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Chapter Five
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Rhythm

"Rhythm" is easily the most troublesome, most abused, most semantically dissolute term
in versification, perhaps in all of criticism. In its kernel sense of "periodicity, periodic repetition"
it is of course the crux of any theory of verse-structure. Yet one cannot help thinking it one of
those words we would be better off expunging from the unabridged dictionary for one edition,
just to see how well we could get along without it. Throughout the history of English
versification the terms "rhythm" and "meter" have been used virtually interchangeably, and
indeed the establishment, refinement, and enforcement of so crucial a distinction must be
considered one of the two or three major advances in the development of the theory. Yet the
issues of whether "rhythm" is a phenomenon objectively verifiable or subjectively intuitable and
whether "meter" is an abstract pattern of mental expectation or actually "heard in the lines" are
issues that still remain clouded, as was evidenced in the important 1959–62 exchanges in PMLA.
At least for the organizational purposes of this book I take "rhythm" to be not the
paradigm, the mental "set," the form, but rather the linguistic features themselves which are the
constitutive elements of English verse. Of these there are many more orders in poetry than
simply meter, which is an organization of stresses and non-stresses, even though such orders may
be less coherent, more vestigial in the preponderance of cases. The patterning of stresses in
English verse is now reasonably well understood, but the distribution of other intonational
features--pitch, duration, pauses--has so far been either slighted or misconceived in scholarly
investigations. Section Four of this chapter therefore collects studies of linguistic features other
than stress in verse under the (uncomfortable) rubric of Poetic Rhythm. Section Three is the
correlate category of Prose Rhythm, a subject which is technically peripheral to versification but
which traditionally has been a natural subject of interest for metrists, insofar as they have believed

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that the linguistic structures of speech, so highly ordered in poetry, are discernible in a medial
state of organization in prose. In fine: meter orders the rhythms of prose. Section Two collects
some psychological studies of motor response which were very influential in versification theory
earlier in this century. Section One selects some of the more important and more recent
linguistic studies of those elements which are organized in verse, not merely to provide
references for background reading, but because--more crucially--the structure of verse is not
finally separable from the nature of the elements comprising that structure. No student of English
metrics will fully understand the dimensions of the problem until he understands the current as
well as the past conceptions of such key terms as "accent," or until he realizes exactly how much
and how little consensus has been reached by linguists on how to demarcate discrete entities out
of the flux. No metric without its phonetic: the serious metrist will have to inform himself about
matters linguistic, among many.

LINGUISTIC RHYTHM

Linguistics is of course an entire domain unto itself, yet since poetic structures are
superimposed upon linguistic elements, some awareness of the current understanding of these
elements is essential. The literature, however, is voluminous, so I cite below a representative
selection of the most important and most recent studies of stress, pitch, and timing. A number of
other grammars and early linguistic treatises more relevant to metrical theory will be found in the
Stress Metrics—Traditional section of Chapter Six.

GENERAL

D1 Chomsky, Noam, and Morris Halle. The Sound Pattern of English. New York: Harper &
Row, 1968.
Rev: by McCawley in International Journal of American Linguistics 40 (1974): 50–88.
The generative phonology underlying the metrical work of Halle and Keyser
(E775–77) et al.

D2 Crystal, David. The English Tone of Voice: Essays in Intonation, Prosody, and
Paralanguage. London: Edward Arnold, 1975.

D3 -----. Prosodic Systems and Intonation in English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
1969.

D4 Crystal, David, and Randolph Quirk. Systems of Prosodic and Paralinguistic Features in
English. The Hague: Mouton, 1965. 94 pp.

D5 Fichtner, Edward G. "The Trager-Smith Levels of English: A Reinterpretation."


International Journal of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching 10 (1972): 21–33.

D6 Firth, J. R. "Sounds and Prosodies." Transactions of the Philological Society, 1948, pp. 127–
52. Rpt in his Papers in Linguistics 1935–1951. Oxford: Oxford University Press,
1957. pp. 121–38. Rpt in Phonetics in Linguistics: A Book of Readings. Ed. W. E.
Jones and J. Laver. London: Longman Group, 1973. pp. 47–65.

D7 Hall, G. Stanley and J. Jastrow. "Studies of Rhythm." Mind 11 (1886): 55–62.

D8 Hill, T. "The Technique of Prosodic Analysis." In Memory of J. R. Firth. Ed. C. E Bazell


et al. London: Longmans, 1966. pp. 198–226.

D9 Jones, Daniel. An Outline of English Phonetics. 9th ed. Cambridge: W. Heffer & Sons,
1972.

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D10 Joos, Martin. Acoustic Phonetics. Baltimore: Linguistic Society of America, 1948.

D11 Knowles, G. "The Rhythm of English Syllables." Lingua 34 (1974): 115–47.


"A theory of rhythm includes a theory of grouping and a theory of timing. . .
.grouping and timing cannot be identified in any single phonetic feature. . . . the
pattern of prominence must be taken as a whole."

D12 Kurath, Hans. A Phonology and Prosody of Modern English. Ann Arbor: University of
Michigan Press; Heidelberg: Carl Winter, 1964. 158 pp.

D13 Ladefoged, Peter. Three Areas of Experimental Phonetics. London: Oxford University Press,
1967.

D14 Lehiste, Ilse. "Rhythmic Units and Syntactic Units in Production and Perception."
Journal of the Acoustical Society 54 (1973): 1228–34.

D15 -----. Suprasegmentals. Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press, 1970.

D16 Liberman, Mark. "The Intonational System of English." Diss., M.I.T., 1975.

D17 Liddell, Mark H. The Elements of Sound and Their Relation to Language. Illinois Studies in
Language and Literature, vol. 27, no. 1. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1940.
136 pp.
Rev: in English Studies 25 (1943): 157–60.
Work in experimental phonetics which follows the author's 1902 work on metrics
(E424). He follows D. C. Miller and Helmholtz here.

D18 Lieberman, Philip. Intonation, Perception, and Language. Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press,
1967.

D19 -----. "On the Acoustic Basis of the Perception of Intonation by Linguists." Word 21
(1965): 40–54.

D20 -----. "A Study of Prosodic Features." Current Trends in Linguistics, XII: Linguistics and
Adjacent Arts and Sciences. Ed. Thomas A Sebeok. 4 vols. The Hague: Mouton,
1975. Part 4, pp. 2419–50.

D21 Palmer, F. R. Prosodic Analysis. London: Oxford University Press, 1970.

D22 Pike, Kenneth L. The Intonation of American English. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan
Press, 1945.

D23 -----. "Practical Phonetics of Rhythm Waves." Phonetica 8 (1962): 9–30.

D24 Pitts, Ann. "A Prosodic Analysis of a Chanted Formulaic Sermon." Rackham Literary
Studies, no. 9 (1978), pp. 89–96.

D25 Pulgram, Ernst. Syllable, Word, Nexus, Cursus. The Hague: Mouton, 1970.

D26 Quirk, Randolph, et al. "Studies in the Correspondence of Prosodic to Grammatical


Features in English." Proceedings of the Ninth International Congress of Linguists. The
Hague: Mouton, 1964. pp. 679–91.

D27 Robins, R. H. "Aspects of Prosodic Analysis." Proceedings of the University of Durham


Philological Society, series 8, vol. 1, series B, no. 1 (1957), pp. 1–12. Rpt in Phonetics
in Linguistics: A Book of Readings. Ed. W. E. Jones and J. Laver. London: Longman
Group, 1973. pp. 262–77.

D28 Robson, Ernest M. "An Orthographic Way of Writing English Prosody." Visible
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Language 9 (1975): 357–72.
A system is devised to visually display the suprasegmental features of pitch, apparent
amplitude, and time in print by mixing elevation, darkness, and horizontal length of
letters in various typefaces. The prosodic cues are thus most conspicuously marked.

D29 Scripture, E. W. "Observations on Rhythmic Action." Studies from the Yale Psychological
Laboratory. Ed. E. W. Scripture. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1889. Vol. 7,
pp. 102–8.

D30 -----. "Studies in Melody in English Speech." Philosophische Studien 19 (1902): 590–615.

D31 Tibbitts, Ernest L. "Evidences of Semantic Determinants of Prosodic Features in


English." Proceedings of the Seventh International Congress of Phonetic Sciences. Ed. André
Rigault and René Charbonneau. The Hague: Mouton, 1972. pp. 1047–51.

D32 Trager, George L., and Henry Lee Smith, Jr. An Outline of English Structure. Studies in
Linguistics Occasional Papers, no. 3. Norman, Oklahoma: Battenburg Press, 1951;
rpt Washington, D. C.: American Council of Learned Societies, 1956; rpt New
York: Johnson Reprint Corp., 1970. 91 pp. Hereafter referred to as Trager-Smith.
The widely endorsed structural-linguistic description of the phonology and
morphology of the English language (though soon after challenged by
transformational-generative grammar, of course). The core of the Trager-Smith
system is the identification of four discrete levels of stress (i.e. primary, secondary,
tertiary, weak), pitch (highest, high, normal, low), and juncture (internal, and
word-, phrase-, and clause-terminal). The four-level description of stress was
immediately seized by prosodists and applied to metrics with its two-level (bivalent,
on-off, yes-no) ictic system, since it was apparent that the two medial degrees of
stress could be "promoted" or "demoted" depending on context to either fully
stressed or weak. See the subsection on Structural Metrics beginning at E709.

D33 Uldall, Elizabeth. "Dimensions of Meaning in Intonation." In Honour of Daniel Jones. Ed.
David Abercrombie et al. London: Longmans, Green, 1964. pp. 271–79.

D34 Wallin, J. E. W. "Researches on the Rhythm of Speech." Studies from the Yale
Psychological Laboratory. Ed. E. W. Scripture. New Haven: Yale University Press,
1901. Vol. 9, pp. 1–142.
Concludes that a variable quantity exists in all languages. The ratio of long
syllables to short in spoken verse is 1.7:1.
STRESS

D35 Abercrombie, David. "Some Functions of Silent Stress." Edinburgh Studies in English and
Scots. Ed. A. J. Aitken et al. London: Longmans, 1971. pp. 147–56.
An important argument for its bearing on metrical theory. Accepting Pike's view of
English as "stress-timed" (originally suggested by Sir Joshua Steele) and Ladefoged's
definition of stress as "a gesture of the respiratory muscles," Abercrombie argues that
this gesture "has nothing to do with loudness"--i.e., the pause is completely
phonological and not extra-linguistic. Some of its functions are: syntactic, emphatic,
terminal, tentative, and rhetorical. In verse, these silent stresses or metrical pauses (1)
insure a regular number of beats in the line, and (2) serve as line-end markers.

D36 Allen, George D. "The Location of Rhythmic Stress in English: An Experimental


Study." Language and Speech 15 (1972): 72–100, 179–95.

D37 Arnold, G. F. Stress in English Words. Amsterdam: North Holland, 1957.

D38 -----. "Stress in English Words." Lingua 6 (1957): 221–67, 397–441.

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D39 Baker, Robert G., and Philip T. Smith. "A Psycholinguistic Study of English Stress
Assignment Rules." Language and Speech 19 (1976): 9–27.

D40 Beaver, Joseph. "A Note on the Ordering of the Nuclear Stress Rule." Papers in
Linguistics 3 (1970): 405–9.

D41 Berman, Arlene, and Michael Szamosi. "Observations on Sentential Stress." Language
Research Report No. 5. Cambridge, Mass.: Language Research Foundation, 1971. pp.
119–74; rpt in Language 48 (1972): 304–25.

D42 Bierwisch, Michael. "Two Critical Problems in Accent Rules." Journal of Linguistics 4
(1968): 173–78.

