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~1echanical Engineering Series George A.

Costello '
i ;it
Introductory Attitude Dynamics -
F.P. Rimrott }

Balancing of Higb-8peed Machinery

Theory of Wire Rope
M .S.Darlow

Theory of Wire Rope, 2nd ed.

Second Edition
G.A. Costello

Theory of Vibration: An Introduction, 2nd ed.
A.A. Shabana With 49 Figures

Thωry of Vibration: Discrete and Continuous Systems, 2nd ed.

A. A. Shabana

Laser 岛1achining: Theory and Practice

G . Chryssolouris

Underconstrained Structural Systems

E.N. Kuznetsov

Principles of Heat Transfer in Porous Media, 2nd ed.

M . Kaviany

Mechatronics: Electromechanics and Contromechanics


Structural Analysis of Printed Circuit Board Systems

P. A. Engel

Kinematic and Dynamic Simulatioll of Multibody Systems:

The Real-Time Challenge
J. García de Jalón and E. Bayo

High Sensitivity Moiré:

Expeñmental Analysis for Mechanics al1d Materials
D. Post, B. Han, and P. Ifju
. Principles of Convec伽e Heat Transfer

每 Spri
, M. Kaviany
EE--· i
•. (continued ajier index)
‘. a an
Þ. \ 9<\ 立 D ? b 2.,..-

I Dι11 斗 3 (,
George A. Costello
Department ofTheoretical and Applied Mechanics
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Urbana, IL 61801 , USA

Series Editor
Frederick F. Ling
ErIlest F.Gloyna Reg;KIlts Chair in EIluneering
Department of Mechànical Engineering
The University ofTexas at Austin
To my wife , Jean , and our three daughters,
Austin, TX 78712-1063, USA Suzanne, Elizabeth, and Lisa

W iIl iam Howard Hart Professor Emeritus
Department of Mechanical Engineering,

Aeronautical Engineering and Mechanics
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Troy, NY 12180-3590, USA

UH 4
1l 仁'占

Li brary of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Costello, George A. (George Albert)
Theory ofwire rope / George A. Costello.-2nd ed.
p. cm.
Includes index.
ISBN 0-387-98202-7 (alk. paper)
1. Wire-rope. 2. Wire-rope-Testing. 1. Title.
TA492.W8C67 1997
67 1.8唱一dc21 97-9273

Printed on acid-free paper.

。 1997, 1990 Springer-Verlag New York, lnc.

Aqrights reserved.Thiswork mynot ktm归ted or copied in whole or in part without the
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ISBN 0-387-98202-7 Springer-Verlag New York Berlin Heidelberg SPIN 10571930


Preface to the Second Edition


I have added three new chapters to this second edition. Chapter 9 considers
the tension and compression of a cord, which does not possess a straight ∞nter
wire. The cord mechanics theory is applied to three filament cord. Chapter 10
inves咿 tes a t由heo
Goodman diagram. Chapter 11 discusses some of the approximations made
in the theory. lo
I would like to thank Dr. S.W. Burns, Dr. C.A. Shield, Dr. C.G. Kocher,
Dr. Z. Zhang, Dr. A. Paris, and Mr. J. M. Hardin for their help in this work.
I would like to also thank Ms. Peggy Olsen for her excellent typing of the l··4·1
second edition and a s严cial note of thanks to Dr. A. Prakash for interesting t
discussions on cords.

Urbana, lllinois George A. Costello


Preface to the. First Edition

This book , as the title indicates, is concemed with the various theories of wire
rope. During re臼nt years, considerable progress has been made in the devel-
opment of models used to predict the response of wire rope. Since there are
so many parameters that can vary in the construction of rope, such models
饵o be used to determine the effects of possible variations of the par缸neters
on the performan臼 ofa rope.
A list of the uses of wire ro oe.. is. almost endless. Recent research into the
possible use of wire strands as bràæs for teeth is one such example. Wire rope
is used to lower men underground as deep as 16,以)() ft in the gold mines of ·
South Africa. This is, of course, accomplished by more than one 1民 since the
始 weight of 仙opewould be 沼Uveinasi吨le lift. One 叫附叫 in a l
也aft that runs over several 毡蛊亟~ is 9.3 rni long and weighs 110 tn. Many a46
powerlines ωn be regarded 出 a strand consisting of alurninum wires twisted e-5
around a steel center wire. Wire strands are used as ∞rds to strengthen rubber il
tires. Wire rope is also being considered in superconductivity applications. 1
The basic components and construction of wire rope are treated in Chapter
1. Al though there are many different types of construction, a rope is generally -
regarded as having three components: (1) wires that form the strand, (2) a core, !
and (3) multiwire strands that are helically wrapped around the core.
Chapter 2 begins with an investigation ofthe kinematics of a thin wire. The
equations of equilibrium are then derived for a wire, and the relations between
tbe internalloads and deformation a-re presented. Tbe wires are then placed
together to form a strand, in Chapter 3, where consideration is given to the
static response of a strand su战jected to an axial tensile for臼 and an axial
twisting moment. Tbe bending of a strand is next investigated, and the results
are applied to a strand passing over a sheave. 'Expressions are presented for
the axial wire stresses in the above cases.
00臼 the static response of a strand is determined, tbe results are extended
to wire rope, in Chapter 4. An independent wire rope ∞re (IWRC) is consid-
ered first. and tben more complex cross sections are investigated. Expressions
are again presented for the stresses in the rope, and plots depicting the
maximum axial wire stresses in the individua1 wires are drawn.

XIl Preface to rhe First Edition

Chapter 5 presents some aspects of friction in rope. The effective length of

a fractured wire in a rope is discussed. This effective length is based on the
contact loads between the wires, Coulomb-type fri'ction, and an invocation of Contents
Saints-Venant's principle. Friction is also considered in the bending of a
simple strand under tension. i
In Chapter 6 some aspects of wire rope testing are considered. Strength test
results are greatly enhanced by the use of dimensional analysis when tbe size
effect is taken into a∞ount. Fatigue bebavior in bending, wben tbe size effect - lt-!
is accounted for, is also discussed.
The interesting phenomenon of birdcaging in wire rope is discussed in
Chapter 7. A bird cage is a term often used to describe the permanent appear- ;
ance of a wire rope forced into compression. Such damage, of course, renders let
tbe rope useless.

V-1- -l
Chapter 8 considers the effects of rotation on the load-carrying capacity of Series Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
白白白 to the Seèond Edition
a wire l'ope. If a rope is allowed to rotate, the failu l'e load ca~Jbe~considerably

Preface to the First Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
reduced, especially when the ends of the ro阳 are splice~. 敏〓
Most of the work presented in this book is bas函 on reseàrch that my
colleagues and 1 have performed for the last 16 years at the University of Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .
Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. 1 would like to thank espωially Professor J.W.
PhilJips for his many contributions to the work in the form of ideas,∞mputer 1.1 Basic Components ...... . . ...... . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 Identification and Construction
plots, drawings, and photographs. The graduate students involved in the
research were Dr. S.K. Sinha, Dr. G.J. Butson, Dr. S.A. Velinsky, Dr. C.H.
Chien , Dr. R. A. LeClair, Mr. T.A: Conway, and Mr. c.c. Lin. A special note
of thanks should go to Mr. E丑 Skinner and Mr. G.L. Anderson of the
〈ν Equilibrium of a Tbin Wire 4
Spokane Research Center, Bureau of Mines, for their support in much of
this work. 1 would also Jike to thank Ms. Jan Weaver for her outstanding

typíng. 2.1 Kinematics of a Thin Wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.2 Equations of Equilibrium ...... . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Urbana, Illinois 2.3 Relations Between Loads and Deformations . .
George A. Costello

\矿 Static Response of a Strand . . . .. .......... ... ... 11 I !l

'且‘且句 ,也饨 ,&吨 ,

唱A A丛
3.1 Geometry of a Strand

TAυ 角La 丛
3.2 Ax ia1 Response of a Simple Straight Strand
3.3 Stress Determination of a Simple Straight ~trand . .
3.4 Load DeformalÏon Relation for a Simple Straight Strand

&叫4 气,&句
3. 5 Pure Bending of a simple Straight Strand . .
3.6 Stress Determination of a Strand Subjected to Bending . .
3.7 Stress Determination of a Strand Passing over a Sheave .

3 句3 句3 句
3. 8 Mu1tilayered Strands . . . . . . . . . . . , . .
3.9 Electric Conductor Strand
3.1 0 Contact Stresses .... ... .... .... .. .

3.11 Outside Wires Contacting Each Other

3.12 Other Types of Strand Cross Sections .


直3时 Contents Contents 1、e

4 Static Response of a Wire Rope . . . . 44 J A Tbeory of Fatigue . . 106

4.1 Axial Response of an Independent Wire Rope Core . . 44 10.1 Introduction ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 106
4.2 Axial Response of a Wire Rope . 51 10.2 Theory . . . . . . . 107
4.3 Stresses in a Wire Rope Due to Axial Loading . . . . . 53
4.4 Stres邻s in a Wire Rope Due to Axial Loading and Bending . . . 54

也/ Remarks on Assumptions and Approximations . 110

飞/ Friction in Wire Rope . . 58 11.1 Introduction ...... ρ . 110

11.2 Assumptions and Approximations for a Straight Strand . 110
11.3 Assumptions and Approximations for a Wire Rope . 111
5.1 Friction in an Axially Loaded Strand 58
5.2 Frictional Effects in the Bending and Axial Loading of a Strand 58
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
5.3 Frictional Effects in Wire Rope . 67
5.4 Effective Length of a Broken Center Wire in a Simple Strand ... 67
5.5 Effi仅咒ive Length of a Broken Outer Wire in a Rope . 69 lndex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

6 Tes伽g of a Wire Rope .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

6.1 Axial Testing of a Wire Rope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

6.2 Effect of Rope Size on Rope Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
6.3 Effect of Rope Size on Fatigue Life ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

7 Bird饵g讪g in Wire Rope .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

7.1 Equations of Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

7.2 Solution of Equations . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . ... . .. 89
7.3 Numerical Results .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92

8 Rope Rotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

8.1 Rotation of a Wire Rope 94 l

8.2 Hand-Spliced Ropes . 96 l

9 Tension and Comprωsion of a Cord 98 - l

; J!

9.1 Tension(,∞ntactbetween 硝acent wires) . . . . 98 ·

9.2 Compression (no contact be阳'een adjacent wires) .. 102

1. 1 Basic Components
A prøperty common to strl;lctliral elements such as rópe, yarn, cord, cable,
and strand is their abjlity to ,re,sistr~latively large axiaJ loads in comparison
to bending and torsionalloads , Rope [1 , 2] ,. because ofthis property, is one
of the oldest tools that htimàJiS have used in their efforts to produ臼 a better
life for themselves. A copper cable fqu组ø in the ruins ofNemeveh near Babylon
indicates that wire rope was used as a 'structural eleinent in about 7∞ B.C.
Sayenga has written an excellent histotj of the American wire rope industry
The basic element of a wire J,'ope is, as the name implies, a single thin metallic
wire. The various components of a wire rope are shown in Figure 1. 1, where
the rope is constructed þy laying several stránds around a ∞re [1]. T'ne
core may be either wire rope, ~tural fibers , or polypropylene. The strands ||iJ
themselves have a center wire that is the axial member around which the
individual metallic wires are wrapped helically. It should be mentioned that
the major portion of the load acting on a rope is carried by the strands工坠
main purpose of the core is to provide proper support for the strands under
normal bending and loading conditions. Most of the ropes used in the United
States are designed with six strands , and there strands are comprised of any
number ofwires.

1.2 Identification and Construction

In addition to its components, wire rope is identified by .its cons飞lllction in
;-leis- the way its wires ha~e been laid to form the strands and in the way its strands
have been laid around the core. Figure 1.2 illustrates (a) a right regular 1町,
(b) a left regular 1町, (c) a right lang lay, (d) a left lang lay, and (e) right altemate
lay wire ropes. The.wires in the regular lay appear to line up with the axis of

• Numbers in brackets denote references lis始:d at the end of the book.

2 1 Introduction
1.2 Identification and Construction 3





!冬、己;二、二士今1 (仿

FIGURE 1.2. Typiω1 wire rope lays: (a) right regular I巧,(时 left regular lay, (c) right lang
lay, (d) left lang lay, (e) right alternate lay.

FIGURE 1.1. Wire rope. 6 翼 19 WARRINGTON ‘ 6 震 25

毡'‘ T 6 19 SEALE FW

FIGURE 1.3. Basic cross-sectional constructions.

the rope, whereas in the lang lay rope, the wires form an angle with the axis
ofthe rope.
:11! Figure 1.3 shows severaI basic cross-sectional constructions, around which
stranded wire ropes are made.Wire rope is generally ident111ed by a referen臼
to its number ofstrands, as well as to the number and geometric aηangement
of the wires in the strand.In addition, most of the rope produ臼d today is
pedonned, thatis, the strands arepermanentlyshaped, beforefabrication into
a rope, into the helical form they wilI assume in the rope. Fi伊res 1.2 and
1.3 are reprodu臼d from the Wire Rope U sers M anual [4] , an ex臼l1ent
publication produ臼d by the American Iron and Steel Institute and the
Wire Rope Technical Board.For a more complete description of wire rope
ideat1111cation and construction, the interested reader is referred to the above-
mentioned work.
2.1 Kinematics of a Thin Wire 3

2 X3

Equilibrium of a Thin Wire


2.1 Kinematics of a Thin Wire
Consider a curved thin wire th ;lt is initially unstressed and that has a uniform
cross section. A 'thin wire can be defined as a wire in which the .maximum z
characteristic length of the cross section , that is , its diameter or dÎ栖E 暨酬且如l,爪

s small ∞
compared tωo the length of 白 t he wire and the radius of Cl证 iEE
百 百
E 写I证ëõft由
E he XI i!
创I创 ;-
FIGURE 2. 1. Undeformed and deformed curved thin wire. ll-
Let t阳he cross section have twó -axe立 of symmetry as shown in Figure 2. 1.
The axes of symmetry will be the principal axes of tl}豆豆!,g~s_~号ction. Consider -
now a system ofaxes A, B, and C , where t与 ~l'~i 路路 o the centroidal X3
axis at point P .and the A- and B-axes are'f)é脱nõ.rufltff tollffi'e C-axis and are
in the direction ofthe prin句al axes of the ~roSs1~~~. t th~e~蜒且盟副械崎
line elements of the wire a , b. and c issue fiom P in the directions -of A ,b ;.and
Let ~he wires now be deformed. Th e three line elements a, b, and C of the B
wire , in general , do not remain perpendicular to each other. The elements a
and c in the deformed state do, however, form a plane. Let the z-axis be in the C
direction of the deförined element c and let the x-axis be peipendicular to the
z-axis and lie in the plane of the deformed elements a and c. L et the y-axis be
perpendicular to both x and z so that the x-, y-, and z-axes form a right-handed
orthogonal system. Hence, at each point along the deformed centroidal axis X2
of the thin wire , a set of x-, 沪, and z-axes exists. The system ofaxes constructed
as described above for any point on the deformed axis is called the principal
torsion-jlexure axes [5J.
~I~~~,tjhe origin P' of the frame of the X-, 沪, and z-axes move with a uDÌt
主监fr al ong the deformed centroidjl H is. This rotating frame will possess .i:tfl
an angular velocity vector, ãi. The plð'~tions or components of this- vector 飞
in the x, y, and z directions will be defmed as the components of the curvature X1
" , ,,' and the twist per uDÌt length τ. In the undeformed wire, the components
FIGURE 2.2. Undeformed helical spring with rectangular wire cross section.
of the angular velocity vector Wo (again moving with a unit velocity) projected
on the A-, B-, and C-axes will de fi.ne the undeformed components of curvature
"0'κ'0 and the twist per unit length τo.


6 2 Equilibrium of a Thin Wire 2.2 Equations of Equilibrium 7

Consider, fo'r example, the helical spring under no load with the rectangular T is the axial tension in the wire; G and G' are the components of the bending
wire cross section shown in Figure 2.2. Let the angle that a tangent to the moment on a wire cross section in the x and y directions, respectively; H is
centroidal axis of the spring makes with the X l' X2 plane be αo and let the the twisting moment in the wire; X , Y, and Z , are the components of the
radius of the wire helix be '0' The A-axis at any point a10ng the 臼ntroidal extema1 1ine load per unit length of the centerline of the wire in the x , y , and
axis passes through the fixed X 3 -axis, as shown. If the origin ofthe A-, B-, and z directions, respectively; K , K', and e are the components of the extema1
C-axes moves along the centroidal axis with a unit velocity, the angular moment per unit length of the centerline in the x , y , and z directions, respec-
velocity of the A, B , and C frame is tively; " and K are the components of curvature in the x and y directions,
respectively; and τis the twist per unit length of the wire, as defined previously.
7咽户os a
Wo =~二,.一一百= -一」瓦, (2.1) Figure 2.4 shows a length, ds, ofthe centerline ofthe thin wire looking down
4π'o/cosαo '0 the y-ax~,JI'hereas Figure 2.5 shows a similar view looking down the x -axis.
where k is a unit vector in the X 3 direction. Hence, For 9ru:1!Y、n1y, th也f~∞s are shown (no couples) in both figures. Table 2.1
ea- o- lists the direction cCf'sfrThs of the forces N + dN, N' + dN' , and T + dT with


ea 『
=- cos 2α
。 AV

the x-, y- , and z-axes, wlllch are correct to within second-degree terms.

"0 = 0;

于 L·
and nv -

2.2 Equations of Equilibrium
Consider a thin wire loaded with the for.臼s shown in Figure 2.3. Let s be the
arc length along the wire. 1n Figure 2.3, N and N' are the components of the
shearing force on a wire cross section in the x and y directions, respectively; N+dN

Y--fy T

\G GN\
/" FlGURE 2.4. Centerline of a thin wire looking down the y-axis (no couples).

\N /T

T z

X2 N'+dN'

X1 y

FIGURE 2.3. Loads acting on a thin wire. FIGURE 2.5. Centerline of a thin wire looking down the x-axis (no couples).
- l-

8 2 Eqliilibrium of a Thin Wire 2.2 Equations of Equilibrium 9 l

TABLE 2. 1. Direction cosines for the forces. x

Direction cosine N+dN N'+dN' T+dT

-τds ,,'ds
τds -κds
-IC'ds "ds G+dG

A summation of forces in the x direction yields

H z
Xds + dN + T ,,'ds - N'τds = 0, (2.3) i|

which becomes, upon dividing by ds , G

FrGURE 2.6. Centerline of a thin wire looking down the y-axis (no forces). - l!
一;--N'τ + T;κ'+x=o. (2.4)
Similarly, a summation of forces in the y and z directions yield

T,,+ Nτ+ y=O

'- . -N,,'+N'κ+z=O. 豆自 --
Figures 2.6 and 2.7 show the same element oflength ds with only the couples
acting on the element. The couples G + dG, G' + dG', and H + dH make the
same angles with respect to the X-, 沪, and z-axes as do the loads N + dN,
N' + dN' , and T + dT, and hence, Table 2.1 can again be used. A summation
of the moments about the x-axis yields
dG- G'τds + H ,,'ds - N'ds
+ Kds = 0, (2.7) FIGURE 2.7. Centerline of a thin wire looking down the x-axis (no forces).
which becomes, upon dividing by ds;
Equations (2.4) through (2.6) and (2.8) through (2.10) 手re the six differential
dG equations of equilibrium for the thin wire loaded as shown in Figure 2.3.
τ一 -G'τ +
H ,,' - N' +K = O. (2.8)

Similarly, a summation of moments about the y- and z-axes yield 2.3 Relations Between Loads and Deformations
ll 一;--
H" + Gτ +N +K'=O 华2l. The thin wire will now be assumed elastic with cross-sectional moments of
i--41 inertia of Ix and ιabout the x- and y-axes, respectively. Also, C wi1l deno怡
and the torsional rigidity. The expressions relating the changes in curvature and
twist per unit length to the intemalloads [5] are
' dH
as 一 G,,' + G'" + e = o. 也w G = Elx(κ 一 κ。); G'=Eι(κ, -1( 0) and H= C(τ 一 τ。), (2.1 1)
10 2 Equilibrium of a Thin Wire

where E is the modulus of elasticity of the wire material. If the wire cross
section is circular, with radius R, Eq. (2.1 1) becomes 3
d-4 _D4 Static Response of a Strand
G EK K πR 4E
V G'= 亏 E(IC' 一 ω and H= 一一-一 (τ-τ。),
4(1 + \1)
(2.1 2)
where \1 is Poisson's ratio for the wire material. The tension T in the wire is
given by the expression
T = AEç, (2 .1 3)
where A is the cross-sectional area of the wire and ç is the axial wire strain.
For a circular cross section, Eq. (2.1 3) becomes
T = πRZEç. (2.1 4)
3.1 Geometry of a Strand
The above equations will be used to generate the axial response of a simple
straight strand subjected to an axial force, F , and an axial twisting moment, Figure 3.1 shows the configuration and cross section of a loaded simple
Mt. A simple straight strand will be defined as a strand consisting of a straight straight strand. The strand consists initially of a straight center wire of radius,
center wire of wire radius, R l ' surrounded by m:z helical wires of wire raditis , Rl' surrounded by m:z helical wires (six wires are actually shown) of wire
Rz. radius, R :z. It will be assum时, for the present, that the ∞nter wire is of
sufficient s泣e to prevent the outer wires from touchiog each other. This is
generally the case, since it tends to minimize the effect of friction :n the bending
of a strand. Hence, the initial radius of the helix of an outside wire is given by
the expression
rz = ~1 + Rz. (3.1)
An expression will now be ~皿♂ö determine the minimum value of RI so
that the outside wires will not be touching each other.
Consider m helical wires, in a strand, that are just touchiog each other. Let
the radius of the hel ix, the wire radius, and the helix angle be denoted by r,
几 and α, respectively. Figure 3.2 shows a w 呐ire cαros岱s section i加
n a p

川 沁;沁均忌岛:辅础附:zrr
:3 俨俨

r 川胁阳川


r_1 + (ω= 1,
__ P \-. I q
(3 .2)
- \R

where (p, q) is any point on the ellipse. Now,

, ,
dq p sin :Z ~
(3 .3)
句 ~Rf 一(中r
AIso 叫 point 川, the slope is e川

12 3 Static Response of a Strand 3.1 Geometry of a Strand 13
. q






Section A-A P
门吁 -1J


;i ••





it--J 丁4d-MRW!mA川 j

l FIGURE 3. 1. Loaded simple straight strand.

