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CHAPTER-1

INTRODUCTION OF BRAKES

The braking system is an important system in the tractors used to slow down or stop the
tractor motion. It is also used to prevent the tractor from moving when it is stationary.
During field operations it helps in taking sharp turns by applying differential brakes on
the two rear wheels.

The brakes use the financial force to reduce the motion of the wheels. Friction is used to
convert the kinetic energy into heat.

The brake arrangement serves to intentionally offer resistance to the movement of the
tractor. Most common are the friction brakes. These are essentially heat devices that
change the kinetic energy of the moving vehicle into heat, by virtue of friction between a
rotating component and a stationary component which are mechanically moved so that
they come in contact with the rotating component. The stationary are lined with a hard
wearing friction material. When this material is moved into contact with the rotating
component, braking takes place.

Brake is used to stop or slow down the motion of a tractor. It is mounted on the driving
axle and operated by two independent pedals. Each pedal can be operated independently
to assist the turning of tractor during the fieldwork or locked together by means of a
lock.

1.1 PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION:

Brake works on the principle of friction. When a moving clement is brought into contact
with a stationary element, the motion of the moving element is affected. This is due to
frictional force, which acts in opposite direction of the motion and converts the kinetic
energy into heat energy

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Brakes may be broadly described as using friction, pumping, or electromagnetics. One


brake may use several principles: for example, a pump may pass fluid through an orifice
to create friction:

1.1.1 Frictional:

Figure 1.1 : Frictional brake componenets

typical braking system for cars:


FAD: Brake disc front
FPD: Brake disc rear
FPT: Rear brake drum
CF: Brake control
SF: servo brake
PF: Brake Pump
SLF: Brake Fluid Reservoir
RF: Splitter braking
FS: Parking Brake

Frictional brakes are most common and can be divided broadly into "shoe" or "pad"
brakes, using an explicit wear surface, and hydrodynamic brakes, such as parachutes,
which use friction in a working fluid and do not explicitly wear. Typically the term
"friction brake" is used to mean pad/shoe brakes and excludes hydrodynamic brakes,
even though hydrodynamic brakes use friction. Friction (pad/shoe) brakes are often
rotating devices with a stationary pad and a rotating wear surface. Common
configurations include shoes that contract to rub on the outside of a rotating drum, such
as a band brake; a rotating drum with shoes that expand to rub the inside of a drum,
commonly called a "drum brake", although other drum configurations are possible; and

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pads that pinch a rotating disc, commonly called a "disc brake". Other brake
configurations are used, but less often. For example, PCC trolley brakes include a flat
shoe which is clamped to the rail with an electromagnet; the Murphy brake pinches a
rotating drum, and the Ausco Lambert disc brake uses a hollow disc (two parallel discs
with a structural bridge) with shoes that sit between the disc surfaces and expand
laterally.

A drum brake is a vehicle brake in which the friction is caused by a set of brake shoes
that press against the inner surface of a rotating drum. The drum is connected to the
rotating roadwheel hub.

Drum brakes generally can be found on older car and truck models. However, because
of their low production cost, drum brake setups are also installed on the rear of some
low-cost newer vehicles. Compared to modern disc brakes, drum brakes wear out faster
due to their tendency to overheat.

The disc brake is a device for slowing or stopping the rotation of a road wheel. A brake
disc (or rotor in U.S. English), usually made of cast iron or ceramic, is connected to the
wheel or the axle. To stop the wheel, friction material in the form of brake pads
(mounted in a device called a brake caliper) is forced mechanically, hydraulically,
pneumatically or electromagnetically against both sides of the disc. Friction causes the
disc and attached wheel to slow or stop.