D43 Blackie, John Stuart. "On the Place and Power of Accent in Language." In his Horae
Hellenicae. London: Macmillan, 1874. pp. 320–94.
An indefatigable excursus on the nature of accent in languages, from Classical Greek
to nineteenth-century English, with a correlate effort at defining and distinguishing
the role of quantity vs. that of accent. Blackie denies that Greek accent was in any
respect different from English stress and sketches the history of the "confusion"
through Erasmus, Vossius, Gally and Foster, Horsley, Munro, and others.

D44 Bolinger, Dwight. "Accent is Predictable (If You're a Mind-Reader)." Language 48


(1972): 633–44.

D44a -----. "Contrastive Accent and Contrastive Stress." Language 37 (1961): 83-96; rpt in his
Forms of English (next entry), pp. 101-17.

D44b -----. Forms of English: Accent, Morpheme, Order. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University
Press, 1965.

D45 -----. "Intersections of Stress and Intonation." Word 11 (1955): 195–203.

D46 -----. "Stress and Information." American Speech 33 (1958): 5–20.

D47 Bresnan, Joan W. "Sentence Stress and Syntactic Transformations." Language 47 (1971):
257–81.

D48 -----. "Stress and Syntax: A Reply." Language 48 (1972): 326–42.

D49 Chiba, T. A Study of Accent: Research into its Nature and Scope in the Light of
Experimental Phonetics. Tokyo: Fuzanbo, 1935. 123 pp.
Rev: in Quarterly Journal of Speech 23 (1937): 313–18.

D50 Chomsky, Noam, Morris Hall, and Fred Lukoff. "On Accent and Juncture in English."
For Roman Jakobson. The Hague: Mouton, 1956. pp. 65–80.
Criticizes the Trager-Smith system. See also the response:

D50a Percival, Keith. "A Rule Restated." General Linguistics 4 (1959): 70–72.

D51 Cook, Mary Jane. "Phonetic and Phonemic Properties of Stress in English." DA 22
(1962): 3653A (Texas).

D52 Cygan, Jan. "Preliminaries to the Study of the English Word-Stress." Studia Anglica
Posnaniensia 6 (1974): 117–24.

D53 Danielsson, Bror. Studies in the Accentuation of Polysyllabic Latin, Greek, and Romance Loan-
Words in English. Stockholm Studies in English, no. 3. Stockholm: Almqvist &
Wiksell, 1948; Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1948. 664 pp.

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Rev: in JEGP 50 (1951): 537–38; in Anglia 70 (1951): 123–26; in Language 28
(1952): 140–41; in MLN 67 (1952): 266–67; in MLR 45 (1950): 360–62.

D54 Davis, Edwin B. "English Stress Accent." College English 5 (1943): 136–41.

D55 Eliason, N. E., and R. C. Davis. The Effect of Stress upon Quantity in Disyllables: An
Experimental and Historical Study. Indiana University Publications, Science Series, no.
8. Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press, 1939. 56 pp.
Rev: in JEGP 40 (1941): 392–93; in MLQ 1 (1940): 266–67.

D56 Ellis, Alexander J. "On the Physical Constituents of Accent and Emphasis." Transactions of
the Philological Society, 1873–74, pp. 113–64.
An important nineteenth-century study of stress in English, German, French,
Italian, Latin, and Greek, which also influenced Mayor (E591). See sections 17–22
on English: Ellis distinguishes as primary features length, pitch (frequency), force
(amplitude, loudness), form (timbre), and glide. Accent is the result of specific
variances in pitch and force; emphasis adds to these the expressive uses of form and
length. A capsule definition: English accent may be defined as fixed force and free pitch.
Interestingly, Ellis gives a very detailed synopsis of the system of Sir Joshua Steele
(E394).

D57 Fry, Dennis B. "The Dependence of Stress Judgments on Vowel Formant Structure."
Proceedings of the Fifth International Congress of Phonetic Sciences. Basel: Karger, 1965.
pp. 306–11.

D58 -----. "Duration and Intensity as Physical Correlates of Linguistic Stress." Journal of the
Acoustical Society 27 (1955): 765–68.

D59 -----. "Experiments in the Perception of Stress." Language and Speech 1 (1958): 126–52.

D60 Fuchs, Anna. "'Normalzer' und 'Kontrastiver' Akzent." Lingua 38 (1976): 293–312.

D61 Fudge, Erik. "English Word Stress: An Examination of Some Basic Assumptions." Essays
on the Sound Pattern of English. Ed. Didier L. Goyvaerts and Geoffrey K. Pullum.
Ghent: Story-Scientia, 1975. pp. 277–323.

D62 Gärding, Eva, and L. J. Gerstman. "The Effect of Changes in the Location of an
Intonation Peak on Sentence Stress." Studia Linguistica 14 (1960): 57–59.

D63 Gage, William W. "Syntax of English Stress: Interpretation of Three Approaches."


Linguistic Studies in Memory of R. S. Harrell. Ed. Don G. Stuart. Washington, D.C.:
Georgetown University Press, 1967. pp. 47–59.

D64 Gilbert, A. J. "The Treatment of Unstressed Syllables in Eighteenth-Century English."


Diss., University of Lancaster, 1974.

D65 Gimson, A. C. "The Linguistic Relevance of Stress in English." Zeitschrift für Phonetik und
allgemeine Sprachwissenschaft 9 (1956): 143–49; rpt in Phonetics in Linguistics: A Book of
Readings. Ed. W. E. Jones and J. Laver. London: Longman Group, 1973. pp. 94–
102.

D66 Göes, Alvar N. The Stress System of English. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, no. 19.
Stockholm, 1974.

D67 Halle, Morris. "Stress Rules in English: A New Version." Linguistic Inquiry 4 (1973): 451–
64; rpt in Essays on the Sound Pattern of English. Ed. Didier L. Goyvaerts and G. K.
Pullum. Ghent: Story-Scientia, 1975. pp. 261–76.

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--- Halle, Morris, and Samuel Jay Keyser. English Stress: Its Form, Its Growth, and Its Role in
Verse. See E777.

D68 Harris, Patricia M. "The Effect of Accentuation and Syllabification upon Vowel Sounds
in Syllabic Patterns." DAI 34 (1974): 7211A (North Carolina).

D69 Hemphill, George. "Accent, Stress, and Emphasis." College English 17 (1956): 337–40.
Historical variations in the definitions of these three terms.

D70 Hoard, James E., and Clarence Sloat. "Variation in English Stress Placement." New Ways
of Analyzing Variations in English. Ed. Charles-James N. Bailey and Roger W. Shay.
Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1973.

D71 Hultzen, Lee S. "Stress and Intonation." General Linguistics 1 (1955): 35–42.

D72 Jassem, Wiktor. "Stress in Modern English." Bulletin de la société polonaise de linguistique 9
(1952): 21–49.

D73 Jeaffreson, J. W. "Stress and Rhythm in Speech." Transactions of the Philological Society,
1938, pp. 73–95.

D74 Johnson, C. Douglas. "Unbounded Expressions in Rules of Stress and Accent." Glossa 4
(1970): 185–96.

D75 Katayama, Y. " . . . Semantic Influence on Stress Perception." The Study of Sounds.
Tokyo: Phonetic Society of Japan, 1966. pp. 374–87.

D76 Kingdon, Roger. The Groundwork of English Stress. London: Longmans, 1958.
Rev: in Études Anglaises 13 (1960): 467–69.

D77 Kiparsky, Paul. "Metrical Structure Assignment Is Cyclic." Linguistic Inquiry 10 (1979):
42–41.
Extension and revision of Liberman and Prince (D83). See Chen (L1542).

D78 Ladefoged, Peter, et al. "Syllables and Stress." Miscellanea Phonetica 3 (1958): 1–14; rpt in
Phonetics in Linguistics: A Book of Readings. Ed. W. E. Jones and J. Laver. London:
Longman Group, 1973. pp. 204–17.

D79 Langendoen, D. Terence. "Some Problems in the Description of English Accentuation."


Essays on the Sound Pattern of English. Ed. Didier L. Goyvaerts and Geoffrey K.
Pullum. Ghent: Story-Scientia, 1975. pp. 205–18.

D80 Lee, Gregory. "English Word Stress." Papers from the Fifth Regional Meeting of the Chicago
Linguistic Society. Ed. Robert L. Binnick et al. Chicago: University of Chicago
Department of Linguistics, 1969. pp. 389–406.

D81 -----. "English Word Stress and Phrase Stress." Essays on the Sound Pattern of English. Ed.
Didier L. Goyvaerts and Geoffrey K. Pullum. Ghent: Story-Scientia, 1975. pp.
219–47.

D82 Lehto, Leena. English Stress and Its Modification by Intonation: An Analytic and
Synthetic Study of Acoustic Parameters. Helsinki, 1969.

D83 Liberman, Mark, and Alan Prince. "On Stress and Linguistic Rhythm." Linguistic Inquiry
8 (1977): 249–336.
As if philology (here, phonetics) had failed historically to rescue (i.e. explicate)
meter, now metrics will come to the aid of its substantive, phonology. In a major

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theoretical statement, the authors propose a theory wherein the stressing of English
syllables is determined, on the deep level, by "the alignment of linguistic material
with a 'metrical grid,'" a process which is "reminiscent of the traditional picture of
verse scansion, so that the theory as a whole deserves the name 'metrical.'" Thus, in
the Liberman-Prince procedure, one simply marks relative prominence at the
constituent level, then allows the standard Compound and Nuclear Stress Rules to
apply to the derivation of both word-stress and phrase-stress.
But there are cases in which stressing shifts unexpectedly in order to preserve
alternation of stressed and unstressed syllables (i.e. to avoid contiguous clashing
stresses); this phenomenon the theory accounts for via an optional Rhythm Rule,
whereby the metrical grid realigns itself systematically, a process the authors term
"scansion." Intriguing . . . that the structure of verse could explicate the structure of
the language. See Nanni (D98), Kiparsky (E826), and Chen (L1542).

D84 Lieberman, Philip. "Some Acoustic Correlates of Word Stress in American English."
Journal of the Acoustical Society 32 (1960): 451–54.

D85 Lunney, Henry W. M. "Location of Stress: Classé's Experiment Reinstrumented."


Zeitschrift für Phonetik, Sprachwissenschaft und Kommunikationsforschung 27 (1974): 320–
27.

D86 Lutstorf, Heinz T. The Stressing of Compounds in Modern English. Bern, 1960.
Rev: in English Studies 44 (1963): 60–62.

D87 McAllister, Robert. "The Nuclear Stress Rule and the Description of English Stress."
Proceedings of the Seventh International Congress of Phonetic Sciences. Ed. André Rigault
and René Charbonneau. The Hague: Mouton, 1972. pp. 966–73.

D88 McCarthy, John J. "On Stress and Syllabification." Linguistic Inquiry 10 (1979): 443–66.

D89 McClean, Michael D. "The Acoustic Parameters of Stress In Relation To Syllable


Position, Speech Loudness, and Rate." Proceedings of the Seventh International Congress
of Phonetic Sciences. Ed. André Rigault and René Charbonneau. The Hague:
Mouton, 1972. pp. 974–77.

D90 Macdonald, R. Ross. "A Brief Note on Stress on Prepositions in English." Georgetown
University Working Papers on Language and Linguistics 6 (1975): 75–78. Also in the
same journal:

D91 -----. "Prepositions and Stress in English." 8 (1975): 46–52.

D92 Makivchi, Masaru. "Morphophonemic Rules for English Stress." The Study of Sounds.
Tokyo: Phonetic Society of Japan, 1966. Vol. 12, pp. 363–73.

D93 Martin, James G. "Rhythmic (Hierarchical) Versus Serial Structure in Speech and Other
Behavior." Psychological Review 79 (1972): 487–509.

