ABSTRACT There is demand for power supply with higher quality by consumer around the world. Disturbances caused by inductive loading, local and remote faults, capacitor switching, poor power factor, lack of Var support, system voltage regulation, transformers and generators, AC motor drives can affect electricity usage causing tripping of sensitive equipment, resetting of control system, damage of power supplies for electronics equipment without backup supply facilities, problems with equipment

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ABSTRACT There is demand for power supply with higher quality by consumer around the world. Disturbances caused by inductive loading, local and remote faults, capacitor switching, poor power factor, lack of Var support, system voltage regulation, transformers and generators, AC motor drives can affect electricity usage causing tripping of sensitive equipment, resetting of control system, damage of power supplies for electronics equipment without backup supply facilities, problems with equipment

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Disturbances Using Wavelet Transform and

Halfing Algorithm

Oyedoja, Kayode Oyeniyi

Emmanuel Alayande College of Education, Oyo,

Oyo State, Nigeria

ABSTRACT

There is demand for power supply with higher quality by consumer around the world. Disturbances caused by

inductive loading, local and remote faults, capacitor switching, poor power factor, lack of Var support, system

voltage regulation, transformers and generators, AC motor drives can affect electricity usage causing tripping of

sensitive equipment, resetting of control system, damage of power supplies for electronics equipment without

backup supply facilities, problems with equipment that requires constant steady-state voltage, mal-operation of

sensitive equipment and relays and flicker in incandescent lamps. Thus there is need to identify different kinds of

disturbances and take steps to mitigate them. This paper present a power quality disturbance classification

technique based on wavelet transform and halfing algorithm. Wavelet transform is used to find the interval of the

disturbance and thus isolate the disturbance signal. The isolated signal is then transformed into a 2-dimensional

image, characteristic map, with halfing algorithm. The thus generated characteristic map clearly classifies and

identifies the type of disturbance and can be processed further with classification methods such as clustering for

automation purposes.

Keywords: Wavelet Transform, Halfing Algorithm, Power Quality, Power Disturbances

1. INTRODUCTION

Considerable changes in a business environment have increased the use of sensitive electronic components, computers,

programmable logic controllers, protection and relaying equipment which have increased the power consumptions [1],

[2]. Increasing consumer expectations with the requirement of green supply around the globe, where integration of

renewable energy sources to the distribution grid is the focus area of smart grid, electrical power systems are expected

to deliver power supply continuously at high quality to the consumers. Economy of any country suffers with huge losses

when there are voltage or current abnormalities present in the power delivery. Any deviation/disturbance manifested in

the voltage, current and frequency from the standard rating is treated as a power quality (PQ) problem that results in

failure or malfunctioning of electrical/electronic equipments [3]. Power quality disturbances increase the risk of black-

out; especially because of the failure of interdependencies between sub-networks and associated dynamical

propagations. To prevent these issues customers are willing to invest in the on-site equipments to ensure higher level of

quality supply such as uninterrupted power supply (UPS) and stabilizer even though these are very costly [4]. It shows

the importance of power quality towards economic distribution of the energy.

2. RELATED LITERATURE

Among various power quality assessment methods, one of the important methodologies is disturbance

classification. Wavelet transform can be used to detect power quality problems and identify their occurrences in

terms of time, generating data in both time and frequency domains via multi-resolution analysis. Fourier

transform can be used with wavelet transform to extract unique features that characteristic power quality events

from voltage or current wave forms [5], [11]. [6] Presented a novel power disturbance classifier using a rule

based method and a wavelet packet based hidden Markov model. The Markov model method classified six

types of actual recorded power quality disturbances. Classification of power quality disturbances based on

inductive learning by using decision trees has been presented in [7]. The wavelet transform has been utilized to

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produce representative feature vectors that can capture the unique and salient characteristics of each

disturbance. [8] Proposed a new fast processing method based on mathematical morphology theory combined

with threshold theory to denoise and locate the disturbances of the power quality signals corrupted by noise.

