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Traffic &

Highway
Engineering
Brief History of Roads

Early Laws that Regulates Roadway

Highway in the Philippines

Planning Difficulties

Highway Programming
Highway
The Planner Engineering
Highway
Engineering
Colored Photographs

Location of the Proposed Highway

Location of Bridges

Highways Plans and Specifications

Highway
Engineering
CHAPTER 1
Brief History of Roads ENGINEERING

Early roads with hard surfaces were found in the land


of Mesopotamia. These roads were constructed as early as
3,500 BC. Another stone surface roads were also found in the
Mediterranean island of Crete, similarly constructed as those
in the Western Hemisphere by the Mayans, Aztecs and the
Incas of Central South America.

The early road systems were constructed primarily for


the following purposes:
1. For the movement of armies in their conquest and for
defense against invasion.
2. For transport of food and trade of goods between
neighboring towns and cities.
Brief History of Roads ENGINEERING

The Romans, who discovered cement, expanded their


vast empire through extensive road networks radiating in
many directions from the capital city of Rome. Many of the
roads built by the Romans still exist even after 2,000 years.
Brief History of Roads ENGINEERING

Characteristically, Roman Roads were laid on three courses:

1. A layer of small broken stones.


2. Followed by layer of small stones mixed with mortar and
then compacted firmly.
3. Wearing course of massive stone blocks properly set and
bedded with cement mortar.
Brief History of Roads ENGINEERING

17th Century

• Under his regime, France made a


great stride on road buildings.

• French Engineer who introduced new methods of


construction and maintenance of stone roads.
• He improved the crown, the drainage, and the grade of
the road, stones to 25 centimeters.
• He made it possible for Napoleon to build the massive
highways of France.
• He was accredited the title, “Father of Modern Road
Building”.
Brief History of Roads ENGINEERING

Thirty Years Later . . . . .

• a Scottish Engineer from Westminster Abbey,


president and founder of the Institution of Civil
Engineers
• He introduced some improvements in the
construction methods of Jerome Tresaguet.
• His road foundation course was made of stones
having 3 inches minimum thickness, 5 inches
breadth and 7 inches height.
• Smaller stones were driven by mauls on top voids
and trued the surfaces by breaking the projecting
points.
• He employed a flat sub-grade, providing slight
crown using stones of varying sizes.
Brief History of Roads ENGINEERING

England followed the highway development by France. . . . .

• Another Scottish Engineer road builder and


contemporary of Telford.
• He made the concept for the Macadam Road which was
developed and widely accepted.
Brief History of Roads ENGINEERING

• In 1858, he invented the first stone


crusher.

• British agricultural engine and steam roller manufacturer


• Thomas Aveling and Richard Thomas Porter
CHAPTER 1
Early Laws that Regulates Roadway ENGINEERING

The early Saxon Laws imposes three mandatory duties


for people to perform, namely:
1. To repair the roads and bridges
2. To repair the castles and the garrisons
3. To aid repel invasions

After the Norman Conquest of England, it was


decreed that:
1. The king’s Highway is sacred. Anybody who occupies
any portion thereof, by exceeding the boundaries of his
land, is considered to have encroached on the king
himself. Roads are for public use. All persons who want
to use them may do so.
Early Laws that Regulates Roadway ENGINEERING

2. Property owners adjoining the roads were required to


drain the road, clip any bordering hedges, and refrain
from plowing and planting trees, shrubs, or bushes closer
than the specified distance from the center of the road.

It was made clear that the government concept


towards the use of roads includes upholding the right of the
public to use them without interference. Since the road is
intended for the benefit of the people, in return, it becomes
their duty to protect and maintain the roadway.
CHAPTER 1
Highways in the Philippines ENGINEERING

• Transportation is largely dependent on trails, waterways,


railroad, earth roads and partially graveled roads.
• Development of roadways, connecting towns, cities and
provinces, is initiated by the American Government.

