Costello '
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Introductory Attitude Dynamics 
f

F.P. Rimrott }
曹.
Theory of Vibration: An Introduction, 2nd ed.
,
A.A. Shabana With 49 Figures
每 Spri
, M. Kaviany
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I Dι11 斗 3 (，
George A. Costello
Department ofTheoretical and Applied Mechanics
University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign
Urbana, IL 61801 , USA
Series Editor
Frederick F. Ling
ErIlest F.Gloyna Reg;KIlts Chair in EIluneering
Department of Mechànical Engineering
The University ofTexas at Austin
To my wife , Jean , and our three daughters,
Austin, TX 787121063, USA Suzanne, Elizabeth, and Lisa
and
:41
W iIl iam Howard Hart Professor Emeritus
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
;
Aeronautical Engineering and Mechanics
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
，HAO
Troy, NY 121803590, USA
UH 4
1l 仁'占
,
9876 54321
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I have added three new chapters to this second edition. Chapter 9 considers
the tension and compression of a cord, which does not possess a straight ∞nter
wire. The cord mechanics theory is applied to three filament cord. Chapter 10
inves咿 tes a t由heo
∞orηyoff:缸缸
剖t邸
a
Goodman diagram. Chapter 11 discusses some of the approximations made

in the theory. lo

I would like to thank Dr. S.W. Burns, Dr. C.A. Shield, Dr. C.G. Kocher,
Dr. Z. Zhang, Dr. A. Paris, and Mr. J. M. Hardin for their help in this work.
I would like to also thank Ms. Peggy Olsen for her excellent typing of the l··4·1
second edition and a s严cial note of thanks to Dr. A. Prakash for interesting t

discussions on cords.
:l
ili
Preface to the. First Edition
This book , as the title indicates, is concemed with the various theories of wire
rope. During re臼nt years, considerable progress has been made in the devel
opment of models used to predict the response of wire rope. Since there are
so many parameters that can vary in the construction of rope, such models
饵o be used to determine the effects of possible variations of the par缸neters
on the performan臼 ofa rope.
A list of the uses of wire ro oe.. is. almost endless. Recent research into the
possible use of wire strands as bràæs for teeth is one such example. Wire rope
1
is used to lower men underground as deep as 16，以)() ft in the gold mines of ·
,
South Africa. This is, of course, accomplished by more than one 1民 since the
始 weight of 仙opewould be 沼Uveinasi吨le lift. One 叫附叫 in a l
也aft that runs over several 毡蛊亟~ is 9.3 rni long and weighs 110 tn. Many a46
s
powerlines ωn be regarded 出 a strand consisting of alurninum wires twisted e5
around a steel center wire. Wire strands are used as ∞rds to strengthen rubber il
tires. Wire rope is also being considered in superconductivity applications. 1
4

The basic components and construction of wire rope are treated in Chapter
e
1. Al though there are many different types of construction, a rope is generally 
li
regarded as having three components: (1) wires that form the strand, (2) a core, !
and (3) multiwire strands that are helically wrapped around the core.
Chapter 2 begins with an investigation ofthe kinematics of a thin wire. The
equations of equilibrium are then derived for a wire, and the relations between
tbe internalloads and deformation are presented. Tbe wires are then placed
together to form a strand, in Chapter 3, where consideration is given to the
static response of a strand su战jected to an axial tensile for臼 and an axial
twisting moment. Tbe bending of a strand is next investigated, and the results
are applied to a strand passing over a sheave. 'Expressions are presented for
the axial wire stresses in the above cases.
00臼 the static response of a strand is determined, tbe results are extended
to wire rope, in Chapter 4. An independent wire rope ∞re (IWRC) is consid
ered first. and tben more complex cross sections are investigated. Expressions
are again presented for the stresses in the rope, and plots depicting the
maximum axial wire stresses in the individua1 wires are drawn.
lU
XIl Preface to rhe First Edition
HHMVA·
V1 l
Chapter 8 considers the effects of rotation on the loadcarrying capacity of Series Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
白白白 to the Seèond Edition
a wire l'ope. If a rope is allowed to rotate, the failu l'e load ca~Jbe~considerably
川U
Preface to the First Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
reduced, especially when the ends of the ro阳 are splice~. 敏〓
Most of the work presented in this book is bas函 on reseàrch that my
colleagues and 1 have performed for the last 16 years at the University of Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .
Illinois, UrbanaChampaign. 1 would like to thank espωially Professor J.W.