R tbl

4 t

FIGURE 3.2. Wire αoss 部ction perpendi~ular to 缸is of strand.

Figure 3.2, Hence,

Figure 3.2 indicates that
、、 -EZFJ

... n = 川 (i - ;)


(3.4) (3.7)

t-- b1
' $1}

叫1 一夺1平y
叫 '


and, hence, since r = b1 + 仇,


i flils4

The solution for Pl yields

ti lief




r=R (3.8)

ll nv·
,/ p .5)
(1. + 咔-;) Equation (3.8)lyieldslthe radius of the wire helix in which the wires are just


touching each ot' 证:-Hence..in the simple straight strand,

除1 "

whereas Eq. (3.2) results in


(3.6) Rl (3列

ql = . -
尬2α+ 叫i -;)


'll iLYAPL

if the outside wires are not to touch each other.


14 3 Static Response of a Strand 3.2 Axial Response of a Simple Straight Strand 15

3.2 Axial Response of a Simple Straight Strand

Consider again the configuration and cross section of a loaded simple straight
strand shown in Figure 3. 1. The initial helix angleα2 of an outside wire is
detennined by the relation

tan 岛 =lL, (31时

,l1tT 2

where P2 is the initial pitch of an outside wire. The original components of the
curvature and the twist per unit length are [see Eq. (2勾]
2 噜 sin α2 COS 0;2
问 =0; K2=:"':"二一二 and 't 2= ~ ~ (3.1 1)
'2 '2
Let the wires in the strand now be deformed under the action of the axial
loads F , and M" where F is the total axial force and M , is the total axial
twisting moment. The outside wire, under the loading, will assume to be
defonned into a new helix, where.
Ja- /
- n--a-

-~ e-n


-vh AU -K AU

,. (3.12)
FIGURE 3.3. Loads acting on helical wire.
Thebarred symbols refer to tbe previously defined quantities in tbe deformed
state or final state.
It w讪 now be assumed that an outside wire is not subjected to extemal spring in which the value of α2 is generally small. ln the case of wire rope,
bendi吨 momen岱 per unit length, that is, K 2 = K ' 2 = 0, and ~911_t~l~~ 严ial however, the value of α2 is generally large and the change in α2' .ð.CX 2' where
wire tension T2 is constant a10ng the lengtb of tbe wire. Then bý vírlijéGT Eqs.
Aα2 =(%2 一 αz (3.19)
(2.1刀, (3.11) and (3.12), the equations of equilibrium [Eqs. (2.4) through (2.6)
and (2.8) through (2.10)] 忧心。me is small. Use will be made of this fact later on in simplifying tbe solution.
The axial strain εof a straight strand is defined as
一 N'2 'f2 + 巧言'2 +X2 = 0, (3.1 3)
几= 0, (3.14) (3.2叼

Z2 = 0, (3 .1 5)
where h is the original length of the strand and h is the final length of the
-G' 2'f2 + H 2 ï<! 2 - N' 2 = 0, (3.1 6) strand. Figure 3 .4, a developed view ofthe 臼nterline of an outer wire, indicates
N2 =0, (3.17) the length h and h. The rotational strain P2 of an outer wire will be defined as
。 ((J2 - ( 2)
• and fJ2 = '2 一 h 一, (3.21)
9 2 = O.) (3.1 8)
.句 where O2 and O2 are the initial and final angle, respectively, that an outer wire
The subscript 2 refers to the outside wires. Figure 3.3 shows the loads acting 二旦旦E立out in a plane perpendicular to tbe axis of the strand. The angle of
on an helical wire; the positive directions of the loads are shown. twist per unit lengtb,飞, of the strand is defined by the expression
Equations (3.13) and (3.16) 啤n be regarded as determining the values of X 2
and N' 2 required to hold an outside helical wire in equilibrium for given values (Oz - Oz)
h' (3.22)
of岛,巧, and T2 • lt should be noted that the equations of equi1ibrium and Eq. "S

(2.12) constitute a set of nonlinear equations and are valid for large deflections.
An analysis of the configuration shown in Figure 3.4 yields
Large deflections could 0∞ur, for instance, in theωse of a thin wire helical
16 3 Static Response of a Strand 3.2 Axial Response of a Simple Straight Strand 17

The final helical radius'2 becomes, due to Poisson's ratio eJIect,

马 = R 1 (1 - vç d + R 2 (1 - VÇ2)' (3.29)
where the contact deformation in the center and the outer wire is neglected.
Now T2 /"f2 can be expressed as
T2 R1 + R2 , . ..(R 1 çl + R 2ç2)
h h =1+v , (3.30)
马 R1 + R2 - v(R 1 çl + R 2ç2) T2
since Çl and Ç2 are small. Hence Eq. (3.28) becomes
Ç2 , . (R 1 Çl + R 2ç2)
ßz = T2 τ. = 一二一-
.åoc2 + v'-" _".
- T2 tan OC
(3. 31)
The change in curvature .å,ç 2 and the change in twist per unit length .åτ2 l
r2 82 can also be linearized. The following results:
Init iol Configurotion F inol Configurotion , -
cos-α句 cos-α ,
R句 !lx'噜=-一一一二一 一一一--
FIGURE 3.4. Developed view of outer wire centerline. ~_.- ~ '2/R2 r2/R 2
2 sin αz ∞sα (R 1 Çl + R 2ç2) cos 2α2
= - - --- _-;n ~ !lOC2 +v 寸寸百- (3.32)
~ / ^2 ~ r~^2
h- h .. . sin ã啕 and l
i -
ε= ~ = Çl = (1 + Ç2) 丁?千一 1 (3.23)
" ., 'u tA. 2
smα2 cosα2 smα2 cosαZ
and R 2 !l'2 = ---- .. ... , ~一国
r2/^2 T2/^2
+-m 1-n



sin 2α 2) , α2 cosαz


z 'v ., (1 - 2 (R 1 çl+ -R- 2ç2)sin

+. y'--



muw =----, n 必 ð. 1X 2 .l.'i'.I...~ _ I ~

• (3.33)
T2I K2 T2 r2/^z
where ç1 is the axial strain in.the center wire (ç 1 = 吟, and Çz is the axial strain The following can now be written down for an o utside wire:
Inan outer wlre.
Le t 主=主 R~!l,,'
ER~ - '4 ..z....'" 2'

l.åoc 21= 1百2 一 α2 1 << 1, (3.25)

主主n: R~ .åτ, . (3.35)
which is valid for most metallic strands. Hence, sin ã 2 can bé expressed as ER~ 4(1 + v)--" μ
sin ã 2 = sin(α2 + .åo(2) = sin α2+ !lα2 COSα2' (3.26) N'2 H 2 coszα z G'z Sm α2 cosαz
where higher-ordered terms are neglected. Equation (3.23) can now be wriUen ERi - ER~ T2 /R2 ER~ T2 /R2 '
T2 •
ERi = "<'2'
Çl = Ç2 + 主~=e, lanα2
where Çl and Ç2 are assumed small. Eqüation (3.24), after a similar procedure, X2 注~2 sin CX2 ∞sα2 T2 cos 2αz
一一一 - 一-
becomes ER2 - ER~
r2/R 2 ERi r2/R 2 .

品专[挝- .åCX2] 一中
Equations (3.3 6) and (3 .3 8) are obtained from th而 equations of equilibrium
[Eqs. (3. 16) and (3.1 3日 , where it assumed that displacements are small.
18 3 Static Response of a Strand 3.2 Axial Response of a Simple Straight Strand 19

A projection of the forces, acting on the outside wires, in the axial direction sm α2 COSα2 = 0.1 2923, and r 2 /R2 = 2.01980. The outside wires should be
of the strand yields checked to determine if they are touching each other. Since there are six
outsdide wires, Eq. (3.9) yields
F, I T.. N'. I
-一二.,, =m. 1 一二..smα.+-=一毛 cosα.
ER~ "1 ERi ---- --" . ER~ --- -"J'1. (3.39)
• I ππI
tan"l -::-一 -一 l
where F2 is the total axial force in the strand acting on the m2 outer wires. R2 1 + ---'-\mz L = 0.2033 in. < 0.204 in. = R 1 + 凡,
The total axial twisting moment M2 acting on the outside wires is sm-α2

M. I H.. G飞 and so the outside wires do not touch each other.

-乓士 =m. 1 一_-. smα .+-=一毛 cosα ,
ER~ -" 1ER~ ---- --.. . ER~" - ... N ow let the angle of twist per unit length of the strand 飞= 0 (the strand is
not a lI owed to rota时 and let Çl =ε=0.∞3. Equations (3.27) and (3.31)
T. r. N'. r.. I
+-=一::""-7- COSα,一一一士 -=-smα ,
ERi R 2 - -- - . " ER~ R 2 --- --.. J1 (3.40) become

The axial force F1 and the axial twisting moment M 1 acting on the center wire O.∞3 = Ç2" +兰兰L
. 7.60661
are given by the expressions
否?=πÇ1 (3.4 1)
Ç2 • . ^ "" (0.1 03 x 0.003 + 0.1 01Ç2)
0= 一 ..~一-ll.α . +' 0.25
7.60667 ~-Z ~ ._~ 0.204 x 7.60667 '
which have the solution Ç2 = O.∞2936 and ll.问 =0.α)()48 359. The values of
M, π
曰:=布百}AIτs (3.42) R 2 ð..K' 2 and R 2 ll.τ2 can be computed from Eqs. (3.32) and (3.33). The folIowing
The total axial force F and the tota1 axial twisting moment M r acting on 2 x 0.1 2923 x 0.0∞48359
the stand can be written as R. ll. IC'. = 一
+ 凡 (3.43)
!!l and
+0.25{O.l 03 x O.∞3 + 0.1 01 x O.∞2963) x 0.016989
0.204 x 2.0198
M r = M 1 +M2 . (3.44) = -0.α)()O5564

The contact force per unit length X 2 becomes an intemal force as far as the and
strand is concemed. Once this force is known, an estimate can be made of the
(1 一 2 x 0.98301) x O.仪沁48359
contact stresses [6]. R咱ll.t,
~_ . ..
= 2.01980
rThe above equations will be used in the example worked out below.
'iJxampl e 3.1. Consider a simple straight strand with R 1 = 0.1 03 in., R 2 = +0.25{0.103 x O.∞3 + 0.1 01 x O.∞2936) x 0.12923
0.101 血, P2 = 9.75 in., E = 28,5∞,α)() psi , v = 0.25, and m2 = 6. Equation 0.204 x 2.0198
(3.1) yields (assuming that the outside wires are not touching each other) = -0.仪刀1838
r2 = 0.1 03 + 0.1 01 = 0.204 in.
are obtained. Eqs. (3 .3 4) through (3.44) yield
The helix angleα2 is determined by Eq. (3 .1 0); hen白, l

tan IX ," = .,,-一--一= 7.60667.
- 0删437队,
2霄 x 0.204 -- -- - ,
and, therefore, α2 = 82.51060 • The following values can now be written down: 生=
sin α2 = 0.99147 , sin 2α 2 = 0.98301 , cosα2 = 0.13034, cos 2α 2 = 0.016989,
20 3 Static Response of a Strand 3.3 Stress Determination of a Simple Straight Strand 21

坐.. = 0.000∞1825.
ER~ - - - - - - - -,
The outside wires are subjected to axial, bending, and torsionalloadings in
addition to the shearing load N' 2' The stresses caused by the shearing force
N' 2 are in general very small and will be neglected. The axial stress caused by
五τ= O.∞922505. the load 72 is
X咱 r U2 = -:-;:;宝, (3.4 7)
一二-= -0.∞0077474.
ER 2
whereas the maximum normal stress due to the bending moment G' 2 is
主τ= 0.054879.
G' σ2 = nRr (3 .48)

生= 0.013828.
ER~- ------, The maximum shearing stress on an outside wire due to the twisting moment
H 2 is
主τ=0.∞942478. Hσ
(3 .49)
ERt 2= 夜1·

M1 ^ Example 3.2. Consider the strand used in Example 3,1. Let the strand be
subjected to an axialload of 18,8051b and not allowed to rotate ('r. = 0). The
results of Example 3. 1 and Eqs. (3.45) through (3.49) yield
where F = 2850 + 15,955 = 18,805 lb and M , = 0 + 406 = 406 in. lb.
- 2850
It is interesting to note that the inside and outside wires 臼rry 15.2% and σ =一一一-寸= 85 ,500 psi
-- π(0.1 03)~
- 84.8% of the total axial load. Also, since the above equations are linear, a
‘ reduction or increase in the axial strain, with τ. = 0, would correspond to a Mσ1 = 0 psi
ll lp
similar decrease or increase in the loads. For example, with ε= 0.0015 and 2682
飞= 0, the total axial force would be 9,4∞ lb and the total axial moment would =一一寸= 83 ,700 psi
π飞0.1 01)~ ll
be 203 in lb.
4 x 1.283
G'σ2 = -宗丁玄宗i- = 1,580 psi
π(0.1 0 1)3
3.3 Stress Determination of a Simple Straight Strand and
2 x 3.391 i
σ =一-一一一τ= 2,090 psi. l
In the previous section, the loads acting on the individual wires for the case π(0.101)~ - --l
t i
of an axially loaded simple straight strand were determined. In this section The shearing force N' 2 is 0.53 lb. The maximum norm注1 tensile stress acting f--
the stresses caused by these loads are investigated. It will be assumed , at this on an outer W1re IS
point, that the wires are initially stress free. Ill

In the case of the center wire, the axial wire stress is Tσ2 + G'σ2 = 83,7∞+ 1,580 = 85,280 psi,

F. and this stress occurs on the inside of an outer wire (due to the sign of G'2)' 4
Fσ1 = --;;亨, (3.45)
π~í It should be noted that the center wire sufIers a slightly greater stress than l;I

whereas the maximum shearing stress on the cross section is the outer wire. Again, the remark can be made that, an increase or a decrease ii
in the axial load (with 飞= 0) would cause a similar increase or decrease in
2M1 the stresses. The contact stresses are, of course, an exception to this, sin∞ they
M"'1 一一­
do not depend linearly on the loads. Contact stresses will be considered later.

22 3 Static Response of a Strand 3.4 Load Deformation Relation for a Simple Straight Strand 23

3.4 Load Deformation Relation for a Simple Straight = _ __ _ _ __18.805

___ ___ _ ___ = 0.975
Strand 1 - 0.2256 x -28,5∞」∞o x O.∞3

In general, the total axial force F and the total axial twisting moment M acting
on a strand can be expressed as 406
3= "'I n r
28,5∞,仅泊 X
rv'\ ^^^ ,n. ",n. r'\3 ..
(0.305)3 X ^
r.f\"'I = 0.167.
主=巳 e+ω (3.50)
00W1叫 = ε =0 叫 =0 ∞3问ua叫
Aιf 二

0=0.∞1+ 主CX 2
]!;κ~ - ~
(3.51) 7.6067
and, hence .1CX2 =一 O.∞76067. Equation (3 .3 1) yields
O.∞ 1 . ^ ^^~/^ '~ . 0.25(0.1 01 x 0.001)
A= :EπR;. (3 .5 2) 0.204τ= 一一一一
7.6067 +. 0.∞76067
_.__ . - - _. .+ 0.204 x 7.6067
A is the total metallic area of the strand, RI is the radius of an individual wire,
C1 , ..., C4 are constants, which can be determined analytically, R is the radius and, therefore, τ. = 0.038012, with ß = 0.305 x 0.038012 = 0.011593. Equa-
of the strand, εis the axial strain, and ß is the rotational strain of the strand tions (3.32) through (3.44) result in
defined by the equation 2 x 0.1 2923 x O.∞76067
R 情 .1K' ~ = 2.01980
ß=R飞, (3.53)
where τ. is the angle of twist per unit length of the strand. +025(0.101 × 0.∞1) x 0.016989
As mentioned previously, the value ofthe constants in Eqs. (3.50) and (3 .51) 0.204 x 2.1 980 - . _.. -,

can be determined anal严ically for a given strand. Letting, for example, ß =

(1 - 2 x 0.98301) x O.∞76067
Rτ. = 0 and ε= Çl equals a given value, Eqs. (3 .43) and (3.44) can be used to R 2 .1τ.=
determine F and M,. Hence, with F, 间, ε, and ß known , Eqs. (3 .50) and (3.51) 2.01980
yield C1 and C3. Now, let ε = 0 and ß equals a given value. Again, F and M , + 025(0.10l x 0.∞1) x 0 .1 29230
can be calculated and Eqs. (3.50) and (3.51) will yield C2 and C4 • =0.∞36460.
0.204 x 2.01980
It is in旦旦且且 2户t this point to define the effective modulus Ee of a strand
by the relation确存?'(饲 主. =0刷7653.
Ee = C1 E , (3.54)
which is the modulus of the strand when Rτ. = ß = 0, that is, 主 =0- ∞22908.
- --. ._ ,
ER ~

e EPUW e'e

A- (3.55)
五 =一 O.附2970.
Example 3.3. Consider again the strand used in Examples 3.1 and 3.2. The
metallic area is 主 =0- ∞31416.
ER~ - . - - - -,
A = π(0.103)2 + 6 x π(0.101)2 = 0.2256 in. 2

and 王三 = -0.α)()()2832.
ER 2
R = 0.1 03 + 2 x 0.1 01 = 0.305 in.
Equations (3.50) and (3.51) and the results of Example 3.1 yield 主"
= 0.018665.

, 1 .1
24 3 Static Response of a Strand 3.5 Pure Bending of a Simple Straight Strand 25

旦己= 0.019546.
ER~ l沪、
F1 ^

=0 ∞246.'
where F = 5,426 lb and M, = 76.6
Equations (3.50) and (3.51) yield
+ 57 3. 9 = 650.5 in. lb.
C.• = 5426
- ._- = 0.0728
J. 0.2256 x 坷,5∞,α)() x 0.011593
= 0.0694.
马 2ω∞,0∞ x (ωow x 0.011593

Therefore, Eqs. (3. 50) and (3 .5 1) become, for the given strand, FIGURE 3.5. He!iω1 spring bent by ∞uple.

0.975ε + 0.0728ß The equations of equilibrium Eqs. {2.4) through (2.6) and (2.8) through (2.1 0)
dG 伞
fi=0167川 0.0694ß 忑 -G'τ1 + H"I' = 0, (3.58)
ER 3
dG' i
It should be noted that the constants C 1 , C2, C3 , and C4 are independent of

EF-HKI+Gτ1 = 0, (3.59)

the modulus of elasticity, E and depend only on 11.2, R2/Rl' and Y.

dH -i
3.5 Pure Bending of a Simple Straight Strand EJ-GKU+G'κ1 = 0, (3.60)

Consider an initially straight helical spring with a heJix angle, α, and let the where "1' 叫" and 't 1 are the fmal (deformed) curvat1ires and twist per unit
spring be subjected to a bending moment, m. , which is applied about an axis
length. Then by virtue ofEqs. (2.12) and (3.56), the equilibrium equations [Eqs.
perpendicular to the original axis of the spring. Figure 3.5 shows such a spring. (3 .5 8) through (3.60)] can be written as
Since the initial configuration of the wire is a helical spring, the initial r dG 4 sin αCOS !1. cos2α
_-._ vG'H- 一- -- --~斗 G'+ 二-二 H=O. @
curvatures and twist per unit length are 一一一
ds 一
πR 4E - - -- r -. r -- -, (3.61) 'lIa
K=O; K' 一 坐兰 and
dG' 4 ___ sin αcosα
, (3. 56)
一一+一_A_ vGH + 一一一一":::'_::_G=O.
ds πκ'IZr' 6 (3.62)

where r is the initial radius of the helix and, sinæ the spring is subjected to a

and l
pure bending moment only, the following results:
叭 (3.63) l'
X=Y=Z =K =r=8 =N =ff =T=Q (3. 57)
26 3 Static Response of a Strand 3.5 Pure Bending of a Simple Straight Strand 27

Equations (3.61) through (3.63) constitute a nonlinear system of first-order When the work done by the bending moment m. is equated to the strain
ordinary difTerential equations thatωn be integrated numerically (Euler's energy, the result is
method or Picard's method, for example) under suitable initial conditions. If
these three equations are, respectively, multiplied by G, G', and H and the
resulting equations are added, the following results:
f MZl .
m.(Ø)dØ = 一」一

1d _ _ ‘ A differentiation of Eq. (3.71) yields

- 一 (G 2 + G'2 + H 2) = 0, (3.64)
2 ds m-4FTtJ drns
一 (3 .7勾
which states that the magnitude of the resultin 哩。问ept on 平ny cross section s 一 πR 4 E dØ '

i~ constant (independent of s). 千辛-~脚却伽制 whereas an integration of Eq. (3.72) yields (sin四 m.(O) = 0)
Once Eqs. (3. 61) through (3.6'3) are integrated numerically for G, G', and H,
Eq. (2.1 2) can be used to calculate the final curvature and twist. When the πER 4
m. =-一-(/) (3.73)
curvatures and twist are lënown, the deformation of the centerline of the • 41 '1'

deformed wire is completely determined apart from its position in space [7]. Now let
In most engine难ring problems, however, an exact determination of the
centerline of the deformed wire is not needed. A more practical approach h= Isinα, (3.74)
would be to assume that, under the action of a pure bending moment,叫, where h is the length ofthe spring. Then Eq (3.73) becomes
applied pe叩endicular to the original axis ofthe helix, the spring behaves like a 、
a beam, as shown in Figure 3. 1. The initially straight axis of the spring then 甜1I1 ~ 4m. ø 1
deforms into a circle of radius p with the angle øshown. 4揭叫K BFlfrz (3.75)
Consider, for example, the case of v = O. Equations (3.61) through (3.63) 1 --fi
The above equation is valid for v = O. :-
become linear and therefore have the solution
When the exact solution for v = 0 is used in Picard's method to obtain a
G= C1 ∞ s ks + C2 sin ks (3.65) solution when v =F 0 [句, the following results: l-