1.1.2 Pumping :

Pumping brakes are often used where a pump is already part of the machinery. For
example, an internal-combustion piston motor can have the fuel supply stopped, and
then internal pumping losses of the engine create some braking. Some engines use a
valve override called a Jake brake to greatly increase pumping losses. Pumping brakes
can dump energy as heat, or can be regenerative brakes that recharge a pressure reservoir
called a hydraulic accumulator

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1.1.3 Electromagnetic:

Electromagnetic brakes are likewise often used where an electric motor is already part of
the machinery. For example, many hybrid gasoline/electric vehicles use the electric
motor as a generator to charge electric batteries and also as a regenerative brake. Some
diesel/electric railroad locomotives use the electric motors to generate electricity which
is then sent to a resistor bank and dumped as heat. Some vehicles, such as some transit
buses, do not already have an electric motor but use a secondary "retarder" brake that is
effectively a generator with an internal short-circuit. Related types of such a brake are
eddy current brakes, and electro-mechanical brakes (which actually are magnetically
driven friction brakes, but nowadays are often just called "electromagnetic brakes" as
well).

Electromagnetic brakes slow an object through electromagnetic induction, which creates


resistance and in turn either heat or electricity. Friction brakes apply pressure on two
separate objects to slow the vehicle in a controlled manner

1.2 CHARACTERISTICS :

Brakes are often described according to several characteristics including:

 Peak force – The peak force is the maximum decelerating effect that can be
obtained. The peak force is often greater than the traction limit of the tires, in
which case the brake can cause a wheel skid.
 Continuous power dissipation – Brakes typically get hot in use, and fail when
the temperature gets too high. The greatest amount of power (energy per unit
time) that can be dissipated through the brake without failure is the continuous
power dissipation. Continuous power dissipation often depends on e.g., the
temperature and speed of ambient cooling air.
 Fade – As a brake heats, it may become less effective, called brake fade. Some
designs are inherently prone to fade, while other designs are relatively immune.
Further, use considerations, such as cooling, often have a big effect on fade.
 Smoothness – A brake that is grabby, pulses, has chatter, or otherwise exerts
varying brake force may lead to skids. For example, railroad wheels have little
traction, and friction brakes without an anti-skid mechanism often lead to skids,
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which increases maintenance costs and leads to a "thump thump" feeling for
riders inside.
 Power – Brakes are often described as "powerful" when a small human
application force leads to a braking force that is higher than typical for other
brakes in the same class. This notion of "powerful" does not relate to continuous
power dissipation, and may be confusing in that a brake may be "powerful" and
brake strongly with a gentle brake application, yet have lower (worse) peak force
than a less "powerful" brake.
 Pedal feel – Brake pedal feel encompasses subjective perception of brake power
output as a function of pedal travel. Pedal travel is influenced by the fluid
displacement of the brake and other factors.
 Drag – Brakes have varied amount of drag in the off-brake condition depending
on design of the system to accommodate total system compliance and
deformation that exists under braking with ability to retract friction material from
the rubbing surface in the off-brake condition.
 Durability – Friction brakes have wear surfaces that must be renewed
periodically. Wear surfaces include the brake shoes or pads, and also the brake
disc or drum. There may be tradeoffs, for example a wear surface that generates
high peak force may also wear quickly.
 Weight – Brakes are often "added weight" in that they serve no other function.
Further, brakes are often mounted on wheels, and unsprung weight can
significantly hurt traction in some circumstances. "Weight" may mean the brake
itself, or may include additional support structure.
 Noise – Brakes usually create some minor noise when applied, but often create
squeal or grinding noises that are quite loud.

1.3 FOUNDATION COMPONENTS :

Foundation components are the brake-assembly components at the wheels of a vehicle,


named for forming the basis of the rest of the brake system. These mechanical parts
contained around the wheels are controlled by the air brake system.

The three types of foundation brake systems are “S” cam brakes, disc brakes and wedge
brakes.

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Brake boost

Brake booster from a Geo Storm.

Most modern vehicles use a vacuum assisted brake system that greatly increases the
force applied to the vehicle's brakes by its operator.[4] This additional force is supplied
by the manifold vacuum generated by air flow being obstructed by the throttle on a
running engine. This force is greatly reduced when the engine is running at fully open
throttle, as the difference between ambient air pressure and manifold (absolute) air
pressure is reduced, and therefore available vacuum is diminished. However, brakes are
rarely applied at full throttle; the driver takes the right foot off the gas pedal and moves
it to the brake pedal - unless left-foot braking is used.

