
a
difference of the values at the upper and lower
Then, A′(x ) = f (x ), for all x ∈[a, b]. limits.
12 Revision Notes CBSE Class XII MATHEMATICS

b b
13. Properties of Definite Integral (v) ∫a f (x )dx = ∫a f (a + b − x )dx
b b
∫a f (x )dx = ∫a f (t )dt
a a
(i) (vi) ∫0 f (x )dx = ∫0 f (a − x )dx
2a a a
∫0 f (x )dx = ∫ f (x )dx + ∫0 f (2 a − x )dx
b a
(ii) ∫a f (x )dx = − ∫b f (x )dx (vii)
0

 a
f (x )dx = 2 ∫0 f (x )dx, if f (2 a − x ) = f (x ),
a 2a
(iii) ∫a f (x )dx = 0 (viii) ∫0  0, if f (2 a − x ) = − f (x ),
b c a
(iv) ∫a f (x )dx = ∫a f (x )dx + ∫c f (x )dx  a

∫− a f(x )dx =  ∫0 0,
(ix)
a 2 f(x ) dx, if f(− x ) = f(x ), even
where, a < c < b.  if f(− x ) = − f(x ), odd

Application of Integrals
1. The area enclosed by the curve y = f (x ), the Y
X-axis and the ordinates at x = a and x = b is given x=a x=b
b X'
by ∫ | y| dx. X
a

Y y = f (x)
f(x) B Y'
y=
A 4. Generally, it may happen that some position of
x=a y x=b the curve is above X-axis and some is below the
X' X X-axis which is shown in the figure. The area A
O L dx M
bounded by the curve y = f (x ), X-axis and the
Y'
ordinates at x = a and x = b, is given by
2. The area enclosed by the curve x = f ( y ), the A = | A2 | + A1.
Y
Y-axis and the abscissae at y = c and y = d , is
d A1
given by ∫ | x| dy.
c x=b
X' x=a
X
Y
y=d C
B A2
x Y'
dy x = f(y)

A y=c D 5. The area enclosed between two curves, y1 = f (x )


X' X
and y2 = g (x ) and the ordinates at x = a and
O b
Y' x = b, is given by ∫a y2 − y1 dx.
Y
3. If the curve y = f (x )lies below the X-axis, then area y2 = g(x)
bounded by the curve y = f (x ), X-axis and the
abscissae at x = a and x = b is given by y1 = f(x)
b
∫a ydx . X'
O x=a x=b
X

Y'
Revision Notes CBSE Class XII MATHEMATICS 13

6. The area enclosed between two curves, x1 = f ( y ) 7. Area bounded by the two curves, y = f (x ) and
y = g(x ) between the abscissae at x = a and
and x 2 = g ( y ) and the abscissae at y = c and
d x = b, is given by
y = d , is given by ∫ x 2 − x1 dx. c b
c
∫a f (x )dx + ∫c g(x ) dx.
Y Y
y=d
)
g (x

y=
y=
x1 = f(y)

x2 = g(y)

f (x
)
y=c
X' X
O
X' X
Y' O x=a x=c x=b
Y'

Differential Equations
1. Differential Equation An equation containing of 7. Formation of a Differential Equation whose
an independent variable, dependent variable and General Solution is Given
derivative of dependent variable with respect to If an equation is independent, dependent
independent variable, is called a differential variables involving some arbitrary constants is
equation. It is denoted by the symbols given, then a differential equation is obtained as
dy d 2 y d ny follows
, 2 ,...., n or y′ , y′ ′ ... y′ ′ ′ ... n
dx dx dx (i) Differentiate the given equation with respect to
or y1, y2 ,..., yn . the independent variable (say x) as many
2. Order of a Differential Equation The order of times as the number of arbitrary constants
the highest order derivative occurring in the in it.
differential equation, is called order. (ii) Eliminate the arbitrary constants.
3. Degree of a Differential Equation The highest (iii) The obtained equation is the required
power (positive integral Index) of the highest order differential equation.
derivative involved in a differential equation, is The order of a differential equation representing a
called degree. family of curves is same as the number of arbitrary
4. Solution of a Differential Equation A relation constants present in the equations corresponding to
between the dependent and independent variables the family of curves.
which, when substituted in the differential equation 8. Equation in Variable Separable Form If the
reduces it to an identity, is called a solution. equation can be reduced into the form
5. General Solution of a Differential Equation f (x )dx + g( y ) dy = 0,
A solution of a differential equation which contains we say that the variables have been separated.
as many arbitrary constants as the order of the
differential equation, is called the general solution
Then, ∫ f (x ) dx + ∫ g( y ) dy = C
or primitive solution of the differential equation. 9. Homogeneous Differential Equation
6. Particular Solution of a Differential Equation dy f (x, y )
A differential equation of the form = ,
The solution obtained from the general solution dx g(x, y )
given particular values to the arbitrary constants,
where f (x, y ) and g(x, y ) are homogeneous
is called a particular solution of the differential
functions of x and y are of the same degree.
equation.
14 Revision Notes CBSE Class XII MATHEMATICS