PhilJips for his many contributions to the work in the form of ideas，∞mputer 1.1 Basic Components ...... . . ...... . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 Identification and Construction
plots, drawings, and photographs. The graduate students involved in the
research were Dr. S.K. Sinha, Dr. G.J. Butson, Dr. S.A. Velinsky, Dr. C.H.
Chien , Dr. R. A. LeClair, Mr. T.A: Conway, and Mr. c.c. Lin. A special note
of thanks should go to Mr. E丑 Skinner and Mr. G.L. Anderson of the
〈ν Equilibrium of a Tbin Wire 4
Spokane Research Center, Bureau of Mines, for their support in much of
this work. 1 would also Jike to thank Ms. Jan Weaver for her outstanding
，"『
typíng. 2.1 Kinematics of a Thin Wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
rony
2.2 Equations of Equilibrium ...... . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Urbana, Illinois 2.3 Relations Between Loads and Deformations . .
George A. Costello
TAυ 角La 丛
3.2 Ax ia1 Response of a Simple Straight Strand
3.3 Stress Determination of a Simple Straight ~trand . .
3.4 Load DeformalÏon Relation for a Simple Straight Strand
&叫4 气，&句
TOBAY 句323 句FAY
3. 5 Pure Bending of a simple Straight Strand . .
3.6 Stress Determination of a Strand Subjected to Bending . .
3.7 Stress Determination of a Strand Passing over a Sheave .
3 句3 句3 句
3. 8 Mu1tilayered Strands . . . . . . . . . . . , . .
3.9 Electric Conductor Strand
3.1 0 Contact Stresses .... ... .... .... .. .
JAU『
3.11 Outside Wires Contacting Each Other
A
3.12 Other Types of Strand Cross Sections .
..,
宫111
，、
4.1 Axial Response of an Independent Wire Rope Core . . 44 10.1 Introduction ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 106
4.2 Axial Response of a Wire Rope . 51 10.2 Theory . . . . . . . 107
4.3 Stresses in a Wire Rope Due to Axial Loading . . . . . 53
4.4 Stres邻s in a Wire Rope Due to Axial Loading and Bending . . . 54
8 Rope Rotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
J


,
9 Tension and Comprωsion of a Cord 98  l
,,
JU
P
; J!
P飞
1. 1 Basic Components
lilliil!f
iti
A prøperty common to strl;lctliral elements such as rópe, yarn, cord, cable,
and strand is their abjlity to ，re，sistr~latively large axiaJ loads in comparison
to bending and torsionalloads , Rope [1 , 2] ,. because ofthis property, is one
k
of the oldest tools that htimàJiS have used in their efforts to produ臼 a better
fl
life for themselves. A copper cable fqu组ø in the ruins ofNemeveh near Babylon
indicates that wire rope was used as a 'structural eleinent in about 7∞ B.C.
Sayenga has written an excellent histotj of the American wire rope industry
[3].
The basic element of a wire J,'ope is, as the name implies, a single thin metallic
wire. The various components of a wire rope are shown in Figure 1. 1, where
the rope is constructed þy laying several stránds around a ∞re [1]. T'ne
core may be either wire rope, ~tural fibers , or polypropylene. The strands iJ
themselves have a center wire that is the axial member around which the
individual metallic wires are wrapped helically. It should be mentioned that
the major portion of the load acting on a rope is carried by the strands工坠
main purpose of the core is to provide proper support for the strands under
normal bending and loading conditions. Most of the ropes used in the United
States are designed with six strands , and there strands are comprised of any
number ofwires.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
!冬、己;二、二士今1 (仿
FIGURE 1.2. Typiω1 wire rope lays: (a) right regular I巧，(时 left regular lay, (c) right lang
lay, (d) left lang lay, (e) right alternate lay.
2 X3
X2
y
2.1 Kinematics of a Thin Wire
x
Consider a curved thin wire th ;lt is initially unstressed and that has a uniform
cross section. A 'thin wire can be defined as a wire in which the .maximum z
characteristic length of the cross section , that is , its diameter or dÎ栖E 暨酬且如l，爪
创侃侃
e盹
tω
巳.，
c
i总
s small ∞
compared tωo the length of 白 t he wire and the radius of Cl证 iEE
百 百
E 写I证ëõft由
E he XI i!
ce
创I创 ;
FIGURE 2. 1. Undeformed and deformed curved thin wire. ll
Let t阳he cross section have twó axe立 of symmetry as shown in Figure 2. 1.