Because of low vacuum at high RPM, reports of unintended acceleration are often
accompanied by complaints of failed or weakened brakes, as the high-revving engine,
having an open throttle, is unable to provide enough vacuum to power the brake booster.
This problem is exacerbated in vehicles equipped with automatic transmissions as the
vehicle will automatically downshift upon application of the brakes, thereby increasing
the torque delivered to the driven-wheels in contact with the road surface.

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CHAPTER-2

BREAKING SYSTEM

A brake is a mechanical device that inhibits motion by absorbing energy from a


moving system. It is used for slowing or stopping a moving vehicle, wheel, axle, or to
prevent its motion, most often accomplished by means of friction. One end of each shoe
is fulcrum whereas the other is free to move by the action of a cam which in turn applies
force on the shoes. The movement of the cam is caused by the brake pedal through the
linkage

2.1CLASSIFICATION OF BRAKE:

Brakes can be classified as:

(1) Mechanical brake and

(2) Hydraulic brake.

The drum is mounted on the rear axle Mechanical brake can be:

(a) Internal expanding shoe type

(b) External contracting shoe type and

(c) Disc type.

2.1.1.a INTERNAL EXPANDING SHOE TYPE:

Two brake shoes made of frictional material fitted on the inside of the brake drum are
held away from the drum by means whereas the shoe assembly is stationary and
mounted on the back plate.

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2.1.1.b EXTERNAL CONTRACTING SHOE TYPE:

This type of brake system is normally available on crawler tractors. The brake band
directly surrounds the drum mounted on the drive axle. When the pedal is depressed, the
band tightens the drum.

2.1.1. c DISC BRAKE:

Two actuating discs have holes drilled in each disc in which steel balls are placed. When
the brake pedal is depressed, the links help to move the two discs in opposite directions.
This brings the steel balls to shallow part of the holes drilled in the disc. As a result, the
two discs are expanded and braking discs are pressed in between the discs and the
stationary housing. The braking discs are directly mounted on the differential shaft,
which ultimately transfers the traveling effect to the differential shaft.

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HYDRAULIC BRAKE:

Hydraulic brake system is based on the principle of pascal's law. The brake fluid, which
is usually a mixture of glycerin and alcohol, is filled in the master cylinder. When the
pedal is depressed, the piston of the master cylinder is forced into the cylinder and the
entire system turns to a pressure system. Immediately, the piston of the wheel cylinder
slides outward which moves the brake shoes to stop the rotating drum. When the pedal is
released, the return spring of the master cylinder moves the piston back to its.

2.2 ANTI-LOCK BRAKING SYSTEM (ABS)

It is a safety anti-skid braking system used on aircraft and on land vehicles , such as
cars, motorcycles, trucks and buses.[1] ABS operates by preventing the wheels from
locking up during braking, thereby maintaining tractive contact with the road surface.

ABS is an automated system that uses the principles of threshold braking and cadence
braking which were once practiced by skilful drivers with earlier non-ABS braking
systems. ABS operates at a very much faster rate and more effectively than most drivers
could manage. Although ABS generally offers improved vehicle control and decreases
stopping distances on dry and slippery surfaces, on loose gravel or snow-covered
surfaces, ABS may significantly increase braking distance, while still improving steering
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control.[2][3][4] Since ABS was introduced in production vehicles, such systems have
become increasingly sophisticated and effective. Modern versions may only prevent
wheel lock under braking, but may also alter the front-to-rear brake bias. This latter
function, depending on its specific capabilities and implementation, is known variously
as electronic brakeforce distribution, traction control system, emergency brake assist, or
electronic stability control (ESC).

2.3 BRAKING EFFICIENCY:

High braking efficiency is required as on many occasions the brakes are required
to stop the vehicle in emergency. However higher brake efficiency not only leads to
stopping in a shorter time, may also cause injury to the driver operator due to high
decelerating forces and dislodging of loads in the trolley. Higher braking efficiency also
causes rapid wear of the brakes and there is more risk of losing control of the vehicle.
Braking efficiencies of the order of 50-80% enable to stop within reasonable distance.
However the stopping distance varies with the type of road conditions and condition of
the tyres.