If the homogeneous differential equation is in the There are two types of linear differential equations.
dx
form = F (x , y ), where F (x , y ) is a homogeneous dy
dy Type I. Form + Py = Q, where P and Q are
dx
function of degree zero, then we make substitution constants or functions of x.
x
= v, i.e., x = νy and we proceed further to find the We find integrating factor (IF) = e ∫ P dx . Now,
y
general solution. solution is y × (IF) = ∫ [Q × (IF)] dx + C.
10. Linear Differential Equation A first order and dx
first degree differential equation in which the Type II. Form + Px = Q, where P and Q are
dy
degree of dependent variable and its derivative is constants or functions of y, then IF = e ∫ P dy .
one and they do not get multiplied together, is
called a linear differential equation. Its solution is x × (IF) = ∫ [Q × (IF)] dy + C.

Vector Algebra
1. (i) Vector A quantity that has magnitude as well then their resultant is represented by the
as direction, is called a vector. diagonal of the sides. If the sides OA and OC of
Since, the length is never negative, so the → →

parallelogram OABC represents OA and OC
notation | a | < 0 has no meaning. respectively, then we get
(ii) Scalar A quantity that has magnitude only, is → → → → → →
OA + OC = OB or OA + AB = OB
called scalar. → →
→ (Q AB = OC)
(iii) Magnitude of a Vector If a = a $i + b $j + c k$ ,
→ Thus, we may say that the two laws of vectors
then | a | = a2 + b2 + c 2 addition are equivalent to each other.
(iv) Free Vector If the initial point of a vector is (iii) Properties of Vector Addition
not specified, then it is called as free vector. → →
→
(a) For any two vectors a and b,

2. Addition of Vectors If OA = a B → → →
a+ b = b + c

(commutative law)
→ → →
and AB = b, then b → → →
→ → →
(b) For any three vectors a , b and c ,
→ → O A
a + b = OA + AB = OB →
a → → → → → →
a + (b + c ) = (a + b ) + c (associative law)
(i) Triangle Law of Vector
The associative property of vector addition
Addition If two vectors are C
enables us to write the sum of three vectors
represented along two → → → → → →
sides of a triangle taken in a , b and c as a + b + c without using
order, then their resultant is B A brackets.
represented by the third side → → → → → →
taken in opposite direction i.e., from ∆ ABC, (c) For any vector a , we have a + 0 = 0 + a = a
by triangle law of vector addition, we have →
The zero vector 0 is called the additive
→ → →
BC + CA = BA identity for the vector addition.
→ → → →
(ii) Parallelogram Law of C B (d) The difference of vectors a and b is a − b
Vector Addition If two 3. Section Formulae Let A and B be two points
vectors are represented → →
with position vectors a and b respectively and
along the two adjacent
O A let P be a point which divides AB internally in
sides of a parallelogram,
Revision Notes CBSE Class XII MATHEMATICS 15

→ (vii) Properties of scalar product


the ratio m : n. Then, position vector of P
→ → → →

mb + n a
→ (a) a ⋅ b = b⋅ a (commutative)
= . If P divides ABexternally in the → → → → →
(b) a ⋅ (b + c ) = a ⋅ b + a ⋅ c
→ →
m+ n
→ → →
→ →
mb − n a → (c) a ⋅ a = | a |2 = a2 ,
ratio m:n. Then position vector of P = →
m−n where a represents magnitude of vector a .
→ → → → → →
→ a+ b (d) (a + b )⋅ (a − b ) = a2 − b2 , where a and b
If R is the mid-point of AB, then OR = → →
2 represent the magnitude of vectors a & b.
4. Component of a Vector → → → →
→ (e) (λ a )⋅ b = λ( a ⋅ b )
If a = a1$i + a2 $j + a3k$ , we say that the scalar