D94 -----. "Rhythm-Induced Judgments of Word-Stress in Sentences." Journal of Verbal


Learning and Verbal Behavior 9 (1970): 627–33.

D95 Miller, C. B. "Accent: Classes and Variations." Proceedings of the Second International
Congress of Phonetic Sciences. Ed. Daniel Jones and D. B. Fry. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1936. pp. 235–39.

D96 Mol, H., and E. M. Uhlembeck. "The Linguistic Relevance of Intensity in Stress."

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Lingua 2 (1956): 205–13.

D97 Morton, John, and Wiktor Jassem. "Acoustic Correlates of Stress." Language and Speech 8
(1965): 159–81.

D98 Nanni, Debbie L. "Stressing Words in -Ative." Linguistic Inquiry 8 (1977): 752–62.
Suggests a solution to the problem of words ending in this suffix, which has two
alternative stress patterns. Based on Liberman and Prince (D83).

D99 Nessly, Larry. "Halle & Keyser: English Stress." Language 53 (1977): 655–66.
Reviews the first two sections of English Stress (stress rules; historical development)
with no attention to the third section on metrics. See E777.

D100 Newman, Stanley. "On the Stress System of English." Word 2 (1946): 171–87.

D101 Ondráchková, Jana. "Stress and Duration in CVCV and CVCVCV Groups." Linguistics
no. 83 (1972): 56–63.

D102 Pike, Kenneth L., and Willard Kindberg. "A Problem in Multiple Stresses." Word 12
(1956): 415–28.

D103 Prick van Wely, F. P. H. "Über den Rhythmus der and-Verbindungen im Englischen."
Englische Studien 39 (1908): 468–69; 45 (1912): 467–69; 48 (1914–15): 477–79.

D104 Schane, Sanford A. "Non-Cyclic English Word Stress." Essays on the Sound Pattern of
English. Ed. Didier L. Goyvaerts and Geoffrey K. Pullum. Ghent: Story-Scientia,
1975. pp. 249–59.

D105 -----. "Rhythm, Accent, and Stress in English Words." Linguistic Inquiry 10 (1979): 483–
502.

D106 Schmerling, Susan F. Aspects of English Sentence Stress. Austin: University of Texas Press,
1976.
Criticism of Chomsky-Halle (D1).

D107 -----. "A Re-Examination of 'Normal Stress.'" Language 50 (1974): 66–73.

D108 Schramm, Wilber. "The Acoustic Nature of Accent of American Speech." American
Speech 13 (1937): 49–56.

D109 Scott, Fred Newton. "The Accentual Structure of Isolable English Phrases." PMLA 33
(1918): 73–84.
Examines stress-patterns in idioms and the titles of novels. The commonest English
phrase is four syllables long and has a prevalently iambic rhythm.

D110 -----. "The Order of Words in Certain Rhythm-Groups." MLN 28 (1913): 237–39.
Cites examples contradicting Jespersen's claim that in cases where phrases are
formed by monosyllable + and + disyllable, the monosyllable comes first, partly
because that order has a smoother rhythm. The proportion of the two types is in
fact roughly 50–50.

D111 But John Whyte, in "The Order of Monosyllables and Disyllables in Alliteration"
(MLN 30 [1915]: 175–76) finds that 84% of the alliterative formulae in Willert
(C126) place the monosyllable first.

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D112 Settera, George E. "English Stress." Glossa 8 (1974): 83–108.

D113 Severynse, Marion. "Irregular Stress Patterning in Lexical Compounds." Harvard Studies
in Phonology, Vol. I. Ed. George N. Clements. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard
University Department of Linguistics, 1977. pp. 369–89.

D114 Sharp, A. E. "The Analysis of Stress and Juncture in English." Transactions of the
Philological Society, 1960, pp. 104–35.

D115 Sloat, Clarence. "Stress in English." Glossa 8 (1974): 121–39.

D116 Stampe, David. "On Chapter Nine" [of Chomsky-Halle (D1)]. Issues in Phonological
Theory. Ed. Michael J. Kenstowicz and C. W. Kisseberth. The Hague: Mouton,
1973. pp. 44–52.

D117 Stutterheim, C. F. P. "Accentual Relationships as Viewed and Used in Language." Dutch


Studies 1 (1974): 27–36.

D118 Tibbits, E. L. English Stress Patterns. Cambridge: Heffer, 1967.

D119 Tiffin, J., and M. D. Steer. "An Experimental Analysis of Emphasis." Speech Monographs 4
(1937): 69–74.

D120 Trager, George L. "The Theory of Accentual Systems." Language, Culture, and
Personality. Ed. Leslie Spier et al. Menasha, Wis.: Sapir Memorial Publication Fund,
1941. pp. 131–45.

D121 Vanderslice, Ralph. The Prosodic Component: Lacuna in Transformational Theory. Santa
Monica, California: Rand Corporation, 1968; 57 pp.
Complaining that the Chomsky-Halle generative phonology (D1) both ignores
intonation and oversimplifies stress, Vanderslice offers an alternative, simplified
model with four binary features: Accent, Emphasis, Cadence, and Endglide. He
claims that his system will more adequately explain "accent deletion" and "stress
shift" than either Trager-Smith or Chomsky-Halle.

D122 Vanvik, Arne. On Stress in Present-Day English. Oslo, 1961.

D123 Waldo, George S. "The Significance of Accentuation in English Words." Proceedings of


the Ninth International Congress of Linguists. Ed. Horace G. Lunt. The Hague:
Mouton, 1964. pp. 204–10.

D124 Western, August. On Sentence-Rhythm and Word-Order in Modern English.


Christiana, 1908. 51 pp.

PITCH

D125 Bolinger, Dwight L. "Intonation and Analysis." Word 5 (1949): 248–54.

D126 -----. "Intonation and Grammar." Language Learning 8 (1958): 31–37.

D127 -----. "Intonation: Levels Versus Configuration." Word 7 (1951): 199–210.

D128 -----. Intonation: Selected Readings. London: Penguin, 1972.

D129 -----. "The Melody of Language." Modern Language Forum 40 (1955): 19–30.
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D130 -----. "A Theory of Pitch Accent in English." Word 14 (1958): 109–49.

D131 Glasgow, George M. "A Semantic Index of Vocal Pitch." Speech Monographs 19 (1952):
64–68.

D132 Jenkins, Robert A. "Perception of Pitch, Timbre, and Loudness." Journal of the Acoustical
Society 33 (1961): 1550–57.

D133 Katwijk, A. F. W. van. "Implicit Knowledge of Pitch Patterns in the Perception of


Accented Syllables." Löwen und Sprachtiger: Akten des VIII Linguistischen Kolloquiums
Löwen. Ed. Rudolf Kern. Louvain: Peeters, 1976. pp. 385–94.

D134 Malone, Kemp. "Pitch Patterns in English." SP 23 (1926): 371–79.

D135 Siertsema, B. "Timbre, Pitch, and Intonation." Lingua 11 (1962): 388–98.

D136 Stevens, S. S. "Psychological Acoustics: Pitch and Loudness." Journal of the Acoustical
Society 8 (1936): 1–13.

D137 Takefuta, Yukio, et al. "A Statistical Analysis of the Melody Curves in the Intonation of
American English." Proceedings of the Seventh International Congress of Phonetic Sciences.
Ed. André Rigault and René Charbonneau. The Hague: Mouton, 1972. pp. 1035–
39.

D138 Wells, Rulon S. "The Pitch Phonemes of English. Language 21 (1945): 27–39.

D139 Woodrow, Herbert. "The Role of Pitch in Rhythm." Psychological Review 18 (1911):
54–77.

TIMING, ISOCHRONY, PAUSE, LENGTH

D140 Allen, George D. "Speech Rhythm: Its Relation to Performance Universals and
Articulatory Timing." Journal of Phonetics 3 (1975): 75–86.

D141 -----. "Towards a Description of Stress-Timing in Spoken English." Proceedings of the


Conference on Language and Language Behavior. Ed. Eric M. Zale. New York:
Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1968. pp. 267–82.

D142 Bolinger, Dwight L. "Length, Vowel, Juncture." Linguistics no. 1 (1963): 5–29.

D143 Browne, Sandra C. "Phonological Aspects of Timing." The Fourth LACUS Forum, 1977.
Ed. Michel Paradis. Columbia, S. C.: Hornbeam, 1978. pp. 444–50.

D144 Coleman, Colette L. "A Study of Acoustical and Perceptual Attributes of Isochrony in
Spoken English." DAI 35 (1975): 4724A.

D145 Cowan, J. M., and B. Bloch. "An Experimental Study of Pause in English Grammar."
American Speech 23 (1948): 89–99.

D146 DeBelaval, Domitila D. "An Investigation of Isochronism in the Rhythm of American


English Speech." DA 27 (1966): 1355A (L.S.U.).

D147 Duckworth, James E. "An Inquiry into the Validity of the Isochronic Hypothesis." DA
26 (1966): 5424A (Connecticut).
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D148 Eliason, N. "Two Notes on Vowel and Consonant Quantity." American Speech 17
(1942): 166–68.

D149 Goldhauber, Gerald M. "PAUSAL: A Computer Program to Identify and Measure


Pauses." Western Speech 37 (1973): 23–26.

D150 Goldman-Eisler, Frieda. "The Distribution of Pause Durations in Speech." Language and
Speech 4 (1961): 232–27.

D151 Haggard, Mark. "Correlations between Successive Segment Durations: Values in


Clusters." Journal of Phonetics 1 (1973): 111–16.

D152 House, Arthur S. "On Vowel Duration in English." Journal of the Acoustical Society 33
(1961): 1174–78.

D153 Kiatt, Dennis H. "Vowel Lengthening is Syntactically Determined in a Connected


Discourse." Journal of Phonetics 3 (1975): 129–40.

D154 Kohler, Klaus J. "The Significance of Pauses." Proceedings of the Seventh International
Congress of Phonetic Sciences. Ed. André Rigault and René Charbonneau. The
Hague: Mouton, 1972. pp. 905–13.
Pauses at regular intervals increase short-term memory.

D155 Lehiste, Ilse. "Isochrony Reconsidered." Journal of Phonetics 5 (1977): 253–63.

D156 -----. "The Temporal Realization of Morphological and Syntactic Boundaries." Working
Papers in Linguistics 9 (1971): 114–30.

D157 -----. "The Timing of Utterances and Linguistic Boundaries." Journal of the Acoustical
Society 51 (1972): 2018–24.

D158 Lieberman, Philip M. Sawashima, K. S. Harris, and T. Gay. "The Articulatory


Implementation of the Breath-Group and Prominence: Crico-Thyroid Muscular
Activity in Intonation." Language 46 (1970): 312–27.

D159 Lisker, Leigh. "On 'Explaining' Vowel Duration Variations." Glossa 8 (1974): 233–45.

D160 -----. "On Time and Timing in Speech." Current Trends in Linguistics, XII: Linguistics and
Adjacent Arts and Sciences. Ed. Thomas A. Sebeok. 4 vols. The Hague: Mouton,
1975. Part 4, pp. 2387–2418.

D161 Martin, James G. "On Judging Pauses in Spontaneous Speech." Journal of Verbal Learning
and Verbal Behavior 9 (1970): 75–78.

D162 Morgan, Bayard Q. "Some Functions of Time in Speech." American Speech 20 (1945):
28–33.

D163 Newcomb, William B. "Some Tempo Manifestations of the Terminals of English." DA


20 (1960): 4103A (Wisconsin).

D164 Nooteboom, S. G. "The Perceptual Reality of Some Prosodic Durations." Journal of


Phonetics 1 (1973): 25–45.