Wavelet transform in conjunction with Kalman filter can be used for online real-time detection and

classification of voltage events in power system [9]. Detection of electrical power quality disturbance by

wavelet analysis has been presented in [10]. Various kinds of power quality were reviewed with the goal of

detecting them using wavelet transform. [11] Propose a power quality disturbance classification techniques

based on the energy of the distorted signals. The multi-resolution analysis technique of DWT is employed on

the distorted signals to extract the energy distribution features at different levels of resolution. Research works

have been carried out in the area of classification of power quality events using the intelligent techniques

including rule based fuzzy expert system [12]. [13] Proposed the design of a tool to quantify power quality

parameters using wavelets and fuzzy set theory. Wavelet transform extract features of power quality events

while fuzzy classify events using these features. [14] Presented a wavelet based fuzzy reasoning approach to

power quality disturbance identification and recognition. To extract power quality disturbance features the

energy distribution of the signal at each wavelet decomposition level is considered. [15] Discussed a hybrid

technique for characterizing power quality disturbances based on discrete wavelet transform and Kalman filter for

extracting features from the captures distorted waveform. The fuzzy expert system has been used to characterize the

power quality events in the captured waveform. When traditional approaches have difficulty in achieving the desired

speed, accuracy and selectivity, artificial neural network can be used to solve power quality problems. It also plays a

vital role in classification of faults [16]. The concept of discrete wavelet transform for feature extraction of power

disturbance signal combined with artificial neural network acts as a powerful tool for detecting and classifying power

quality problems has been presented in [17], [18]. [19] Presented an effective wavelet based feature extraction method

for classification of power quality disturbances. Classification and detection of transient signals are widely applied in

many fields of power system. Wavelet transform and neural network can be used to classified power system transients

[20], [21]. The authors in [22] proposed a neural fuzzy technology based classifier for the recognition of power quality

disturbances. The classifier adopts neural networks in the architecture of frequency sensitive, competitive learning and

learning vector quantization. [23] Presented an effective wavelet based feature extraction method for classification of

power quality disturbance signals. The wavelet transform and multi-resolution analysis techniques are employed to

detect and locate disturbance [24]. In order to classify these disturbances an algorithm grouped them into classes by

applying artificial neural network resulting in a hybrid system. S-transform has been proposed in [25] to overcome the

drawbacks of the wavelet transform in power quality analysis. S-transform based neural network classifier can

effectively detect and classify different power quality events [26], [27].

A new approach is used in this paper to identify and classify power quality disturbances such as sag, swell,

harmonics, interruption etc. wavelet transform is used to identify the interval of disturbance and thus isolate the

disturbance signal. Dymel mother wavelet is used to decompose the signal up to 5th level to identify the interval of

disturbance. The isolated signal is then transformed to a characteristic map with halving algorithm to classify the type

of disturbances. The characteristics map presents a visual representation of the disturbance that makes it easy to

recognize its type.

3. TYPES OF PQ DISTURBANCES

PQ disturbances discussed in this work have been considered into four categories as follows:

Voltage sag is defined as the decrement of the nominal rms voltage between 0.1p.u to 0.9 p.u. The duration of the

voltage sag can be from 0.5 cycles to 1 minute. The occurrence of sag is due to Single Line to Ground (SLG) fault,

motor starting and over current presence. The general term for voltage sag is also known as the short duration decrease

of the voltage. If the decrease of the voltage is longer than 1-minute, under voltage term is used. Generally, voltage sag

is divided into three classes based on the duration of the occurrences. The classes are instantaneous sag, momentary sag

and temporary sag [28].

Voltage swell is defined as the increment of the rms voltage between 1.1 to 1.8p.u. The frequency of the voltage

swell occurrences is low compared to the voltage sag. Coincidently, the duration of voltage swell is the same as voltage

sag, which is between 0.5 cycles to 1 minute. The factor that caused voltage swell is the starting of large motor, SLG

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fault, light system loading and incorrect tap setting of the transformer. The swell that is caused by SLG occurs at

unfaulted phase. The swell is also divided into three main classes namely; instantaneous swell, momentary swell and

temporary swell. Like voltage sag, if the duration of increasing voltage exceed 1 minute, overvoltage term is preferable.