The axes of symmetry will be the principal axes of tl}豆豆!，g~s_~号ction. Consider 
now a system ofaxes A, B, and C , where t与 ~l'~i 路路 o the centroidal X3
axis at point P .and the A and Baxes are'f)é脱nõ.rufltff tollffi'e Caxis and are
in the direction ofthe prin句al axes of the ~roSs1~~~. t th~e~蜒且盟副械崎
U;
line elements of the wire a , b. and c issue fiom P in the directions of A ,b ;.and
C.
Let ~he wires now be deformed. Th e three line elements a, b, and C of the B
wire , in general , do not remain perpendicular to each other. The elements a
and c in the deformed state do, however, form a plane. Let the zaxis be in the C
direction of the deförined element c and let the xaxis be peipendicular to the
zaxis and lie in the plane of the deformed elements a and c. L et the yaxis be
perpendicular to both x and z so that the x, y, and zaxes form a righthanded
orthogonal system. Hence, at each point along the deformed centroidal axis X2
of the thin wire , a set of x， 沪， and zaxes exists. The system ofaxes constructed
as described above for any point on the deformed axis is called the principal
torsionjlexure axes [5J.
~I~~~，tjhe origin P' of the frame of the X， 沪， and zaxes move with a uDÌt
主监fr al ong the deformed centroidjl H is. This rotating frame will possess .i:tfl
an angular velocity vector, ãi. The plð'~tions or components of this vector 飞
in the x, y, and z directions will be defmed as the components of the curvature X1
" , ,,' and the twist per uDÌt length τ. In the undeformed wire, the components
FIGURE 2.2. Undeformed helical spring with rectangular wire cross section.
of the angular velocity vector Wo (again moving with a unit velocity) projected
on the A, B, and Caxes will de fi.ne the undeformed components of curvature
"0'κ'0 and the twist per unit length τo.
4
、
『
Consider, fo'r example, the helical spring under no load with the rectangular T is the axial tension in the wire; G and G' are the components of the bending
wire cross section shown in Figure 2.2. Let the angle that a tangent to the moment on a wire cross section in the x and y directions, respectively; H is
centroidal axis of the spring makes with the X l' X2 plane be αo and let the the twisting moment in the wire; X , Y, and Z , are the components of the
radius of the wire helix be '0' The Aaxis at any point a10ng the 臼ntroidal extema1 1ine load per unit length of the centerline of the wire in the x , y , and
axis passes through the fixed X 3 axis, as shown. If the origin ofthe A, B, and z directions, respectively; K , K', and e are the components of the extema1
Caxes moves along the centroidal axis with a unit velocity, the angular moment per unit length of the centerline in the x , y , and z directions, respec
velocity of the A, B , and C frame is tively; " and K are the components of curvature in the x and y directions,
respectively; and τis the twist per unit length of the wire, as defined previously.
7咽户os a
Wo =~二，.一一百= 一」瓦， (2.1) Figure 2.4 shows a length, ds, ofthe centerline ofthe thin wire looking down
4π'o/cosαo '0 the yax~，JI'hereas Figure 2.5 shows a similar view looking down the x axis.
where k is a unit vector in the X 3 direction. Hence, For 9ru:1!Y、n1y， th也f~∞s are shown (no couples) in both figures. Table 2.1
n
ea o lists the direction cCf'sfrThs of the forces N + dN, N' + dN' , and T + dT with
α
ea 『
= cos 2α
。 AV
FuIOVNU
AUF
the x, y , and zaxes, wlllch are correct to within seconddegree terms.
一
Kn0
"0 = 0;
于 L·
and nv 
16
(2.2)
'0
x
2.2 Equations of Equilibrium
Consider a thin wire loaded with the for.臼s shown in Figure 2.3. Let s be the
arc length along the wire. 1n Figure 2.3, N and N' are the components of the
shearing force on a wire cross section in the x and y directions, respectively; N+dN
T+dT
X3
Yfy T
\G GN\
/" FlGURE 2.4. Centerline of a thin wire looking down the yaxis (no couples).
\N /T
N'
T z
T+dT
lil
X2 N'+dN'
X1 y
FIGURE 2.3. Loads acting on a thin wire. FIGURE 2.5. Centerline of a thin wire looking down the xaxis (no couples).