• The popular Macadam Road Type was introduced and


gained wide acceptance because of the abundant
supply of stones and gravels.
Highways in the Philippines ENGINEERING

• The new independent


Philippine government,
continued the rehabilitation
and construction of roads
and bridges, through the
reparations and war
damages paid by the
Japanese Government.

• Other financial grants and aids received from he U.S.


Government were used in the construction and
rehabilitation of roads and bridges.
Highways in the Philippines ENGINEERING

• Considered as an Automobile Age


• Cars were no longer considered as luxury item but a
necessity in transporting people and goods, a necessity
for survival.
• Government new concept of development is to get the
farmers out of the mud.
• Road construction becomes a mater of priority of the
government under the slogan, “This Nation is on
Wheels”.
Highways in the Philippines ENGINEERING

• Major highways and expressways were constructed


through the financial assistance and loans from foreign
banks.
• Due to the industrialization program of the government,
vehicles of various types and sizes started flooding the
roadways.

• More than 200,000-300,000 brand new vehicles were


added yearly
• 5.0 meters road occupancy is needed in average
• 400 kilometers new roads must be opened every year
• These data didn’t include the roadway for the second
hand or surplus assembled cars.
• Traffic problems are expected to worsen year after year.
CHAPTER 1
Planning Difficulties ENGINEERING

Development and maintenance of roads and highways


is continuing process alongside with the technological
advancement. Advance knowledge in the field of soils,
highway materials, and designs were adopted for reliability
and economic considerations.
Engineers are conscious of the need for roadways to
be safe, useful, and attractive. Highway planners are
confronted with the problems categorized as follows:
1. Financial
• Appropriations of funds for road constructions and
maintenance, meet severe difficulties that
sometimes, highway development plans are shelves
temporarily for lack of funds.
Planning Difficulties ENGINEERING

2. Political
• Politicians now control DPWH projects as their
source of political funds. Comprehensive road
development plans that are carefully studied by
technical experts are twisted, or flexed down by
political muscles, to suit political interests.

3. Technical
• As a consequence, public confidence tremendously
eroded, not only in the government’s ability to abate
these problems, but also in the proficiency of the
technical men to offer solutions.
CHAPTER 1
Highway Programming ENGINEERING

• In highway programming projects are prioritized.

Three inseparable inputs :


1. Economic
• deals with the question of the users.
2. Financial
• the question of who pays and who spends, how
much and where?
3. Political and administration
• this involves decision making.
Highway Programming ENGINEERING

A. Quantifiable Market Value


1. Cost of highways as to:
a. Planning cost
b. Right of way appropriations
c. Construction cost
d. Maintenance cost
e. Operating cost
2. Cost benefits to highway users:
a. Vehicles operating cost
b. Travel savings time
Highway Programming ENGINEERING

B. Non - Quantifiable Non - Market Value


1. Cost benefits to highway user:

a. Motorist’s safety
• accidents cost of pain suffering and
deprivation.
b. Comfort and convenience
• discomfort, inconvenience and strain of
driving
c. Aesthetic from driving viewpoint
• pleasing views and scenery from road.
Highway Programming ENGINEERING

C. Quantifiable Non-Market Value


1. Cost benefits to highway user
• traveling saving time (non-commercial). Minutes
save per vehicle trip.
CHAPTER 1
The Planner ENGINEERING

Before any project comes to reality it has to undergo


rigorous and careful studies with participation of several line
agencies involved. Where proposals may be opposed or
questioned by other agencies, or in the political mill, the
planner appoints coordinators or catalysts, to work out in
exchanging information as to the needs, goals and alternative
solutions of those who are affected, and to incorporate them
into the planning and decision making.
The Planner ENGINEERING

Where planners act as coordinators, catalysts or to


work as community advocates, should not be either partisan
or advocate to a particular solution. Their role is:
1. To provide technical and organizational support.
2. To receive input or information on the needs and goals
of affected persons group or agencies.
3. Incorporate the above for planning and making decision.