C 1 ∞sα sinks 一 C2 cosα cosks + C3 !一2 + vcos2d fm-

H= (3.66)
(3. 76)
and p -L 2sinα l 究 R E' 4 I
Equation (3.76) is valid for large changes iÍl curvature. It should be noted that
G' = -C1 sinαsin ks + C2sinαcosks + . ~一=' C3 , SIOα
(3.67) asαapproaches 900 , the curvature 1/p approaches that of a straight beam.
onsider now a simple straight strand bent into a circle of radius, ρ, bya
where ling moment, Mb' In this case, friction will be neglected and the bending ~ ~ ì
less A * of the stra胁t strand will be approximated by the bending stifTnes}- !i监 l
cOS (1.
一一 (3.68) lch wire in the strand, that is, the strand is treated as an assemblages龟f 7'l飞 1
:al springs [9]. Recent experimenta1 investigation~ tend to ∞由rm this I -
Let G = m. , H = 0, G' = 0 at s = O. This yields .白lis approximation is felt to be a reasonable one for a simple strand, ~
~ the outside wire唱 are not touching each other; as a resul t, when the strand - ,
G = m.cosks; H = m.cosαsinks; G' = -m.sinαsinks. (3.69) 1
is bent, the outside wires act independently of each other. Since friction is ~ 1
The strain energy in the spring U can be written [5J as neglected, the center wire acts independently of the outer wires. In Chapter 5,
it will be noted that friction plays a sma11 role in dete口nining the bending
1 î ' rπR 4 E
=~ I 1 一一 ("1 - ,,)2 + 一一 (叭-
πR 4 E . . ... 4
1tR E ,
,, )2 + ..-: - (r 1
..l stiffness of a simple strand.
2 J0 L 4 ,- > 4 斗」
一 τ)2 Ids
On the b也sis of the previous discussion, the following e汉pression can be
1 î' 4 _ _. _,. _.._. 2 尸.. 2m;1 wntten:
= ~I 一=, ~[G2 + G'川的 ds= 一一 |mds=-4 (3.70)
2 JoπR E
4 πR 4 E Jo ....πR吧' MπE I 2mzsinα2 A*
= D4 , D4 11 (3. 77) is
1i where 1is the length of the wire.
4' [(2 + v ∞S2 (1.2) -"'2 T -"'1
Jp = p '
28 3 Static Response of a Strand 3.6 Stress Determination of a Strand Su同ected to Bending 29


where Mb is the total bending moment applied to the strand, p is the radius

of curvature of the strand, and A * is the bending sti lTness, of the simple strand,
defined by the equation
. - 2ρ(2 + vcos 2α 2)'
+Rt I

A* == 1tEI ~m2 ~ R~ (3.78)
4 1(2 + vcos~α2) ‘ 'J Gσ2 and G' σ2 are the maximum normal bending stresses on a given cross
section due to the bending moments G2 and G马 ' Hσ2 is the maximum shear
Example 3.4. Consider again the strand used in Example 3.1. The bending
stress on a given cross section due to the twisting moment H 2 • The maximum
sti lTness of this strand is given by Eq. (3.78) and, hence,
normal stress on the cross section m吨。∞urs at s = 0, s ==π(r2/cos a( 2 ), ...,
πx 28,5∞,侧 r6 x 2 x 0.99147 X (0.1 01)4 . '^' ",,,41 and, therefore,
|+(0.103Y l ~ . 4陀 、RE, S/Î邮 ii1
4 I (2 + 0.25 x 0.016989) .,~ ' J
F"~ 以包 m 0"2 == 1tR~':: î - (3.84)
== 16,350 lb in. 2.
The center wire is also subjected to pure bending and, therefore, the maximum
Let , for example, ρ=8 仇. In this case, Eq. (3.76) yields bending stress in the center wire m 们 is

πx 28,500,则 x 2 x 0.99147 X (0 .1 01)4 ER ,

= 24.0 in. lb. mσ1==-;;- ~ (3.85)
m. 一 4(2 + 0.25 x 0.016989) x 8 x 12
The maximum bending stress wil1 always occur in the center wire for two
and Eq. (3. 77) yields
reasons: (1) the center wire has a larger wire radius than the outside wire, that
16.3 50 is R 1 > R2 and (2) the helix angleα2 tends to decrease the stiffness of an outside
Mb = 一二一一= 170.3 in. lb.
8 x 12 wire, compared with a straight wire. For example, a helical spring has a smaller
bending stiffness, compared with a straight wire of the same wire diameter.
Notice the small elTect of V on the value of the bending stiffness A*.
Example 3.5. Consider the strand used in Example 3.4, where ρ= 8 f1. In
Example 3.4, the moment m. == 24.∞ in. lb, and, hence, Eq. (3.84) yields
3.6 Stress Determination of a Strand Subjected to 4 x 24.∞
Bending σ2= 一一一一一寸= 29,6~0 psi.
πx 0.10W
Equation (3.69) determines G 2 , 叭 , and 儿, the components of the bending The maximum bending stress in the ωnter wire is given by Eq. (3.85), where
moment m. in the outer wires for the case of V = O. Based on the previous 28.5∞.0∞ x 0.103
equations, this expression is felt to be a good approximation for the case of m σ= 8
0 ~xl
. . ' ':i = 30,580 psi.
V ''
1 -
v "# 0 and therefore will be used to determine the stresses in a outer wire in a
simple strand subjected to bending. Hence, The maximum shearing stress, as determined by Eq. (3:81), yields

s-32 2x 24.00 x 0.13034




G (3.79)


'^ ,^,, 3 == 1,930 psi.


= π(0.1 01)3

s-32 n n 'k'&eJ"



G (3.80)


3.7 Stress DetermÏnation of a Strand Passing over a

and Sheave

Oeaa''-mb n




H 2 {3.81) Since a strand wrapped around a sheave is generally restrained against rota-

tion ('t. = 0), an axial twisting moment is developed in the strand along with
where the tension and torsion. Figure 3.6 shows an equilibrium configuration of a
30 3 Static Response of a Strand 3.7 Stress Detennination of a Strand Passing over a Sheave 31

LetF = 10,仅)() lb,飞= O, and ρ= 8 ft. From the results ofExample 3.1, where
for F = 18,8051b and 飞= 0, the moment M , = 406 in. lb, the moment iti、this
case IS
M.• = 406 x 一-,
.__. -一= 216
18,805 in . 屿,

since, as mentioned previously, the problem is a linear one. Equations (3.86)

and (3.87) result in
p = ~ -' 一一= 104.21b/in.
8 x 12
q= 一一~.... = 2.25 in. lb/in
FIGURE 3.6. Simple strand wrapped around a sheave. 8 x 12
The stresses in an outer wire will be determined at the points a, b, c, and d
on a cross section for various values of s, the arc length along the wire.
strand where the loads acting on any cross section are F , M" and Mb' which Figure 3.7 shows the points a, b, c, and d of an outer wire in the unloaded
are the axial load, the axial twisting moment, and the bending moment, configuration. These points are on the boundary with point a in contact with
respectively. The loads p and q are the line load per unit length and the twisting the center wire. Point a is in the positive direction of the A-axis, whereas point
couple per uDÎt length, respectively, applied to the strand by the sheave in b is in the positive direction of the B-axis. Point c is opposite to point a,
order to maintain equi1ibrium of the strand. Thus, the equations of equilib- whereas point d is opposite to point b. The stresses will be determined at these
rium of the strand yield points for s = 0, s = π几/(2cosα2), s = πr2/cos 句 , and s = 3πr2/(2 ∞sα2}'
Notice that the above values of s correspond to () = 0, () =π/2, () =π,
F=pp (3.8 6) and () = 3π/2, respectively.
, Mz=qp-osη
It sho u1d be noted that the line load per unit length acting on the strand is
along the ∞nterline of the strand.
It wi1l now be assumed that the stresses due to the bending and axialloads
are additive [9]. For example, if a thin elastic rod is loaded axially and bent B
over a sheave, the stresses are determined by adding the axial tension stresses
to the stresses determined by pure bending. This assumption neg1ects the
efTects offriction and also the efTects of the radial stresses. It should be noted
that there i~a transition r~gionlin the strand between the straight portion and
the portion"Wtth the radiuSõrêurvatureρ. In this region , the radialloads are
not as large as those in the strand on the sheave. This tends to reduce the
efTects of friction by possibly alI owing one wire to move relative to another.
In the 饵se of a simple strand bent over a sheave, the stresses, as mentioned
previously, will be obtained by a superposition of the stresses determined in
Sections 3.3 and 3.6. An illustrative example is worked out below.
Example 3.6. Consider the simple straight strand used in Example 3.1, where
R 1 = 0.103 in.,几= 0.101 in, P2 = 9.75 in. , E = 28,5∞,α)() psi, and v = 0.25. FIGURE 3.7. Cross section of an outer wire.
32 3 Static Response of a Strand 3.7 Stress Determination of a Strand Passing over a Sheave 33

For the axial case and for any value of s the stresses are at TABLE 3.1. Total normal stress in an outer wire
(F = 10,α)() Ib,飞 = O, p = 8 仇, Rl = 0.103 in. ,
pomt a, σ= (83 ,700 + 1,580) x : ~'~一;. = 45 ,350 psi; R 2 = 0.101 in. , and P2 = 9.75 in.)
s 。 a b c d
point b, σ= 83,7∞×一二一一= 44,510 psi; 0 。 45,350 14,850 43,670 74,170
18,805 2.46 πρ 15,940 44,510 73,080 45,510
4.92 π 45,350 74,170 43,670 14,850
pomt c, σ= (83 ,700 - 1,580) x 一二一一 = 43,670 psi; 7.38 3πρ 74,7ω 44,510 14,2ω 44,510
and at
point b, σ= 0 psi;
point d, σ= 83,7∞×一二一一 = 44,510 psi. pomt c, σ= -29,410 psi;
and at
For pure bending and for s = 0 at
point d, σ= Opsi.
point a, σ= Opsi;
4x 24 Table 3.1 shows the total normal stress in an outer wire at the points a, b,
point b, σ= - ' ^ ~~"C\ -29,660 psi; c, and d for the indicated values of S or ().
pomt c, σ = 0 psi; The maximum normal stress in the center wire is
and at 10.000 2:8.5∞.α)() x 0.103
σ1 = 85 ,5∞ x 一主一一 + --'-- -~-- - . .~ _._-- = 7仇045 psi,
point d, σ= 29,660 psi. 18,805 . 8 x 12 l
For pure bending and for s = π'2/(2 cosα2) at which again is greater than the maximum tensile stress in an outer wire. The
4x 24 x 0.99147 maximum shearing stress in an outer wire is
point a, σ= 主= -29,410 psi;
πx (0.10 1)3 10αm
σ2=2090x 一二一一 + 1,930 = 3,040 psi. -

point b , σ= Opsi; 18,805

poínt c, σ= 29,410 psi;

and at 3.8 Multilayered Strands
point d, σ= 0 psi. The analysis presented in the previous sections can be extended to multi-
F or pure bending and for s = π'2/COSα2 at . layered strands. Consider the addition of another lay'e r (layer 3) of wires to
the simple strand shown in Figure 3.1, where the lay of the wires in layer 3 is
point a , σ= Opsi; opposite to the lay of the wires in layer 2 (1%3 > 900 ) . This is done to reduce
point b , σ= 29,660 psi; the axial twisting moment in the strand.
An extension of the previous analysis results in the following equations [11]:
pomt c, σ= Opsi;
'3 = R 1 + 2R 2 + R3' (3.88)
and at +
R 一

R 一


= + "' 2



, -

point d, σ= - 29,660 psi. -3 (3.89)

F or pure bending and for s = 3π'2/(2 cosα2) at
pomta, σ= 29,410 psi;
Çl =ι+ 坐L, lanα3
34 3 Static Response of a Strand 3.8 Multilayered Strands 35

(R 1 çl + 2R 2ç2 + R3ç3) Also 0( 2 = 82.51 0 and α3 = 104.490 ; the metallic area A is given by
ß3 = 叭=-一- ðCX3
tanα3 ~
+V r3 tan α3
A= π[(0.103)2 +6 x (0.101)2 + 12 X (0.096)2] = 0.573 in.2
sα3 ... ~~ . (R 1 çl + 2R 2ç2 + R 3 ç3)COS 2 α3
R飞 ð'" 、 =-Aa飞 +v
.,-.. ., r3/ R 3 --..,. r3r3/ R3 '
(3.9勾 Using the above, and pro臼eding in a similar manner to that used in the
previous examples the fo lIowing result are obtained:
RzAh = (1-2 sin 2α3 !ðα +v~R 1 Çl + 2R2Ç2 + R 3ç3) sincx3 cosα3
3~' 3 - r3/ R 3 . "'''''3 T • r3r3/ R 3 (3.93) _!_ = 0.9274ε-0.ω67ß

ER~ 4' J
ð,ç~且 (3.94) and

旦" = -0.22086 + 0.0758ß

生;- = 4(1 7t+ R~ ðt~.
ER~ vr~ J - ~ J'
(3.95) t二 R 3

If ε= 0.∞3 andRτ. = ß = 0, the maximum axial tensile stress in each wire

N'3 H3 cos 2α 3 G' sin 句 cosα3 isσ1 = 90,∞o psi, σ2= 89,750 psi, and σ3= 邸,090 ps i. The total axial force
ER~ = 商百7-EZ 丁页7' F = 30∞+ 16,795 + 28,038 = 47,830 lb, where the loads 矶,凡 , and F3
represent 6.3%, 35.1%, and 58.6% of the total load, respectively. Since the
T3 壁
, ,

results are linear, a load of 30,α)() lb (with 飞= 0) would produce a maximum

页5= 同 3 '
tensile stress ofσ1 =坷,450 psi. Again, if 6 = O.∞3 and τ. = 0, the axial M, is

X3 N'3 sin 问 cosα3 T3 cos 2α3 given by the above equation and hence,

页了两丁页7- 两三页了'

M = -30 ,α)(),α)() X (0.497)3 X 0.2208 x O.∞ 3= 一 2 ,440 in. lb.


I T. . N毛 |


--'-:- = m~
1 --'-:- smα~J+--'τ;-coscx
' .. J, 1 (3.98) The minus sign occurs, sin臼 the outside layer is left lay.

轧 m札如扪制机制

闪闪 Jgj

3.9 Electric Conductor Strand

M. I H、 G'. :1·
--τ=m 毛
J l - α、+
一..:, SlD .
__-. coscx 、
ERa~ Ll豆R~
Consideration is given in this section to a simple strand consisting of a
steel center wire surrounded by aluminum wires. Such a strand is used to
-'~乌、 N'3r3|.
斟引自 ld

+ 一~ -=""-COSα.- 一
4 . . . 1.
-=,,"- SIDIX. _'4 (3.99) conduct electricity and is ca11ed an ACSR (aluminum conductor steel reinforced)
ER~ R3 J'
~. . ~

ER~ R3

electrical conductor. The previous analysis can be extended to investigate the 1

wf北 hM

where subscript 3 indicates those previously discussed quantities pertaining mechanical response of such a conductor.

to the wires in the third layer. Consider, for example, a simple strand consisting of a 臼nter steel wire and
The tota1 axial force acting on the strand is m2 aluminum outside wires wrapped helically around the center steel wire.

Equations (3.41) and (3.42) determine the axial force F1 and the twisting
灿mwm 川作 忏川川

F = F1 + F2 + F3' (3 .1∞) moment M 1 in the steel wire. Hence,


and the totaI axial twisting moment is F1 = 7t E. Rie l (3 .1 02)


M, = M1 + M2 + M3' (3 .1 01) and


Example 3.7. Let R 1 = 0.1 03 in., R 2 = 0.1 01 in., R3 = 0.096 in., P2 = 9.75 in., 7t ~.R1 τs
krt 阻 '陪 『阳 旧 的 UMM

P3 = 9.75 in., v = 0.25, and E = 30;以刀,α)() psi. Let tbe second layer be right M.1 -= ------
4(1 +川'
(3. 103)
lay and let the third layer be left lay, where m2 = 6 and m3 = 12. Therefore,
the total radius of tbe strand R is where E. is the modulus of elasticity for steel, R 1 is the radius of the center

steeI wire, Çl is the axial strain of the conductor, τ. is the angle of twist per
R = 0 .1 03 + 2 x 0.101 +2x 0.096 = 0.497 in.
unit length of the conductor and 飞 is Poisson's ratio for steel. Similarly, Eqs.
i 36 3 Static Response of a Strand
-lEh ht

3.9 Electric Conductor Strand 37

E 飞

· (3.34) through (3 .40) become, for the outside aluminum wires,
· om3=t , +JEL
G' , π H •

- 一二.. = - R ,I1K' (3.104)

l E.R~ - 4 "2'''''''' 2 ,
H句 立 Ç2 ..... , (0.25 x 0.067 x 0.003 + 0 .3 3 x 0.066 x Ç2)
一一主-:::-=-一二一...,. R , 6:τh (3 .1 05) =--......':.!...一 -110:, +
EaR~ 4(1 v.) ...-~--~ , + 6 .1 6277 --~. 0 .1 33 x 6.1 6277
N'2 H 2 cos 2α 2 G' 2 sin 0:2 cosα2 which have the solution
(3 .1 06)
E.R~ - E.R~ r2 /R 2 ι R~ r2/儿 '
Ç2 = O.∞2901 and Aα2 = O.α)()60915.
(3 .1 07) Equations (3 .1 11) and (3 .1 12) yield



f-E-m .m R 211K'2 = - 0.000084726 R 2 11τ2 -0.α)()21986.

飞 -

几 -
X-aF-a R
α-r卢〕 Z-+- S-


2 B-naA-a

A 「仆 L



- (3. 108)

-龟 ,

nkz-nA E /

P川 fz Proceeding as in the previous examples, the result is



F = Fl + F2 = + 2351 =
1269 36201b.


(3 .1 09)



It is interesting to note that the steel wire and the aluminum wires carry 35 .1%

and 64.9%, respectively, of the total axialload.

Proceeding again, as in the previous examples, results in
:al M, I H, G' ,
一一二亏 =m,' 一一工τ s mα, +一一二古 cosα , F = 1.207 X 106ε + 1.694 x 104τs
ι.R~ .. LE.R~ . . -..... --..ιak34 |

and Il
_T: -cosα句一-一-
+ -一""",, η N'2 一-smα,
巳1.1. (3 .1 10) li-

li E.R~R2 . . ...... _-'" E.R~R2 - -- "'1' M = 1.608 X 104ε + 5.551 X 10 2τr


where E. is the modulus of elasticity for aluminum, R 2 is the aluminum wire Again expressions can be written down for the stresses.

radius, Ç2 is the axial aluminum wire strain, and v. is Poisson's ratio for
aluminum. Equations (3 .3 2) and (3.33) become di
3.10 Contact Stresses
到附则附附川 ud 川、 忖hl

R 2 11K' 2 =一
2sinα2COS 0:2.
;~ -- --. .ð!X +. (v.R1çl + v.R 2 ç2 )
\-;)~ - .l.".1 U-- ", 7~~- 二寸言一
COS 2 0:2

(3. 111)
t--'oil- '2 ' .1.、 2 '2 '21 .1. 、 2 The line of contact between the outside wire and the 臼:nter wire of a simple
and strand is a helix of radius Rl' An estimate of the contact stresses can be made

if the contact force per unit length is known. It should be noted that the

= ._ .,
(1 - 2sin 2α 2)....... , (V.Rl ç1 + v.R 2 Ç2) sinα2 cosαz resultant force per unit length X 2 is calculated per unit length along the

, 缸, 110:噜+ 一一一一一一 (3.1 12)

- • ---",. centerline of an outside wire and hence should be calculated per unit length
r2/ R 2 r2 r Z/ R 2
内 d 址 -u

of the contact line. This results in the approximate equation
Equation (3.27) remains the same; however, Eq. (3.31) becomes
Xcvlp~ + (2πRl)2 = -X2 .jP~ + [2π(R 1 + R 2)]2 ,

(3 .1 14)
(飞 R 1 çl + v.R 2ç2)

zτ.= 一一一... - 110: 2 + (3.113)

tanα2 - r2 tanαz where X c is the contact force per unit length acting along the line of contact.
1 1 川 JH

Figure 3. 8 shows a point along the line of contact betw回n the two wires
The following example will i1l ustrate the above equations.
where the cross section ofthe outside wire is shown circular. In this figure, the


cross section of the 臼 nter wire is shown elliptical and hence the radius of
Example 3. 8. Let m 2 = 6, E. = 30 X 10 6 psi, E. = 10 X 106 psi, Rl = 0.067

- l curvature of the surface of the center wire, at the point of contact, is Pl , where

in., R 2 = 0.066 in., v. = 0 .25, v. = 0 .33, and P2 = 5.15 in. Hence, r2 = 0.067 +
}- R-d
叶 J 川H 川 川

0.066 = 0 .1 33 in. and α2 = 80.783 0 • As before, let 飞= Oand ε= 0.003. Equa- AY -03 --6 (3 .1 15)
! tions (3.27) and (3. 113) become

38 3 Static Response of a Strand 3.1 0 Contact Stresses 39

whereas Eq. (3 .1 15) results in

- .,..


OF -anu -oxu
nu MoB n

The values of â and b are

4[ 一 (0.25)2]
â= 7 飞 = 6.7674 x 1O- 9 in. 3月b
(1 1 飞
\ 0.1048 +. 0~一
.1 0 1/I x 28.5∞∞0
b= ,户- x. ---
225 .. _.. _. . ..x 10-
x 6.7674 -- = 9.8456 x 1O- 4 in.

The contact stress σ'c is, therefore,

FIGURE 3.8. Contact between center and outer wire. 9.8456 X 10-4
Uc = 一。9 =
6.7674 X 10-
- 145,900 psi.

It will now be assumed that the contact stress is the same as that determined It should be noted that 'the contact stress is not linearly related to the
by two cylindrical bodies in line contact [6]. Hence, the maximum contact axial load F. It varies as the square root of the axialload. An axial load of
stress 民 is given by the equation 10,α)Q lb would produce a contact stress of
= 10.0∞

c (3 .1 16) σc= 一 一~'~~~ x 145,9∞= -106,390 psi.

I)~ where -- J-1-La


The above stresses were calculated based on the assumption that the material


- nι

F (3. 117) remains elastic.



and 3.11 Outside Wires Contacting Each Other

b= 应生 (3 .1 18) Consider seven straight wires of circular cross parallel to each other . Let the

center wire be surrounded by the six wires and let the wires have the same
The use of the above formulae wi1l be illustrated by the following example. diameter. In this case, the outer straight wires will touch each other and the
臼nter wire simultaneously. lfthe outside wires are not straight but rather are
Example 3.9. Consider the simple strand used in Example 3.1 , where Rl =
0.103 in., R 2 = 0.1 01 in.,问= 82.51060 , E = 28,5∞,α)() psi, and v = 0.25. In wrapped helically around the center wire, the outside wires will only contact
Example 3.1, an axialload of 18,805 lb with 飞= 0 produ臼s a contact line each other. This 0∞urs since the outside wires appear elliptical in a cross
load of section perpendicular to the center wire. Equation (3.8) can be used to demon-
strate this. Contact could also be made betw四n the outer wires if the 臼nter
X2 = -0.仪削77477 x 28,5∞,删 x 0.101 = - 223.0 lbjin. of the strand were made of a soft material such as a fiber.
Equation (3.114) yields Figure 3.9 shows the projection of the circular cross section of an outer wire
on a plane perpendicular to the axis of the strand. The line of contact between
Xc = 223 v
i~~" ~~~
+ ,_..