\、
 l
tl
j
Il
8 2 Eqliilibrium of a Thin Wire 2.2 Equations of Equilibrium 9 l
i
and
dN'
~
as
T,,+ Nτ+ y=O

(2.5)
H+dH
dT
' . N，，'+N'κ+z=O. 豆自 
as
Figures 2.6 and 2.7 show the same element oflength ds with only the couples
acting on the element. The couples G + dG, G' + dG', and H + dH make the
same angles with respect to the X， 沪， and zaxes as do the loads N + dN,
N' + dN' , and T + dT, and hence, Table 2.1 can again be used. A summation
y
of the moments about the xaxis yields
dG G'τds + H ,,'ds  N'ds
、_.吨田，、
+ Kds = 0, (2.7) FIGURE 2.7. Centerline of a thin wire looking down the xaxis (no forces).
which becomes, upon dividing by ds;
Equations (2.4) through (2.6) and (2.8) through (2.10) 手re the six differential
dG equations of equilibrium for the thin wire loaded as shown in Figure 2.3.
τ一 G'τ +
as
H ,,'  N' +K = O. (2.8)
Similarly, a summation of moments about the y and zaxes yield 2.3 Relations Between Loads and Deformations
dG'
1
I6
ll 一;
as
H" + Gτ +N +K'=O 华2l. The thin wire will now be assumed elastic with crosssectional moments of
i41 inertia of Ix and ιabout the x and yaxes, respectively. Also, C wi1l deno怡
and the torsional rigidity. The expressions relating the changes in curvature and
twist per unit length to the intemalloads [5] are
' dH
11
as 一 G，，' + G'" + e = o. 也w G = Elx(κ 一 κ。); G'=Eι(κ， 1( 0) and H= C(τ 一 τ。)， (2.1 1)
10 2 Equilibrium of a Thin Wire
where E is the modulus of elasticity of the wire material. If the wire cross
section is circular, with radius R, Eq. (2.1 1) becomes 3
d4 _D4 Static Response of a Strand
G EK K πR 4E
<
V G'= 亏 E(IC' 一 ω and H= 一一一 (ττ。)，
4(1 + \1)
(2.1 2)
where \1 is Poisson's ratio for the wire material. The tension T in the wire is
given by the expression
T = AEç, (2 .1 3)
where A is the crosssectional area of the wire and ç is the axial wire strain.
For a circular cross section, Eq. (2.1 3) becomes
T = πRZEç. (2.1 4)
3.1 Geometry of a Strand
The above equations will be used to generate the axial response of a simple
straight strand subjected to an axial force, F , and an axial twisting moment, Figure 3.1 shows the configuration and cross section of a loaded simple
Mt. A simple straight strand will be defined as a strand consisting of a straight straight strand. The strand consists initially of a straight center wire of radius,
center wire of wire radius, R l ' surrounded by m:z helical wires of wire raditis , Rl' surrounded by m:z helical wires (six wires are actually shown) of wire
Rz. radius, R :z. It will be assum时， for the present, that the ∞nter wire is of
sufficient s泣e to prevent the outer wires from touchiog each other. This is
generally the case, since it tends to minimize the effect of friction :n the bending
of a strand. Hence, the initial radius of the helix of an outside wire is given by
the expression
rz = ~1 + Rz. (3.1)
传画，在草草
An expression will now be ~皿♂ö determine the minimum value of RI so
that the outside wires will not be touching each other.
Consider m helical wires, in a strand, that are just touchiog each other. Let
the radius of the hel ix, the wire radius, and the helix angle be denoted by r,
几 and α， respectively. Figure 3.2 shows a w 呐ire cαros岱s section i加
n a p
抖lane
驼肮即
:r?町E
肌;乒肌:弘毛mm
川 沁;沁均忌岛:辅础附:zrr
:3 俨俨
俨俨俨俨
f
扩
r 川胁阳川
ft
t血阳阳
ωhe
阳仙
叫
eω
cαr
(Rj:n~r
r_1 + (ω= 1,
__ P \. I q
(3 .2)
 \R
Rjsin~)
11
12 3 Static Response of a Strand 3.1 Geometry of a Strand 13
s·a·E·
umz
. q
E
·
'
1·
J
ill
r2
t!
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圳川叫
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tilti
Section AA P
ililli
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c.Mm
'a6
川，
t
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A.墨''
lllt
e
，
e
d
3一」
itJ 丁4dMRW!mA川 j
isltlo
4 t
1illeagALP41
... n = 川 (i  ;)
lt'
一
兔"
(3.4) (3.7)
ll
t b1
' $1}
叫1 一夺1平y
叫 '
l
j
ije
吨;)
i flils4
1
ti lief
i11EEF··J41·HKBP

R
一川
\EE
frttt飞、
πm
π
r=R (3.8)
/让
an
2
ll nv·
,/ p .5)
i

n
2
(1. + 咔;) Equation (3.8)lyieldslthe radius of the wire helix in which the wires are just

‘
H
+叫:天);二+几
i
ll
i
R
(3.6) Rl (3列
i
ql = . 