If α , β and γ are the direction angles of vector
components of a along X-axis, Y-axis and → $ $
a = a1 i + a2 j + a3k$ , then its DC’s is given as
Z-axis are a1, a2 and a3 , respectively. a1 a a
→ cos α = , cos β = 2 , cos γ = 3
→ → →
5. Multiplication of a Vector by Scalar Let a be a |a| |a| |a|
given vector and λ be a scalar. Then, the

8. Cross Product or Vector Product
product of the vector a by the scalar λ, denoted → →
→ →
(i) If θ is the angle between the vectors a and b,
by λa , is called the multiplication of vector a by → → → →
then a × b =| a|| b |sin θ n$ , where, n$ is a unit
the scalar λ. → →
→ → vector perpendicular to the plane of a and b.
Let a and b be any two vectors and k and m be → →
any scalars. Then, (ii) A unit vector perpendicular to both a and b is
→ →
→ → → → → (a × b )
(i) k a + m a = (k + m) a (ii) k (m a ) = (km) a given by n$ = ⋅
→ →
→ → → → |a × b |
(iii) k (a + b ) = k a + k b → →
(iii) Area of a parallelogram with sides a and b
6. Vector Joining Two Points If P1 ( x1, y1, z1 ) and → →
P2 ( x2 , y2 , z2 ) are any two points, then vector = | a × b|
joining P1 and P2 is (iv) Area of a parallelogram with diagonals a and b
→ → → 1 → →
P1 P2 = OP2 − OP1 = | a × b|
2
= ( x2 $i +y2 $j + z2k$ ) − ( x1$i +y1$j + z1k$ ) 1 → →
(v) Area of a ∆ ABC = | AB × AC |
= ( x − x ) $i + ( y − y )$j +( z − z )k$
2 1 2 1 2 1 2
→ → → → →
7. Dot Product or Scalar Product (vi) a || b ⇔ a × b = 0

(i) If θ is the angle between a and b, then (vii) If a = a $i + a $j + a k$
1 2 3
→ → → →
a ⋅ b =| a || b |cos θ. →
and b = b1$i + b2 $j + b3k$ , then
→ →
(ii) If θ is acute, then a ⋅ b > 0 and if θ is obtuse, $i $j k$
→ → → →
then a⋅ b < 0 a × b = a1 a2 a3
→ → → → b1 b2 b3
(iii) a ⊥ b ⇔ a ⋅ b = 0.
→ → → →
(iv) $i ⋅ $i = $j ⋅ $j = k$ ⋅ k$ + 1 and $i ⋅ $j = $j ⋅ k$ = k$ ⋅ $i = 0 (viii) a × b = − b × a
→ → → → → → →
 → → (ix) a × (b + c ) = a × b + a × c
→ → a⋅ b 
(v) Projection of a on b = 
 →  → → →
 |b | (x) a × a = 0
→ (xi) $i × $j = k$ , $j × k$ = $i , k$ × $i = $j;
(vi) If a force F displaces a particle from a point A to
$j × $i = − k$ , k$ × $j = − $i , $i × k$ = − $j
a point B, then work done by the force
→ → → → →
= F . AB (xii) $i × $i = 0, $j × $j = 0, k$ × k$ = 0
16 Revision Notes CBSE Class XII MATHEMATICS

9. Scalar Triple Product →→→ →→→ →→→


or [a b c ] = [b c a ] = [a a b ].
If a, b, c are taken vectors, then (a × b) ⋅ c is called
→→→ →→→
scalar triple product and is denoted by [a b c]. (iii) [a b c ] = –[a c b ] etc.
∴ [a b c] = (a × b) ⋅ c →→→ →→→ →→→
(iv) [a a b ] = 0,[a b a ] = 0 and [b a a ] = 0
It represents the volume of a parallelopiped
→→→ →→→
whose coterminus edges are represented by a, b, (v) For any scalar x,[ x a b c ] = x [a b c ]. Also,
and c. which form a right handed system of → → → →→→
vectors. If [ x a , y b, z c ] = xyz [a b c ]
→ →
a = a $i + b $j + c k$ , b = a $i+ b $j+ c k$
1 1 1 2 2 2
(vi) For any vectors
→ → → → → → →→→ →→→ →→→
c = a3 $i + b3 $j + c 3 k$ a , b, c , d,[a + b c d ] = [a c d ] + [b c d ]. Also,
a1 b1 c1 → → → →→→
[ x a y b z c ] = xyz[a b c ]
then [a b c]= a2 b2 c 2
(vii) For any vectors
a3 b3 c 3 → → → → → →→→ →→→ →→→
a , b, c , d, [a + b c d ] = [a c d ] + [b c d ]
Properties or Scalar Triple Products
→ → →
→ → → → → → (viii) Three non-zero vectors a , b and c are coplanar,
(i) (a × b )⋅ c = a ⋅ (b × c ).
→ → → → → → → → → →→→
(ii) (a × b )⋅ c = (b × c )⋅ a = (c × a )⋅ b if and only if [a b c ] = 0.