Installing fast acting tap changers in the system can mitigate voltage swell. The consequence of this event are over

heating of DC regulators and higher iron loss in most machines applications [28].

3.3 Interruption

Interruption is defined as the decrement in rms voltage less than 0.1p.u. Most of the interruption occurs after the

voltage sag. The interruption is resulted from the loose connection, severe fault and reclosing of circuit breaker. For the

reclosing of circuit breaker action, transient phenomena followed by interruption can be observed. The interruption

results in nuisance tripping and misoperation of the overall system. Interruptions show that the voltages are almost zero

and no more supply available into the system [29].

3.4 Harmonics

Harmonic distortion is the corruption of the fundamental sine wave at frequencies that are multiples of the

fundamental. Symptoms of harmonic problems include overheated transformers, neutral conductors, and other

electrical distribution equipment, as well as the tripping of circuit breakers and loss of synchronization on timing

circuit that are dependent upon a clean sine wave trigger at the zero crossover point.

Harmonic distortion has been a significant problem with IT equipment in the past, due to nature of switch-mode power

supplies (SMPS). These non-linear loads, and many other capacitive designs, instead of drawing current over each full

half cycle, “slip” power at each positive and negative peak of the voltage wave [30].

4. WAVELET TRANSFORM

A wavelet is a wave-like oscillation with amplitude that starts out at zero, increases, and then decreases back to

zero. It can typically be visualized as a “brief oscillation” like one might see recorded by a seismograph or heart

monitor. Wavelets can be combined, using a “shift, multiply and sum” technique called convolution, with portions of

an unknown signal to extract information from the unknown signal. A wavelet transform is the representation of a

function by wavelets. The wavelets are scaled and translated copies (known as “daughter wavelets”) of a finite-length or

fast-decaying oscillating waveform (known as the “mother wavelets”). WT have advantages over traditional Fourier

transforms for representing functions that have discontinuities and sharp peaks, and for accurately deconstructing and

reconstructing finite, non-periodic and/or non-stationary signals. WT is a transform which is capable of providing the

time and frequency information simultaneously, hence giving a time-frequency representation of the signal. They are

classified into discrete wavelet transforms (DWTs) and continuous wavelet transforms (CWTs). Both DWT and CWT

are continuous-time (analog) transforms. They can be used to represent continuous-time (analog) signals. CWTs

operate over every possible scale and translation whereas DWTs use a specific subset of scale and translation values or

representation grid [31].

4.1 Continuous Wavelet Transform

All the wavelet functions used in the transformation are derived from mother wavelet through translation (shifting)

and scaling (dilation or compression). The CWT is as expressed in Equation (1), where x (t) is the signal to be analyzed

and Ψ (t) is the mother wavelet or the basis function.

1 t

X WT t , s x (t ). ( t ) dt (1)

s s

The mother wavelet used to generate all the basic functions is designed based on some desired characteristics

associated with that function. The translation parameter relates to the location of the wavelet function as it is shifted

through the signal. Thus, it corresponds to the time information in the Wavelet Transform. The scale parameter is

defined as l1/fl, where f is the frequency of the information. Scaling either dilates (expands) or compresses a signal.

Large scales (low frequencies) dilate the signal and provide detailed information hidden in the signal, while small

scales (high frequencies) compress the signal and provide global information about the signal. Notice that the WT

merely performs the convolution operation of the signal and the basis function. The above analysis becomes very useful

as in most practical applications, high frequencies (low scales) do not last for a long duration, but instead, appear as

short bursts, while low frequencies (high scales) usually last for entire duration of the signals[31].