尬2α+ 叫i ;)
sm.α
;·
FEZ
li
剧
'll iLYAPL
where P2 is the initial pitch of an outside wire. The original components of the
curvature and the twist per unit length are [see Eq. (2勾]
2 噜 sin α2 COS 0;2
问 =0; K2=:"':"二一二 and 't 2= ~ ~ (3.1 1)
'2 '2
Let the wires in the strand now be deformed under the action of the axial
loads F , and M" where F is the total axial force and M , is the total axial
.
twisting moment. The outside wire, under the loading, will assume to be
defonned into a new helix, where.
Ja /
川一毛
 na
∞一
~ en
α
α
vh AU K AU
一
一
,. (3.12)
FIGURE 3.3. Loads acting on helical wire.
Thebarred symbols refer to tbe previously defined quantities in tbe deformed
state or final state.
It w讪 now be assumed that an outside wire is not subjected to extemal spring in which the value of α2 is generally small. ln the case of wire rope,
bendi吨 momen岱 per unit length, that is, K 2 = K ' 2 = 0, and ~911_t~l~~ 严ial however, the value of α2 is generally large and the change in α2' .ð.CX 2' where
wire tension T2 is constant a10ng the lengtb of tbe wire. Then bý vírlijéGT Eqs.
Aα2 =(%2 一 αz (3.19)
(2.1刀， (3.11) and (3.12), the equations of equilibrium [Eqs. (2.4) through (2.6)
and (2.8) through (2.10)] 忧心。me is small. Use will be made of this fact later on in simplifying tbe solution.
The axial strain εof a straight strand is defined as
一 N'2 'f2 + 巧言'2 +X2 = 0, (3.1 3)
几= 0, (3.14) (3.2叼
Z2 = 0, (3 .1 5)
where h is the original length of the strand and h is the final length of the
G' 2'f2 + H 2 ï<! 2  N' 2 = 0, (3.1 6) strand. Figure 3 .4, a developed view ofthe 臼nterline of an outer wire, indicates
N2 =0, (3.17) the length h and h. The rotational strain P2 of an outer wire will be defined as
。 ((J2  ( 2)
• and fJ2 = '2 一 h 一， (3.21)
9 2 = O.) (3.1 8)
.句 where O2 and O2 are the initial and final angle, respectively, that an outer wire
The subscript 2 refers to the outside wires. Figure 3.3 shows the loads acting 二旦旦E立out in a plane perpendicular to tbe axis of the strand. The angle of
on an helical wire; the positive directions of the loads are shown. twist per unit lengtb，飞， of the strand is defined by the expression
Equations (3.13) and (3.16) 啤n be regarded as determining the values of X 2
and N' 2 required to hold an outside helical wire in equilibrium for given values (Oz  Oz)
~二
h' (3.22)
of岛，巧， and T2 • lt should be noted that the equations of equi1ibrium and Eq. "S
(2.12) constitute a set of nonlinear equations and are valid for large deflections.
An analysis of the configuration shown in Figure 3.4 yields
Large deflections could 0∞ur， for instance, in theωse of a thin wire helical
16 3 Static Response of a Strand 3.2 Axial Response of a Simple Straight Strand 17
F、，}
op
···句，"
·巧
sin 2α 2) ， α2 cosαz
一
一一
(3.24)
自旬，"
>
一α
品专[挝 .åCX2] 一中
Equations (3.3 6) and (3 .3 8) are obtained from th而 equations of equilibrium
(3.28)
[Eqs. (3. 16) and (3.1 3日 ， where it assumed that displacements are small.
18 3 Static Response of a Strand 3.2 Axial Response of a Simple Straight Strand 19
A projection of the forces, acting on the outside wires, in the axial direction sm α2 COSα2 = 0.1 2923, and r 2 /R2 = 2.01980. The outside wires should be
of the strand yields checked to determine if they are touching each other. Since there are six
outsdide wires, Eq. (3.9) yields
F, I T.. N'. I
一二.，， =m. 1 一二..smα.+=一毛 cosα.