D165 Oliva, Joseph, and Judith Duchan. "Three Levels of Temporal Structuring in Spoken

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Language." The Fourth LACUS Forum, 1977. Ed. Michel Paradis. Columbia, S. C.:
Hornbeam, 1978. pp. 460–68.
Defines three levels: rhythmic (stress and length of syllables), metric (phrasal units
equal in time from major juncture to major juncture), and beat-and-tempo (timing
adjustments within the phrase).

D165a Patch, Katharine. "Syllable Duration in Prose Read Aloud." Diss., University of
Edinburgh, 1962.

D166 Petersen, Niels R. "Identification and Discrimination of Vowel Duration." Annual


Report of the Institute of Phonetics, University of Copenhagen 10 (1976): 57–83.

D167 Peterson, Gordon E., and Ilse Lehiste. "Duration of Syllable Nuclei in English." Journal
of the Acoustical Society 32 (1960): 693–703.

D168 Port, Robert F. "The Influence of Speaking Tempo on the Duration of Stressed Vowel
and Medial Stop in English Trochee Words." DAI 38 (1977): 233A.

D169 Rochester, S. R. "The Significance of Pauses in Spontaneous Speech." Journal of


Psycholinguistic Research 2 (1973): 51–81.

D170 Rositzske, H. A. "Vowel Length in General American Speech." Language 15 (1939): 99–
109.

D171 Shen, Yao, and G. G. Peterson. Isochronism in English. Studies in Linguistics Occasional
Papers, no. 9. Buffalo: University of Buffalo Department of Anthropology and
Linguistics, 1962. See also E417.

D172 Stene, Aasta. Hiatus in English: Problems of Catenation and Juncture. Anglistica, vol. 3.
Copenhagen: Rosenkilde and Bagger, 1954. 102 pp.
Rev: in Anglia 73 (1955): 257–68; in MLN 70 (1955): 458–59; in Études Anglaises 9
(1956): 147; in Lingua 9 (1960): 110–12.

D173 Sumera, Magdalena. "The Concept of Isochrony: Some Problems of Analysis." Studies in
Linguistics 25 (1975): 35–41.
In speech, music, and verse. A noteworthy paper on general principles and
problems with this concept. Bibliography.

D174 Uldall, Elizabeth T. "Isochronous Stresses in R[eceived] P[ronunciation]." Form &


Substance: Phonetic and Linguistic Papers. Ed. L. L. Hammerich et al. Copenhagen:
Akademisk Forlag, 1971. pp. 205–10.
Based on the work of Abercrombie (E102); the text of a prose parable, "The North
Wind and the Sun," is divided into isochronous "feet," each foot beginning with
the onset of a strong syllable.

D175 -----. "Relative Durations of Syllables in Two-Syllable Rhythmic Feet in R. P. in


Connected Speech." Work in Progress, No. 5. Edinburgh: Department of Phonetics
and Linguistics, University of Edinburgh, 1972. pp. 110–111.
Experimental evidence generally confirms the three types of disyllabic configu-
rations hypothesized by Abercrombie (E103), strong-weak being also long-short in
a simple proportion of 2:1, etc.

D176 -----. "Rhythm in Very Rapid R. P." Language and Speech 21 (1978): 397–402.
Neither in a very rapid nor a normal reading of "The North Wind and the Sun"
were the rhythmic "feet" isochronous. Longer feet took longer.

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D177 Umeda, Noriko. "Vowel Duration in American English." Journal of the Acoustical Society
58 (1975): 434–45.

D178 Weller, Herbert C. "Vegetative Rhythm Determinative of Speech Patterns." Journal of


Speech Disorders 6 (1941): 161–71.
Speculations on the relation of the rhythm of speech to the rhythm of breathing and
related cardiac rhythms, bolstered by experimental evidence suggesting that "the
normal speech phrase is a rhythmic unit within the rhythm of breathing."

KINESTHETIC RHYTHM

Experimental studies of the nature of rhythmic patterning in simple sounds (clicks or beats,
which could be varied in intensity, duration, timing, and grouping), human motor responses,
human speech-sounds, as well as other sensory stimuli, music, and dance, have generally drawn a
fundamental distinction between objective rhythms (what is actually spoken or produced) and
subjective rhythms (what the mind "hears" or constructs out of what it is given, based on expec-
tation, projection, and an astonishing internal mechanism for the simplification and hierarchical
ordering of complex recurrent stimuli). There have been many studies, and those which have
examined sets of linguistic and prelinguistic sounds have frequently employed the terminology of
versification, calling the groupings of features trochaic, anapestic, etc. Very often these studies
have also applied their findings about clicks, taps, and nonsense syllables directly to verse,
drawing conclusions about the nature of poetic meter or rhythm. In most of these studies the
subjective aspect of rhythm is understandably given primary attention; hence the title above.

D179 Bolton, Thaddeus L. "Rhythm." American Journal of Psychology 6 (1894): 145–238;


additions, pp. 310–11; corrections, p. 488.
A sweeping study of subjective rhythmic phenomena in sound, with discussions of
ritual, dance, and music, and an extensive discussion of rhythm in poetry (see pp.
167–78, 234–38) as well as the theories of Guest (E543), Lanier (E364), Corson
(B40), and Poe (E315). Conclusions begin on p. 232. The auditors' responses to
series of clicks which varied in intensity and duration showed that in the grouping
of such stimuli an accented impulse is heard as falling first in the group, whereas a
longer impulse is heard as falling last in the group.

D180 Garner, W. R. The Processing of Information and Structure. Potomac, Md.: Halstead Press,
1974.

D181 Garner, W. R., and R. L. Gottwald. "The Perception and Learning of Temporal
Patterns." Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 20 (1968): 97–109.

D182 -----. "Some Perceptual Factors in the Learning of Sequential Patterns of Binary
Events." Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 6 (1967): 582–89.

D183 MacDougall, Robert. "Rhythm, Time, and Number." American Journal of Psychology 13
(1902): 88–97.
Not an experimental study but a theoretical argument that draws skeptical
conclusions about the interference of motor-responses and habituation with
accurate time discrimination.

D184 -----. "The Structure of Simple Rhythm Forms." Harvard Psychological Studies, vol. 1.
Psychological Review Monograph Supplement 4 (1903): 309–412.
Difficult to assay; no conclusion is provided and the language is very dense. The

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author is interested in the hierarchical ordering of complex impressions (both
objective and subjective (into simpler groupings (when the rate is fast, for example,
a "dipodic" grouping principle usually appears). The three aspects of rhythm are
Recurrence, Accentuation, and Rate. The results are applied to poetic meter on pp.
410–11; MacDougall suggests that a meter is not at all a simple repetition of
identical elements: "both intensively and temporally [the rhythmic group] is
moulded by its function in the whole sequence, the earlier iambic of a heroic
measure being unlike the later, the dactyl which precedes a measure of finality
different from that which introduces the series."

D185 Michon, J. A. Timing in Temporal Tracking. Assen: Van Gorcum, 1967.

D186 Miyake, Ishiro. "Researches on Rhythmic Action." Studies from the Yale Psychological
Laboratory. Ed. E. W. Scripture. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1902. Vol. 10,
pp. 1–48.
Experiments in measurement of visual and aural stimuli, and especially of isochrony,
intensity, and pitch in the rhythm of speech. Miyake was a student of Scripture's.

D187 Preusser, D. "The Effect of Structure and Rate on the Recognition and Description of
Auditory Temporal Patterns." Perception and Psychophysics 11 (1972): 233–40.

D188 Preusser, D., W. R. Garner, and R. L. Gottwald. "Perceptual Organization of Two-


Element Temporal Patterns as a Function of their Component One-Element
Patterns." American Journal of Psychology 83 (1970): 151–70.

D189 Ross, Felix B. "The Measurement of Time-Sense as an Element in the Sense of


Rhythm." University of Iowa Studies in Psychology, no. 6. Psychological Monographs
17, 3 (1914): 166–72.

D190 Royer, F. L., and W. R. Garner. "Perceptual Organization of Nine-Element Auditory


Temporal Patterns." Perception and Psychophysics 7 (1970): 115–20.

D191 -----. "Response Uncertainty and Perceptual Difficulty of Auditory Temporal Patterns."
Perception and Psychophysics 1 (1966): 41–47.

D192 Ruckmich, C. A. "A Bibliography of Rhythm." American Journal of Psychology 24 (1913):


508–19; 26 (1915): 457–59; 29 (1918): 214–18; 35 (1924): 407–13.

D193 -----. "The Role of Kinaesthesis in the Perception of Rhythm." American Journal of
Psychology 24 (1913): 305–59.

D194 Schick, H. F. "The Effect of Practice Upon the Bi-Manual Production of Rhythmic
Patterns at Various Tempos." Diss., Ohio State University, 1930.

D195 Squire, C. R. "A Genetic Study of Rhythm." American Journal of Psychology 12 (1901):
492–589.
A study of rhythmic grouping in speech. Children were given lines of a repeated
syllable and asked to read them aloud in varying configurations of stressing, pitches,
and time-groupings. For involuntary rhythmical grouping, "primary rhythm" (equal
pausing after every syllable) came most naturally, followed by time-grouping,
wherein time preceded stress and pitch as the most important principle of grouping.
Rather extensive conclusions (pp. 533–60) are drawn from all this, the most
relevant of which is that the trochee seems to be the most natural grouping-form.
The children found amphibrachs and anapests nearly impossible.

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D196 Stetson, R. H. "A Motor Theory of Rhythm and Discrete Succession." Psychological
Review 12 (1905): 250–70, 293–350.
Inter alia, Stetson agrees with Squire that "judgments of temporal equality or
inequality play no part in the rhythm experience."

D197 Vos, Peter G. "Temporal Duration Factors in the Perception of Auditory Rhythmic
Patterns." Scientific Aesthetics 1 (1977): 183–99.
Important bibliography. Given a unit of two tones, keeping intensity and frequency
of the tones constant but varying the durations of both tones and silences, six
configurations are possible. Which will be perceived as "iambic" and which
"trochaic"? The hypothesis that longer tones will be perceived as accented and
shorter as unaccented was confirmed, as was a second hypothesis that "in the
absence of any objective cue for rhythmic perception . . . a trochaic rhythm [will
be] induced." Twenty-one varieties of triadic units are possible, of which seven
were tested here; results agreed with those for duple units. The methodologies of
Stetson and Woodrow are criticized. Conclusion: variance in temporal structure
alone "is a sufficient objective condition for the perception of order and accent and,
hence, rhythm." Review of the literature at the end.

D198 Wallin, J. E. Wallace. "Experimental Studies of Rhythm and Time." Psychological Review
18 (1911): 100–31, 202–22; 19 (1912): 271–98.
Further inquiry into the degree of distortion in interval required to render a series
of sounds unrhythmical. Variance of 7% in intervalic durations was accepted by
auditors as rhythmical, but a 13% variation destroyed the rhythmicity. Lengthening
of interval was invariably perceived but shortening was not. Subjects were able to
discriminate between five degrees of deviation, which are termed rhythm limens. But
they were able to apprehend deviations of time before they perceived deviations of
rhythm; the former seem to be a series of discrete points, the latter a curve or field.
The tempo of a rhythmic series has important effects on auditors, the most preferred
rate being 120 clicks per minutes, or from .5 to .6 seconds per interval. Still, when
intervals were irregular, the series was heard as trochaic rather than iambic. Also
studied were auditors' abilities to estimate a mid-tempo halfway between two given
tempos.