Braking distance generally refers to the distance a vehicle will travel from the
point when the brakes are fully applied to when it comes to a complete stop. It is
primarily affected by the original speed of the vehicle and the coefficient of
friction between the tires and the road surface. Braking distance also includes the
reaction time to when the driver feels the need to stop the vehicle and the response time.

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CHAPTER-3

BASIC PRINCICPLE USED IN BRAKE SYSTEM

As we know when we step the brake pedals or handbrakes, the cars transmit the
force from our feet or hands to the brakes. Actually the car commands a stopping force
ten times as powerful the force that puts the cat in motion. Because the brakes need a
much greater force than drivers could apply with legs, the car must multiply the force of
the foot. How could it be achieves? These two physics principles could be used:
Leverage and Hydraulic system.And how do the brakes transmit the force to the tires?
How do the tires transmit the force to the road? Both answers are using friction.
Therefore, this part will introducce these three physics principle by first: Leverage,
Hydraulics, Friction.

2.2.1 Leverage:

As the picture below shows, there is a force applied on the left end of
the lever. The length of the left end is twice (2X) as long as the right
end (X). Therefore, there is a force 2F on the right end. And it acts via
the distance (Y), while the left end moves twice (2Y) as long as the right end.
Consequently, with the change of the relative lengths of the left and right ends of the
lever, the multipliers are also changing.

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Hydraulic system:

In addition, a hydraulic system is applied the brakes. The hydraulic system


connects the brake pedal to the brake parts at each wheel. The basic hydraulic system
principle is simple. We can regard it as a process that force applied at one point is
transmitted to another point by using an impressible fluid, which almost always is an oil
of some sort.

As the picture above shows, 2 pistons (shown in red) are fitted into two oil-filled
glass cylinders (shown in light blue) and connected to another one with a pipe filled with
oil. When a downward force is applied to a piston, then the force is transferred to
another piston via the oil in the pipe. The oil is almost incompressible, so that the
transfer efficiency is high. And one advantage of the hydraulic system is that the pipe
can be any length and shape, therefore it could snake through all sorts of components
separating the two pistons. The pipe can also fork, so that one master cylinder can drive
many slave cylinders if need.

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In the figure above, the master cylinder drives two slave cylinder. One of the
advantages of the hydraulic system is that it is easy to achieve force multiplication or
fore division. In a hydraulic system, you just need to change the size of one piston and
cylinder relatively. As shown here:

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In order to make sure the multiplication factor in the figure above, start by
knowing the size of the pistons. It could be assumed that the piston on the left is 2 inches
(5.08 cm) in diameter (1-inch / 2.54 cm radius), while the piston on the right is 6 inches
(15.24 cm) in diameter (3-inch / 7.62 cm radius). The area of the two pistons is Pi * r2.
Therefore, the area of the left piston is 3.14, the right one is 28.26. The piston on the right
is nine times larger than the piston on the left. It means that any force applied to the left
hand piston will come out nine times greater on the right-hand piston. When applying a
100 pound downward force to the left piston, a 900pound upward force will appear on the
right. The only thing changed is that the left piston needs to be depressed by 9 inches
(22.86 cm), in order to raise the right piston by 1 inch (2.54 cm)

Then it is easy to understand a simple brake system as shown above. It


can be seen that the distance from the pedal to the pivot is 4 times the
distance from the cylinder to the pivot, so that the force at the pedal
will be increased by a factor of 4 before it is transmitted to the cylinder. And the
diameter of the brake cylinder is 3 times the diameter of the
pedal cylinder.

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It means the fore is further multiplied by 9. In total, the


system increases the force from your foot by a factor of 36.
Specifically, when you put 1 ponds force on the pedal, 36 pounds
(about 16.2 kg) will be generated at the wheel squeezing the brake
pads.