(2πX 0.204)2
.. =.~=~~~ = 2251bjin.,
adjacent wires is also a helix with radius d. An analysis of the. geometry in
.J(9万)2 + (2πX 0.1 03)2 Figure 3.9 yields [12J
40 3 Static Response of a Strand
3.11 Outside Wires Contacting Each Other 41

of Helix A归



FIGURE 3.10. Contact loads on outer wire.

and, hence , the normal contact fo rce per unit length Q is given by
FIGURE 3.9. Line of contact between two outer wires.
Q= __ X
一一- (3.121)

: 'Ie
2cos )l
It should be noted that, if the outside wires are touching each other, Eq.

R 2 tan(~ 一王}

(3.l)is no longer valid.Equation (3.8)yields the correct value of r, when the

! d = /、〉-mz/
SIO CX 2 COS I -;;- - =- ,. I 1. 句句 /ππl
+ tan~ I -;;- - - 1
(3.1.1 9) strand is unloaded. If the strand is loaded, Eq. (38) yields the 由lue of 瓦,
where αbecomesh and R2becomes Rz(1-vtd.Again this equation can
叶 d 川川叫llLV

·l SI旷 α2
飞.. "'2 j " 飞~ "'2 J be linearized to determine '2/'2.
, Since the projection of a circular crωs section on the transverse section is
elliptical, the radius d intersects the ellipse at point A , as shown in Figure 3.9.
Figure 3.10 show宫 a true cross-sectional view of an outer wire depicting the 3.1 2 Other Types of Strand Cross Sections
contact angle )1. Again an analysis of Figures 3.9 and 3.10 yields
In other types of strand cross sections, the pre∞ding equations have to be

∞., ".~J +时(i-去)

ti l -- slightly rnodified. Consider for instance the Seale strand , which consists of 19
-'1 1 wires as shown in Figure 3.11.Let the radius of the center wire be Rs-The
= two outer layers wi1l have wire radii of R6 and R 7 as shown in Figure 3.12.
The value of '6 is given by the expression

~,,(;:- :J {' +…(可)[;… '6 = Rs + R6. (3.122)

The value of '7 will be calculated by assurning that the cross sections of thc
outside wires appear circular in Figure 3. 12. Frorn Figurc 3.1 2 thcrc rcsults
42 3 Static Response of a Strand 3.12 Other Types of Strand Cross Sections 43

'7 = (Rs + 凡 )cos20 + J(R6 + R7)2 一 [(Rs + R 6) sin 20 ]2.

0 0
(3 .1 23)
When the strand is loaded, wi11 change due to a Poisson's ratio effect and
a change in helix angle. However, sin臼 the wires are assumed to appear
circular, the value of will be given by the expression
r飞 = [R s(l- vçs) + R6(1- VÇ6)] cos 20 0

+J[R6(1- vç6)+R 7(l- VÇ7)]2 - {[Rs (l- vçs)+R 6(1-vç6)] sin 200 }2.
(3 .1 24)
Again 1'7 can be linearized with the result that

ReJ + Rau au)

v' nu








+!R6 + R7)(R6ç6 + R 7ç7) - (Rs + 儿)(Rsçs + R6~6)sin2 却。 l
.J(R6 + R7)2 一 [(Rs + R 6)sin20 ]2 J 0

(3 .1 25)
FIGURE 3.1 1. Cross section of a Seale wire rope. A similar procedure can be followed with other types of cross sections.

FJGURE 3.1 2. Cro岱 section of a Seale strand.

4.1 Axial Response of an Independent Wire Rope Core 45

Static Response of a Wire Rope
1 1 R3


4.1 Axial Response of an Independent Wire Rope Core

The equations developed in the previous sections will now be used to generate
the solution for ropes with complex cross sections. Consideration will be given,
at first , to a cross section consisting of one simple , straight, seven-wire strand
surrounded by six seven-wire strands, which are preformed. Figure 4.1 shows FIGURE 4. 1. Independent wire rope core (lWRC).
such a cross section in which the outside strands are deformed into the helical

- n- ..z=r
c--; e-- n- .,- nu- ··-

shape they assume in the unloaded rope and are this shape under no external


。 -z




AU ., '4·E

loads (preformed strands). Such a cross section is often used as a rope ∞re in 9·
a more complex rope and as such is sometimes called an independent wire rope
core (IWRC). The ∞nter strand will be called strand 1, an outside strand will in which
be denoted strand 2.
The bending stiffness of strand 2 will be approximated by a summation of r飞 = R 1 + 2R 2 + 2R4 + R 3, (4.3)
the bendìng stiffness of each wire in the strand. Therefore, the bending stiffness, and where, due to the Poisson's ratio effect,
A 飞, for strand 2, is given by the 饵pre唱;sion [s时 Eq. ' (3.78)]
严2=r飞 - v(R 1 çl + 2R 2ç2 + 2R4ç4 + R 3ç3)' (4.份
πER! 2sinα4 . 1tER~
A* ~= 6:':'一一一
'" ~ 4 (2 +
v cos 2α 4)' 4 '
in which ç1> Ç2' Ç3 , and Ç4 are the axial wire strains in wires 1, 2, 3, and 4,
respectively. Again, Eq. (4.2) can be linearized.
where R3 is the center wire radius in strand 2, R4 is an outer wire radius in Guided by the analysis of strand 1, the following equations can be written:
strand 2, and α4 is the helix angle of an outer wire in strand 2.
ln the foregoing theory, for the solid.wire strands in strand 1, the twisting ^-*
Çl = Ç3 + . '-'''' : (4.5)
moment and the axial force in the strand wires are determined from the tanα'2
properties of a straight solid wire with an angle oftwist per unit length of ~'!.'2
and an axial straing of C; 2, that is, H = πER~~τ2/4(1 + v) and T = 宵ER~Ç2' Ç3 = Ç4 +坐乞, (4.6)
Thus, if the cross section of a strand in a rope resembles that shown in Figure
3.1, the axial strain and the angle of twist per unit length will be used to 川 zτ= 二*
r飞严1 -..-' -_ ð^llt*~\
- I
+ Ç3) a.• 2 I -__1
determine the axial force and the axial twisting moment in the curved strand r. 2 \ tanα.2 -; tanα飞 '1
[13]. I

Let the helix angle of strand 2, shown in Figure 4.1 , be α* 2' As the rope is =J主-:;:- - ~IX*? +工(R 1 çl + 2R山 +2ιÇ4 + R 3e3) (4.7)
loaded, this helix angle assumes a new value iX飞. The angle of twist per unit tanα.2 - r.2 tan lX .2
length for strand 2 becomes and


46 4 Static Response of a Wire Rope 4.1 Axial Response of an lnde严ndent Wire Rope Core 47
(R 3ç3 + R 4ç4) and
(R 3 + R4)åτ飞 =~-å问
---.. . (R 3 + R 4 )tanα4
l M飞z = 6(H飞 sinα飞+ G;.cosα飞 +T飞 r飞 cosα飞 - N'z.r飞 sinα飞).
: =飞旦[(1 -μi川 (4.16)

-;sp The total axial force and axial twisting moment acting on the rope would ,
of ∞urse, be
v R çl + 2Rzçz 十~ 2R ç4 + R3ç3) ~:-
+( _.一 .21
SI日民 2'"'Uα2 1,
--;· r~2 J F=F飞 +F飞 (4.17)
, and
where τis the twist per unit length of the rope and Aτ飞 is the angle of twist
per unit length of strand 2. Also for strand 1, M, =M气 1+Af*22· (4.1 8)

ll lX. Since the linearized form of Eq. (4.1 3) will be needed, 'it is listed below.
Çl = Çz + -=::-于 (4.9) Henc晤,

‘au 崎Z

Gγ = A. 2 Aκ飞 =A飞 l一τ「乏一 __V.

ã.. cos2 IX..
- \I
\ r~ 2 r~ z J
ç? . (R 1 çl + RZçZ) (4.1 0)
(R 1 + 几)τ=~-A0:2 +v (R ‘ + R )tanαz
α2 -- ~.. 1 2 =A.z2L
l v豆豆;三(R
(r. z) 1 çl + 2RzçZ + 2R4ç4 + R3ç3)
Equation (3.53) yields the rotational strain. Therefore, for the rope,
ß=Rτ, (4.1 1)
2…;∞s~飞] (4 .1 9)
The preceding equations will now be used in an example to determine the
R = R 1 + 2R2 + 2R3 + 4R4. (4.1 2) axial response of an independent wire rope core as shown in Figure 4.1. It
should be noted that the above equations could be progammed on a computer
The following pro∞dure 臼n now be used to determine the axial response to facilitate their solution. However, it is left that a numerica1 example sho u1d
ofthe rope shown in Figure 4. 1. Choose values ofεand ß, which are the axial be worked out first, to tra臼 the steps involved in the solution.
and rotational strain ofthe rope. Since e = ç1 and ß = Rτ, Eqs. (4.9) and (4.1 0)
Example 4.l. Let R 1 = 0.0315 in., R 2 = 0.028925 in. , R3 = 0.027725 in.,只4=
can be used to solve for Ç2 and Aα2' Equations (4.5) through (4.8)ωnnow be
0.025815 in., E = 30 X 106 psi, v = 0.29, pz = 1.30 in., P4 = 2.1 4 in., and
solved for Ç3' Ç4' Aa.飞, and ð.α4' Once Ç3 and ð.τ飞[Eq. (4.8)] are known, the
p飞= 3.05 in.
total axia1 force T飞 and the total axial twisting moment H飞 in strand 2ωn
Strand 1 will be considered first. A check wil1 be made to see if the outside
be determined by utilizing the equations for a strand in Chapter 3. The
wires in strand 1 are touching each other. If it is assumed that the wires are |j|
bending moment G2• in strand 2 is given by the expression
not touching each other, then Eq. (3 .1) yields
( cos2 ã*. cos 2α飞\
G2 = A. 2 A"飞 = A*zl 二7二-气~I ,

(4.1 3) 'z = 0.03155 + 0.028925 = 0.060475 in.
飞 '~2 r~ 2 J
Equatidn (3.10) yields
which again can be linearized. Equation (3 .3 6) yields the value of Nγ, where 1.30
cos 2α飞 ,、I .sinα飞 cosα飞
0: 2 ~
= 2π x
~-"'-,~.~~ = 3.
0.060475 ._-_.-,
N' ,. =H飞,..---,,--"
::. - G' ,. 斗 (4.1 4)
_ ,.2 '~2
and hence 句= 73.706940 • With this value of 句, Eq. (3. 8) gives
and Eqs. (3.39) and (3.40) deterrnine, in the axia1 direction of the rope , the axial ~I ππ 1
force and axial twisting moment of tbe number 2 strands. Hence , 1+w\2-6)
r = 0.028925 、 L = 0.05967 in. ,
F飞 = 6(T飞 sin α飞 + N'z*cos ♂ 2) (4.1 5) 0.9212915
48 4 Static Response of a Wire Rope 4.1 Axial Response of an Independent Wire Rope Core 49

and since 0.05967 in. < 0.060475 in., Eq. (3.9) indicates that the wires are not
touching each other. Therefore, α2. = 73.706940 and r2 = 0.060475 in. d 峙 6. 36144 '
Equations (3.50) and (3.51) can now be determined for strand 1 and the


nu = *
pro∞dure used is the same as that used in Chapter 3. Hence, for strand 1, the


following results,
+0.29(0.以沟047325 + 0.0α)()78059 + 0.05163ç4 + 0.027725ç3)
AE 0.8
脱8- -
..- - . • (a)
0.1 6876 x 2.87ω9 '

and and
Ç4 •... ^ "'^ (0.027725ç3 + 0.025815ç4)
一之三一- .10(... + 0.29
0.3189ε + 0.1 183ß, (b) 6.36144 -_.... _.-- 0.05354 x 6.36149
0.05354 J .. . _ _ _ _. 0.29

are obtained, whereas for strand 2, =一一一

0.168761I ,- 2 x 0.892174).10(飞
(1 - -.. -.----- .,-- ,t. +一一一一(0.仪削47325
• 0.16876


王 = 0.9642e + 0.0853ß (。
AE +0 侧78ω + …Ç4

which have the solution Ç3 = O.∞12965, Ç4 = O.∞12399, .10(4 = O.α)()36032,

21=01928ε + 0.0721ß' (d) and .10(飞 =0.0∞58535. Equation (4.8) can be solved for .1τ飞 and yie1ds
勤 可 Ef --


.1't'*~ 一 ~∞
. _.12399
= . _1_.
The bending stifTness of strand 2 is given by Eq. (4.1), and therefore τ2 一百豆豆 II 6.36144
. .. - O.α)()36032

A飞 =6π x 30 X 106 X (0.025815)4 x 0.98787+πx 30 x 106(0.027725)4

~ 2(2 + 0.29 x 0.024115) 4
川剧川川川俨队hH Elh


= 75.7281b in. . = -0.∞2∞9 in.- 1,


It should be mentioned that a check of strand 2 shows that the wires and, henc哩, ßfor strand 2 is 一 0.079355 x O.∞2∞9= -0.α沟159413. i

in strand 2 do not touch each other. Also a check of strand 2 shows that strands ηle metallic,cross-sectional areas of strand 1 and strand 2 are 0.0188977 l


1↑白了 i
2 do not touch each other. in. 2 and 0.01497648 in.2, respectively. The axial for∞ and axial twisting t

Nowlete = O.∞15and τ= 0 for the rope. Equations (4.9) and (4.10) become moment in strand 1 can be computed from Eqs. (a) and (b), above. Hen∞,

F飞= 30 X 106 x 0.0188977 x 0.8864 x O.∞ 15 = 753.831b

~ . 3.42127

、 1
H门HU盯川 们川川 υ川Vtitv川UKh

M飞= 30 X X (0.0894)3 x 0.3189 x O.∞15 = 10.25 in. lb.

Ç2 • . 0.29(0.03155 x 0.0015 + 0.028925 x ';2)

0= 一一一ι一 Also for strand 2, Eqs. (c) and (d), abov巳, result in
3.42127 - .1O(?
~~2.' + 0.060475 x 3.42127 '
T飞= 30 X 106 x 0.01498765(0.9642 x O.∞12965 一 0.0853 x 0.0∞159413)
which have the solution Ç2 = 0.001349 and .1α2 = O.α泊5154. Equations (4.5)
through (4.8) become = 555.531b
A_* and
O.∞15 = Ç3 _-:::二一
+ 2.87649
。 H*2 = 30 X 106 x (0.079355)3(0.1 928 x O.∞12965 - 0β721 x O.∞0159413) i
where = 3.575 in. lb. 1:

' -l

50 4 Static Response of a Wire Rope 4.1 Axial Response of an Independent Wire Rope Core 51

t Equatio. n (4.1 9) can n o.w be used t o. co.mpute G'2*. Therefo.re, Hen臼,

Jfft 「0.29(0.32837)2 C1 = 0.798 and C3 = 0.309.
G'2* = 75.728 1 - ~~ ~-~~-:.:.~;' (0.03155 x O.∞15 + 2 x 0.028925 x O.∞1349
L (0.1 6876)2
A similar pro.cedure, where ε= 0 and ß takes o. n a given value, yields the
--: + 2 x 0.025815 x O.∞12399 + 0.027725 x O.∞12965) values o.f C2 and C4 • Therefo.re, the fo.ll o.wing results:
2x 0.94455 x 0.32837 x O.仪沟585351
0.16876 I 王=
0.798ε + 0.1 80p
=一 0.14420 in.lb.
i---se and
N'2* is given by Eq. (4.1 4), and hence,
N', ·=3.575(0.32837)2+O1.1 442 x 0.94455 x 0.32837=2.550 lb. ER3

l ‘ 0.1 6876 0.1 6876


Since the values o.f T飞, N'2*, G'2*, and H飞 are kn o.wn, Eqs. (4.1 5) and
(4. 阶 can be used t o. determine F* 2 and M气2' Hen饵,
4.2 Axial Response of a Wire Rope
F*2 = 6[555.53 x 0.94455 + 2.550 x 0.32837] = 3153.4 1b It is o.bvio. us ho.w the preceding equatio.ns co.uld be extended t o. a wire r o.pe
with mo. re co.mplex cro. ss sectio.ns. Figure 4.2 sho.ws such a cro. ss sectio.n. It is
called a 6 x 19 Seale ro. pe with an IWRC.
M飞2 = 6[ 3. 575 x 0.94455 - 0.1 4420 x 0.3 2837 + 555.5 3 x 0.1 6876 It is instructive at this po.int to. discuss the results o.f applying the previ o.us
theo.ry to. the Seale r o.pe sho.wn in Figure 4.2. Le t R 1 = 0.03155 in., R 2 =
x 0.32837 - 2.550 x 0.1 6876 x 0.94455]
0.028925 in. , R3 = 0.027725 in. , R4 = 0.025815 in. , Rs = 0.05731 in. , R6 =
= 202.2 in. lb. 0.02805 in.,只7 = 0.049928 in., α2 = 73.7069飞 α4 = 8 1.0664 0 , α6 = 102.2670 , 0

但7 = 11 1.2312飞 α飞= 70.8302飞 and α飞= 70.2389 0

• The fo. ll o.wing results
Equatio.ns (4.1 7) and (4.18) yield the t o.tal axial fo. rce and axial twisting
111 11 from an applicatio.n o.f the preceding theo. ry [14]:
mo.ment acting o.n the r o. pe. Therefo.re,
F = 753.8 + 3153.4 = 3907.21b _!_ = 0.88伽 + 0.1436ß
and strand 1 (a)
M, = 10.3 + 202.2 = 212.5 in. lb. 乓= 0.3队 + 0.1182ß
ER 一
The t o.tal metallic cro.ss-secti o.nal area o.fthe r o. pe [Eq. (3.5 2)] is
A = 0.1 0876 in. 1,
0.9642ε + 0.0853ß
stránd 2 (b)
whereas the radius of the rope is [Eq. (4.12月
0.1 9286 + 0.0721ß
R = 0.2481 in.
Hence, Eqs. (3 .5创 and (3.5 1) beco.me (since ß = 0) 主=
0.82956 - 0.1765ß
ii = C1 X O.∞ 15 + C2 x 0
strand 3 (c)
ER 3 + O.l 480p
No. tice that the value of C1 fo.r strand 2 is 0.9642 and the value o.f C1 fo.r strand
+, C.. x O. 3 is 0.8295. This is mainly due t o. the fact that 问 is clo.ser t o. 900 than is 句 and
30 x 100忍.=
X (0.2481)3
C~ x O.∞15
-.. .. -.--- - -4
a. 7 and, hence, strand 2 is stiffer than strand 3. As no.ted befo.re when strands
52 4 Static Response of a Wire Rope 4.2 Axial Response of a Wire Rope 53
Notice now that C 1 has dropped to 0.702. This result will be compared with
a test conducted on a 1. 306 in. dìameter, 6 x 19 Seale IWRC wire rope in
·· Chapter 6.
. -ji 1t is interesting to compare the various wire strains (.; 1,. . . , .; 7) for the Seale
rope. The values are (for ε= 0.0015 and ß = 0) ';1 = 0.0015 , ';2 = o.∞135,
';3 = 0.00130, ';4 = 0.0124, ';5 = O.∞ 129, ';6 = O.∞123, and ';7 = 0.0011 1.
These resuIts again show that, under no rotation, the maximum axial wire
strain occurs in the 臼nter wire. The individual strand lays are responsible for
3.78, 13.74, and 82.98% of the total axialload. Therefore, the IWRC carries
approximately 17% of the total rope load [14].

4.3 Stresses in a Wire Rope Due to Axial Loading

Consideration will be given at first to the IWRC. In the case of the center
strand (strand 1), a knowledge ofthe axial and rotational strain, as determined
by the previous section, yields the axialloads F飞 andM气 l' Also, the axial
and rotational strain for strand 1 determine the wire stresses in strand 1, as
shown in Chapter 3, Section 3.3. Strand 2 has, from the previous section,
known axialloads T飞 andH飞 and a known bending moment Gγ. Again
the stresses in strand 2 can be determined by the methods employed in
FIGURE 4.2. 6 x 19 Seale wire rope (IWRC). Chapter 3 , Section 3.7.
It is worth noting that a simple strand behaves Iike a center wire surrounded
by constrained helical springs (outer wires). In bending and in tension it is
generally the 臼nter wire that re臼ives the largest stresses (provided the twisting
1 and 2 are placed together to form the independent wire rope core, the moment is not excessive). Hence, attention will be focused on the ∞nter wire
following results: of strand 1 and the center wire of strand 2.
F For strand 1, with ß = 0 (no rotation ofthe rope), the maximum axial stress
一一= 0.7984ε + 0.1799ß (d) is simply
and σ1 = Ee. (4.20)
For strand 2 , the maximum axial stress is due to the axial strain ';3 and the
乓 =0.3ω2ε + 0.0840p (e) strain due to the change in curvature ð. IC*2 ' Hence, the maximum normal
ιn 一 stress in the c币nter wire of strand 2 is
The value of C1 has now dropped to 0.7984.
σ2 = E';3 + ER 3 ð.IC飞, (4.21)
The minus signs occur in Eq. (c), above, since the outer wires in strand 3
are left lay. When strands 1, 2 , and 3 are placed together to form the 6 x 19 where ð.IC飞 is determined from Eq. (4.1 9). These stresses will be determined
Seale IWRC rope, there results for the example considered below.
F ,
AE =0.7020e + 0.1232ß (f) Example 4.2. Consider the IWRC used in Example 4. 1. Let the axialload be
3 ,907 lb and let ß = O. The axial strain e is 0.0015, and hence, the maximum
and axial stress in the 臼nter wire is [Eq. (4.20)J

M σ1 = 30 X 10 6 X O.∞15 = 4'5,000 psi.