Three-Dimensional Geometry
1. Direction Cosines If a line make angles α, β and ( x2 − x1, y2 − y1, z2 − z1 )
and γ with X-axis, Y-axis and Z-axis respectively, where, PQ = ( x2 − x1 )2 + ( y2 − y1 )2 + ( z2 − z1 )2
then l = cos α, m = cos β and n = cos γ are called
4. Line A line is uniquely determined, if
the direction cosines of the line.
(i) it passes through a given point and has given
(i) We always have, l 2 + m2 + n 2 = 1.
direction or
(ii) Angle between Two Lines If θ is the angle
(ii) it passes through two given points.
between two lines with direction cosines
l1, m1, n1 and l2 , m2 , n2 , then 5. Equation of Line in Vector Form
cos θ = l1 l2 + m1 m2 + n1 n2 (i) Equation of a line through a given point A with

2. Direction Ratios Numbers proportional to the position vector a and parallel to a given vector
→ → → →
direction cosines of a line are called the direction b is given by r = a + t b, where t is a scalar.
ratios of the line. →
$ then a, b and c are direction
If b = a $i + b$j + ck,
(i) If a, b and c are the direction ratios of a line,
then ratios of the line and conversely, if a, b and c are

l=
a
,m=
b direction ratios of a line, then b = a$i + b$j + ck$
a +b +c
2 2 2
a + b2 + c 2
2
will be the parallel to the line.
c (ii) The vector equation of a line passing through
and n =
→ →
a + b2 + c 2
2
two points with position vectors a and b is
→ → → →
(ii) In any line, direction cosines has unique but given by r = a + t (b − a ), where t is a scalar.
direction ratios are not unique.
(iii) Angle between Two Lines If θ is the angle
3. Direction Cosines and Direction Ratios of a → → → → → →
Line The direction cosines and direction ratios of between two lines r = a + t b and r = c + s d,
the line segment joining P( x1, y1, z1 ) and → →
b⋅ d
Q( x2 , y2 , z2 ) are given by then cos θ = .
→ →
x2 − x1 y2 − y1 z2 − z1 | b|| d|
, ,
PQ PQ PQ (iv) Skew-lines If two lines do not meet and not
parallel, then they are known as skew-lines.
Revision Notes CBSE Class XII MATHEMATICS 17

(v) Shortest Distance between Two Skew-lines (vi) The shortest distance between the lines
The shortest distance between two skew-lines x − x1 y − y1 z − z1
= =
is the length of perpendicular to both the lines. a1 b1 c1
(a) Shortest distance between the skew-lines x − x 2 y − y 2 z − z2
→ → → → → → and = = is
r = a 1 + λ b1 and r = a 2 + λ b 2 is given by a2 b2 c2
→ → → → x2 − x1 y2 − y1 z2 − z1
|(a 2 − a 1 ) ⋅ (b1 × b 2 )|
SD = a1 b1 c1
→ →
| b1 × b 2 | a2 b2 c2
(b) The shortest distance between the parallel
1 2 − b2c1 ) + (c1a2 − c 2 a1 )
2 2
→ → → → → →
(bc
lines r = a1 + λ b and r = a 2 + µ b is given
+ (a1b2 − a2 b1 )2
by
→ → → 7. Plane A plane is determined uniquely, if any one
b × (a 2 − a 1 )
SD = of the following is known