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CHAPTER-4

HYDRAULIC BRAKE SYSTEM

Hydraulic brake system is based on the principle of pascal's law. The brake fluid,
which is usually a mixture of glycerin and alcohol, is filled in the master cylinder. When
the pedal is depressed, the piston of the master cylinder is forced into the cylinder and
the entire system turns to a pressure system. Immediately, the piston of the wheel cylin-
der slides outward which moves the brake shoes to stop the rotating drum. When the
pedal is released, the return spring of the master cylinder moves the piston back to its.A
hydraulic brake is an arrangement of braking mechanism which uses brake fluid,
typically containing glycol ethers or diethylene glycol, to transfer pressure from the
controlling mechanism to the braking mechanism.

Figure: 4.1 Hydraulic Braking System.

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The technology was carried forward in automotive use and eventually led to the
introduction of the self-energizing hydraulic drum brake system (Edward Bishop
Boughton, London England, June 28, 1927) which is still in use today.

4.1 Construction:

Figure: 4.3 Schematic Layout Of Hydraulic Braking System.

The most common arrangement of hydraulic brakes for passenger vehicles, motorcycles,
scooters, and mopeds, consists of the following:

 Brake pedal or lever


 A pushrod (also called an actuating rod)
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 A master cylinder assembly containing a piston assembly (made up of either one


or two pistons, a return spring, a series of gaskets/ O-rings and a fluid reservoir)
 Reinforced hydraulic lines
 Brake caliper assembly usually consisting of one or two hollow aluminum or
chrome-plated steel pistons (called caliper pistons), a set of thermally conductive
brake pads and a rotor (also called a brake disc) or drum attached to an axle.

The system is usually filled with a glycol-ether based brake fluid (other fluids may also
be used).

At one time, passenger vehicles commonly employed drum brakes on all four
wheels. Later, disc brakes were used for the front and drum brakes for the rear. However
disc brakes have shown better heat dissipation and greater resistance to 'fading' and are
therefore generally safer than drum brakes. So four-wheel disc brakes have become
increasingly popular, replacing drums on all but the most basic vehicles. Many two-
wheel vehicle designs, however, continue to employ a drum brake for the rear wheel.

4.2 System operation :

Figure: 4.4 Line Diagram Of Hydraulic systems

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A hydraulic brake system, when the brake pedal is pressed, a pushrod exerts
force on the piston(s) in the master cylinder, causing fluid from the brake fluid reservoir
to flow into a pressure chamber through a compensating port. This results in an increase
in the pressure of the entire hydraulic system, forcing fluid through the hydraulic lines
toward one or more calipers where it acts upon one or more caliper pistons sealed by one
or more seated O-rings (which prevent leakage of the fluid).

The brake caliper pistons then apply force to the brake pads, pushing them
against the spinning rotor, and the friction between the pads and the rotor causes a
braking torque to be generated, slowing the vehicle. Heat generated by this friction is
either dissipated through vents and channels in the rotor or is conducted through the
pads, which are made of specialized heat-tolerant materials such as kevlar or sintered
glass.

Alternatively, in a drum brake, the fluid enters a wheel cylinder and presses one
or two brake shoes against the inside of the spinning drum. The brake shoes use a
similar heat-tolerant friction material to the pads used in disc brakes.

Subsequent release of the brake pedal/lever allows the spring(s) in the master
cylinder assembly to return the master piston(s) back into position. This action first
relieves the hydraulic pressure on the caliper, then applies suction to the brake piston in
the caliper assembly, moving it back into its housing and allowing the brake pads to
release the rotor.

The hydraulic braking system is designed as a closed system: unless there is a


leak in the system, none of the brake fluid enters or leaves it, nor does the fluid get
consumed through use. Leakage may happen, however, from cracks in the O-rings or
from a puncture in the brake line. Cracks can form if two types of brake fluid are mixed
or if the brake fluid becomes contaminated with water, alcohol, antifreeze, or any
number of other liquids.

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An example of a hydraulic brake system:

Hydraulic brakes transfer energy to stop an object, normally a rotating axle. In a


very simple brake system, with just two cylinders and a disc brake, the cylinders could
be connected via tubes, with a piston inside the cylinders. The cylinders and tubes are
filled with incompressible oil. The two cylinders have the same volume, but different
diameters, and thus different cross-section areas. The cylinder that the operator uses is
called the master cylinder. The spinning disc brake will be adjacent to the piston with
the larger cross-section. Suppose the diameter of the master cylinder is half the diameter
of the slave cylinder, so the master cylinder has a cross-section four times smaller. Now,
if the piston in the master cylinder is pushed down 40 mm, the slave piston will move
10 mm. If 10 newtons (N) of force are applied to the master piston, the slave piston will
press with a force of 40 N.