ι 只τ
3" = 0.2060ε+0.0ω3乒 (g)
Since G'产 =A飞ð.IC飞, the change in curvature is
54 4 Static Response of a Wire Ro严 4.4 Stresses in a Wire Rope Due to Axial Loading and Bending 55

- In the case of a spring subjected to pure bending, Eq. (3.76) indicates that
A , 0.14420.
川?= 一一一一 =0.∞ 1904 in.- 1 •
‘ 75.728 - . L. SlD αI
ll! m.• = --_..
Elð." = --
EI (2
.. +- -vcos
- z~ v) 二鼻
l'Eli- and, hence, the maximum normal stress in the center wire of strand 2 is
[Eq. (4.21)] where m. is the bending moment applied to the spring, ð. K is the maximum
σ2 = 30 X 10 6
X O.∞1297 + 30 x 10 x 0.027725 x O.∞ 1904
6 change in curvature of the wire (since m, is the maximum bending moment on
a wire cross section), E is the modulus of elasticity of the wire material, 1 is
lili- = 38,910 + 1584 = 40,494 psi , the moment of inertia of the wire cross section, αis the helix angle, v is
E which again is less tban the stress in the center wire of strand 1. Poisson's ratio , and ρis the radius of curvature ofthe centerJine ofthe spring.
It is interesting to compare tbe maximum norma1 stress in the center wire This means that 忧心ause of the helix angle the maximum change in cu凹ature
of strand 1 with the stress computed by taking tbe total axial load and dividing in an outer wire is equal to the product of 2 sin 01:/ (2 + v cos2α) times, the
it by the metallic area. This yields the nomina1 stress change in curvature of the centerline 1/ρ. In the case of a rope, the wires in
an outer layer have tbe shape of a heJix on a helix. Hence, the change in
3907 curvature of such a wire will be taken as
= -一一一~ = 35,910 psi,
( 2sin 厅飞 { L. sinα* \ 1
K= I 一二一一一一 11 ^ . --~..- ? • 1':" , (4.24)
which is considerably less than the 45,α)() psi in the center wire. 飞2 + vcos 2 α } \.2 +泸∞S2 俨 /ρ

As was mentioned previously, the stresses in the outer wires of strand 2 can where ρis the radius of curvature of the centerline of the rope, α· is the heJix
be determined by treating strand 2 as a straight strand with axialloads T* 2 angle of the strand,俨 is a Poisson's ratio of a strand (which will be taken
andH飞 and bending moment G' 2*. The bending moment G' 2* produ臼sa equal to v, sin∞ the term 泸∞S2 ♂ is very smalI compared with 匀, αis the
change in curvature ð.K飞, and thus Section 3.6 四n be used to determine the helix angle of the wire in the strand, and v is Poisson's ratio of the wire material.
stresses due to this bending. As is shown in Section 3.6, the stresses depend It is this changρin curvature that will be used to calculate the stresses due to
upon arc length along an outer wire and on position in the cross section and bending of the rope.
this thus compIicates the problem. This variation in the bending stress is not Consider a straight thin rod of diameter d bent over a sheave of diameter
significant in comparison to the maximum stress in an outer wire, and hence, D. Let the axialload on the rod be F. The maximum normal stress in the rod
as a conservative estimate, the maximum bending stress in an outer wire, due IS
to the change in curvature .1."飞, will be added on to those produω:d by T飞 4F _d
andH飞. This stress, due to .1.κ飞, is given by the expression [see Eq. (3.76)] σ =--;'+E 一, (4.25) !
πd ‘ D' ;
σ=2SlDOI:~ ð.K飞 ER. 1
(4.22) which can be written as
(2 + v ∞S2α.d ‘·
Ed (4.26) v
The work above considered the stresses in an IWRC. Similar expressions 一一-=1+ 一-τ~=1+ 一一一一一=了,
σnol1'O σnomμσnom ," 1 U
can be written for a Sea1e rope with an IWRC. It is worth noting that the Seale 一二

E " 'd
strand has the largest wire radius (Rs) of all the wires in the rope and, hence,
should be checked for the bending stresses. where the nomina1 stressσ'nom is given by the expression
吨。m =--
1td 2 '
4.4 Stresses in a Wire Rope Due to Axial Loading and
Bending Equation (4.26) shows that σ/σnom can be expressed as a function of the
variable σnom D/Ed. An equation similar to Eq. (4.26) can be determined for a
The previous section dea1t with stresses in ropes due to axial loads on1y. To rope with a complex cross section. There is computer program for such a result
obtain the stresses in a rope which, in addition to axial loads, is subjected to [15]. A plot of the maximum normal wire stress for each wire as a function
bending, the principle of super position wil1 again be used , that is, the stresses ofσ'nomD/Ed is shown in Figures 4.3 and 4.4. Figure 4.3 is for a 6 x 19 Seale
due to bending wiJ1 be added to those in the axial 饵se. IWRC (7 x 7 core), wbereas Figure 4.4 is for a 6 x 25 F fi lIer-wire IWRC. Use
56 4 Static Response of a Wire Rope 4.4 Stresses in a Wire Rope Due to Axial Loading and Bending 57


zrhocxmE 』




6 6

5 5



ε=由E 』OZ
- 』。z

QL 。』
O 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 。 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30
l-i (D/d). G nom/E (D/d). Gnom/E
"们扣"μr LI

;1:lf FIGURE 4.3. Maximum normal wire stresses as a function ofload and curvature (6 x 19 FIGURE 4.4. Maximum normal wire stresses as a function of load and curvature
Seale IWRC, 7 x 7 core). (6 x 25F filler wire IWRC).
l- -

』 ltt



ofthe figures will be demonstrated in the example worked out below. 1t should It should be noted that in Figures 4.3 and 4.4 some of the cu凹es cross one

V LMMwt 昨
机 phEH

i- be remembered that these figures are valid for a rope that is not allowed to another. For a large radius of curvature, the center wire suffers the greatest

rotate. stress under the axialload. As the radius of curvature becomes smaller, the

bending stresses dominate in the wires and, hence, the larger-diameter wires


Example 4.3. Consider a Seale 6 x 19 1WRC with a metallic area of 1.∞ in. 2
will receive the largest stresses.
and an axialload of 25 tons. The nominal stress then becomes

25 x 20∞

冲吁 Jf
σnom =一一「一= 50,0∞ psi.

lit- -
Then if the D/d ratio is 30 and the rope is made of steel, the corresponding

value of E x 旦旦 is

吁 E
d E

主×坐坐= 0.05. ';i


d E -._-,

and, hence, from Figure 4.3 , the maximum stress, which 0∞urs in the center

wire of the Seale strand, is
σ= 2.9 x 50,α)() = 145,∞o psi.

5.2 Frictional ElTects in the Bending and Axial Loading of a Strand 59
c 0n n w ROPAe
again involve a~uoernosìtio!l of the stresses caused by the axialloads and the
bending loads. ....-普及』

ri vi
Hence, let the strand be subjected to bending only where the ∞ntact is
maintained between the outside wires and the 臼 nter wire. Between any two
cross sections along an outside wire, the only way an external load can be
applied to the outside wire is along the line of contact. Therefore, if a force
per unit length acts on the boundary of a thin wire, of radius R , as shown in
Figure. 5.1, the following can be written down by transforming the force on
the boundary to an equivalent force and couple acting along the 臼nterline of
the wire [16]
Zds = Zodso cos ß - 凡dsosinß, (5.1 )
Yds = Zodso sin ß + 马 dSocosß, (5.2)
5.1 Friction in an Axially Loaded Strand and, hence,
Chapter 3 considcred the static rcsponse of a simple straight strand with the K=O, (5 .3)
cross section shown in Figure 3. 1. It was assumed in that chapter that the
K' = -ZR , (5.4)
wires were frictionless. It will now be shown that friction plays a very small
role in the axialloading of a simple strand. and
Consider án infl,D.i'tesimalline element in an outer wire cross section that,江
9= YR , (5 .5)
extend时, passes 甜甜咱1 the centerline of the straight center wire in the
unloaded configuration. This is the line element "a" discussed in Chapter 2.
When the strand is axially loaded with a force and twisting moment, this line
element, if extended, st山 passes through the centerI ine of the straight 臼nter
strand. The shearing force N 1 in an outer wire cross section as determined by
Eq. (3. 17) is equaI to zero. This means that all radiallines eminating from the
centerline of the ωnter straight wire and passing through the centerJine of the
outer wires remain straight under the axial loading. There is no relative
motion between the points of contact of an outer wire with the center wire.
This results in no frictional loads even 江 the material has a coefficient of
In the case of a multilayered strand in which the lays are alternate, there Center line
will be a small efJect due to friction. At the contact points, a deformation is
caused by contact stresses. As tbe strand is loaded, tbere is a -rotation of one
wire relative to another at the contact points about a normal to the contact
points, since the wires tend to straighten out under an axialload. This will be
a very small efTect as far as the axial response of the rope is concerned.

5.2 Frictional EfTects in the Bending and Axial Loading of

a Strand Yds
Consider a simple strand that is under an axialload and is then subjected to Y
bending. It is assumed that the axialload is sufficiently large so that contact
is maintained between an outer wire and the center wire. The analysis wi1l FIGURE 5.1. Loads acting on an outer wire of length ds.

- 1if

60 5 Friction in Wire Rope 5.2 Frictional ElTects in the Bending and Axial Loading of a Strand 61

3 where 凡 and Zo are the forces per unit length acting along the contact curve, Figure 5.2 shows the centerline of an outside wire in a deformed position

li ßis the angle shown in Figure 5.1, ds o is a differentiallength along the contact in which the outside wire is wrapped around the center wire. The deformed


curve corresponding to a differential length ds along the centerline of an components of the curvature and twist per unit length will now be obtained

outside wire, and K , K' , and e are the components ofthe external moments by again proj巳cting the angular velocity vector of a rotating reference frame ,

per unit length along the centerline of an outside wire. which moves with a unit velocity along the deformed centerline of an outside

Therefore the differential equations of equilibrium [Eqs. (2.4) through (2.6) wire. This can be accomplished by noting that the absolute angular velocity

and (2.8) through (2.1 0)] become vector of the x , y, z frame is equal to the angular velocity vector with respect
s--ill- to the X , Y, Z system plus the angular velocity vector of the X , Y, Z system
Ill 气一 -N'τ + T x:'+X =0, (5.6) with respect to the fixed ABC system. If it is assumed that tanα = p8/r仇 then



dN' κ= 一-costþ,
~- T" + Nτ+ y=O, (5.7) ρ

cos~αsm~α .

- dT κ= 一一一-- 一一一 s
i j! -iiE
llil M 一';--Nκ'+ N' x:+ Z=O, (5.8) rρ
'S$t 1ι

剑unn" "" " MMH U配刷 刷 缸刷

i--ilili dG
τ一 -G'τ + H ,,' - N' = 0, (5.9)
一?一 Hx: +Gτ +N- RZ=O, (5.10)
U vt Itv 4酌 '- Z ZVE E创f-v-ErtmHrL

l as

- Gx:' + G'x: + R Y = o. (5 .1 1)
The following interesting observations can be made upon an examination

o of Eqs. (5.6) through (5.11). Since the original curvatures and twist per unit
l- length of an outside wire are known, assumed values of the deformed curva-
1 og-'1
tures and twist per unit length will yield, by Eq. (2.1 2), the values of G, G', and



H. Equations (5.9) and (5 .1 1) can then be used to solve for N' and Y. Equation
(5.10) determines the value of Z in terms of N. Hence, Eqs. (5.7) and (5.8) can
now be combined to yield a linear, first-order, ordinary differential equation
of T in terms of s. The equations of equilibrium of an outside wire will thus
yield the tension T along the wire for assumed curvatures and twist per unit
In the deformed configuration, fairly a∞urate estimates can be made for
the deformed curvatures and twist per unit length. The tension T, due to
bending in an outside wire, can then be determined from the solution of the
differential equation discussed above. This procedure eliminates the difficult

task of estimating the axial strain and , hence, T, along an outside wire.
It should be remarked that the above pro∞dure was used to determine the

tensions in an outer wire for the axial1y loaded strand. The final curvatures
and twist per unit length were assumed and the loads required to hold the
wires in equilibrium were determined from the equations of equilibrium. FIGURE 5.2. Helix on a circle.
62 5 Friction in Wire Rope 5.2 Frictional EfTects in the Bending and Axial Loading of a Strand 63

smαcosαSIOαcos (x •
(5.1 2) and , hence, has the solution
τ= 一一一一一 + 一一-一--smφ,
r p
T C3+Cz (5.20)
where K and K' are the final components of the curvature, τis the angle of =严百否+汇'
twist per unit length , p is the radius of curvature of the center wire , r is the where
radius to the centerline of an outer wire, αis the helix angle of an outer wire,
and 仇 which lies in the XYplane, is the angle shown in Figure 5.2. C1= 」?|Lcdα1 , (5.21)
‘ ρcos~α1 R J
Hen白, as mentioned previously , Eqs. (5.9), (5 .1 0), and (5.11) yield

v sin a. cosαr cos 2α siniþ . sin 2α cos 2 tþl

πER 4
C?2 -=一一一一
v r ‘ l2 r
4r"2 (1 + v) 1 ;_ - cos

1 ,
N' = 一一一一一一一一一== 1 一一一一一一 + 一一一一一~ 1, (5.13) ""~ v. J Lp - (5.22)
4 (1 + v) ρL rρ 」
and C 3 is an arbitrary constant. The constant C 3 will be determined by the
πER 4 v sin 2α cosαsin 们osiþ
RZ =N + 一一一-一一一- (5 .1 4) equa t10n
4 (1 + v) ρ&

f徒四川, (5.23)

πER 4 V Sinαcos 2α cosø which indicates that the change in length due to bending of an outer wire in
RY= 一-一一一一一一 -, (5 .1 5)
4 (1 + v) ρr one lay length is assumed to be zero.
where Since C1 << 1, Eq. (5.23) yields the value of C 3 as
r G-G
s= -一一 @ (5.1 6) c 's = (5.24)

Equation (5 .1 3) results in and , hence, Eq. (5.20) becomes

dN' dN' diþ πER 4
∞S2αsin2α 飞
v sinα ∞S2α/
=一一=一一一一一一一一一 l 一一一 +2 一:'_::sin tþ I ∞吵- T= πER4r v 「r 212·6
4 (1 + v) (5.25)
ds diþ ds rp \ rρ/ 一一一~…
4r2 ρ (1 + v) LR __V - J
IT I ....111 U J
(5.1 η
Based on the previous discussion, the following can be writte down:
When Eqs. (5.7) and (5.8), (5.1 3) through (5 .1 5), and (5.17) are combined ,
G= πER sinαφ.

(i 一∞S2α+jahs叫
4ρ "
dT r
一+一飞 / • 、 L. (costþ)T
G' πER sin 2α inø.

dtþ p c的 (1 +~siniþ) =--一---S!D ø.

飞 P /
H 一 πER
vπER 4 r r r 句 r .句. .1 sinαcosα.φ. (5.28)
= -----_-- I .一 一 cos-α+ - S1O .αSIOØ 1 -一一… m
1 + v 4r
p I_R ρ 'J
4(I+v) P --- "
= --- ---- ‘仇
1 (~ -∞S2α +ι2sin2α sintþ I 1 4Rpr (1 + v)
SIII rz ‘二(}S ---L.:;‘ Jsm

I r 飞κρ JI
x 1.:_ sin 2 a. sin iþ 一飞n f 、 !.. I ∞stþ. (5.18)
N'= πER

IP (1+ 二 siniþ I 1 ~ sin a. cos 3 <x sin ø.

4pr (1 + v) ---- - - - - --- "
一一-…一… m (5.30)
I \ρ J J

N一 πER v r 1 ∞S2αl cos <x cos tÞ.

Now let r/ p << 1. Equation (5.18) then becomes
-一一一一…… (5.3 1)
dT r I r • I 骨 ER 4 v r 1r ~ 1
2 4p (l+v)LR r J- -- -- 二 - T>

一+一 -'-? 1
ρcos 2α LR
一- cos 2α 1 (∞siþ)T= 一斗一一一一 1 ';;'
句广 (1 +吵 ρLR
- cos 2α|
----J z 一 πER
v 11 cos2αl cos <x cos tÞ. (5 .3 2)
(5 .1 9) 一一一一一…… m
4Rρ(1 + v) LR r J 二 '町 - --打
64 5 Friction in Wire Rope 3。

πER 4 V _ rt r V r • .1
x=-一寸一一--:- COS 2α 11 一 1+'R'-
叩广 (1 + v) --- -1 飞 R}
一 (1 - 2cos气)
_'-- "'JIsintþ. (5.33)

It should be remembered that the above equations are for bending only when 10

the assumed deformed curvatures and twist per unit length are given by Eq.

Equation (5.25) indicates the rather unexpected result that the tension T,

althoJ,lgh positive for 0 < tþ < π, is small. Let, for example, R 1 = 0.031 in.,

R2 = 0.029 in., α= 70 0, ρ= 60 in., E = 30 X 106 psi, and v = 0.25. The previ-
ous equations yield values of G = 0.2610 cos 仇 G' = - 0.2453 sin 仇 H= -10
0.0714sin 仇 x = -10.5874 sin 仇 Y = 3.5093 cos 仇 Z = -21.3 139cos 仇 N=
-0.6181 cos 仇 N' = - 0.0348 sin 仇 and T = 3.5 277 sin tþ. Plots of the above
loads are shown in Figures 5.3 , 5.4, and 5.5. -20
Now let the total axialload on the strand be 710.3 lb. The contact load for
the axial case with no rotation is -196.45 lb/in., and this is sufficient to
generate the frictionalloads for small coefficients of friction. However, in the -30
axial case, the tensile load in an outside wire is 101.751b, which is considerably 0 60 120 189 240 30。 36。

higher than the maximum tensile load of 3. 53 lb due to the bending. '" (DEGREES)
The total stress acting on an outside wire at a point furthest from the
so-called neutral axis consists of four parts. The axial and bending stresses FIGURE 5.4. Contact loads as a function of ø.

.3 4


\ 3

. 2
,, 2
G ·\/ ,,,
• 1 10

(5.ZD ,,,



飞 -1

-. 1

飞 -2

-.2 飞

、, -3

-.3 -4
0 60 120 180 240 300 36。 0 6。 120 180 240 300 360

FIGURE 5.3. Bending moments as a functions of ø. FIGURE 5.5. Loads as a function of ø.

66 5 Friction in Wire Rope 5.2 Frictional E fTects in the Bending and Axial Loading of a Strand 67

due to the axialloading and the axial and bending stresses due to bending curvature is less than the deformed pitch on the side furthest frorn the 臼nter
with radius ρ. The value of these stresses are 38,510 - 4,950 - 1,330 + of curvature and yet the spring does not experience a tensile force.
12,8∞= 45,040 psi, whi1e the maximum stress on an outside wire at the It is therefore felt that, in the actua[ case of bending of a sirnp[e strand, the
neutral axis is 38,510 + 13,630 = 52,140 psi. The maximum tensile stress in tensile forces due to bending are rather srnall and can be neg[ected in a
the ∞nter wire is 45,仪沟+ 15,5∞ =ω,5∞ psi. determination of the stresses. The bending stresses are generally considerable,
The above results show, for the curvatures and twist assumed, that the however, and should be taken into a∞ ount. It is a[so interesting to note that
tensile stresses, caused by T, due to the bending of a simple strand are sma1[ the experirnents of Hobbs and Ghavarni [17] confirmed that in bending
when compared with the tensile stresses due to T for axial loads. fatigue the first failures occurred in the wires located at the neutral axis in a11
In the case of a spring subjected to pure bending [8], the final curvatures SIX tests.
and twist per unit length are approximated by Two estirnates for the curvatures and twist per unit length were considered
above. In bOí. h cases, the tensile forces in an outer wire were very srnall when
κ 一- . .. .、。 (5 .34) compared with the usual tensile loads in the axially loaded case. Since the
一。+ vcos 2α) p--叩
tensile loads were srna11, the bending stiffness was predorninantly detennined
cos 2α 2 sin20: •
by the bending stiffness of each wire, and hence, it is felt that Eq. (3.78)
K =-一一-一 牛 --- ~l U 哩'
r (2 + vco泸州 p , represents a fairly accurate estirnate of the bending stiffness and , as rnentioned
previously, experimental investigations [10] tend to confirrn this. It should be
and noted, however, that srnallline loads per unit length acting along the contact
sm α ∞S 出‘ 2(1 + v) sinαcosα_!_ 1. line due to friction rnay cause relatively large stresses along the line of contact,
τ 一---一一一十 (5.36)
- r ' (2 + v ∞泸州 --一--~Ul
p … v
since these are line loads.

