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CONTENT

 Introduction

 Bee colony

 Extraction process

 Equipments

 Problems of Bee keeping

 Bee keeping without stings

 Future prospects

 Conclusion

 Bibliography
INTRODUCTION
Apiculture, the study and keeping of bees can be
expanded into a small business.
Beekeeping enterprise can provide marketable honey and
serve as source of pollinators for nearby Cultivated crops.
Honey has along and distinguished history in the human
diet. Four thousands of years honey hunters have
plundered the hives of wild bees for their precious honey
and bee wax. Bees are more likely to abandon their lives
if disturbed, and in some areas the colonies migrate
seasonally.
HONEY BEE
Kingdom : Animalia
Phylum: Arthro poda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Apidae
Genus: Apis
Species: Cerena, Mellifera, Dorsata
BEES COLONY
There are three different kinds of bees in every Colony a
queen, the drones and the workers. The queen job is to
lay eggs, as many as several hundred in a day, These lava
develop into drones, workers or new queens depending
on how the workers treat them.Drones are the only
males in the hive, and their main function is to mate with
virgin queen outside the hive. They die after mating. They
have no sting, do not carry pollen are unable to produce
wax and when the resources are scares they can be
driven out of the hive to die. The all female worker bees
make up about 98 percent of the colony, and they almost
all the works. They bring water, pollen, nectar and
propolis (bee glue)back to the hive, while some remain to
guard the hive, and some clean it, build the wax comb,
nurse the young’s and control the temperature of the
hives. Workers eat honey to produce heat in cold
weather and fan their wings to keep the hive cool in hot
weather .Their legs are specially equipped with pollen
baskets and they have glands that produce wax on their
abdomens.
A honey bee nest consists of a series of parallel bee wax
combs. Each comb contains rows of wax with hexagonal
compartments containing honey pollen or stores,
developing bee larvae. To thrive and produce honey the
bees need adequate supplies of nectar, pollen and water.
The combs are evenly spaced and are attached to the
ceiling of the nest. The space between the spaces of
combs is known as the 'bee space'. It is usually between
the 6 and 9 mm and is critical in maintaining the
optimum nest temperature. Bee space, dimension of
combs, and nest volume all vary with the race and
species of honeybee. Crucial factor in the use of bee
equipments, and honey bees cannot be inappropriate
size. Bees need of food and water to live, and during dry
periods the bee keeper may have to supplement natural
resources. Great rule, attempts to begin bee keeping
should tart with the areas existing bees, techniques and
the equipments.
What Can Be Seen Inside A Bee Hive?

The first thing that we notice inside a hive is the sheets of


wax hollowed out with regular cavities. The cells are
called cavities or alveoli. Some are just started and others
are finished.
EXTRACTION PROCESS

Comb honey may be sold as such, but account should be


taken of the fact that transporting it is difficult, that by
selling it this way the wax is lost, that the return of the
hive boxes with the comb entails a cost, and that a new
starter will have to be put on the top-bars. This comb
honey should not be confused with section honey, whose
production I have not recommended because it goes
against the bees and it is not profitable for the bee
keeper. If the bee keeper finds buyers for cut comb
honey, which less expensive than sections at harvest, he
will only have to put these combs in a safe place to await
sale.

Most commonly, the honey is separated from the wax


before sale. This is called clear (runny) honey. Clear
honey is obtained in three ways: by letting it drain
unaided or by assisting flow with heat or with the force
of centrifugation.
Extraction by centrifugal force
This extraction is done with a centrifugal extractor. It has
the advantage of most complete removal of the honey
and is the quickest and least laborious methods. Until
now this method has only been used or frames
arrangement allows comb to be extracted from fixed-
comb hives. Furthermore the comb from framed hives.
Our cage are uncapped in these cages. before putting the
combs the extractor, the wax capping’s covering the full
cells are removed, as described in the following

Uncapping Knife
Uncapping is done with a ordinary the knife is clean and
quite hot. It is useful to have several of them to use in
succession, putting them special knife, or an one from
the kitchen. It is important that in a vessel of hot water in
between uses. The vessel can be usefully placed needs to
be hot enough to pass easily under the on a hot plate.
The knife cappings but not so hot as to melt them. The
operator should use the knife like a saw, cutting on the
pull stroke and not on the push.
Extractor

The extractor is designed to remove honey from the


combs with greater speed than by draining under placed
in wire mesh cages gravity. The combs are in the middle
of a drum which is usually of tinned metal sheeting. A
rotating movement, at the rate of a kilometre in three
minutes, brings about centrifugal force on the comb. The
wax is retained by the wire mesh, but the honey goes
through the mesh and rains against the sheet metal wall
of the tank at the bottom of which it flows out through a
special tap. Without doubt an extractor saves the
beekeeper time advantage and it is that which all
inventors have That is its main sought to improve on.
Some people also see in the use of the extractor a means
of re- using comb, or of saving work for the bees wax for
the beekeeper. And saving honey and wax for the
beekeeper.
Extraction
Equipments
 Smoker
Smoker is the most essential piece of equipment for any
one wanting to get involved with bees. Each person will
choose according to both what they prefer and the fuel
that they have available.
The Problems Of Bee Keeping
The Problems of beekeeping It cannot be denied that
beekeeping is a useful and pleasant activity. So why it is
not more developed? For bees are not in all the places
where there are flowers to be fertilized and nectar to be
gathered; or at least not enough of them. The first
problem is the bee’s sting. The complexity of both
beekeeping material and methods are another. Finally,
the main problem is that the benefit appears too small to
allow the practice of beekeeping. It is essential to know
about measurements of an economically profitable hive.
Conclusion
Agriculture Or Beekeeping is the art of managing bees
with the intention of getting the maximum return from
this work with the minimum of expenditure. Bees
produce swarms,queens,wax and honey. The Production
of wax has some value, but the value is diminished by the
cost of rendering.
The production of honey is the main
purpose of beekeeping, because this product is valuable
and because it can be weighed and priced. Honey is an
excellent food, a good remedy; the best of all
sweeteners. We can sell honey in many forms; as it is in
confectionary, in cakes and biscuits, in healthy and
pleasant drinks- mead, apple- less cider,grape- less
wines.It is also worth noting that beekeeping is a
fascinating activity and consequently rests both mind and
body.
Furthermore, beekeeping is a moral activity, as far
as it keeps one away from cafés and law places and puts
before the beekeeper an example of work, order, and
devotion to the common cause. More over beekeeping is
a pre eminently healthy and beneficial activity, because it
is most often done in the fresh air, in fine,sunny weather.
Acknowledgement

It is my great pleasure to acknowledge the contribution


of the individuals who co-operated me to complete this
project successfully.

Primarily, I would thank God for being able to complete


this project with success.Then i would like to thank my
principal Miss Jyotica Shafaat and my teacher Priya K,
whose valuable guidance has been the ones that helped
me patch this project and their guidance and instruction
has served the major contributor towards the completion
of the project.

Then I would like to thank my parents and friends who


helped me with their valuable suggestions which helped
me in various phases in the completion of the project.

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