The planner’s role must be of a clarifier, expediters,


conciliators and impartial negotiators. The myth of rationality
must be avoided because they might believe that as
professionals, they are uniquely super qualified to judge what
is best for society in their personal values and goals are
different from other participants.
The Planner ENGINEERING

Functions of the Planners


1. To prepare preliminary design, scoop of study and initial
work program. Know the basic needs, plan and
objectives of affected persons.
2. Exploration of alternatives.
• Data gathering by contacting the representative of
other agencies involved.
3. Detailed analysis.
• Prepare detailed plan for appropriate community
interaction.
4. Secure formal ratification from local officials and have
the result documented. If nothing goes wrong, this step is
considered final.
The Planner ENGINEERING

Good ethics demand that planners should understand


that their role is to provide knowledge and unbiased
information. To be partisan and emotionally involved, will only
jeopardize their credibility. This might give them the feeling of
personal defeat and disillusionment with their profession, if
the solutions that they offered are only thrown into trash can.
CHAPTER 1
Community Involvement ENGINEERING

In the democratic government, the public has the right


to hear and be heard. Much more to participate in the public
hearing where planning and decision making will be
conducted before major decisions are made.
It is a common practice
to call public hearing after all
major decision were made and
approved. Indeed, public
hearing is on more than
information forum for the
public to know what the
administration wants them,
rather than, what the people
wants from them.
Community Involvement ENGINEERING

Public hearing should involve the public from the start of


planning to give them a chance to participate in the
discussions and involved them in:
1. Solicit the cooperation and support of public officials,
non-government organizations, influential persons and
conservative group of the community.

2. Create special staff to carry out this function.

3. Community leadership opportunity to participate


continuously in the planning stage.

4. Organize and developed skilled persons to conduct


group meeting, workshop, hearing and other relative
activities.
CHAPTER 1
Highway Economy ENGINEERING

A Country who will not avail of loans or grant from


foreign financing institution will not feel the great impact of
their infrastructure projects, if domestic income through taxes
alone will be depended on. Financing institution such as
World Bank insists that projects to which they grants or loans
be justified primarily on the economic basis.

According to W. Gillespe, professor of the Civil


Engineering at the Union College:
“A minimum of expenses is of course, highly desirable;
but the road which is truly the cheapest is not the one which
has cost the least money, but the one which makes the most
profitable returns in proportion to the amount expended upon
it.”
Highway Economy ENGINEERING

There are many designs and administrative decisions


that does not involve public policy, but these should be made
by selecting the alternative that is cheapest in the long run.
Meaning: the result from economic study that is reasonably
interpreted must prevail.

The intent of expenditures for highways and public


transportations are enumerated as follows:
1. To augment the country’s level of economy.
2. To provide easy access to working place.
3. To facilitate public services; police, fire protection etc.
4. To facilitate medical care, schooling and delivery of
related basic services
Highway Economy ENGINEERING

5. To give landowner benefits to transportation and


increase property assessment.
6. Benefit to motor vehicle user through lower cost of
operations and maintenance.
7. Benefit in time saving.
8. Less road accident.
9. To give maximum comfort and ease of travel.

Most of the country’s expenditures for highways and


public transport facilities are based on the principle of “Pay as
you go”. Meaning, road appropriations and expenditures
depend on tax collections.
Highway Economy ENGINEERING

Legally, the appropriation and expenditures of taxes


being the people’s contribution to the government must be
assessed and divided proportionally to the different provinces
municipalities and cities in terms of infrastructure projects and
not just be concentrated in specific place.