4.2 Discrete wavelet transform

The continuous wavelet transform was developed as alternative approaches to the short time Fourier transform to

overcome the resolution problem. The important point to note here is the fact that the computation is not a true

continuous wavelet. From the computation at finite number of location, it is only a discretized version of the continuous

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wavelet. Note, however, that this is not discrete wavelet transform (DWT). These days, computers are used to do almost

all computations. It is evident that neither the FT, nor STFT, nor the CWT can be practically computed by using

analytical equations, integrals, etc. It is therefore necessary to discretize the transforms. As the discretized CWT

enables the computation of the continuous wavelet transform by computers, it is not a true discrete transform. As a

matter of fact, the wavelet series is simply a sampled version of the CWT, and the information it provides is highly

redundant as far as the reconstruction of the signal is concerned. This redundancy, on the other hands, requires a

significant amount of computation time and resources. The discrete wavelet transform DWT provides sufficient

information both for analysis and the synthesis of the original signal, with a significant reduction in the computation

time. The DWT is considerably easier to implement when compared to the CWT.

Wavelet analysis deals with expansion of functions in term of a set of basic functions like Fourier analysis.

However, wavelet analysis expands functions not in terms of trigonometric polynomials but in terms of wavelets, which

are generated in the form of translations and dilations of a fixed function called mother wavelet. Comparing with FT,

wavelet can obtain both time and frequency information of signal, while only frequency information can be obtained by

Fourier transform [31,32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37].

The signal can be represented in terms of both the scaling and wavelet functions as follows:

j 1

f t c j (n)(t n) d j (n)212 (2 j t n) (2)

n n j 0

where cj is the j level scaling coefficient, dj is the j level wavelet coefficient, (t) is the scaling function, Ψ(t) is

wavelet function, J is the highest level of wavelet transform, and t is time.

Each level is created by scaling and translation operations in a special function called mother wavelet. A mother

wavelet is a function that oscillates, has finite energy and zero mean value. Wavelet theory is expressed by continuous

wavelet transformation as:

X ( t ) a , b ( t ) dt (3)

CWT x ( a , b ) W x ( a , b )

1/ 2

a

Equation (3) has great theoretical interest for the development and comprehension of its mathematical properties.

However, its discretization is necessary for practical applications. For discrete-time systems, the discretization process

leads the time discrete wavelet series as:

X ( t ) m , n ( t ) dt (4)

DWT x ( m , n )

t nb 0 a 0m

m /2 (5)

m ,n (t ) a 0 ( )

a 0m

where a = aom and b = nboaom.

DWT provides a time and frequency representation of the recorded power quality signals. This is a very attractive

feature in analyzing time series because time localization of spectral components can be obtained. Classical methods of

signal processing depend on an underlying notion of stationary, for which methods such as Fourier analysis are very

well adapted. In power quality researches, however, more properties other than stationary are required, and thus the

DWT application is more appropriate than Fourier transform. The goal of multi resolution analysis (MRA) is to

develop representation of a signal at various levels of resolution. MRA is composed of two filters in each level which

are low pass and high pas filter. MRA can detect, diagnose defects, and provide early warning of power quality

problems. Power quality problems are characterized by their maximum amplitudes, crest voltages, RMS, frequency,

statistics of wavelet coefficients, instantaneous voltage drops, number of notches, duration of transients, etc. These

characteristics are unique identifying features for different power quality problems and introduced signal processing

tools in power quality analysis [31] – [37].

5. IMPLEMENTATION AND RESULTS

Series of power signals with various forms of disturbances were collected and processed with wavelet transform

and halfing algorithm in matlab. The results for harmonics, sag, interruption and swell are shown in the following

figures. It is clear from the characterization map that the radius of the obtained characteristic ellipsis correlates with the

voltage disturbance factor. The first wavelet detail shows the interval, and thus the duration of the disturbances,

enabling us to extract the signal in that interval and process it with halfing algorithm to obtain the characterisation

map.

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The result shows that wavelet transform is very useful in identifying the interval of disturbance in power signals,

thus enabling the isolation of such disturbance for further processing. Much more, the new halfing algorithm

transforms the isolated disturbances into a 2-dimensional image, characteristic map that is then used to classify and

identify the type of disturbance.

The current work is limited to harmonics, sag, interruption and swell. Further work is needed to extend the results

to cover other forms of disturbances such as surge, transients, oscillatory, notch, spikes etc.

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