D199 Woodrow, Herbert. A Quantitative Study of Rhythm: The Effect of Variations in Intensity,
Rate, and Duration. Archives of Psychology, vol. 2, no. 14. New York: The Science
Press, 1909. 66 pp.
Experimental work showing that a trochiac rhythm can be changed to an iambic
one "by increasing the interval immediately following the louder sound or by
decreasing the interval immediately preceding it." When the intervals between
sounds are equal but every other sound is raised in intensity, hearers perceive the
sequence as trochaic: "a regularly recurring difference in intensity exerts a tendency
towards rhythmical groups with the more intense sound at the beginning." This sort
of work is important for any theory about the perception of poetic rhythm or meter.

PROSE RHYTHM

Over the course of the past century a number of metrists who studied English verse also
turned their attention to stress-patterning and other forms of rhythmic organization in prose as
well, partly because they recognized that verse is made up of the syntactic structures of prose and
partly because they were interested in the tradition of consciously rhythmical prose which
stretched back from Joyce, DeQuincey, and Sir Thomas Browne through the medieval Latin
cursus to the highly stylized cadences of classical Latin prose. Efforts to show the presence of the
cursus-patterns in the modern languages, however, have been thwarted by the fact that many of
these patterns are identical to the stress-patterns of the naturally occurring phrases--a fact which
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has considerable significance in itself. The whole area is of peripheral interest to versification, so I
cite sources without discussion.

D200 Baum, Paul F. The other harmony of prose: an Essay in English Prose Rhythm. Durham:
Duke University Press, 1952. 230 pp.
Rev: in Studies in Linguistics 11 (1953): 42–45; in Études Anglaises 6 (1953): 369–70.

D201 -----. "Prose Rhythm." Princeton (A18), pp. 666–67.

D202 Boulton, Marjorie. "Prose Rhythm." Anatomy of Prose. London: Routledge & Kegan
Paul, 1954. pp. 49–69.
Scansions of passages; allows twenty-two types of feet.

D203 Brantner, Gunther. Prosaakzent und metrisches Schema in englischen Kompositen.


Diss., Graz, 1939. 43 pp.

D204 Byrne, M. St. Clare. "The Foundations of Elizabethan Language." Shakespeare Survey 17
(1964): 223–39.
See section 3.

D205 Chapman, John. "Clause-Length in English Prose." Dublin Review 158 (1916): 346–52.
Note the reference here to an earlier essay of his in the same journal on sound in
poetry.

D206 Clark, Albert C. Prose Rhythm in English. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1913; rpt Folcroft,
Pa.: Folcroft Library Editions, 1974. 19 pp.
A small tract reprinting one lecture. See also D226.

D207 Classé, André. The Rhythm of English Prose. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1939; rpt
Norwood, Pa.: Norwood Editions, 1975. 138 pp.
Rev: in MLR 35 (1938): 272; in Review of English Studies 16 (1940): 489–91.
Includes Bibliography; based on Acoustics.

D208 Clough, Wilson O. "The Rhythm of Prose." University of Wyoming Publications 4 (1938):
1–19.

D209 Coard, M. L. "Huck Finn and Mr. Mark Twain Rhyme." Midwest Quarterly 10 (1969):
317–29.
Close-range sound echoes in Twain's prose.

D210 Cooper, Lane. Certain Rhythms in the English Bible, with Illustrations from Psalms,
Ecclesiastes, and the Lord's Prayer. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1952. 16
pp.
A tract. Anapests and dactyls in the Authorized Version.

D211 Cott, Jeremy. "Structures of Sound: The Last Sentence of Wuthering Heights." Texas
Studies in Literature and Language 6 (1964): 280–89.

D212 Croll, Morris W. "The Cadence of English Oratorical Prose." SP 16 (1919): 1–55.

D213 Dahl, Torsten. "Alliteration in English Prose: Gleanings and Comments." English Studies
40 (1959): 449–54.

D214 De La Mare, Walter. "Poetry in Prose." Proceedings of the British Academy 21 (1935): 239–

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321. Also published as an offprint.

D215 Deutschbein, Max. "Der rhythmische Charakter der neuenglischen Bibelübersetzung


von 1611." Englische Studien 70 (1935): 132–37.

D216 Du Priest, Travis T. "The Liturgies of Jeremy Taylor and Richard Baxter: A Study of
Structure, Language, and Rhythm." DAI 33 (1972): 2323A (Kentucky).

D217 Eaton, Walter Prichard. "The Tapping Test for Immortality." Sewanee Review 27 (1919):
129–38.
On Patterson (D248).

D218 Elton, Oliver. "English Prose Numbers." Essays and Studies 4 (1913): 29–54; expanded
and rpt in his A Sheaf of Papers. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1922. pp.
130–63.

D219 Emden, Cecil S. "Rhythmical Features in Dr. Johnson's Prose." Review of English Studies
25 (1949): 38–54.
Scansions.

D220 Fijn Van Draat, P. "The Place of an Adverb: A Study of Rhythm." Neophilologus 6
(1921): 56–88.

D221 -----. "Rhythm in English Prose." Anglia 36 (1912): 1–58, 140, 492–538.

D222 -----. Rhythm in English Prose. Anglistische Forschungen, vol. 29. Heidelberg: Carl
Winter, 1910; rpt Amsterdam: Swets & Zeitlinger, 1967. 145 pp.
Close analysis of syntax.
There is a memorial essay on this scholar which may be of interest: see Englische
Studien 70 (1936): 381–88.

D223 -----. "Voluptas Aurium." Englische Studien 48 (1915): 394–428.


The author's position, in brief, is that the cursus forms are found throughout
English prose from Anglo-Saxon to the present day, but that these are not the result
of any conscious effort but merely natural patterns of phrase-stressing, inherent in
the structure of the language.

D224 Fitzgerald, Robert P. "The Style of Ossian." Studies in Romanticism 6 (1966): 22–33.

D225 Fleming, William S. "Formulaic Rhythms in Finnegan's Wake." Style 6 (1972): 19–37.

D226 Foster, Finley M. K. "Cadence in English Prose." JEGP 16 (1917): 456–62.


Extends Clark (D206).

D227 Franz, W[ilhelm]. "Zum Prosarhythmus im Englischen." Zeitschrift für französischen und
englischen Unterricht 10 (1911): 207–10.

D228 Gordon, Ian A. The Movement of English Prose. Bloomington: Indiana University Press,
1966.
See chapter 2.

D229 Griffith, Helen. Time Patterns in Prose: A Study in Prose Rhythm Based on Voice Records.
Psychological Monographs, vol. 39, no 3. Princeton: Psychological Review
Company, 1929. 82 pp.

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D230 Hale, Edward E., Jr. "Poetic Rhythms in Prose." The Atlantic Monthly 78 (1896): 227–
32.

D231 Hayes, James J. "The Rhythm of Prose." English Journal (College Edition) 25 (1936): 868
ff.

D232 Hill, Geoffrey. "Redeeming the Time." Agenda 10, 4–11, 1 (1972–73): 87–111.
For the author to conclude that "against all this Hopkins's poetry established a
dogged resistance. Both ethically and rhythmically, his vocation was to redeem the
time" is an impertinence: in fact, his subject is the social effects and speech-rhythms
of nineteenth-century political pamphlets.

D233 Holthausen, F. "Rhythmische Prosa im Lillos The London Merchant." Archiv 113 (1903):
307–14. See Ritter (D251).

D234 Honan, Park. "Metrical Prose in Dickens." Victorian Newsletter, no. 28 (1965), pp. 1–3.

D235 Hoover, Regina M. "Prose Rhythm: A Theory of Proportional Distribution." College


Composition and Communication 24 (1973): 366–74.

D236 Kane, Thomas S. "'The Shape and Ring of Sentences': A Neglected Aspect of
Composition." College Composition and Communication 28 (1977): 38–42.

D237 La Drière, J. Craig. "Prose Rhythm." Dictionary of World Literary Terms. Ed. Joseph T.
Shipley. Boston: The Writer, 1970, pp. 252–53. This edition "completely revised
and enlarged." Earlier editions are entitled Dictionary of World Literature. (New York:
The Philosophical Library, 1943; 2nd ed. 1953.)

D238 Lipsky, Abram. Rhythm as a Distinguishing Characteristic of Prose Style. Columbia


University Contributions in Philosophy and Psychology, vol. 15, no. 4. New York:
The Science Press, 1907. 44 pp.

D239 -----. "Rhythm in Prose." Sewanee Review 16 (1908): 277–89.

D240 MacDonald, Sister Mary L. "Poetic Speech in the Sermons of John Donne." DAI 30
(1969): 2538A (Catholic University of America).
Those "poetic" passages in the sermons that detach themselves from the other, more
logically connected elements of thematic development may be identified by their
more overt concern with the sound-stratum itself than with meaning: besides the
patterning of qualitative aspects, the sounds also marshall themselves into more
regular patterns of stresses, here termed general cadence and group cadence, which may
be either coincident or counterpointed.

D241 Moloney, Michael F. "Metre and Cursus in Sir Thomas Browne's Prose." JEGP 58
(1959): 60–67.

D242 Monroe, Harriet. "Dr. Patterson on Rhythm." Poetry 12 (1918): 30–36; rpt in her Poets
& Their Art (E374) in slightly revised form as "Dr. Patterson's Researches."
A perambulating review of Patterson (D248). Her view of his "true scientific spirit":
"Long life to these researches!"Her prosodic view: "The rhythmic difference,
scientifically speaking, between verse and prose is rather . . . in the grouping of bars,
which is cadence, than in syncopation or coincidence within the bar itself."

D243 Njoku, Benedict C. "Cadence-Patterns in the Prose of Wordsworth and Related Figures
of Cadence in his Verse." Diss., Catholic University of America, 1960.

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D244 Osgood, Charles G. "Verse in Spenser's Prose." ELH 1 (1934): 1–6.

D245 Parker, Edward L. "The Cursus in Sir Thomas Browne." PMLA 53 (1938): 1037–53.
Extends Croll (D212).

D246 Parrish, W. M. "The Rhythm of Oratorical Prose." Studies in Rhetoric and Public Speaking
in Honor of James Albert Winans. Ed. A. M. Drummond. New York: Century Co.,
1925; rpt New York: Russell & Russell, 1962. pp. 217–31.

D247 Deleted.

D248 Patterson, William Morrison. The Rhythm of Prose: An experimental investigation of


individual differences in the sense of rhythm. New York: Columbia University Press,
1916. Based on his dissertation at Columbia in 1916.
Finger-tapping experiments which conclude that verse is distinguished by the
coincidence of steady taps with normally accented syllables, whereas prose is
syncopated. Critique of Sievers and Schipper, pp. 84–85. See also Monroe (D242).

D249 "Prose Rhythm." TLS, 13 September 1957, p. 547.


A retrospective on the merits of Saintsbury (D254), fifty years after.

D250 Richards, G. C. "Coverdale and the Cursus." Church Quarterly Review 110 (1930): 34–
39.
Influence of the Latin prose rhythms on Coverdale; note also an earlier essay by
Ernest Clapton, "Coverdale and the Psalter," in the issue for January 1929 (vol.
106?).

D251 Ritter, Otto. "Rhythmische Prosa im englischen Schauspiel." Archiv 117 (1906): 150.
A note responding to Holthausen (D233).

D252 Robertson, Stuart. "Sir Thomas Browne and R. L. Stevenson." JEGP 20 (1921): 371–
84.
Generally indebted to Croll (D212).

D253 Routh, James E. "Prose Rhythms." PMLA 38 (1923): 685–97; rpt in his The Theory of
Verse (B187).
Scansions.

D254 Saintsbury, George. A History of English Prose Rhythm. London: Macmillan, 1912, 1922;
rpt Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1965. 482 pp.
Rev: in The Spectator 109 (1912): 453–54; in Dublin Review 154 (1914): 297–313.
The second edition adds a prefatory "Note on Quantity and Some Other Things."
Three Appendices: (1) "Stave-Prose Poetry--Ossian, Blake, Whitman, etc."; (2)
"Mason on Prosaic Numbers"; (3) "Table of Axioms, Inferences, and Suggestions."