b (i) The normal to the plane and its distance from
the origin is given, i.e., equation of a plane in
6. Equation of Line in Cartesian Form normal form.
(i) The equation of a line passing through a point (ii) It passes through a point and is perpendicular
A( x1, y1, z1 ) and having direction ratios a, b and c to a given direction.
is (iii) It passes through three given non-collinear
x − x1 y − y1 z − z1 points.
= = .
a b c Now, we shall find vector and cartesian
(ii) If l, m and n are the direction cosines of the equations of the planes.
line, then equation of the line is 8. Equation of Plane in Cartesian Form
x − x1 y − y1 z − z1 (i) The general equation of a plane is
= = .
l m n ax + by + cz + d = 0.
(iii) The equation of a line passing through two The direction ratios of the normal to this plane
points A( x1, y1, z1 ) and B( x2 , y2 , z2 ) is are a, b and c .
x − x1 y − y1 z − z1
= = (ii) If a plane cuts (intercepts) a, b and c with the
x2 − x1 y2 − y1 z2 − z1 coordinate axes, then the equation of the plane
x y z
(iv) If a1, b1, c1 and a2 , b2 , c 2 are direction ratios of is + + = 1.
two lines respectively, then a b c
(iii) Equation of a Plane Passing Through a Point
a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c 2 and Perpendicular to a Given Vector The
cos θ =
a12 + b12 + c12 ⋅ a22 + b22 + c 22 equation of a plane passing through a point
( x1, y1, z1 ) is a ( x − x1 ) + b( y − y1 ) + c ( z − z1 ) = 0,
(a1b2 − a2 b1 )2 + (bc
1 2 − b2c1 )
2
where a, b and c are direction ratios of
+ (c1a2 − c 2 a1 )2 perpendicular vector.
or sin θ = (iv) Equation of a Plane Passing Through Three
a12 + b12 + c12 a22 + b22 + c 22
Non-collinear Points The equation of a plane
(v) Two lines with direction ratios a1, b1, c1 and passing through three non-collinear points
a2 , b2 , c 2 are A( x1, y1, z1 ), B( x2 , y2 , z2 ) and C( x3 , y3 , z3 ) is given
(a) perpendicular, if a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c 2 = 0 by
a1 b1 c1 x − x1 y − y1 z − z1
(b) parallel, if = = x2 − x1 y2 − y1 z2 − z1 = 0
a2 b2 c 2
x3 − x1 y3 − y1 z3 − z1
18 Revision Notes CBSE Class XII MATHEMATICS

(v) Equation of a Plane Through the (ii) Equation of a Plane Perpendicular to a Given
Intersection of Two Planes The equation of Vector and Passing Through a Given
a plane through the intersection of the planes Point The equation of a plane passing through
a1 x + b1 y + c1 z + d1 = 0 the point a and perpendicular to the given vector
→ → → →
and a2 x + b2 y + c 2 z + d 2 = 0 is n is (r − a ) ⋅ n = 0
(a1 x + b1 y + c1 z + d1 ) (iii) Equation of Plane Passing Through Three
+ λ (a2 x + b2 y + c 2 z + d 2 ) = 0 Non-collinear Points The equation of plane
→ →
(vi) Distance of a Point from a Plane Distance passing through three non-collinear points a , b
of a point P( x1, y1, z1 ) from a plane → → → → → → →
and c is ( r − a )⋅ [(b − a ) × (c − a )] = 0
ax + by + cz + d = 0 is given by
(iv) Plane Passing Through the Intersection of
| ax1 + by1 + cz1 + d|
p= . Two Given Planes The equation of plane
a2 + b2 + c 2 passing through the intersection of two planes
(vii) Angle between Two Planes The angle → → → →
r ⋅ n1 = d1 and r ⋅ n 2 = d 2 is
between two planes is the angle between
→ → →
their normals. If θ is the angle between the r ⋅ ( n1 + λ n 2 ) = d1 + λ d 2 .
planes → → → → → →
(v) Two lines r = a 1 + λ b1 and r = a 2 + λ b 2 are
a1 x + b1 y + c1 z + d1 = 0
and a2 x + b2 y + c 2 z + d 2 = 0, then coplanar, if and only if
→ → → →
a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c 2 (a 2 − a 1)⋅ (b1 × b 2 ) = 0
cos θ =
→ →
a1 + b12 + c12 a22 + b22 + c 22
2
(vi) Angle between the planes r ⋅ n1 = p1 and
→ →
If two planes are perpendicular, then → → n1⋅ n 2
a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c 2 = 0 and if they are parallel, r ⋅ n 2 = p2 is given by cos θ = .
→ →
a b c | n1|| n 2|
then 1 = 1 = 1 .
a2 b2 c 2 Two planes are perpendicular to each other, if
→ → → → →
(viii) Equation of the Bisector Plane The n1 ⋅ n 2 = 0 and parallel, if n1 × n2 = 0 .
equation of the bisector plane to the planes (vii) Distance of a Point from a Plane The
a1 x + b1 y + c1 z + d1 = 0 and perpendicular distance of a point a from the
a2 x + b2 y + c 2 z + d 2 = 0 are given by → → →
plane r ⋅ n = d, where n is normal to the plane, is
a1 x + b1 y + c1 z + d 1 a2 x + b2 y + c 2 z + d 2
= → →
a12 + b12 + c12 a22 + b22 + c 22 a ⋅n −d
.
9. Coplanarity of Two Lines Two lines →
n
x − x1 y − y1 z − z1
= =
a1 b1 c1 (viii) The length of the perpendicular from origin O to
x − x 2 y − y 2 z − z2 → → d
and = = the plane r ⋅ n = d is .
a2 b2 c2 →
| n|
are coplanar, if and only if
→ → →
x2 − x1 y2 − y1 z2 − z1 11. (i) The angle θ between line r = a + λ b and
a1 b1 c1 =0 normal to the plane r ⋅ n = d is
→ →