This force can be further increased by inserting a lever connected between the
master piston, a pedal, and a pivot point. If the distance from the pedal to the pivot is
three times the distance from the pivot to the connected piston, then it multiplies the
pedal force by a factor of 3, when pushing down on the pedal, so that 10 N becomes
30 N on the master piston and 120 N on the brake pad. Conversely, the pedal must move
three times as far as the master piston. If we push the pedal 120 mm down, the master
piston will move 40 mm and the slave piston will move the brake pad by 10 mm.

4.3 Advantages of Hydraulic Brake:-

 All of the four cylinder total braking effort is equal for each.

 System construction is very simple.

 Less rate of wear.

 High mechanical advantage.

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4.4 Disadvantages / Demerits Of Hydraulic Brakes :

Disadvantages of hydraulic brakes are given bellow:

 Sometimes fluid makes the system useless when slight leakage.

 For intermittently brake the hydraulic system is suitable to be applied.

4.5 MASTER CYLINDER

The master cylinder is usually two completely separate cylinders in one unit and each
controls the braking mechanism on two wheels. This means if one side fails to work you
will still be able to stop the car if you hit the brakes. If a brake problem should arise, a
warning light should light up on the dashboards of most conventional cars. The most
common problem that occurs with master cylinders is a leak of braking fluid. Drivers
can check their brake fluid levels in the reservoir located on top of the master cylinder.
The master cylinder is located on the engine compartment directly in front of the driver's
seat.

BRAKE LINES

Brake lines are what allow braking fluid to travel from the master cylinder to the wheels
of a car. The front wheels of a car are usually connected by a series of rubber hoses,
while the back wheels are connected by non-corrosive seamless steel tubing. The front
wheels require rubber hoses instead of rigid, steel tubing as flexibility is needed between
the braking mechanism and the front wheels.

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DISC BRAKES

One kind of vehicle brake is the disc brake. These are not only used in cars, but also in
trains and aircraft. Disc brakes are designed to be able to adjust themselves and are self
cleaning, which means they last longer. They usually consist of brake pads, disk rotors
and calipers. Two brake pads go with each caliper, and come in contact with the disk
rotor to cause friction to slow down a car. Brakes pads and rotors should be periodically
checked to ensure they are not too worn down, otherwise they must be replaced.

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ADVANTAGES :

 Disc brakes have much higher mechanical advantage (especially hydraulics).


This makes it easier to stop with less hand effort and accounts for why people
think disc brakes are “stronger.” (In reality, both disc brakes and rim brakes
are capable of flipping you over the front wheel of the bike, so both are
already more than strong enough to achieve the maximum braking force of
0.5g)
 Disc brakes grab better when wet. Note that with rim brakes if you use
correct brake pads (Kool-Stop Salmon), they work much better but still not
as good as Disc brakes.
 Disc brakes can be allowed to heat up to a much higher temperature without
any risk of blowing a tire off a rim. This is important for applications like
tandem bikes, though disc brake pads will still start to fade (much like car
brakes) if you heat up the disc enough.
 Disc brakes do not wear out the rim.

DISADVANTAGES :

 Disc brakes require the wheels to be dished, which leads to a weaker wheel. You
can compensate by making the dropouts wider.
 Disc brakes are more finicky. I’ve never seen a disc brake system that didn’t
warp the disc under aggressive use, eventually forcing a disc replacement. And
I’m a light load at 130 pounds/58kg! Low end disc brake systems are even more
finicky and may not survive a single off-road descent without getting warped.
 Disc brakes are heavier. The added rotor and additional mechanical parts just add
weight. If you have to have a wider wheel to compensate for the dishing (see
above), add even more weight.
 Brake pad replacement on disc brakes are more involved, and harder to do in the
field. Rim brake pads (especially the ones on high end road bikes with brake pad
holders) can be replaced in a minute.
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DRUM BRAKES

Another kind of brake is the drum brake. These are less expensive than disk brakes as
they lack a complete mechanism like disc brakes, and only require an additional parking
brake to function. Drum brakes are made up of backing plates, brake shoes, brake
drums, wheel cylinders and return springs. For drum brakes to work, brake fluid is
forced into the wheel cylinder, which pushes the brake shoe against the inside of the
drum to slow the car down. This means as the linings wear down, the brake shoes have
to go a bit further before reaching the drum. The backing plate connects all of the other
parts together.