D255 Sandbank, Shimon. "Euphuistic Symmetry and the Image." Studies in English Literature
1500–1900 11 (1971): 1–13.
Lyly's compulsion for rhythm controls even his imagery.

D256 Savage, Olive M. Rhythm in Prose Illustrated from Authors of the Nineteenth Century.
London: University College, 1917. 54 pp.
A pamphlet; follows Saintsbury (D254).

D257 Scott, Fred Newton. "The Scansion of Prose Rhythm." PMLA 20 (1905): 707–28.

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D258 Scott, John H. Rhythmic Prose. University of Iowa Humanistic Studies, First Series, vol.
3, no. 1. Iowa City: The University, 1925; rpt Folcroft, Pa.: Folcroft Library
Editions, 1970; rpt Norwood, Pa.: Norwood Editions, 1975. 192 pp.
See also his Rhythmic Verse (D331). Offers his own rhythmon theory.

D259 Scott, John H. and Zilpha E. Chandler. Phrasal Patterns in English Prose. New York:
Ronald Press, 1932. 372 pp.
A composition handbook for teaching writers to construct sentences by the rhythms
of phrases.

D260 Shelly, John. "Rhythmical Prose in Latin and English." Church Quarterly Review 74
(1912): 81–98.
See response by M. W. Croll (D212).

D261 Sorrenson, Frederick S. "The Nature of the Cursus Pattern in English Oratorical Prose
as Studied in Forty-Three Cadences of John Donne and the Collects." Diss.,
University of Michigan, 1952.

D262 Tempest, Norton R. "Rhythm in the Prose of Sir Thomas Browne." Review of English
Studies 3 (1927): 308–18.

D263 -----. The Rhythm of English Prose: A Manual for Students. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1930; rpt Folcroft, Pa.: Folcroft Library Editions, 1972. 138 pp.
Rev: in Englische Studien 65 (1931): 382–83; in London Mercury 23 (1931): 388; in
TLS, 30 October 1930, p. 884.
Scans by stresses alone; allows over twenty types of feet.

D264 Tolman, Albert H. "The Dactylic Hexameter in English Prose." MLN 6 (1891): 124.

D265 White, Mother Elizabeth S., R.S.C.J. "A Study of Symmetrical and Asymmetrical
Tendencies in the Sentence Structure of Sir Thomas Browne's Urne Burial. DAI 24
(1963): 733A (Catholic University of America).

See also: B149, B177, B217, D310, E217, E371, E545, E1444, E1501, J31, J76,
J81–82, J87, J94–95, J100, J153, J176–77, J184, J237, J251, J279, J291, J330, K10, K26,
K129, K214, K284, K323, K333–34, K359, L363, L479, L529, L772, L826, L1022,
L1113, L1127–28, L1145, L1151, L1162, L1180–81, L1441, M21–22, M24, M82–83,
M94, M143, M145, M149, M164, M189–90, M220, M247–48, M258–59, M263–65,
M267, M291, M293, M298–99, M310.

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POETIC RHYTHM

See the Introduction to this chapter. It is a question whether the phrase "poetic rhythm"
has any real semantic content at all by now; it has been applied to virtually every species of
repetition in poetry, from the iteration of imagery to the patterning of phonemes. Meter (in
English), the organization of stresses, is a species of rhythm, but it is so much the core
phenomenon of verse-structure that it merits a separate chapter (Six, below) in this book.
Therefore the present section is reserved for studies of linguistic features other than stress, and for
such other studies as insist on the term "rhythm" without thereby clearly meaning "meter."
Heretofore such studies have been the residuum of more pertinent scholarship on meter, but it
appears that they will occupy a more central position in the focus of inquiry in the decades to
come.

D266 Abbott, Allan. "Rhythm in Poetry." Teachers College Record 28 (1927): 679–89.
Broad review of the simpler metrical concepts; good points on the rhythm of
children's rhymes and songs.

D267 Agenda: Special Issue on Rhythm 10, 4–11, 1 (1972–73): 3–67.


See also the articles by Hill (D232) and Srawley (N126).
The entire issue consists of an editorial, a questionnaire, twenty-two replies
by modern poets, "Traditions Answer Back"--a group of quotations from famous
poets as answers to the questions--a list of problems remaining to be solved
("Problems of Prosodists and Rhythm Rulers"), and the two articles cited above.
The editorial is tendentious and irrelevant. The questionnaire contains
twenty questions on General Points, Vers Libre, Syllabics, and Metrical Verse
(sample: "Do you counterpoint your metre against the normal speech rhythm or do
you attempt a coincidence?"). Replies: W. H. Auden, Anne Beresford, Keith
Bosley, Basil Bunting, Peter Dale, Donald Davie, Peter Dent, Roy Fuller, Thom
Gunn, Michael Hamburger, John Heath-Stubbs, Adrian Henri, Peter Levi, George
Macbeth, John Montague, John Patchett, Omar Pound, Kathleen Raine, Tom
Scott, Jon Stallworthy, Charles Tomlinson, and David Wright. For this reviewer's
time, the best responses are by Davie, Tomlinson, and Wright. The quotations
following are familiar; the list of problems unsolved is a list of real problems.

D268 Agenda: Supplement: On Rhythm from America 11, 2–3 (1973): 37–66.
Questionnaire replies from Cameron, Davie, Eberhart, Hall, Hine, Lowell,
Middleton, Oppen, Snodgrass, Stafford, and Zukofsky. Middleton's is the most
erudite, and also mystical; Zukofsky bites off one-word answers; Donald Davie is
irritated and irritable; Donald Hall makes the prize observation: "I think almost all
of these questions are irrelevant to anybody's practice. Believe me, if you get neat
and clean answers from anybody, disbelieve everything that is said."

D269 Bedetti, Gabriella. "On Understanding Poetic Rhythm." DAI 38 (1978): 4146A (Iowa).
Understanding poetic rhythm differs from understanding other natural rhythms in
that a process of "double perception" is required: the information gleaned about the
rhythm must be integrated with thematic information as well. The theories of
Shklovsky and Jakobson on the nature of poetic language are examined then applied
to twenty poems by two American and two French poets.

D270 Byers, Prudence P. "A Formula for Poetic Intonation." Poetics n.s. 8 (1979): 367–80.
A very cogent and informative synopsis of the author's dissertation, "The
Contribution of Intonation to the Rhythm and Melody of Non-Metrical
D271 English Poetry," at Wisconsin in 1977.

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In contrast to prose, poetry is spoken: (1) at a slower rate; (2) in shorter tone-units;
(3) with more pauses; (4) in units relatively equal in length; (5) at a lower average
pitch; (6) in a narrower pitch range; (7) in simple falling melodies; and (8) with
simple falling nuclei. The conjunction of all these features, then, represents a de facto
formula for intonation which identifies a text as "poetic." This fact suggests that the
stress-group or metrical foot is not the basic rhythmic unit of verse but rather the
"tone-group." Such groups "differ less in pitch, melody, and tone-type, and this
makes them more nearly equal events than those in non-poetry. The sequence of
units in poetry, therefore, is closer to being a regular recurrence of equal events. . .
." [italics added].

D272 "The Decay of Rhythm." Saturday Review of Literature 5 (1928): 207–8.

D273 Dougherty, Adelyn. A Study of Rhythmic Structure in the Verse of William Butler Yeats. The
Hague: Mouton, 1973. 135 pp. Based on her dissertation of the same title, DA 27
(1967): 3057A (Catholic University of America).
That no full-scale study of the versification of the greatest poet of this century has
yet been undertaken is a humiliation to our profession. Dougherty has given us a
pilot study for such a work here: adopting the metrical system of La Drière (E570)
she analyzes about 3000 lines of Yeats (25% of his canon) in an attempt to discover
and define with some precision the features of his so-called Early, Middle, and Late
styles of poetry. Her book consists of sixty pages of prose followed by scansions and
charts. Conclusions: (1) "the poems in general are properly described as metrical,
and the smallest constitutive unit of the metrical structure as an iamb"; (2) the most
significant feature of Yeats's prosody is "the distinct character of the verse-line" as a
unit; (3) Yeats's late style is most distinctive in its preference for highly nominal lines;
and (4) a thorough study of his syntax is needed. Note that Dougherty uses the
troublesome term "rhythm" quite deliberately, on the grounds that "it is the way in
which a poet arranges his rhythms (in which meter may or may not inhere) that
constitutes his rhythmic style, constitutes, therefore, what may be called in short his
prosody. In a total analysis it is the 'coincidence' . . . rather than the separateness of
the domains of meter and rhythm that must concern the student of rhythmic
structure in Yeats's verse."

D274 Draper, John W. The Tempo-Patterns of Shakespeare's Plays. Heidelberg: Carl Winter,
1957. 161 pp.
Rev: by Muir in MLR 53 (1958): 562–63; in Anglia 76 (1958): 306–7; in Études
Anglaises 11 (1958): 161–62; in Shakespeare Jahrbuch 94 (1958): 280–81; and see also
the stinging criticism of method by Le Page (D316).
Draper's book is the culmination of long study on the timing of the oral delivery of
the lines in Shakespeare's plays, faster, slower, or even, as we can glean such
knowledge from the evidence of spellings, metrical elisions, awkward clusters of
consonants, and the like. We know that Shakespeare worked to vary the speech-
tempos and registers and idioms of his various characters since, in part, the Galenic
theory of the Humors widely accepted in the Renaissance entailed that various
types of personalities would show distinctive celerity or lethargy in speech as well as
in action. The book is densely written, with many statistics, tables, and charts
covering all the major plays and most of the canon.
One is aware, though, that evidence of elision or spelling is equivocal at best;
it is nearly impossible to say for certain that at any given line Shakespeare was
working for characterization rather than for regular (or irregular) meter (to uphold
the latter is no denigration), or that the compositors have not taken liberties.
Draper's command of the textual scholarship of Hinman, Greg, and the others also
seems insufficient. But that timing-variation as a means to characterization was
practiced (and valued) by Shakespeare, no one can deny.

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One also sees in Draper's work the best example of the debilitating,
counterproductive expansion of modern scholarship: his useful book synthesizes the
work of a score of now useless periodical publications, which I list below merely for
the sake of completeness. This whole method of publication is vicious, swelling our
libraries with redundant if not trivial (or worse, in some cases) information.

D275 -----. "Changes in the Tempo of Desdemona's Speech." Anglica [Revista di studi inglesi e
americani] 1 (1946): 149–53.

D276 -----. "Contrast of Tempo in the Balcony Scene." Shakespeare Association Bulletin 22
(1947): 130–35.

D277 -----. "Humor and Tempo in The Tempest." Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 52 (1951): 205–
17.

D278 -----. "Patterns of Humor and Tempo in King Lear." Bulletin of the History of Medicine 21
(1947): 390–401.

D279 -----. "Patterns of Humor and Tempo in Macbeth." Neophilologus 31 (1947): 202–7.

D280 -----. "Patterns of Tempo and Humor in Othello." English Studies 28 (1947): 65–74.

D281 -----. "Patterns of Tempo in Measure for Measure." West Virginia University Bulletin 9
(1953): 11–19.

D282 -----. "Patterns of Tempo in Richard III." Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 50 (1949): 1–12.

D283 -----. "Patterns of Tempo in Shakespeare's Timon." Shakespeare Association Bulletin 23


(1948): 188–94.

D284 -----. "Scene-Tempo in Macbeth." Festschrift für Heinrich Mutschmann. Marburg, 1951. pp.
56–62.

D285 -----. "Speech-Tempo and Humor in Shakespeare's Antony." Bulletin of the History of
Medicine 20 (1946): 426–32.