The expressions for the curvatures are close to those assumed previously, since
2/(2 + vcos 20:) is close to unity. A substitution of the above curvatures and 5.3 Frictional Effects in Wire Rope
twist per unit length into the equations of equilibrium yields the result:
T=O. In the case ofaxially loaded ropes, the effects due to friction are again felt to
be srnall, especially in the case in which the outer strands are not in contact.
Also, In this case, the strand cross sections are allowed to rotate about an axis
N = 0, N' = 0, X = 0, Y = 0, Z = 0, (5 .37) passing through the centerline of the rope. In the case of a rope with a fiber
core, the cross sections are not as free to rotate about an axis passing through
2sinα16 (5.38) the centerline of the rope and, hen白, friction will ha ve some effect.
-一…4 (2 + vcos 2α) p __v .,. In the bending and tension of a wire rope with an independent wire rope
4 core, again , since the core tends to keep the strands from contacting each
G'πER 2sin 2α1·6 (5.39) other, the outer strands tend to contact the independent wire rope only and
4 (2 + vcos 2α)ρ

behave somewhat like the sirnple strand considered in Section 5.2. The total
and load in à strand due to bending is felt to be small cornpared with the load
for the axially loaded case. Hence, it is felt that the methods employed in
πER 4
sin αcosαin
一… ,p (5.40)
Chapters 3 and 4 to determines stresses are fairly accurate for deterrnining
+ v∞ S2α)ρ
… Y
4 (2
stresses in a rope with friction.
Consider again the same strand examined previously. In this case, the tensile
stress at the so-called maximum distance from the neutral axis is (38,510 -
4,950 + 12,620) = 46, 180 psi. The maximum tensile stress acting on an outside 5.4 Effective Length of a Broken Center Wire in a Simple
i11 wire at the neutral axis is (38,510 + 13,430) = 51 ,9ωpsi. Strand
The fact that the tensile loads T, due to bending in the outer wire, are small
seems difficult to ac∞ pt when one examines the bending of a beam in which
i111 Consider a simple strand axially loaded and not allowed to rotate. Let the
plane sections remain plane. However, if one considers the pure bending of a
center wire stress beσl ' Now let an imaginary cut be made in the center wire
spring, the deformed pitch on the side of spring closest to the center of
6lli of a simple strand that has a stress σo acting on it. This will divide the center

68 5 Friction in Wire Rope 5.4 Effective Length of a Broken Center Wire in a Simple Strand 69

wire into two parts. If σ。=町, the parts will not separate. Let the material be Equation (5 .43) indicates, the important result, that, for t' = 0, this maxi-
frictionless and the axial loads constant. If the stressσ。 is now reduced, the mum slip length, 1".., is independent of the axialload F , since σ1 and X 2 are
parts wi I1 separate. The outside wires wi1l pick up the additionalload being both linear in F.
released by the center wire. The contact force between the outer wires and the
Example 5. 1. Consider a simple strand with the following properties: Rl =
center wire will increase.
0.03155 in. , R 2 = 0.02893 in., P2 = 1. 3 ín., v = 0.25, E = 29 X 10 6 psi, m2 = 6,
Consider now the same strand in which the material coefficient of friction
and μ= 0. 1. Let Çl = O.∞3 and τ= O. The theory in Chapter 3 yields a value
is infinite. Again, let the center wire be separated into two parts by an
of X 2 = -266.91b./in. Equation (5 .43) becomes
imaginary cut and let the stress beσ'0' As stressσ。 is reduced from stress 町,
the faces will again separate except at the m2 contact points. The faces in the 0.1 x - 266.9 x 1
center wire will be deformed into a dishlike shape ifσ。 is constant. The outside 29 X 106 x O.∞3 xπX (0.03155)2 + 6~ "x ~.. :n.r^n衡阳 =0

wires will again pick up the additionalload, which is released from the ∞nter
wire. Since the ∞nter wire is not allowed to slip relative to an outside wire, with the result that Ims = 1.631 in. The actual slip length will be less than this
an invocation of Saint-Venant's principle yields a relatively short length in value. The actual stress in an unbroken center wire for the above strains is
which the stresses will again be distributed as thought the center wire were 87,∞o psi. If for example the actual slip length was 1.378 in., Eq. (5.4 1) would
notcut. yield a value of 鸟= 73 ,530 psi. The remainder of the wire would not slip and,
The actual case of the center wire experiencing a fracture is, of course, thus, in a very short length , the stress in the center wire will nearly be 87,000
somewhere between the two cases mentioned above. Le t the material have of ps1.
coefficient of frictionμ. As the center wire stress is reduced, two regions may
develop in the center wire. The region nearest the fractured end may slip
relative to the outside wires and the region that remains will not slip. An 5.5 Effective Length of a Broken Outer Wire in a Rope
estimate of the slip region can be ascertained by using the values of the line
contact loads developed in the unbroken center wire strand and the coefficient Figure 5.6 shows the fatigue failure of an independent wire rope core of
of friction μ. As mentioned previously, this line load is less than that of the 0.875-in. diameter regular lay 6 x 25 IWRC wire rope subjected to axial
broken 臼nter wire strand and thus should give a somewhat conservative loading only. The outer wires show no visable signs of fracture , although the
result [18]. wires in the internal coie of the rope are fractured into relatively short lengths.
Let 1. be the length of slip measured from the fractured end of the center The wires in the internal core are subjected to the largest axial stresses when
wire. A summation of the axial forces on the ∞nter wire of length 1. yields the rope is subjected to axialloading only. The fractures of the short lengths
(since X 2 is negative) appear to be the result of friction , which enables the 臼nter wires to sustain
their appropriate share of the load in a relatively short length. If the wires
σsπRî + m2μXZJL=0,
(5 .41) were very smooth, the tensile stress in the wires would remain at low levels
for a relatively long length along the wires from the fractured end and thus
in which σ~ is the tensile wire stress at the length 1.. This stress is less than the would not fracture into small pieces.
In general, the performance of a wire rope is usually not a tTected by an
stress in the unbroken wire. Let 1be the length of no slip along the center wire
wherein the stress increases from σ~ to nearly,叭, the stress in the center wire occasional broken wire in a rope. In fact in long ro庐s, it is possible to have
every wire broken somewhere along its length and yet the rope will still
of an unbroken strand. Thus, the effective length L., measured from the
fractured end of the center wire, in which the 臼nter wire picks up its appropri- function satisfactorily. There is sufficient friction in the rope to enable a broken
ate share of the load is given by wire to develop its total share of the load in a relatively short length. The
problem, however, becornes acute when a number of broken wires 0∞urin a
L. = 1. + 1. β.42) relatively short length along the rope. In the mining industry, for example,
some ropes may measure up to 7;α)() ft. Broken wires in the rope are monitored
It should be noted that the maximum s1ip length can be obtained by setting by passing the rope through an electromagnetic field that wi1l detect broken
乌 = σ1 in Eq. (5.41). Let this length be denoted 1...., and thus, wires. Many times the number of broken wires in a given length is used as a
retirement criterion for the rope. Since visual inspection will det-ect only
TL 」 broken outer wires and since the outer strands carry the main portion of the
1 饥Rf + m2μ. 气一一 =0. (5.4 3)
smoc2 load, an estimate of the effective length of an outer wire is important.


70 5 Friction in Wire Rope 5.5 Effective Length of a Broken Outer Wire in a Rope 71

Also , as the outer wire wraps around the strand it experiences line contact
loads with adjace fl. t wires. This line contact load increases as the tension in
an outer wire increases, and thus, if the wire is slipping, its tension will increase
due to the friction caused by the line contact loads.
Again the line contact load X 33 that acts on an outer unbroken wire as it
wraps around the strand can be calculated by the methods developed in
Chapter 4. When the wire is fractured, the contact line load decreases. It wi1l
now be assumed that the line contact load in the broken outer wire is
proportional to the tension in the wire. When the tension in the broken wire
reaches the tension in an unbroken wire, the line contact load will be the same
as that ofthe unbroken wire. 1t would be noted that theline contact load X 33 ,
actíng on an outer wire, is the resultant of the two line contact loads of the
inner lay of wires in an outside strand (see Figure 4.3). Each outside wire comes
in contact with two inner wires. This tends to increase the frictional force ,
since the components of X 33 must be used. Thus, the frictional force per unit
length J, due to the resultant contact load X 33 , is (since X 33 is negative)

X 一ω



in which 33 is the angle on a given cross section of an outer wire between the
resultant line load X 33 and a point of contact.
Example 5.2. Consider the l.306-in. diameter, Seale rope used in Section 4.2.
Let the axial strain be O.∞3 and the rotational strain be zero. From the theory
developed in Chapter 4, the following values are obtained: X 3 • = 一 1 ,725
FIGURE 5.6. Axial fatigue failure of an independent wire rope core of a 6 x 25 IWRC. lb/in"X33 = 436.81bfin. , T33 = 5101b, e33 = 21.99 0 , P33 = 2.467in.andS33 =
2.646 in. , where T33 is the tension in an outer unbroken wire and S33 is the
length of an outer wire from contact point to contact point. Let an outer wire
be fractured at a contact point. Thus, for a length of 2.646 in the tension in
The method employed to determine the efTective length of a center wire in
this outer wire will be zero. At the next contact point, the contact load, given
a simple strand can now be extended to the complex cross sections of wire
by Eq. (5.44), is F( = 472. 81b; thus, Eq. (5.45) yields an increase in tension,巧,
rope. Consider the 6 x 19 Seale IWRC rope shown in Figure 1.1. In Chapter
in the outer wire in which T,. = 0.1 x 2 x 472. 8 = 94.561b, where μ= 0.1 has
4, equations are presented that will determine the contact force per unit length
been used. Thus, as mentioned previously, the contact line load X 33 , in the
X 3 • Sinc晴 there are nine wires in an outer Seale strand, each outer. wire
next section from contact point to contact point, wil1 be assumed as - 436.8 x
experiences a contact load, F( , in which (since X 3 is negative)
94.56/510 = -80.99 lb/in. Equation (5 .46) yields J = 0.1 x 80.99/0.9273 =
8.733 lb/in. This frictional force acts on the next length of 2.646 in., and thus
9 (5.44) the tension in the outer broken wire just after the next contact point becomes
94.56 + 8.733 x 2.646 = 212.21b. This process is continued until the tension
where P33 is the pitch ofthe outer wires in the strand. Each time an outer wire in the wire is at least 510 lb (the tension in an unbroken wire).
comes in contact with the wire rope core it is su歧jected to the load F( acting & In this example, after a length ofjust greater than 4 x 2.646 = 10.58 in. , the
on both sides of the wire. Thus, if a broken wire is slipping relative to the other
calculated tension turns out to be 540.8 lb, which is greater than the 510 lb.
adjacent wires at the contact point, the change in tension T,. of the broken Thus, the maximum efTective length ofthis broken wire will be taken as 10.58
wire across the contact point will be given by in. This translates into a length of 9.284 in. along the rope. It is interesting to
note that the pitch of an outer strand is 7.88 in. , and thus the efTective length
马 =μ2F(. (5 .45) of a broken outer wire is about 18% greater than the pitch.
6.1 Axia! Testing ofa Wire Rope 73

Testing of a Wire Rope

6.1 Axial Testing of a Wire Rope

Initial1y, a load deformation curve was obtained experimentally for a 1.306-in.
diameter 6 x 19 Seale IWRC rope on a 6∞,α)Q-lb testing machine. A plot of
the load as a function of the deformation is shown in Figure 6. 1. In this test,
a 45-in. gage length was used and the total cross咽ctional area r. rrRr = 0.727
in. 2 • The experimental efTective modulus of the rope is about 18,4∞,∞o psi ,
although the preceding theory predicts an efTective modulus, based on E =
29,∞0,0∞ psi, of about 0.7 x E = 20,3∞,α)Q psi. The theoretically deter-
mined modulus is higher than the experimentally determined one, since con- 0.100 in.
tact deformation between the wires is neglected; also, the outer strands tend
to settle inside the radius of the IWRC, since the line load on the outer strand
acts only at the contact points. This last condition is especially apparent in
the initial loading of a rope. In the above theory it was assumed that the 。f'I,..'
~"'V 16
modulus of elasticity of the wire material was 29,α泊,α)Q psi.
Additional tests [15] were run on an !-in. 6 x 25 IWRC wire rope to
determine the modulus of elasticity of the wire material and to determine the
efTective modulus of a strand in the rope. A clip gage with a nominal gage
FIGURE 6.1. Load deformation curve of a 6 x 19 Sea!e IWR C.
length of 1 in. was used to determine the strain in an individual wire, as shown
in Figure 6.2. A drop of cyanoacrylate cement was applied at each contact
point to prevent slipping on the specimen. The specimen was loaded by file On the basis ofthe results in Table 6.1, it can be coÍlcluded that the Young's
grips, and fracture of the wire invariably occurred at a grip. The actual modulus of the steel is about 29.6 x 106 psi. The 0.2%-ofTset yield strength
diameter of each wire was measured with a micrometer calipter, and the data of the wire material was observed to be about 280 x 10 3 土 30 X 10 3 psi.
for the wire diameters, reported in Table 6.1, are felt to be accurate to within The ultimate strength was not accurately determined because failure never
aα)()2 in. on the basis of a statistical analysis of several measured values of
occurred away from the grips; however, it can be stated that the ultimate
the wire diameter for a given wire. Also reported in Table 6.1 are the corre- strength exceeds the 0.2%-ofTset yield strength by at least 5%.
sponding spring rates for the various wires and the resulting, experimentally Specimens of initially straight strand formed of a 0.037也.∞re wire wrapped
determined values of Young's modulus for the wires. The spring rate ð..F/Ae , , ,
left-handed in turn, by six 0.035-ÌD. wires six 0.015-皿 filler wires and twelve
was determined by taking the slopes of one or more unloading/reloading
portions of the load-del1ection curve, such as portions 2 and 3 of the curve in
0.032-in. wires were tested in a Richle 2∞,α)Q-lb tension/compression
machine as shown in Figure 6.4. A 12-in., beam-type clip gage was used to
Figure 6.3. Only those curves unloading/reloading curves for which the o fTset deterrnine the axial strain in the specimen. Four-inch-long steel collars with
yield strain was less than 0.3% were used. zinc-fil1ed tapered intemal bores were used to load the specimen; the individ-

74 6 Testing of a Wire Rope

FIGURE 6.2. Clip gage.




0.004 0.006 0.008 0.010 。012 0.014


FIGURE 6.3. Load deflection curve.

TABLE 6.1. Young's modulus.

Mm 乃一川

l i--aAU
Nominal wire Actual wire Spring rate Young's


ð. F/& modu1us E
diameter diameter

(in.) (in.) (l b) (psi)

0.015 0.0149 5,240 30.0 X 106

5, 190 29.8 X 106
0.032 0.0322 0.8143 X 10- 3 2日∞ 27.6 X 106
24,9∞ 30.6 X 106
0.035 0.0349 0.95656 X 10- 3 28,9∞ 30.2 X 106
29,2∞ 30.5 X 106
1.128 10-3 3日∞ 28.8 106

0.037 0.0379 X X

ual wires within the strand had been splayed in the collar prior to the pouring
of the molten zinc. In the testing machine, the col1ars were rigidly held by
means of Jζgroove grips, as shown in Figure 6.5. In view of the massiveness
of the testing machin四 and the method of gripping that was employed, one
can argue that the ends of the specimen were effectively prevented from
FIGURE 6.4. 2∞,α)()-lb testing machine.


76 6 Testing of a Wire Rope 6.1 Axial Testing of a Wire Rope 77

4 守 11 11'f
↑ l l

A typicalload-def1ection curve for the strand is shown in Figure 6.6. In the

otto - 1 l

test illustrated , the loading curve is slightly nonlinear right from the origin.
it I

The spring rate !l F/!le near the origin is approximately 0.42 x 106 lb. The
p o川


t - -!l l'il--
' E I--i

metallic area of the strand A. is 0.01768 in.2 • The effective modulus is then

given by Ee = !lF/As!lε= 0.42 x 106 /0.01768 = 24 x 106 psi. It should be

日 f|iti

l l--
圳 lin

noted that the computed value of Ee is about 81% ofthe value of E ofthe wire
FP I lli--

A regular-Iay 仨in. diameter, 6 x 25 F IWRC wire rope made from six of

the left-lay strands just described was tested. The strands were wrapped

right-handed about a core, which is itself a right-lay, lang lay 6 x 7 IWRC,

the smaller IWRC being a seven wire, right-Iay strand. The total metallic area
of the IWRC was computed to be 0.026 in.2 • The total metallic area A of the
rope was computed to be A = 0.132 in. 2
It's' stt

Tests on the 仨in. diameter rope were run on the same Richle 200,000凸

machine used to test the strands. Also, the same 12-in., gage-length clip gage



was used to determine the axial de f1 ectÍon. The ends of the rope specimens
were held by zinc-filled cylindrical sockets that were gripped by V-groove grips
to prevent rotation.
The detai! of the contact between the clip gage and the rope is shown in

Figure 6.7. The clip gage spanned approximately 22 crests of the six-strand
fL 霄'''tFEss-'eEEE--Elate--'ti'BE
FU创 刊 MUHill

FIGURE 6.5. Strand rope end connection.


叫 -J 川

dAa ,




明阳出 tutM

0 .1 2
山rIM川川咀14州地川 川泪刑


FIGURE 6.6. Load deflection curve for a strand. FIGURE 6.7. Clip gage attached to wire rope.
78 6 Testing of a Wire Rope 6.2 Effect of Rope Size on Rope Strength 79
rope, which means that the ends of the clip gage were not in contact with the
6.2 E fTect of Rope Size on Rope Strength
same strand within the rope. A plot of the 10ad-def1ection curve for the rope
is shown in Figure 6.8. Along the initial portion of the 10ad-def1 ection curve
Le t a group of straight wire specimens of different sizes be considered. There
of the virgin rope, the spring rate is rather small. Along the Iinear region
is a higher probab泌ty for sizable f1 aws to exist in the larger specimens simply
along the second unloading curve (between 20 x 103 Ib and 10 x 103 I时,
because they have a greater volume and a greater surface area and because
!:J.Fj!:J.εis approximately 2.3 x 106 lb. The effective Young's modulus E. for
high localized stresses may occur near the f1 aws. Also, it is noted that straight
the rope is then given by the equation E. = !:J.FjA!:J.ε= 2.3 x 10 /0.132 =
wire is the product of a series of drawing operations and this cold-working
17,4∞,仪)() psi.
increases the tensi1e strength of the material. Therefore Iarger-diameter wire
generally exhibits lower unit fracture strength because of the higher proba-
bility of containing sizable f1 aws and a smaller degree of cold-working. The
following example will show that larger-diameter ropes exhibit Iower unit
nominal strength than smaller-diameter ropes.
Let, for example, the nominal strength S of a wire rope be
S = 11 (d, v, E , n, K , type of rope), (6.1)
where d is the diameter of the rope, v is Poisson's ratio of the stock material,
E is the modulus of elasticity of the stock material, n is the strain hardening
coefficient of the stock material , and K is a stock material constant, which is
defined as the true stress at a true strain of 1.0. The term stock material is
defined as the raw material for manufacturing the wire. Other properties of
the stock material could be included in Eq. (6.1). They will not, however, affect
the results pointed out below.
A dimensional analysis [19] of Eq. (6.1) yields

S= 毗 (v,n,~, 川m (6.2)
Therefore, for the same type of rope and the same stock material, Eq. (6勾 l
o indicates that
d l
g 10,000
S = CEd 2 , (6.3)
where C is a constan t. Equation (6.3) indicates that the value of S of a wire
rope should increase with the diameter squared. Therefore
&=咐y, (6.4)

where the subscripts p and m refer to the prototype and model.

The actual nomial strengths and calculated nominal strengths for two types
of ropes are given in Table 6.2, where the actual nominal strengths were taken
from the Yellow Strand Wire Rope Handbook [20]. The calculated nominal
strengths were calculated according to Eq. (6.4) and were based on the 仨in.
diameter wire rope, that is, S = 23则 lb whend =去 in. The values of the
", ",

percent difference were calculated by the following equation

Calculated S-Actual S
FJGURE 6.8. Load deflectioD curve for rope. Percent differen∞=
Actual 'S
.._ ---- -
x 100. (6.5)

80 6 Testing of a Wire Rope 6.2 ElTect of Rope Size on Rope Strength 81

TABLE 6.2. Actual and calculated nominal strengths for two ty严:S ofrope. 1. 5

1.4 do z 1/2 inches

6 x 25, 6 x 30, Flattened Strand Yellow Strond Improved Plow Steel


6 x 19, 6 x 37, IWRC fiber core 1.3

d, Actual S Calculated S Difference Actual S Calculated S Difference

(in.) (1 b) (lb) (%) 。b) 。b) (%) 1.1
1.029 - 0.02519 Cd/dol
i 4 28 占 4且 aa 4 ?古

5,880 5,750 -2.2

13,120 12,994 - 1.4

AUAU'A 句,&句,&角』εJr 。句,


AU 句,句 3

23,000 23,以)() 0.0 23,600 ····E··

35,8∞ 35,940 0.4 36,870

51,2∞ 51 ,750 1.1 53, 1∞

69,2∞ 70,440 1.8 72,270

92;仅均 2.4 94,4<刀 。6


i a-

138 ,8∞ 143,750 3.6 147,5∞ 0.5 ‘
i21 2

207,以汩 4.6 212,4∞ 。 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 m



266,'α)() 281 ,750 5.9 239, 1∞ d/d。
344,'α)() 368,α)() 7.0 377,6∞
' 叫42d

524,仪)() 575,α)() 9.7 FIGURE 6.9. Plot of fs as a function of d/do'

740,'α)() 828,'α沁 11.9

982,α)() 1, 127,000 14.8


1,254,α)() 1 ,472,'α)() 17.4

TABLE 6.3. Nominal strengths for a 6 x 25

Flatten-Strand fiber -core wire rope.

Also, a11 the ropes were made of the same material- Yellow Strand Improved d Actual S Calculated S Difference
(in.) dJdo (l b) 。b) (%)

Plow Steel.

∞纺 mN

约 620mA2但 2mA

舍 4且 sa a-T
It should be noted that the higher the value of dp/d". , the higher the percent ,
23,686 0.3 6
dilTerence, which indicates that the larger-diameter ropes exhibit lower unit 36,778 0.49

52,626 0.43

巧∞ mM
nominal strengths than the sma11er-diameter ropes. Also, the percent dilTer- JP

71, 174 0.53 ;
en∞ seems to be independent of the type of rope 口 1].

9 2,368 0.40

, ,&2J
Aa-- 2 且 a
Now let the size elTect be taken into accoun t. The nominal strength S for a 14之467 0.33

∞ mN

given type of rope can be assumed as 202,477 0.24 i

271,952 -0.02


S 二 j与(d, v, E, n, K , do), (6.6) l


where do is a specified reference rope diameter and is introduced for the i
purpose of describing the size elTect. By dimensional analysis, Eq. (6均 t-
becomes from the Yellow Strand Wire Rope Handbook. Wheri the technique oflinear

S _1 d . K飞 regression is used, Is can be expressed approximately as
一τ=141 ~ , v, h 一 l (6.7)
剧' 气d o "'''' E)
Is = 川9 - 0.02519手, (6.9)
For given stock material, Eq. (6.7) can be written as
where do = 吉 in.
S SO r (d 飞
苟言=百ZM 飞do )'
(6.8) For a given stock material, Eqs. (6.8) and (6.9) are valid for any reasonable
type of rope. Equations (6.8) and (6.9) can now be applied to a 6 x 25
since So /Ed5 is a constant, and So is the actual nominal strength for the rope Flatten-Strand fiber-core wire rope. The results are shown in Table 6.3. Table
of diameter do. 6 .3 indicates that Eqs. (6.8) and (6.9) yield very a∞urate predictions for the
Let , fór example, do be chosen as 专 in. Figure 6.9 shows a plot of the nominal strengths. It therefore seems reasonable to consider do as one of the us''

function 15 for a 6 x 19 IWRC wire rope. Again a11 the data were taken primary parameters in the testing of wire rope.