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CHAPTER-5

MAINTENANCE AND REPLACEMENTS

As we know, if the brake fail, the result will be disastrous. In order to


make sure the brake is in good condition, the drivers need to check the
brake system regularly, and replace the broken and badly worn parts of the brake.

5.1 Brake calipers, pads and rotors:

The braking effect of a car depends on how brake calipers, pads and
rotors work together. Keeping them in good condition is the most
important and direct way of maintenance. When the calipers squeeze,
the brake pads clamp down on the rotors. If the brake pads are worn,
they can’t connect with the rotors smoothly and this can damage the
rotors with rough spots and uneven grooves. Actually the rotor repairs
are expansive. Because of the wear of brake pads, the drivers need to
review them regularly.

Which are sized to specification, they won’t wear


down. There are wear indicators of brake pads in most modern cars.
There will be squealing sound when the brake pads need to be
replaced. Of course it is better that you often check them before there
is irregular wear or damage or you hear the warning tone. The average
working life of brake pads is about 25 thousand kilometers, but the
specific situation depends on the usage of cars. In suggestion, drivers
could check the wear of brake pads every 10 thousand kilometers

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It is estimated that front brakes have to provide approximately 70% of total braking
power and therefore the components of front brakes have to be replaced more frequently
than the rear ones.

5.2 Brake fluid:

The brake fluid is hygroscopic; it will absorb water. In order to keep the
high quality of brake fluid, the driver needs to check and change thebrake fluid regularly
and keep the indicated level of brake fluid. By changing it every 24 thousand kilometers
or every 2 years, may double or triple the life cycle of modern automatic transmissions.
If the cars are often driven in wet areas, the replacement period is shorter.

5.3 The leak of hydraulic system:

The hydraulic system is used in both drum and disc brakes, there is an
eventuality of a leak. If it is a slow leak, there may not be enough fluid
left to fill the brake cylinder, and the brakes may not function. If it is a
major leak, then the first time you apply the brakes all of the fluid will
squirt out the leak and you will have a complete brake failure. So it is
necessary to regular check the system regularly whether there is a leak

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CONCLUSION

 Nowadays, most people have realized the necessity and significance of


the existence of brakes in vehicles. Besides the cars, the brake system
is also used in many ways, such as in airplanes, bicycles. The
technology of brake system will be better in the future. So it is good for
drivers to know some basic principles and composition, structure of
automobile brake system.
 But meanwhile, because of using brakes, there is more pollution, for example,
the brakes will emit more particles, noise and waste resource. For better
environment, we need to avoid the overuse the brakes.
 Different brakes and different brake pads have different advantages and
disadvantages. When the drivers choose these parts, they need to think carefully
of the actual driving conditions, and find the most suitable ones.
 In the future, there will be new materials which can decrease wear particles and
noise. Maybe the electric car will occupy a bigger portion in automobile market.
 For drivers’ safe, they also need to know the basic knowledge about
daily maintenance of the brakes, and need to inspect the brakes
regularly. In order to make sure the brakes are in good condition, it is
necessary to check and replace the broken and badly worn parts of the
brakes.
 For drivers’ safe, they also need to know the basic knowledge about
daily maintenance of the brakes, and need to inspect the brakes
regularly. In order to make sure the brakes are in good condition, it is
necessary to check and replace the broken and badly worn parts of the
brakes.

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.

REFERENCE

 Automobile engineering by R.B. GUPTA.


 Automobile brake system, 24th, May, 2016,www.baidu.com/view/2235434.htm
 Automobile Brake System, 24th, May, 2016.

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