D286 -----. "Speech-Tempo in Act I of Othello." West Virginia University Bulletin, Philological
Papers 5 (1947): 49–58.

D287 -----. "The Speech-Tempo of Brutus and Cassius." Neophilologus 30 (1946): 184–86.

D288 -----. "Tempo in Love's Labor's Lost." English Studies 29 (1948): 129–37.

D289 -----. "The Tempo of Hamlet's Role." Rivista di letterature moderne 2 (1947): 193–203.

D290 -----. "The Tempo of Richard II's Speech." Studia Neophilologica 20 (1948): 88–94.

D291 -----. "The Tempo of Shakespeare's Speech." English Studies 27 (1946): 116–20.

D292 -----. "The Tempo of Shylock's Speech." JEGP 44 (1945): 281–85.

D293 Farley, Odessa. "A Study of the Accentual Structure of Caesural Phrases in The Lady of
the Lake." Thesis, University of Iowa, ca. 1920.
Miss Farley was a student of John Hubert Scott's (D331); consequently, her thesis
tabulates symmetra, metra, and non-rhythma.

D294 Faure, Georges. Les Élements du rythme poétique en anglaise moderne: Esquisse d'une nouvelle
analyse et essai d'application au "Prometheus Unbound" de P. B. Shelley. The Hague:
Mouton: 1970. 336 pp.

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Rev: by Beaver in Language 49 (1973): 188–90; in JAAC 30 (1972): 399–400.
Faure's long Introduction takes account of nearly every conspicuous metrical work
of this century up to about 1960. His own theory though is not in the mainstream:
he accepts stress as the principal feature of meter but believes that stress is primarily
established not by intensity but by pitch; stress is rendered prominent "par les
ruptures ou des inflexions MELODIQUES" and English verse-rhythm "est solidaire
d'un puissant RYTHME DE TIMBRE." His pitch-accent theory marks five
constant tones and seven "melodic" (rising, falling, or complex) tones in the
melodic contour of the line, the tonal unit being the syllable not the single
phoneme. The book is almost exactly divided between theory and application.

D295 Fisher, Hope. "A Study of Sentence-Stress in English Poetry and Prose." Diss.,
University of Michigan, 1922.

D296 Fogerty, Elsie. "Rhythm." Proceedings of the Second International Congress of Phonetic
Sciences. Ed. Daniel Jones and D. B. Fry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
1936. pp. 92–99.
Argues that this vague term cannot be defined unless we distinguish "essential
Rhythm" from "those patterns that are created by repetition out of Rhythm." "The
fundamental conditions of Rhythm are time, force, and space. . . . the movements
of speech are in their nature rhythmical." Her view of rhythm in verse is that "the
isochonous interval between stress and stress . . . forms the basis of English
prosody." Thereafter published as

D297 -----. Rhythm. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1937. 245 pp. See chapter 8, "Rhythm
in Poetry," which is based on chapter 5, "Rhythm in Speech."

D298 Frost, Robert. "The Constant Symbol" and "The Figure a Poem Makes." Rpt in Robert
Frost on Writing. Ed. Elaine Barry. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press,
1973. pp. 125–28, 128–33.
See also the Interviews here (pp. 150–63) and Frost's letters (pp. 211–18 here as
well as in Perkins [A25]) on meter (there are only two, "strict iambic and loose
iambic") and "the sound of sense"--the intonation patterns of sentences.
"But if one is to be a poet he must learn to get cadences by skillfully breaking
the sounds of sense with all their irregularity of accent across the regular beat of the
metre. . . . There are only two or three metres that are worth anything. We depend
for variety on the infinite play of accents in the sound of sense."

D299 Funkhouser, Linda B. "Acoustical Rhythm in Performances of Three Twentieth


Century American Poems." DAI 39 (1978): 1517A (St. Louis).
Analyzes acoustic rate, pausing, and energy level in readings of Cummings's
"Buffalo Bill's," Jarrell's "Death of the Ball Turret Gunner," and Frost's "Dust of
Snow" by the poets, ten professors of literature, and ten random readers. The
author has published the three parts of her dissertation as:

D300 -----. "Acoustic Rhythm in Randall Jarrell's The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner." Poetics
n.s. 8 (1979): 381–403.

D301 -----. "Acoustical Rhythms in 'Buffalo Bill's.'" Journal of Modern Literature 7 (1979): 219–
42.

D302 -----. "Acoustic Rhythm in Frost's 'Dust of Snow.'" Language and Style (forthcoming).

D303 Gordon, Ralph. Verse and Prose Technique: A Study in Rhythm and Tone-Color. New
York: City College Store, 1938. 144 pp.
The material of his Technique of Verse (B81) is reworked here, but the emphasis turns
from meter to rhythm, Gordon devising a system of bars and slashes to denote

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degrees of syntactic breaks between phrases, clauses, etc., both in prose and in verse.
These syntactic patterns when set against the meter are striking; more work is
needed here.

D304 Gray, James A. "The Form and Function of Rhythm in the Versification of Paradise
Lost." DA 28 (1967): 1785A (Washington at Seattle).
Gray is interested not in the fact of the iambic meter of Milton's epic but in the
rhythmic groups demarcated by the syntax; these syntactic-rhythmic groups are
organized by stress, pitch, pause, and inflection, features which can be described by
linguistic notation. Further, these rhythms correlate to distinct narrative styles in the
poem: falling rhythms are associated with Satan and the postlapsarian humans; rising
rhythms are associated with the prelapsarian pair; and stable rhythms are associated
with the angelic orders, particularly such figures as Abdiel who are tempted but
remain unshaken.

D305 Greiner, Donald J. "On Teaching Robert Frost's 'Sentence Sounds.'" English Record 21
(1970): 11–14.
Points up passages in the letters where Frost discusses his theory of the intoning of
poetry and adds analysis of "Mending Wall."

D306 -----. "Robert Frost's Theory and Practice of Poetry." DA 28 (1968): 2684A (Virginia).
Especially his theories of "form" and "sentence sounds": see chapters 2–4.

D307 Gummere, Francis B. The Beginnings of Poetry. New York: Macmillan, 1901, 1908.
See Chapter II, "Rhythm as the Essential Fact of Poetry," pp. 30–115, for a
compendious consultation of the authorities in defense of this thesis. See also E544.
D308 Hammond, Marion. "A Note Concerning Rhythm Tests in Poetry and in
Music." Journal of Applied Psychology 15 (1931): 90–91.
The psychological tests applied here are found to be unreliable, but they showed a
low correlation between the subjects' sense of rhythm in music and that in poetry.

D309 Harding, D. W. "The Rhythmical Intention in Wyatt's Poetry." Scrutiny 14 (1946): 90–
102.
The mistake of Foxwell and all the other critics of Wyatt's prosody has been to
assume that he intended to write regular meter. MS evidence shows that Wyatt
deliberately roughened some lines. Therefore we should assume he did not intend
to write in regular meters but rather in "rhythm units" the natural clitic groupings
of syllables around a stress. Syntactically these groupings may be characterized as
either "pausing rhythms" or "flowing rhythms." Wyatt stands on the edge of a great
transition in English verse from the former to the latter; his work shows both. But
Harding goes further to suggest the two types of rhythm as two fundamental modes
of perception available in verse. Describing these, he thinks, will be more effectual
than scanning meters.

D310 -----. Words Into Rhythm: English Speech Rhythm in Verse and Prose. New York:
Cambridge University Press, 1976. 166 pp. Rev: in Style 12 (1978): 390–91; in
PTL 4 (1979): 196–201.
In his Clark Lectures for 1971–72, Harding pursues the sensible thesis that rhythm
in prose and poetry is based on--built up out of--the rhythm of speech. His method
is non-technical, and in fact Harding is not especially interested in the kind of
analyses of speech possible in acoustic phonetics or phonology. Rather, his method
is simple and direct: he looks, repeatedly and steadily, at examples, asking how they
work, how they are deployed, rhythmically, how they may be adapted to meter.
Sometimes the natural rhythm (stress pattern) and the meter match so well that the
meter seems nature not art; sometimes the meter will effect subtle alterations in a
rhythm for semantic purposes; other times we can see how the meter will resolve
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for us a choice between two possible rhythms for a phrase, or, if several rhythms are
congruent with the meter, how the sense will distinguish the right one. Now, in
the account given by traditional prosody, when the speech rhythm varied within a
strictly metered verse-line, one of two things happened: if the variation seemed
acceptable or inoffensive it was called a permissible variation or substitution; if
unacceptable, however, the line was judged unmetrical. This was accounted for by
the primitive and questionable procedure of stipulating permissible combinations of
"feet," which is a mere mechanical description and by no means an explanation. A
better answer would be that metrical lines establish a "metrical set," such that in
aberrant lines, one part of the line establishes a clear "set" which the rest of the line
does not then bear out. For Harding, when the rhythm and the meter clash, it is the
rhythm which takes priority--as the reality--and "the notion that our reading should
ever be some kind of 'compromise' between metre and natural speech is
indefensible." Such suggestions are provocative, and warrant the full elaboration
they could not receive in this context.

D311 Harris, M. A. "A Study of the Nature of Rhythm." PMLA 11 (1896): xxi–xxv
(Proceedings).
Discusses the grounding of poetic meter in the rhythms of mental processes and
in the rhythms of the body and breath: "we hold rhythm to be an inseparable
adjunct of poetry, and meter a separable adjunct."

D312 Herbert, T. Walter. "Tunes of Poetry: Experiments in Recognition." Emory University


Quarterly 16 (1960): 164–73.
This genteel, at times nearly fanciful, but unjustly forgotten essay contains a
germinal idea that if pursued could bear fruit for a decade of scholarship: Herbert
suggests, quite simply, that when the words--the meaning-bearing phonemes--are
removed from a poem, a completely meaningful and quickly recognizable pattern--
"tune"--remains, the intonational contour of pitches, durations, and intensities. This
contour varies considerably in its minutiae from one reader to the next, but some
simple experiments will show that the general shape of the contour is astonishingly
uniform. And if it is so for many of us, likely it was nearly so for Shakespeare
himself. Not since Eduard Sievers has anyone suggested serious and comprehensive
analysis of the pitch-patterns in poetry. Cf. Berry (C35), Newton (L518–21), and
Turner (D339).

D313 Kim, Myung W. "Dance and Rhythm: Their Meaning in Yeats and Noh." Modern
Drama 15 (1972): 195–208.
Begin at p. 203: after his exposure to the Noh drama Yeats changed his conception
of "rhythm" to include musical aspects alongside the verbal ones.

D314 Lenoski, Daniel. "The Symbolism of Rhythm in W. B. Yeats." Irish University Review 7
(1977): 201–12.
Not prosody, but offers a great many quotations from Yeats, and other Symbolistes,
and Pater on rhythm.

D315 Lentricchia, Frank. "Robert Frost: The Aesthetics of Voice and the Theory of Poetry."
Criticism 15 (1973): 28–42.

D316 Le Page, R. B. "The Dramatic Delivery of Shakespeare's Verse." English Studies 32


(1951): 63–68.
A full-scale criticism of the theory of John W. Draper (D274) that the stage-tempo
of a passage or scene can often be determined from metrical evidence in the text.
Specific objections: (1) the printed texts we have vary and are unreliable; (2) any
computation of relative speech-rates can in no way be translated into an absolute span
of minutes and seconds on stage--it is foolish to assume that each "normal" line

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took the same amount of time to be spoken; (3) rather than believing that
hypermetrical lines were spoken more rapidly, we should consider that their
unusual length is expressive--they were meant to take longer to say; (4) Draper
rarely presents his full numerical data and makes an error in statistical method.