Under that principle, progress of the country would be


very slow considering the meager amount each province will
get, and the infrastructure it will accomplish. Hence,
borrowing from foreign banks is the ultimate solutions of the
government to deliver impact infrastructure projects to boost
the economy and move quickly forward.
Highway Economy ENGINEERING

Arguments of those who Favors Borrowings are:


1. The need is immediate to have instant infrastructure.
2. No impact project will be seen because the “pay as you
go” fund is scattered throughout the entire road system
where the situation is most critical.
3. Borrowings encourage investors because of fast progress.
Highway Economy ENGINEERING

Counter Arguments of those against Financing Infrastructures


through Borrowing:
1. Borrowing may impair the credit rating of government
agencies obstructing other more important
improvements.
2. If future income is committed to pay past improvements,
no more funds available to maintain the existing system.
3. With much amount available temptation is there to over
build and recklessly spends extravagantly.
4. Interest of the loan is a big waste of public funds.
CHAPTER 1
Computation and Survey ENGINEERING

Early engineering approach to highway and


transportation problems were based on the results of their
computations with the aid of slide rule and replaced by
calculator machine which is time consuming and was totally
discarded in the advent of computers and its components.
Computation and Survey ENGINEERING

Computers can do processing data for many problems like:

1. Projections and statistical studies of traffic and transit


passengers
2. Economic analysis
3. Financial programming
4. Geometric
5. Bridges
6. Pavement design and maintenance.
7. Pavement management
8. Scheduling for design and construction
9. Computation of earthworks and other quantities both for
planning and payment of contractors.c
Computation and Survey ENGINEERING

Computers can do processing data for many problems like:

1. Computers are provided with stereo plotter for map


making and location identification and can present
problems, focused on technical matters and
management decisions making data.
Computation and Survey ENGINEERING

Computers can do processing data for many problems like:


2. Computer graphics display a motorist view of the
highway to make appropriate treatment of certain
portion as transition from cut to fills, route, location,
traffic, and transportation planning and accident
analysis.
CHAPTER 1
Remote Sensing ENGINEERING

• also called as Photogrammetry, the science and art of


obtaining measurements by means of photography.
• based on aerial photographs for engineers working data on:
1. Location
2. Planning
3. Geometric Design
4. Right of Way
5. Traffic Studies
6. Drainage
7. Soil Classifications and Identifications
8. Earthwork measurements
9. Material location
10. Pavement condition Survey
Remote Sensing ENGINEERING

Aerial Photographs :
CHAPTER 1
Photogrammetric Mapping ENGINEERING

The area to be covered is photographed in parallel


runs with the individual pictures lapped in the direction of the
end lap and between side lap.
For stereoscopic uses, the ff. must be considered:
1. End lap must be greater than one half the picture width
specified not less than 55% not more than 65% in order
that the center of one picture is included in both
adjacent photograph.
2. Side lap should average at 25% with less than 1.5. More
than 35% is unacceptable.
3. For making map purposes, the variable includes the
focal length of the aerial camera, the desired
combination of map scale and contour interval, and the
ration of map scale to photograph scale.
Photogrammetric Mapping ENGINEERING

Instruments used in converting data from aerial photographs


into maps:

1. Kelsh and Balplex Stereoscopic Plotters


• This entirely digital
mapping system
uses stereo digital
images as input and
a completely digital
measuring system
to allow extraction
of 3-D coordinate
information.
Photogrammetric Mapping ENGINEERING

Instruments used in converting data from aerial photographs


into maps:

2. Wild Autograph

• This is a stereo
photogrammetric
machine that
generated highly
accurate, correctly
scaled planimetric
representations from
stereographic
imagery.
Photogrammetric Mapping ENGINEERING

Instruments used in converting data from aerial photographs


into maps:

3. Zeiss Stereoplanigraph
• An instrument for
drawing topographic
maps from
observations of
stereoscopic aerial
photographs with a
stereo comparator.
Photogrammetric Mapping ENGINEERING

Instruments used in converting data from aerial photographs


into maps:

4. Kern PG2

• An analogue
equipment, equipped
with encoders and
computing power to
produce digital
coordinate output.
Photogrammetric Mapping ENGINEERING

Instruments used in converting data from aerial photographs


into maps:

5. Modern Theodolites
• equipped with integrated
electro - optical distance
measuring devices, generally
infrared based, allowing the
measurement in one go of
all data required (angle,
distance, Direction based on
machine and other points).
Photogrammetric Mapping ENGINEERING

The photogrammetric technique coupled with digitizer,


produces digital terrain models. The horizontal and vertical
positions of the ground surface and other photographic
features are directly transferred from the matched aerial
photograph to a computer data bank.