a2 b2 c2
→ → → →
10. Equation of plane in Vector Form b⋅ n b ⋅n
cos θ = and sin φ =
(i) Let O be the origin and let n$ be a unit vector in → → → →
the direction of the normal ON to the plane b n b ⋅ n
and let ON = p. Then, the equation of the
→ where φ is the angle between line and the normal
plane is r ⋅ n$ = p. to the plane i.e. φ = 90 °− θ.
Revision Notes CBSE Class XII MATHEMATICS 19

Probability
1. Probability Multiplication probability for more than two
In a random experiment, let S be the sample events.
space and E be the event. Then, Let E,F and G are three events of sample space S,
Number of distinct elements in E n( E ) then
P(E ) = =  F  G 
Number of distinct elements in S n(S ) P(E ∩ F ∩ G ) = P(E )⋅ P   ⋅ P  
 E   E ∩ F
Number of outcomes favourable to E 4. Independent Events
=
Number of all possible outcomes Two events A and B are said to be independent, if
the occurrence or non-occurrence of one event
(i) If E is an event and S is the sample space, then does not affect the occurrence or non-occurrence
(a) 0 ≤ P(E ) ≤ 1 (b) P(φ ) = 0 (c) P(S ) = 1 of another event.
(ii) P (E ) = 1 − P (E ) Then, P( A ∩ B) = P( A)⋅ P(B);
2. Conditional Probability P( A / B) = P( A)
Let E and F be two events associated with a and P(B / A) = P(B)
random experiment. 5. Partition of Sample Space
Then, probability of occurrence of event E, when
A set of events E1, E2 , ..., En is said to represent a
the event F has already occurred, is called
partition of the sample space S, if it satisfies the
conditional probability of event E over F and is
following conditions
denoted by P(E / F ).
(i) Ei ∩ E j = φ, i ≠ j , i , j = 1, 2,..., n
P(E ∩ F )
P(E / F ) = where, P(F ) ≠ 0. (ii) E1 ∪ E2 ∪...∪ En = S
P(F )
(iii) P(Ei ) > 0 for all i = 1, 2,..., n
Properties of Conditional Probability Let A,B
and C be the events of a sample space S. Then, 6. Baye’s Theorem
(i) P(S / A) = P( A / A) = 1 Let S be the sample space and let E1, E2 ,..., En be
n mutually exclusive and exhaustive events
(ii) P{( A ∪ B)/ C} = P( A / C ) + P(B / C )
associated with a random experiment. If A is any
− P{( A ∩ B)/ C} ; P(C ) ≠ 0 event which occurs with E1, E2 , ..., En , then
(iii) P( A′ / B) = 1 − P( A / B), where A′ is complement probability of occurrence of Ei when A occurred,
of A.
P(Ei )P( A / Ei )
P(Ei / A) = , i = 1, 2,..., n
3. Multiplication Theorem on Probability n

Let A and B are two events associated with a ∑ P(Ei )P( A/ Ei )


i =1
random experiment, then
P( A)⋅ P(B / A), where P( A) ≠ 0 If P(E1 ) = P(E2 )
P( A ∩ B) = 
P(B)⋅ P( A / B), where P(B) ≠ 0 = P(E3 ) =... = P(En ), then
The above result is known as the multiplication P(E / Ei )
P(Ei / E ) = n
rule of probability.
∑ P(E / Ei )
i =1

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