! 1l

82 6 Testing of a Wire Rope 6.3 EfTect of Rope Size on Fatigue Life 83

6.3 EfTect of Rope Size on Fatigue Life procedures. The experimental data shown in Table 6.4 are adopted from
referen出s 22 and 23. The type of rope under consideration is a 6 x 41-FWS-
Consider now the fatigue testing of a wire rope running over a sbeave. In tbis Lang Lay-IWRC wire rope for which it is assumed that E = 29 X 106 psi.
section, a testing metbodology for small-diameter ropes will be introduced ,
Each N in Table 6.4 is an average of two tests; ß, which is sometimes used to
such that the fatigue life of larger-diameter ropes can be ascertained from the predict the fatigue life, is called the Drucker-Tachau bearing pressure ratio,
testing of small-diameter ropes. Again, before a testing program is undertaken, which is defined [24] as
a dimensional analysis of the problem should be made. 卢 2T
In order to simplify the problem, only tbe effects of the axial tension in the
(6 .1 3)
rope T, the sheave diameter D, and the rope diameter d on the fatigue life of
where U is the ultimate strength of the wire material. The purpose of this
the rope will be studied. It will now be assumed that the number of cycles to
failure N for a given type of rope can be assumed to be
procedure is to predict the fatigue life of 3-in. diameter rope from the test data
of the 0.75-in. and 1.5-in. diameter rope. 白le error is about 1∞% if one uses
l斗 =j斗(T, D, d, E, v, 6"c, u'"b, do), (6 .10) the Drucker-Tachau criterion.
Let the values of do be chosen as 0.75 in. Figure 6.1 0 shows the relationship
where 6'f is the fatigue ductility coefficient of the stock material, c is the fatigue
ductility exponent of the stock material, σí is the fatigue strength coefficient
of the stock material, and b is the fatigue strength exponent of the stock TABLE 6.4. Fatigue life data.
material. Again, additional parameters may be listed but they will not affect d(in.) D(in.) T( Ki ps) η'Ed 2 Djd djd。 乌 (cycles) F
the conclusions drawn below. Also do is a specified reference rope diameter,


which is introdu臼d for the purpose of describing the size effect. 0.75 15.0 17.83 1.093 X 10-3
74,665 11.10 X 10- 3
0.75 15.0 13.37 0.820 X 10-3 101,985 8.35 X 10- 3

.、 3'3
A dimensional analysis of Eq. (6.10) results in <
0.75 22.5 17.83 1 朋3 X 10-3 UAU
123,2∞ 7.42 X 10- 3
(T D σ飞 d 飞 0.75 22.5 13.37 0.820 X 10- 3
183,2∞ 5.57 X 10- 3
冉 =j与卜::J'2一,吨, c,~, b, v 一 l (6.1 1)

J 飞Ed 2 ' d , I'~' E , ,., d ) 1.50 30.0 59.06 0.905 x 10- 3 58,671 9.16 X 10- 3

, 句,"句
U u
1.50 30.0 53.ω 0.821 X 10- 3 65,737 8.33 X 10- 3
If the tests are now limited to a specific stock material, Eq. (6.1 1) becomes 7.29 X

3 句3
1. 50 45.0 70.29 1.077 10- 3 95,511 10- 3


1. 50 45.0 53.60 0.821 X 10-3 131,339 5.56 X 10- 3
_ (T D d 飞
(6.12) 3.∞ 90.0 330.∞ 1.26 10- 3 30 4 29,346 9.40 X 10- 3
叮=凡飞苟言'百'do )

The following test procedure may now be fol1owed in order to determine

1.5∞篇 10吗
the size effect on the fatigue life.
1. Choose a value of do. 1.2制翼盯.,

2. Let d/d o = 叭 , where a1 is a number determined by the diameter d of tbe

rope being teste<,l. 1.000翼10-'

3. Let D/d = 鸟, where b1 is a number determined by tbe diameter D of tbe 制-


testing sheave. -

, 2
4. Plot the N versus T/Ed curve by changing the values of T. ~OOO 民

‘ ,
5. LetD/d = 屿,凡. . ., and repeat step 4. A family of N versus 盯Ed curves 2

for D/d = 句 , bz, …, and d/do = a1 can be constructed.

6. Change the value of d/d o by changing d and repeat the above procedure. 。吨k
i ||
Finally, the effects of T/Ed 2, D/d, and d/do on N for this type of ropeωn
鱼。第 1.0.雨
Nf. Cycfea
I!I翼 w. 1()5

be determined by using extrapolation and interpolation.



FIGURE 6.10. Plot of N as a function of T/Ed 2 and D/d for d/do = 1.


An example will be given for the of describing the foregoing

tja tιLit

84 6 Testing of a Wire Rope 6.3 Effect of Rope Size on Fatigue Life 85

between TIEd 2 , Dld, and 1斗 for dldo = 1. Figure 6.11 shows the same relation. The value of 乌 for Dld = 30, η'Ed 2 = 1.264 X 10- 3 , and dldo = 1 can be
ships for dldo = 2. In this example, it is assumed that the relationship between obtained from Figure 6.1 0 , and hence, Nf = 85,6∞ cycles. Also when dldo = 2,
TIEd 2 and 1斗 is 1inear, since only two sets of data were provided. However, Figure 6.11 yields 1斗= 69,340 cycles. Hence, the points A and B are shown
it should be noted that more than two sets of data should be provided for one plotted in Figure 6.1 2. This yields a plot of Nf as a function of dldo for Dld = 30
curve in practical cases and then the relationship would probably not be and 盯'Ed 2 = 1.264 X 10- 3 • Finally, the value of Nfforthe 3-in. diameter rope,
linear. that is dldo = 4, can be ascertained by uti1izing the technique of extrapolation;
Consider now the prediction of the bending fatigue life of a 3-in. diameter hen饵,乌= 36,780 cycles. Since the test result ofthis example is 29,346 cycles,
wire rope running over a 90-in. diameter sheave, where the rope is subjected this yields an eπor of about 25%.
to an axial tension of 330 kips. Hence D/d = 30 and T/Ed 2 = 1.264 X 10- 3 .

l500 翼10.3

1.254.10咋….. "、..申........-三气‘
'-. 、.
! ,..........
1.... -_~^

1.1αXh lO-lI

i\\ 飞\\
← M}


~'õ m双~ 1.0.丽E 飞.5 .1届 2.0‘盼'
Nf. Cycles

FIGURE 6.11. Plot of NJ as a function of TfEd 2 and Dfd for dfdo = 2.

1 .5拢。,

。 Id .30
T/(Ed l ).1.264xIO'1I

ODa 2 z s 6

FIGURE 6.12. Plot of 也tigue life prediction as a function of dfdo•

7.1 Equations of Motion 87

Birdcaging in Wire Rope

7.1 Equations of Motion

In many cases, wire rope is subjected to impact loads which send axial and
torsional responses up and down the rope. If the loads are severe enough, the
outer strands can separate from the core in a permanent manner and thus
render the rope useless. Such a phenomenon is generally known as birdcaging.
A bird cage is a term often used to describe the permanent appearan臼 ofa
wire rope forced into compression. Figure 7.1 , taken from the Wire Rope U sers
M anual [4], depicts such an event. t!
Consider again the simple straight strand shown in Figure 3. 1. The follow-
FIGURE 7. 1. A bird cage in a wire rope.
ing can be written down by combining several equations in Chapter 3.
Ç2 =α1ε + a2ß ðα2 = a3ε +a4ß σ.1)
ðK2 = a5ç2 + a6 ðα 2 ðt 2 = a7ç2 + a 8 ðαzσ.2) where E is the modulus of elasticity and
a. = __r2 tan 2α2 - vR 1 ri tan 2αz k1 =al a S+ a 3 α6 ' k 2 = a2a5 + a4 a6'
1=rz+rztanzα2+VR2az=R(rz+r2tanzα2 + vR2)
k3 = a1a7 + a3 α8' and k4 = a2a7 + a4a8.
(1 + v)r2 tanα2 tan 2α
a = -ri 22( 7 3 ) Also
3 一 (T2 + T2 tan 2α 2 + vR 2) "4 _ R(r2 + T2 tan (X 2 + vR2)
F内C ‘ (X, _. sm (X 户oS (X
vcos 2α 2 (vR 1 ∞S (X2 句.飞∞S 句 N'2 = H2 --~_ 一王 -G'2 一.u. ~2'一一-Z, (7.5)
句=一一一一 句=卜--一一- 1. smα2 I 一一- r2 T2
- T2 \ r2 tanα2 -/ r2
v sin α2 COSα 2 • 1- 2sin 2α 2 . vR 1 cos 2α2 1ì = πER~Ç2 = πERi(a 1 e + a2ß), (7.6)
a7 = ana a8 = _ 1- --τ言-一-,
~ ~ ~ and
where, again, 6 is the axial strain, ßis tbe rotational strain, v is Poisson's ratio, , sin α2 cosα2 ~ cos2 (%2
Ç2 is the axial wire strain in an outer wire, ð句 is the change in helix angle of X 2 = N'2 一一一一-一一 - T2 _:_一一二, (7.7)
T 2 - T2
an outer wire, ðK2 is the change in curvature of an outer wire¥ and ðt2 is the
twist per unit length of an outer wire. The expressions for the bending moment where N ' 2 is the shearing force in an outer wire, T2 is the tensile force in an
σ2 and the twisting moment H 2 in an outer wire are outer wire, and X 2 is the contact line load per unit length acting on an outer
臂 ER~ 骨ER~
G2'=-一:':='(k 1 ε + k 2P) and H2 = 一一-.-", (k 3 ε + k 4ß), (7 .4) Since G' 2 and H 2 are functions ofεand p, so are N' 2 and T2 , and hence,
4(1 + v)
Eq. (7.7) determines X 2 as a function of εand ß. If the outside wires are to

88 7 Birdcaging in Wire Rope 7.1 Equations of Motion 89

remain in contact with the ∞nter wire, X 2 < O. When X 2 > 0; the outside where
wires separate from the center wire. Hence, setting X 2 = 0 in Eq. (7.7), yields
_x=R_u;;: F~ M _ t
εas a linear function of ßso that the outside wires are just touching the center =百, κ= 瓦 , u= γ= 石, JYl = 汪古, t=-百万' (7.12)
wire. Figure 7.2 shows such a plot.
A consideration of the variations of the axial force F and the axial torque 飞J AE
M, for a strand leads to the equations of motion for a strand element. The 2 3
ðF. =òF mR h òM mR h ""òM
resulting equations are a= 一一 .b=R 一一 c= 一一一-一:"'::"'_d=:':':一-R 一- (7 .1 3)
。ε ,- -' òß" JA ðε' 四 IA •. òß'

Pa au-

2Uτ 。



-- m (7.8)
x is the axial coordinate along the strand, u = u(x, t) is the axial displacement ,
ø= Ø(x, t) is the axial rotation, t is time, A is the metallic area of the strand,
and m is the mass per unit length of the strand, and 1 is the mass moment of inertia
ðMòε . òM òß
----ι ---::::::
ø (7.9)
per unit length of the strand. Since
òe òx . òß òx - ò(1-'
F= C 1ε +C2 ß (7.1 4)

which can be written as
情 -P





a (7 .1 0)

M=C3 ε + C4 ß, (7.1 5)

where the constants C1> C2 , C3 , and C4 are determined in Section 3.4, Eqs.
and (7.1 0) and (7.11) are a set of coupled linear partia1 differential equations for
c -o-τ
, ò2 ð Ø ø 2
(7.1 1)
which the solution 回n be found for various boundary and initial conditions.
òx 2 +d~τ= 2 一=亨,
' - òx Òγ'

7.2 Solution of Equations

Solutions of the equations of motion [Eqs. (7.1 0) and (7.1 1月 with various
initial and boundary conditions can be determined by Lapla臼 transform
Consider, for example, a strand of length h, initially under a uniform tensile
load and at rest so that
, x nu = x h- Ø(x, O) = 0, 。¢
ZM = 0, and 一位, 0) =仇 (7.1 6)



where ð is the axial deflection of the strand at x 兰 h. Let the boundary

no separation conditions be given by
u(O, t) = 0, Ø(O, t) = 0, u(h, t) = f(t) , and Ø(h , t) = 0, (7.17)
where the form for f(t) will be assumed later. 1n terms of the dimensionless
separation variables, Eqs. (7.1 6) and (7.1 7) become

=0, 22(又 0) = 0,
nu•• -

Z = ..,

ü(芳;0) =础, Ø(王;0) Ut , , (7.1 8)

AXial Strain , f 。t


刷叭 r们川

队, -f

nvJU=d n
同凡呱 nu
' ü(l, η=11σ), Ø(l, η=0,
A - 'n =


FIGURE 7.2. Plot showing r-egions of separation. ,

90 7 Birdcaging in Wire Rope 7.2 Solution of Equations 91

Equations σ.10) and (7.1 1) become, after taking the Laplace transform, Equation (7.25) yields

非 -T

?1 一-X


+ eo -u ea-x


d 1 =gI Cl' d2 =gl 句, d3 = g2 C3, and d4 = g2 句,

,z ,.
(7.20) (7.3 1)


1 _ n.. 2 1 __2

FLW + JU a'te2mv (7.21)
gl = 气乒 and g2 = 与严 (7.32)
aei oei
A satisfaction of the transformed boundary conditions
ü(O, s)=O, Ø(O, s) = 0, ü(l, s)=j(功, and ø(1, s) = 0
ü(又s) = L(ii) = 1'" iil阶-ii T. d (7.22)
results in

们(s) = 去石[j(S) 一 ~J卢7F


The homogeneous solution of Eqs. (7.20) and (7.21) is obtained by assuming
a solution of the form
ü = Cke rkx and
A substitution of Eq. (7.23) into Eqs. (7.20) and (7.21) (the homogeneous
ø= dke r•x. (7.23)
咄2纠ωS山刷唰(s均) =
c乌ω - fz h f ]tF:王
equations) yields
C30)=JL lns) 一生 I~τ
~=~a + d)S2 士 s2.j{i+辰一 4(ad - bc) σ.24) gl-921 s le"'-e
rf = 2'(ad bc) and
and (1, 1.". . I
!:t. 1
d-)- c4 (s) = 一 -L- l(s) 一一卜一一一一, (7.34)



gl-g2L'" sJe"'-e-
ddu =-u
ku FIW
il tk

where the exponential factors appearing in Eq. (7.34) can be expanded in a

TLU nr'"HU -U power series; that is,



puw FUW

E 佬,

' z豆 =
U_ = - and ø =0. (7.26)
-一一.一一- '\、 ..-(2,, + 1)... (7.35)

p ee~ - e-eks "~o

• s

Equation (7.24) yields four roots and, hence, the solution for the trans- Since the solution for ü(又 s)and Ø(芳; s), is known, the inverse transform can
be obtained. The result is
formed variables can be written as
百(.5巳 η
创汇 s) = Cl (s)e'" 言 + C2(俨.x + C3(俨
g2 艺 {][t - (2n + 1- X' )e 1 J - 孟}H[t - (2n + 1 一王)elJ
and 92 - 91 .~O

n 回
品(X', s) = d1 (s)e"'x + d2(s)e"'x + d3(s)e' X + d4 (s)e-句气 2
' (7.28) 一 -三~ L {l[f - (2n + 1 +王)e 1 ] - 6}H [t - (2n + 1 + 王)e 1 J zj
g2 - gl ,,~O l
where L
h + d) +..j(λ辰一 4(叫一 bc) + _9_1 艺 {1[t - (2n + 1 一支)句] - 6}H [t - (2n + 1 斗)e 2 J

e1 = (7.29) gl - g2'~
2(ad - bc)

岳飞, nbLu- -t$P

and '.
gl - g2
{1[t一 (2n + 1 付)句J- 孟}H[f一 (2n + 1 +王)e 1 J

la + d) +..j(函可 - 4(ad - bc) '、曾川

e2 = (7.3 0) 飞' +X'!:t.
2(ad - bc) (7 .3 6)
92 7 Birdcaging in Wire Rope 7.3 Numerical Results 93

and initia lJy under a uniform tensile load and twisting moment. The initial strains
areε=0.∞3 and ß = O. The end at x = h is displaced in a linear manner so
Ø(豆, η
as to reduce the tensile load. After a time, T, the end is held fixed at the
displaωment !J.j2. The quantity Tthen determines the velocity ofthe impacted
=生旦L 艺{1[f - (2n + 1 - x)e 1J - 孟}H[f一 (2n + 1- x)e 1J
end of the strand. The equation for the straight line shown in Fig. 7.2 for the
g2 - gl 0=0
given strand is ß = 一 4.6805ε. If the impacted end has a velocity of23 .47 fps,
一生ι 艺 {Ï[T - (2n + 1 叶剑 J - K}H[T - (2n + 1 + x)e 1 J the strains at the end x = 0, after the first reflection, are ε=0.0∞257 and
g2 - gl n";"O ß= 一 O.∞ 102, which indicate a point in Figure 7.2, where the wires do not
separate. If the impacted velocity is increased to 24.2 fps, the theory indicates
+主ι 艺{Ï[f - (2n + 1 - x)e2J - K}H[f - (2n + 1 一支)e2J a strain ofε=0.0∞172, and ß = 一 O.∞ 105, which is in the separation zone.
gl - g2 n-;""O
An impacted velocity of about 23.88 年s yields Xz = 0 at the fixed end x = 0,
with a strain ofε=0.α)()2232.
一主ι 艺 {Ï[T一 (2n + 1 刊)马]一句 H[T一 (2n + 1 +王)e 2 J, The above theory indicates wire separation even if the axial strain is
gl - g2 n-;-O
(7.3 7) positive. The wires can separate, due to twisting, with a reduction in the tensile
load. If a rope is carrying a heavy load and the load is suddenly partially
where H(t) is the unit step function. released,wire separation is possible.
The local strains ε = ðü/ðx and ß = ðØ/ð至 can be obtained by di fTerentia- The above theory can be extended to wire rope with complex cross sections.
ting Eqs. (7.36) and (7.37). The form of the equations remains the same. It is possible, however, to have
the wires or strands separate and still not form a bird cage, for, as not巳d
previously, a bird cage is a permanent condition and thus would require
7.3 Numerical Results inelastic behavior in the wires.
The following numerical results are presented for a given steel strand with the
fo lJowing characteristics:
h = 120 in.
R 1 = 0.03155 in.
R 2 = 0.02890 in.
pz = 1.30 in.
v = 0.25
E = 30 X 10 6 psi
m2 =6
Let !J. = 0.360 in. and

for 0 ~ t $ T,

for t ~ T.

Also, let the ends of the strand be prevented from rotation, let the strand be
initially at rest under a uniform tension co口esponding to the displacement !J.
at the end x = h, and let the end x = 0 be fixed. This coπesponds to a strand
8.1 Rotation of a Wire Rope 95
8R M.
0 DA RO+ta 0n
页3' = 0.1 67ε+ 0.0694点 (b)

Now let M, = O. Equation (坊, above, yields 卢= -2.406εand, henc哩, Eq. (a),
above, becomes
AE = 0.8∞ε­
一-= (c)

If F = 10,α)() lb, ε= 0.00194, ß = 一 O.∞468, and the angle of twist per unit
length becomes
h= -0.0153 radfin. (d)

8.1 Rotation of a Wire Rope If the strand , for example, were 30 in. long, the rotation of one end of the
strand with respect to the other would be
As was shown previously, the total axial force F and the total axial twisting
moment M, acting on a rope 四n be expressed as 360
-0.0153 x 30 x -2~~ = -26.3 5 degrees. (e)

AE -. + C2 ß
When a rope is allowed to rotate fully, the results are even more oro-
nounced. This is because a rope has relatively finer wires in a given 卢oss
and section than does a simple strand.For example, the equations for the 6x19
M_'. = C~e + ι8.
ER~ -.,- ~. •
(8.2) Seale IWRC wire rope considered in Chapter 4 are

where A = LπRf, R is the radius of the rope and εand ß are the axial and .!_ = 0.7020ε + O.l 232ß (F'A)
rotational strains. The rotational strain is defined by the equation
ß=Rτ, (83)
where τis the angle of twist per unit length. 坐i' = 0.2060ε
也κ j --- ---- +. 0.04阳
_.- ._-,.., (g)
The above equations enable one to determine how much one cross section
rotates relative to another under a given loading system. For example, in ∞rd and , hence , for M, = 0,
composites , the rotation of cord becomes important in determining the axial
F ( ku)
stiffness of the cord. Also, some ropes are joined together by making a loop -一=
AE 0.0722ε.
_._ . ---,
or an eye in the en.ds of the ropes and then tucking the ends of the strands
back into the main body of the rope (a splice). If one end of the rope rotates which indicates a large reduction in the efTective modulus. Also ß = - 5.1128.
with respect to the other end, the efficiency of such a splice can be significantly
Example 8.2. Consider a right-lay 6 x 19 Seale IWRC wire rope is 30 ft long
redu∞d [25J.
and 3in.in diameter.Let this rope be attached to a left-lay 6x19Sealc IWRC
Example 8.1. Consider a simple straight strand with R 1 = 0 .1 03 in., R 2 = wire rope, 40 ft long and 2 in. in diameter. Let the rope be Ioaded so that both
0 .1 01 in., P2 = 9.75 in., E = 28,5∞,α)() psi, v = 0.25, and m2 = 6. This is the ends of the 70-ft rope are prevented from rotating.
strand considered in Example 3.3. The results are The equations for the right-Iay rope are

0.975ε + 0.0728ß (a) .!_ = 0.7020ε + 0.1 232ß (a)
and and

96 8 Rope Rotation 8.2 Hand-Spliced Ropes 97

1主 R
=0.20仙+。 ω0布;
TABLE 8. 1. Sling efficiencies for various test procedures.
for the left-lay rope, Oneend Load-unload breaking
Sling Straight fr<臼 to cycle with strength
id∞tification pull rotate rotation
0.7020ε 一 0.1232ß
F_ = (c)
AE Standard Eye 71.97 35.84 12.83 45,2∞
Cargo-Marine 73.98 73.61 56.69 45,2∞
and Admirality 76.88 68.92 67.92 45,2∞
Wallace Hidden Tuck ω.27 49.80 44.1 6 45,2∞
~'. =-0却60ε+0 创038 (d) Loggers 67.39 68 .45 56.1 1 45,2∞
ER j
Lock-tuck 94.39 59.91 49.36 43,7仪沪
Tapered and Con∞aled 77.40 49.80 68.68 44,7∞·
The sign convention for positive ε,卢, F, and M , are the same as that used in Li verpool 89.45 58.05 50.27 43,7∞·
Chapter 3. Australian 49.77 43,7∞·
Let the 70-ft rope be loaded with a 250,α刀-lb load and left the metallic area Press-Grip.. 91.65 83.43 74.56 45,2∞
of the right-Iay rope be A , == 4.1 9 in. 2 and the left-lay rope, A = 1.86 in. ~ , • Estimated rope breaking strengths.
Equations (a), (坊, (c), and (d) b巳come •• M民haniωllyspli∞d sling.
:iï = 0.70208, + 0.1 232
x 一一一一一一
2 30 x 12'
hand-spliced slings where the sling may rotate." In this arlicle, tests were run
3.00 ()
0.20608, + 0.0403 x 一一一一
2 30 x 12'
on ropes to determine the sling efficiencies of various hand-spliced ropes.
Table 8.1 , taken from the above-mentioned article, shows the efficiencies for
30 X 106 X 恬) various types of hand-spliced slings.
The results show that a rather large drop in the efficiencies can occur if one
250,αMD _ __ __ _ .__ _ 2.∞。
0.7020ε, .1 232 x 一一一一一-:-::- end of the rope is free to rotate relative to. the other. As the rope rotates, one
1.86 x 30 X 10;;b = -. . ----, +. 0-.---- 2 40 x 12 , end relative to the other, the strands tend to straighten out. This wíll reduce
and the line contact load between the strand and the core. Since a spli臼 depends
upon friction to sustain the load, this reduction in contact load will reduce
丛寸寸= 0.20606,一 0.0403 x 一一一
12\3 -.-----, -.- -- 2 40 x 12
the allowable friction load and hence the axialload will be reduced. Sometimes
6 the unwinding is severe and, hence, the large strain theory should be used.
30 X 10 X t~)

where it is assumed that at the connection both ends ofthe rope rotate through
the same angle (). The solution to the above equations for () is
。= -3.∞85 rad = -172.37 degrees,
which means that both sections of the rope unwind. Also M , = 53,823 in. lb,
ε,= O.∞503, and ε, =0.ω748. Both sections of the rope should be checked
to see if the contact force between the strands and IWRC is negative.