The information is recalled and the computer is


programmed to develop showing the following:
1. Profiles
2. Cross sections
3. Cut and fill earthwork quantities
4. The motorist view of the road
Photogrammetric Mapping ENGINEERING

With photographs and computer record data, a separate


map could be plotted easily like:
1. The highways
2. The drainage
3. Housing
4. Land use and zoning
5. Property assessment

The ground field survey is done only as supplement in


completing the details of those that could not be produced in
the photographs.
CHAPTER 1
Orthophotographs ENGINEERING
• Defined as an aerial photograph corrected for scale and tilt.
• When the center portion are skillfully matched and copied,
they appear to be a single photograph that shows far more
detail than maps. The uncorrected or partially corrected
photographs are combined to form a mosaic, considered
better for engineering accuracy and right of way purposes.
CHAPTER 1
Colored Photographs ENGINEERING

• It presents a more detailed


and precise information on
traffic and parking studies.

• It gives clear information of


the geological conditions,
land use, source of materials,
surfaces and sub-surface
drainage.
Colored Photographs ENGINEERING

• An Oblique Photograph is used for special studies


particularly, where the ground condition is almost flat or
where cliffs are so steep that a black and white photograph
could not give sufficient details.
CHAPTER 1
Location of the Proposed Highway ENGINEERING

Early roads started from trails. Movements of people


and the use of motor vehicle prompted agencies to improve
road alignment minimizing sharp curves. Road width was
standardized and grades were flattened.

New highway locations are blended with curvature


grades and other roadway elements to offer; comfortable
easy driving, free flowing traffic arteries, comply with the
rules on safety standards.

To improve the highways, there should be tentative


plan as to the control, and minimum design speed, roadway
cross-sections, and maximum slope with the following
considerations:
Location of the Proposed Highway ENGINEERING

1. Reliable cost estimate


2. Character and hourly distribution of traffic
3. Economic and community benefit factor
4. Availability of funds

Locations surveys in the rural areas are divided into 4 stages:

1. Reconnaissance survey of the entire area between the


terminal points.
2. Reconnaissance survey of all feasible routes.
3. Preliminary survey of the best route.
4. Location survey, staking of the right of way, the highway
and the structure for construction.
Location of the Proposed Highway ENGINEERING

Under stage I : Reconnaissance Survey of the Entire Area:

1. Stereoscopic examination of small scaled aerial


photographs of the area supplemented by available
maps.
2. Determination control of photography and land use.
3. Location of feasible routes based on photographs and
maps.
Under stage II : Reconnaissance Survey of Feasible Route:

1. Stereoscopic examination of large scaled aerial


photographs of each route.
2. Determination of the detailed control of photography
and land use.
Location of the Proposed Highway ENGINEERING

3. Location and comparison of feasible routes on


photographs and maps.
4. Selection of best route.
Stage III : Preliminary Survey of the Best Route
1. Preparation of large scale topographic maps using the
route photograph and Photogrammetric methods or
preparation of large scale topographic maps by ground
survey guided by best route location made on
photographs in the second stage.
2. Design of the preliminary location.
Stage IV : Location Survey
Staking of the right of way and the highway and structures
for construction.
CHAPTER 1
Location of Bridges ENGINEERING

Highway and Bridges have but one purpose -


to convey traffic. The location and position of a bridge is
subordinate to the general alignment and grade. But
sometimes, favorable alignment has to be sacrificed, only to
provide a right angle crossing to small creek.
Lately however, the general policy for minor roads is
to determine the proper highway location, then provide the
structures. A skewed bridge is comparatively more expensive
than the right angle bridge. The horizontal and vertical
curvature shape of large bridge presents serious design and
construction problem, but the finished product may result to
a better roadway. Foundation design of piers and abutments
has large effect on costs, but cost is not always the
determining factor in design.
Location of Bridges ENGINEERING

The cost of a bridge and its full approach combined


before the crossing site should be determined. Bridge survey
report should be accompanied with accurate data on the
waterway and the historical behavior of water. The bridge
survey data shall include the foundation conditions, stream
characteristics, and the adjacent structure on the stream
more particularly, their waterway opening.