D317 Levý, Jirí. "Rhythmical Ambivalence in the Poetry of T. S. Eliot." Anglia 77 (1959): 54–
64.
On types of enjambment, which Levý sees as the most remarkable result of Eliot's
aversion to the coincidence of rhythmic and syntactic periods. There are three
types: regressive, continuous, and discontinuous. Also discussed: effects of absence of
punctuation, and melody (rhyme). The syntactic period is the principle feature in
Eliot's metric.

D318 Lord, Russell H., Jr. "A Study of Robert Frost's Theory of Sentence Tones and Some of
Its Early Modifications." DAI 33 (1972): 1734A (Boston College).

D319 Meerloo, Joost A. M. "The Universal Language of Rhythm." Poetic Therapy. Ed. Jack
Leedy. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1969. pp. 52–66.

D320 Newdick, Robert S. "Robert Frost and the Sound of Sense." American Literature 9
(1937): 289–300.
Explication of Frost's poetics of tone, drawing heavily on the poet's own statements.
The "sound of sense" is of course simply intonational contour. That is what
separates the "Oh" of surprise from the "Oh" of scorn.

D321 Ogden, Robert M. "Eurhythmic." Sewanee Review 28 (1920): 520–43.


Hortatory remarks in favor of general education in rhythm.

D322 Pakosz, Maciej. "Some Aspects of the Role of Intonation in English Versification."
Studia Anglica Posnaniensia 5 (1973): 153–63.
Pakosz identifies certain critical misdirections which have hindered study of the role
of intonation (pitch, juncture, timing, tone) in English meter. For us "meter" has
usually meant "stress," but pitch has been shown to be the single most important
cue in the perception of stress, and clearly the very nature of the verse line alters
syntactic and intonational contours from what they would otherwise be in prose.
Therefore meter includes intonation as well as stress. Good review of the literature,
but not a substantial original contribution, and articulated as if through a mouthful
of sand.

D323 Philbrick, Charles H., II. "Theories of Rhythm in English and American Prosody from
1800 to 1950." Diss., Brown University, 1953. 289 pp.
A survey of experiments and theories of accent in the psychology of rhythm,
distinguished by a notably elegant style, an immense breadth of reading, and a sharp
ear for interesting biographical detail. The author himself suggests only the addition
of metrical half-stress and rhetorical super-stress to the tools of scansion, through he
doesn't credit scansion for much. His principal interests are isochronism and
expectation.

D324 Pierce, L. Adeline. "Rhythm in Literature Parallels the Scale of Specificity in Speech
Development." DA 2 (1940): 87 (Michigan).
"Can literary rhythm be correlated with biolinguistic rhythm?" Kymograph
measurements.

D325 Prince, F. T. "Voice and Verse: Some Problems of Modern Poetry." English 20 (1971):
77–83.
Intriguing speculations on poetic contexts where "a tone of voice is intimately
related to the rhythm," tone being taken both as pitch-inflection and as speaker's

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attitude. Prince knows--and says--that poetry leaves the matter of pitch
indeterminate, whereas music does not, and his insistence falls only on the point
that tone--voice--is crucial to poetry nonetheless. One other lure: "Would it be
possible to define in poetry an element which corresponds to drawing in the visual
arts? Would it be rhythm, syntax, composition--or simply 'meaning' in a very wide
sense?"

D326 Rhythm and Meter in Poetry (Filmstrip). Brunswick Production. Released by Educational
Record Sales, 1973.

D327 Rhythm in Poetry (Filmstrip). New York: MacGraw-Hill, 1958.

D328 Roethke, Theodore. "Some Remarks on Rhythm." Poetry 97 (1960): 35–46; rpt in On
the Poet and His Craft. Ed. Ralph J. Mills Jr. Seattle: University of Washington Press,
1965. pp. 71–84. Rpt as "What Do I Like?" in Conversations on the Craft of Poetry.
Ed. Cleanth Brooks and Robert Penn Warren. New York: Holt, Rinehart and
Winston, 1961; rpt in Gross (A23), pp. 218–32 under the same title.
Enormously engaging: Roethke gives us here a great many short examples of
rhythmical and prosodic effects with brief commentaries following. Fresh and lively.

D329 Rosenwald, John R. "A Theory of Prosody and Rhythm." DAI 30 (1969): 3435A
(Duke).
An argument that rhythm is the repetition of any element into recognizable patterns,
and that restriction of the concept to its metrical sense prevents prosodists from
adequately describing non-metrical poems. Then follow chapters on "purely visual
and purely auditory" rhythms, combination rhythms, "rhythms imposed by the
performer or audience", and line-length. Thesis: "The prosody of meter, however
adequate in the past, must be modified so that it can deal with the poetry of the
present and the future as well. By returning meter to its rhythmic origins and
suggesting the rhythmic basis of all poetry, a prosody of rhythm can accomplish its
goal."

D330 St. Clair, F. Y. "The Rhythm of Milton's Nativity Ode." College English 5 (1944): 448.
The form of a Shapiro poem is a bitter parody of Milton.

D331 Scott, John Hubert. Rhythmic Verse. University of Iowa Humanistic Studies, vol. 3, no.
2. Iowa City: The University, 1925; rpt Norwood, Pa.: Norwood Editions, 1975;
rpt Folcroft, Pa.: Folcroft Library Editions, 1970. 216 pp. See also his Rhythmic
Prose, no. 1 in the same series (D258).
Underneath what I see as a wholesale confusion of both concepts and terms in this
book (not to speak of the curious "gestural" scansions), there is a surprising bedrock
of orthodox thinking. The single most unorthodox claim, and the central premise
of the whole book, is that meter is subordinate to rhythm. The rhythmic phrase not
the metrical foot is the ground unit of verse. Scott admits the existence of metering
in feet (he is a Stresser; see his fine anatomy of the question-begging of temporalist
theories on pp. 49–51, where he reminds us that "a perfectly arranged disposition of
counted masses in a sequent order" (Ruskin) is a reality whereas timing is only a
necessary fiction, so that "any attention to timing results almost inevitably in a
warping of poetry"), but he argues that when all the metrical variations are
admitted, what is left of regularity? The rhythmic "undercurrent" is more crucial
than the metrical "current" (p. 63). So for Scott verse is to be measured by the
rhythmic phrase not the foot, and it is precisely when the rhythmic phrases become
ordered (regularized) that rhythmic prose rises into rhythmic verse. The units of
rhythm he analyzes as either rhythma or quadrals, the rhythmon taking two forms, the
symmetron and the metron. Symmetra are "isolable sentential phrases" having a
scansion of "stressed and unstressed syllables to the right and left of a medial point";

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metra, in contrast, are units "whose stress patterns show a duplication of some
syllabic combination." Quadrals are sentences of four phrases having similar
scansions.
The reader can see that such idiosyncrasies make this a difficult book to
penetrate and absorb, and though it reveals an extensive knowledge of previous
scholarship, there is little here that one can take away as both new and valuable.
Probably chapter 3 is the most important. See also Farley (D293).

D332 Sims, D. L. "Rhythm and Meaning." Essays in Criticism 6 (1956): 347–52. Reply by A.
D. S. Fowler, pp. 352–57.
A quarrel with F. W. Bateson's opinion that the reader of a poem must perceive in
advance the meaning of a line so that he can know how to assign the line its proper
rhythm--i.e., so he can read it aright. Sims notes that both processes occur nearly
simultaneously, and to say that proper reading requires prior familiarity with the
intonational patterns of the language is to say nothing new at all. Fowler,
emphasizing the frequent deviance of poetic syntax, suggests that expectation is
much less reliable in poetry than in prose, agreeing with Bateson on the logical
precedence of meaning but agreeing with Sims that the process of apprehension is
rarely sequential, mechanical, or fragmented. The issue, properly in the domain of
psycholinguistics, is a crucial one in poetic theory.

D333 Snyder, Edward D. Hypnotic Poetry, A Study of Trance-Inducing Technique in


Certain Poems and Its Literary Significance. Philadelphia: University of
Pennsylvania Press, 1930.
A theory that certain poems are "actually and literally hypnotic," because their
metered stresses fall at the regular half-second intervals which psychiatrists use to
induce hypnosis. Includes a chapter on Free Verse.

D334 Sone, Tamotsn. "Rhythm in English Poetry." Youth's Companion (Japan), no. 1 (1947).

D335 Sumera, Magdalena. "Aspects of Rhythm and Verse Structure in English." Diss.,
University of Edinburgh, 1971.

D336 -----. "Rhythm, Syntax and Verse Structure." Current Trends in Stylistics. Ed. B. B.
Kachru and H. F. W. Stahlke. Edmonton (Canada): Linguistic Research, Inc.,
1972. pp. 143–61.
Demonstration (based on the system of David Abercrombie [E102–3]) that syntax is
equally if not more determinative of rhythm than such conventions as rhyme or
alliteration. Final versions of verse lines are compared to hypothetical alternatives,
patterns of stress and quantity are examined, and types of rhythmical modification
(between one line and the next) are identified. But it is chaos to call syntactic
periods "feet," and the slightest familiarity with traditional prosodic terms would
have reduced this essay by more than half.

D337 Taglicht, J. "The Function of Intonation in English Verse." Language and Style 4 (1971):
116–22.
A subject widely important yet widely ignored, but results here are slender: caesurae
and line-ends seem to also mark ends of pitch-contours, and the even ictuses in
dipodic verse have raised pitch. We need a thorough study of the conditions under
which pitch (or juncture) can partially or solely signal Ictus in English verse. Cf.
Crystal (E20).

D338 Tatsuma, Minoru. "Rhythm Patterns in English Poetry: Its Variety and Classification."
The Study of Sounds: Papers Delivered at the Second World Congress of Phoneticians.
Tokyo: Phonetic Society of Japan, 1966. Vol. 12, pp. 388–99.
Identifies three: Phonic Rhythm (by Accent [Running Rhythm and Sprung

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Rhythm]; by Quantity; and by Combination of both); Thought Rhythm (varieties
of Parallelism); and Emotional Rhythm (Tone-color, Syllable-count, and "Visionary
Rhythm"). A summary outline; inexplicable statements and examples.

D339 Turner, W. J. "Tunes in Verse." The New Statesman and Nation n.s. 6 (1933): 844–45.
The author asserts that in rhythm one may find tunes and tones (as in music), though
in poetry the tuneless rhythm is the most highly developed. Still, one can
sometimes hear "tune-rhythms" in verse; I take these to be stress-patterns, since all
his examples are stress-verse and nursery rhymes and since he distinguishes "tune"
from "melody." Rhythm is said to be based on meter as flesh on skeleton. Cf.
Herbert (D312).

D340 Untermeyer, Louis. "Rhythm and Reason." The New Republic 32 (4 October 1922):
143–44.

D341 Van Caspel, P. P. J. "Acoustic Aspects of Poetry." Proceedings of the Sixth International
Congress of Phonetic Sciences. Ed. B. Hala et al. Prague: Academia Publishing House
of the Czech Academy of Sciences, 1970. pp. 243–44.
The author urges on us his view that verse-structure depends on verse-recitation
and that acoustic phenomena depend on indispensable psychic factors. Laboratory
experiments disclose one other matter of interest, "the presence in the [verse] line of
at least two rises in pitch, spaced at a certain distance," suggesting that it is "the
melody rather than the sound intensity" which is crucial to the perception of
rhythm.

D342 Vander Ven, Thomas. "Robert Frost's Dramatic Principle of "Oversound.'" American
Literature 45 (1973): 238–51.
Without being very helpfully precise, yet while rounding out the context, the
author identifies Frost's "sentence-sounds" with a dramatic principle and with "the
fundamental emotional energy of human nature."

See also: B218, D179, E606, E1518.

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