8.2 Hand-Spliced Ropes


In an article entitled "Warning: Hand-Spliced Slings and Rotating Loads-a

Bad Combination" by Gail Dull and Robin Parkinson [25] , the author
hammer home an inviolable commandment: Thou shalt not use single-lift
9.1. Tension (contact between adjacent wires) 99

Tension and Compression of a Cord

9.1 Tension (contact between adjacent wires)

Consideration wi11 be given to a cord or strand consisting of three wires with
the cross section shown in Figure 9. 1. The method can be extended to other
types of cross sections. If the three wires are just contacting each other in the
undeformed state, Eq. (3.8) becomes

r=RF平 (9.1)
FIGURE 9.1. Cross section of a cord with three wires.

where R is the wire radius, r denotes the helical radius of a wire, and αis the
helix angle. When the cord is loaded, the following can be written: 1i -h ,óα
ε= --
. 一 =é+ 一一一 (9.6)
h tan 出

r=R…F示,问 and

where it is assumed that the wires remain in contact with each other, r is the rτ= 主兰}=立工;: 4 .1 11AN
, , ,
deformed heli四1 radius 1i is the new helix an g1e v is Poisson's ratio and ç is
the axial wire strain. Since the change in the helix angle 'ó1X and the wire strain
• h tan IX" •
L{1 + 3 sin2α:)tan Zα

are assumed small, Eq. (9.2) can be written as where εis the axial strain of the cord , h is the originallength of the cord, ïi is
the finallength of the cord, τc is the ang1e of twist per unit length of the cord,
r r I _ COSα 伞 l
。 is the original angle !hat a wire sweeps out in a plane perpendicular to the
1、" ' (9.3)
1 - Ví -
.、 (1 + 3 sinzα) 剑n lX一I axis of the cord, and 9 is the final angle that a wiré sweeps out in a plane
perpendicular to the axis of the cord.
The original pitch p of the wires is given by
The loads and moments become (see Chapter 3)
p=2πr tanα­ (9.4)
= =-R'óκ飞
4---- ' (9.8)
Equation (9.3) yi巳lds the following: ER ~

r~ = 1 +-..
vç +飞

(9.5) τ~ = 一一二~ Rð.τ. (9.9)
(1 - 3 sin~α:) tanα ER" 4(1 + vr---'

An analysis of the deformed configuration of the cord shown in Figure 9.1 w-M H
results in (see Figure 3.4)
w 7 (9.1 0)

1∞ 9. Tension and Compression of a Cord 9. 1. Tension (contact between adjacent wires) 101

T defined by the equation

ER 2 = 时, (9 .1 1)
卢 = Rcτc'
X N' sin αcosα T cos 2α It should be remembered that the equations above are valid if the contact
(9.1 2)
ER ER 2 r/R ER 2 r/R' force per unit length X is less than zero, since X is positive in tension.

一 (朵 N'
ER2 = 3~ER2 smα + ER:τ2' cos lX l , α) (9.1 3) EXAMPLE 9. 1. Consider a cord consisting of three wires withα= 840 and
v = 0.25. Equation (9.1) yields
M, _1 H. G' r ( T N 飞 l
i=1 阳,
前= 31 昆主 mα + ER 3 COSα+ 豆 lE~2 COS IX - ~~2 sin 咐, (吼叫
and Eq. (9.7) results in
where G' is the bending moment in a wire, E is the modulus of elasticity, ð..,,' rrc = 0.1 3138ç - 0.99726ð..α.
is the change in curvature of a wire, ð..τis the change in twist per unit length
Equation (9.15) and (9.1 6) become
of a wire, H is the twisting moment in a wire, N' is the shearing force in a wire,
T is the axial force in a wire, X is the resultant ∞ntact force per unit length R ð..K = 0.OO2362ç - 0.1 79557Aα
acting on a wire, F is the total axial load acting on the cord, and 品{, is the and
total axial twisting moment acting on the cord.
The expressions for the changes in curvature and twist are given by Rð..τ = 0.022476e - 0.84355ð..饵,

Rð..,,' = 竖立一坐兰 Now, letτc = 0 = ß and ε=0.∞3. Equations (9而) and (9.7) become
f/R r/R
O.∞3 = ç+ 0.0105104ð..α
r/R l'(v cos

--- :)e+ 土
1"1 . ~ c~s子一
r/R L(
. sin a -2 sinαcosαI
---- -- - - - - J -- and
(9 .1 5) 。= 0.13138ç - 0.99722ð..α,

and respectively, with the result that ç = O.∞2959 and ð..α=0.仪沁33984.

Hence, the following equations become ‘

Rð.. K= 一 0.0仪沁6301,

in αcosαl 向 cos 3αl Rð..τ= 一 O.仪lO26234,

=一 r/R ".+ 1
11- - -2 ---- -- . 1 +丁?可一
sin 2α+τ? 3 sin 2α|1 ð..a (9 .1 6)
主= -0.∞∞4949.
ER~ - ---- -- -,
As before, the total axial force F and the total axial twisting moment M , can
be expressed as

ER~ ------- --,

主 =C 1 e+C'lß

AE ,•

立=。- ω∞肌­
ER~ ---------,
生= C-..,3 G + C4 ß, 阳) 王可 =0.ω296.
ER~ ER'" -
where Rc = r + R i沁sthec∞ord radius, A = IπR?扫is 白 t hemetalli比
ea ofthe cord, C 1 , C 2 , C3 , and C4 are constants, and ßis the rotational strain
ER ------- .--,
102 9. Tension and Compression of a Cord 9.2. Compression (no contact between adjacent wires) 103

The expressions for the change in curvature and twist of a wire become
ER 0.027736.
cos 2 ã cos 2α

Rll K' = -一一一 - 一一一一

and- 1'/ R r/R
cos 2α llr 丰 sin αcosα­

=0 ∞28620
r/R r4r/R α

Since Rc = r + R = 2.1 5629R, Eqs. (9.1 7) and (9.18) become Rll't = SlO αcos cx S10αcosα
F F 0.027736 1'/ R r/ R
一 =γτ口= -一一一 = (0.∞3)C 1
AE 3πR 2E 3π sin αcosαllr (1 - 2 sin 2 α) •
r/ R r 斗 r/R ßa.、 (9.21)
where l' = r + llr. Equations (9.8), (9.9), and (9 .1 0) yield the result that
M O.∞2862
= E(2.1 5629)3 R 3 =一一一一=
(0.∞3)C3 , Nπv sin αcos 3α llr πcos 2α (1 - 2 sin 2α ‘\
气?τ .~. ( 一一一-一一 + 2 sin 2α I lla. (9.22)
ER 2 4(r/ R)2(1 + v) r . 4(r/ R)2 \ 1+ v . - Y" . -)

respectively, with result that

Equations (9.9) and (9.22) can be combined to solve for ç, and hence,
C 1 = 0.9810 and C3 = 0.09515.
dsinZαcos 2α llr sin αcosα(1-2sin 2 α • \
= 一-+ -一一-一一~ (一-一一一一一.:..
4(r/ R)2 (1 + v) r . 4(r/R)2 \ 1+v +. 2- Y._
sin~α IIIα
Now, if one letε= OandC = O.∞1 , by proceeding similarly, the values of C2
and C4 become
Equation (9.6) results in
C 2 = 0.0553 and C4 = 0.017938 3. . ïi - h lla.
Hence, h ~. tan α

v sin 2α cos 2α llr

0.981ε + 0.0553ß, - 4(r/R? (1 + 吟 7

and [叩+
si~ .a. .~~~ a. ←一+
0 一川
1+ v
2 \
- -- a.
. -2 sin )]
..; lla. (9.24)

0.09伪 + 0.0179ß Equation (3.28) can be written as

8- e r (1 +ç
=r -一-一 = - I ---ßα l 一 --一
•\ 1
h l' \ tan α / tanα

9.2 Compression (no contact between adjacent wires) =忐r(旨 -lla) - 牛

In the previous section, the wires were assumed to be in contact with each
other. The equations above have to be modified if the wires do not contact = [i Sl川的一叫生
4(旷R)2(1 + v) sinαr
each other.
[ωS2 a (1 - 川\
In the case ofloading the cord with no contact, Eq. (9.2) is no longer valid.
Since X = 0 , Eq . (9.1 2) yields 可有P\.
1. .l -.+v
2α ~". - + 2 sin ) - 1J llα(9.25)
Tk"IU "')

N' T Hence, in the above case for separation, now, the various quantities are
=- tanα= --=-=-τ =ζ
ER ..._.. ER' ' (9 .1 9) functions of llcx and llr/ r.
104 9. Tension and Compression of a Cord 9.2. Compression (no contact between adjacent wires) 105

EXAMPLE 9.2. Consider, again, a cord consisting of three wires with α=84。
and v = 0.25. Equation (9.1) yields 主=一o
ER Z∞4431.
._-, _.__ .

i=1 阳, and

and Eq. (9.24) results in 主主=

ε=0.∞04例1 生
+ 0 .1 28345 ð.a. The results for C1 and C3 are
C1 = 0.1567
Eq uation (9.25) becomes
C 3 =一 0.006205.
A similar procedure produces the values of C2 and C4 :
and Eq. (9.22) results in
C2 = 一 O.∞1751 ,
ER = 0刷13345 生+
Z -r 0.007673 8ð.a.
- - - -- - - and

Equations (9.20) and (9.21) become C4 = 0.08697.

R ð.,,' = -0.∞94492生一
and 王=
0.1567ε - 0.00175ß,
Rð.τ= 一 0.0899ω 生-
0.84593灿, and

respectively. 乓=
-0 ∞621ε + 0.0870ß
Now, lete = -0.OO3andß =: Rc飞= O. Hence, the above quantities become
Aα = - 0.024095 , It should be noted that the effective modulus, defined by the equation (with
ß= 0)

= 0.22878, E. = CE,
has been considerably reduced from the case of tension to that ofcompression.
R ð.1C = 0.0021707,
In the above case of the compression of a cord, buckling was not considered.

Rð.τ= - 0.仪)()1855, Buckling of a cord in a composite is considered in [26].

∞17创8.-, --- -

主= -0_._-



_._ ---_._ .,

ER -0川14687.,
2 _. _ - - - -
10.2. Theory 107
)T and
h o vdo Fa PTI



V p - 3 苟言,

S is the tensile force in the rope, D is the pulley diameter, d is the rope diameter,
is the wire diameter, A is the metallic rope cross-sectional area, ß is the lay
angle of the strand in the rope, αis the lay angle of the wires in the strand. F_
is the calculated breaking forc币 of the rope,几 is the press for白, l' is th二
influence function, E is the modulus of elasticity of the wi~e, m is a correlatin~
constant, n is a constant obtained from experimental data, N is the number
offatigue cycles, and the Cs are consunts with the subscript indicating the
initial of the author.A more basic theory to predict the fatigue life of a
rope is presented below. Using the stress anaJysis methods developed in the
10.1 Introduction previous chapters and a modified Goodman diagra叽 a method is presented
to predict the fatigue life of a simple strand.
An important factor in the life of a rope is its fatigue life. In many cases, a
rope fails because of fatigue rather than the load exceeding the rope's ultimate
strength. Because of the construction of a rope, the individual wires are 10.2 Theory
subjected to tension, contact, frictional bending and torsional stresses. Many
rope tests have been conducted resulting in empirical formulas for simulating A typical modified Goodman diagram is shown in Figure 10. 1. It is a conve-
the fatigue life of diJferent wire ropes. However, there has been little research nient graphical representation ofvarious combinations ofmean and alternat-
to predict the fatigue life of a wire rope by a detailed stress analysis. ing stresses which cause yielding and fatigue. To construct this diagram, one
Recent1 y [27] , the past 150 years of wire rope research has been summa- needs to obtain some material properties by experiments. On the horizontal
rized. In this work, a list of the fo l1 owing empirical formulas for the fatigue axis, the stress amplitude is zero, i.e., σ~ = O. Therefore, any stress states on
life of a rope is presented: this axis are caused by static loading. Yield and ultimate strength are plotted
at points A and B. The vertical axis indicates the mean stressσ._ = O. The
ai[l∞dj(d + D)]""N = CG (Giovannozzi), (10.1)
fatigue strengths corresponding to different fatigue cycles are generally ob-
[2Sj (F,Dd)] . N = CDr (Drucker-Tauchau), (10.2) tained by rotating-beam tests when the mean stress is zero. Hence, these data

(σi+ σ'b)"" N = CR (Rossetti), (10.3)

(句 +DmNZ 乌 (Meeuse), (10.4) 104

(σ'bj2)"" N = CL (Luboz), (10.5)

(1∞S/乓)"。∞djD)"" N = Cc (Calderale), (10.6)

and 106
(σ2: +σi. +σp)"'N = Cp (Pantucek), (10.7) /

/ ii
where / B-L
σ'z = Sj(A cos Pcos tX), ι二
-Sy 。 。m -

句 =iEd(F 土 α),
! ..

FIGURE 10. 1. Typical modified Goodman diagram.


108 10. A Theory of Fatigue 10.2. Theory 109

can be determined from S-N curves and plotted on the vertical axis, such as that
points C , D , and E in Figure 10. 1. Connecting these points with B gives the
σm=σ:.+ 去σb = 555MPa
estimated lines of fatigue life.
When a rope is loaded, the wires in the rope are subjected to a thr饵' and
dimensional or muJtiaxial state of stress. To use the Goodman diagram, one
马= 专σb = 165MPa
must introduce the effective stresses which defined as
These stresses correspond to point P in Figure 10.2. When contact stresses
4= 方(σrσ2m)2 + 川 一 句..)2 + (σ1m 一 σ3m)2产 (10.8) are incJ uded, the effective stress must be used. Point Q in Figure 10.2 is the
result of considering the contact stresses.
and σa

<1; =方(σ10 -σ20)2 + (<120 - <13.)2 + (σ…川 (10.9)

Sy = 1400 MPa
where σ! is the effective mean stress and u; is the effective alternating stress. / \
The proposed fatigue theory is now complete. The example below i1lustrates / \
/ \
the details which are worked out in [28]. 6 / \
10 / \
EXAMPLE 10.1. Consider a simple strand with R 1 = 0.508mm, R 2 = 0.470mm , / ""Su = 1650 MPa
/ \
E = 2.10 x 103 MPa , v = 0.29, α= 82.so, S. = 1650MPa, and S. the yield / \
strength = 14∞MPa. The fatigue limit,∞rresponding to 10" cycJes, is /

690MPa. Let the diameter of the sheave be D = 635mm. Let the strand be
subjected to an axialload of 1910N. -Sy 。 σm Sy Su
For the given construction and material properties, the strand constant can
be calculated resulting in
FIGURE 10.2. Construction of modified Goodman diagram.
主 = 0.9752e + 0.0723ß


主 = 0 阳ε + 0.0669ß

E R-' 1
The metal1ic area of the strand A = 4.97mm 2 • According to the frictionless

theory, the maximum stress will 0∞ur in the ∞nter wire. If the strand is

constrained against axial rotation, that is, ß = 0, then, the axial tensile stress
and the bending str-ess due to passage over the sheave can be calculated with
the result that l

σ'.t = Ee = 390MPa

主R ,
% = EEi=mMPG

If contact stresses are neglected, the stress state will be uniaxial with the result
11.3. Assumptions and Approximations for a Wire Rope ··A11

11 In dedlICing approximate expressions for the strain components i a w· ,

denote byb] any quantity ofthe ratio thickness/radius ofcurvature or thick-
Remarks on Assumptions and S/reciprocal of the twist, whether initial or final and by [e]any quantity
of the strain. Now, Eqs. (2 .1 1) and (2.12) can be 出…d 江 we neglect all 阳ms
Approximations ofthe order ofthe productb][e]as well as e2. In the case ofhelical wires, this
a s that we are neglecting Fms, such ask]R COSZα/r, e R sin a cos af,
compared to the st平ink]Thmbelievedtoca1msomofthedimepaneies
between the coeIECIents Cz and G as discussed below.
The work done on a straight strand by the loads F and M can be written as

叫 = Fdx+Md仇 -
. -A

-E ·EA


where x = he and ø= hτ = hß/R. Hence,

11 .1 Introduction
An "exact" analytical determination of the behavior of a wire rope is very and
difficult ifnot impossible. Approxirnations and assumptions have been made
to make an analytical solution tractable. The analytical solution should, -

- JU
therefore, be used only as a guide to predict the response. Many of the (1 1.2
assurnptions and approximations wi1l be discussed below, and comrnents will
be made concerning sorne ofthem, when appropriate. Many ofthe approxima- where R is the radius of the strand. Now, Eq. (1 1.1) can be written as

叫 =f问ε +A叫hdε
tions depend upon the type of loading and the type of construction of the
rope's cross section.

+ (ER 3 C纠 + ER 3 ωidF (1 1. 3)
11.2 Assumptions and Approximations for a
This integral should be independent of the path. Hen∞,
Straight Strand

Consideration will be given, first, to a simple straight strand, consisting of a 布叫ε+AEGmh= £川C泸 川+ER
3 ε川 即附
眈 (1 1.4) !11
straight center wire surrounded by helical wires which do not touch each
which results in
other. It is assumed that the material is elastic and that friction is neglected.
It is also assumed that the response of a thin wire is given by Eqs. (2.1 1) and
(2.12). Contact deformation is also neglected. A助G=iMC3 (11匀
Assurning that the rnaterial is elastic speaks for itself. Neglecting friction for 宅、

the case ofaxialloading of a sirnple strand is left to be a reasonable assurnption This equation is not exactly satisfied by the examples worked out in the tex t.
since the contact points do not have a tendency to rnove relative to one
another. In the case of bending of the strand under an axialload, friction will
have an effect since the points of contact will have a tendency to move relative 11.3 Assumptions and Approximations for a Wire Rope
to one another. The smaller the contact loads, the smaller will be the effect of
friction. Manydtheassumptions andapproximationsIisted aboveforastrand apply
Some ∞mments will be made ∞nceming the use of Eqs. (2.11) and (2.1 2). to a mre rope-Test reSUIts indicate that, under axial loading, a strand has a
These approximate expressions relate the changes in curvature and twist per SUITer modulus at the origin than the wire rope because it is felt that the
unit length to the intemalloads for wires that are naturally cu凹ed. In [匀, an individ叫 wires in a rope have not 蚓削 in properly during 伽剧创 phases
expression is obtained from which the strains in the wires can be cornputed. ofloadin lZ
F 可'‘

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38-42, 1988.
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strand subjected to tensile load, Experimental Mechanics , 28(4), 346- 349, 1988.
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Shield, C.K., and Costello, G.A., The elTect ofwire rope mechanics on the mechanical

Axial strain, 15 Helical spring, 24

curvature, 27
ßasic components, 1 strain energy, 26
∞re, 1
strand, 1 Independent wire rope core, 44
wire, 1 load deformation, 51
Birdcaging, 86
equations of motion, 86 Ki nematics of a thin wire, 4
separation, 88 ∞mponents of curv-ature and twist, 4
solution of equations, 89 principal torsion-flexure axes, 4
Construction, 1
Metal1ic area, 22
left lang lay, 1
left regular lay, 1
Nominal strength, 79
right altemate lay, 1
right lang 1町, 1
right regular lay, 1 Picard's method, 26
Cord, 99, 103 Pitch, 14

Effect of rope size, 79 Relation between load and deformation, 9

dirnensional analysis, 79 thin circular wire, 10
Drucker- Tachau bearing pressure Rope rotation, 94
ratio, 83 hand-spliced rope, 96
on fatigue Iife, 82 sling efficienci筒, 97
on rope stength, 79 Rotational strain, 15
Effective modulus, 22
Equations of equi1ibrium, 6 Sea1e IWRC rope, 52
Euler's method, 26 Simple straight strand, 10
Fatigue failure, 70 axial strain, 15
Friction, 58
axial, 58
axial and bending, 58
bending, 24
contact stress, 37
electric conductor, 35
effective length of a broken wire, 67 geometry, 11
wire rope, 67 load deformation, 22

122 Index

multilayered, 33 clip gage, 74

other types, 41 strand, 76 Mechanical Engineering Series ( continued)
pitch, 14 Young's modulus, 74
rotational strain , 15 Twist per unit length, 15
stress, 20, 28, 29
twist per unit length , 15 Laminar Viscous Flow
Wire rope, 51 V.N. Constantinescu
Testing, 72 axial response, 51 , 53
axial testing of a rope, 72 stresses, 54 Thermal Contact Conductance
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