When the location of the bridge is approximately


determined, the following requirements must be considered:

1. A complete data report and special survey of the site.


2. Prepare sketches and full scale map and profiles.
3. The survey report must contain accurate data of the
waterway for all behavior of water.
Location of Bridges ENGINEERING

4. There must be a complete report on the foundation


condition and the stream characteristics.
5. A complete data of the adjacent structures particularly
the waterway opening.
6. If possible, skewed bridge should be avoided.

Typical Example of Small Bridge Location Problem


CHAPTER 1
Highway Plans and Specifications ENGINEERING

Plans and specification are set of documents of


instructions and conditions under which highways and
bridges are built. The plan contains engineering drawings of
the project. whereas, the specifications is a written
instructions and conditions considered as integral part of the
contract between the contractor and highway agency
classified as legal documents.

The complete detailed schemes for the road which are


incorporated in the geometric designs are:
1. Traffic 5. Structure
2. Drainage 6. Soil
3. Erosion control 7. Pavement
4. Roadside development
Highway Plans and Specifications ENGINEERING

1. The upper sheet is allocated for the plan, top view


showing the horizontal alignment, right of way takings,
drainage arrangement and other features.
2. The lower half is allotted to the profile where the original
elevation of the ground surface is plotted. The roadway
centerline and the vertical alignment or grade line for
the road is indicated.
3. The vertical scale of the profile is usually exaggeratedly
enlarged from five to ten times for precise detail.
4. The profile and other details of the drainage, channels or
connecting roads including ramps are also presented.
Highway Plans and Specifications ENGINEERING

5. The estimated earthwork quantities for every 50 meters


station or other intervals are indicated along the bottom
of each sheet along with the estimated overhead. This
will serve the engineer and the contractor.
6. The roadway cross-sections for every situation in the
whole project stretch are indicated on another sheet of
the plan.
7. Another sheet of drawings showing all structures and
roadway appurtenances is included.
8. The standard size of the drawing sheet is 55cm. X 90cm.
Highway Plans and Specifications ENGINEERING
Highway Plans and Specifications ENGINEERING

Partial list of subjects covered by the standard drawing:

1. Pipe culverts
2. Concrete box culverts
3. Guard rail parapet
4. Curbs
5. Gutters
6. Curb structures
7. Sidewalks
8. Drainage inlet and outlet structures of numerous types
9. Manholes
10. Rip-rap and other devices used for bank protection
11. Fences and right of way
12. Other survey markers
Highway Plans and Specifications ENGINEERING

Specifications writing is generally different and a


delicate work requiring knowledge of the law of contracts
as well as highway practices and experiences.
Specifications that are carelessly written and loosely
worded may result in the use of substandard materials and
poor workmanship.
Mostly, it involves extra cost to the owner or the
contractor and sometimes landed in court litigations.
On the other hand, specifications that are too
restrictive are very costly.
Highway Plans and Specifications ENGINEERING

Highway Specifications is Divided into Two:

1. Standard Specifications
• applies to project implemented by administration
which treats the subject that repeatedly occurs in the
agency work.

2. Special Provisions
• covers peculiar item of the project in question that
include additional modification to standard
specifications and copies of all documents required in
securing competitive bids and contracts.
Highway Plans and Specifications ENGINEERING

Highway Specifications is Divided into Two:

2. Special Provisions
• Specifications are also subdivided into two:
a) The general clause that deals with the bidding
procedures and award execution and control of
work and other legal matters.

a) Specifying detail regarding the materials,


manner of work execution and how pay
quantities are to be measured.
Reference
 Elements of Roads and Highways by Max
B. Fajardo, Jr.
“ Listening is our highway to understand
everything we must know “