ER~ "1 ERi  " . ER~  "J'1. (3.39)
• I ππI
tan"l ::一 一 l
where F2 is the total axial force in the strand acting on the m2 outer wires. R2 1 + '\mz L = 0.2033 in. < 0.204 in. = R 1 + 凡，
The total axial twisting moment M2 acting on the outside wires is smα2
The axial force F1 and the axial twisting moment M 1 acting on the center wire O.∞3 = Ç2" +兰兰L
. 7.60661
are given by the expressions
and
F,
否?=πÇ1 (3.4 1)
Ç2 • . ^ "" (0.1 03 x 0.003 + 0.1 01Ç2)
0= 一 ..~一ll.α . +' 0.25
7.60667 ~Z ~ ._~ 0.204 x 7.60667 '
and
which have the solution Ç2 = O.∞2936 and ll.问 =0.α)()48 359. The values of
M， π
曰:=布百}AIτs (3.42) R 2 ð..K' 2 and R 2 ll.τ2 can be computed from Eqs. (3.32) and (3.33). The folIowing
results:
The total axial force F and the tota1 axial twisting moment M r acting on 2 x 0.1 2923 x 0.0∞48359
the stand can be written as R. ll. IC'. = 一
2.01980
+ 凡 (3.43)
!!l and
F=F1
+0.25{O.l 03 x O.∞3 + 0.1 01 x O.∞2963) x 0.016989
0.204 x 2.0198
M r = M 1 +M2 . (3.44) = 0.α)()O5564
The contact force per unit length X 2 becomes an intemal force as far as the and
strand is concemed. Once this force is known, an estimate can be made of the
(1 一 2 x 0.98301) x O.仪沁48359
contact stresses [6]. R咱ll.t，
~_ . ..
= 2.01980
rThe above equations will be used in the example worked out below.
'iJxampl e 3.1. Consider a simple straight strand with R 1 = 0.1 03 in., R 2 = +0.25{0.103 x O.∞3 + 0.1 01 x O.∞2936) x 0.12923
0.101 血， P2 = 9.75 in., E = 28，5∞，α)() psi , v = 0.25, and m2 = 6. Equation 0.204 x 2.0198
ta
(3.1) yields (assuming that the outside wires are not touching each other) = 0.仪刀1838
'i
r2 = 0.1 03 + 0.1 01 = 0.204 in.
are obtained. Eqs. (3 .3 4) through (3.44) yield
The helix angleα2 is determined by Eq. (3 .1 0); hen白， l
li
i
1
9.75
tan IX ," = .，，一一= 7.60667.
丘=
ER~
 0删437队,
2霄 x 0.204    ,
and, therefore， α2 = 82.51060 • The following values can now be written down: 生=
ER~
0.ω11549.
sin α2 = 0.99147 , sin 2α 2 = 0.98301 , cosα2 = 0.13034, cos 2α 2 = 0.016989,
20 3 Static Response of a Strand 3.3 Stress Determination of a Simple Straight Strand 21
坐.. = 0.000∞1825.
ER~        ,
The outside wires are subjected to axial, bending, and torsionalloadings in
addition to the shearing load N' 2' The stresses caused by the shearing force
N' 2 are in general very small and will be neglected. The axial stress caused by
五τ= O.∞922505. the load 72 is
ER~
T2
X咱 r U2 = :;:;宝， (3.4 7)
瓦民主
一二= 0.∞0077474.
ER 2
whereas the maximum normal stress due to the bending moment G' 2 is
主τ= 0.054879.
ER~
4G'2
,
G' σ2 = nRr (3 .48)
生= 0.013828.
ER~ , The maximum shearing stress on an outside wire due to the twisting moment
H 2 is
主τ=0.∞942478. Hσ
2H2
(3 .49)
il
ERt 2= 夜1·
li
M1 ^ Example 3.2. Consider the strand used in Example 3,1. Let the strand be
页7u
subjected to an axialload of 18,8051b and not allowed to rotate ('r. = 0). The
results of Example 3. 1 and Eqs. (3.45) through (3.49) yield
where F = 2850 + 15,955 = 18,805 lb and M , = 0 + 406 = 406 in. lb.
l
i
 2850
It is interesting to note that the inside and outside wires 臼rry 15.2% and σ =一一一寸= 85 ,500 psi
 π(0.1 03)~
t
 84.8% of the total axial load. Also, since the above equations are linear, a
‘ reduction or increase in the axial strain, with τ. = 0, would correspond to a Mσ1 = 0 psi
ll lp
similar decrease or increase in the loads. For example, with ε= 0.0015 and 2682
!ai
i
飞= 0, the total axial force would be 9，4∞ lb and the total axial moment would =一一寸= 83 ,700 psi
π飞0.1 01)~ ll
be 203 in lb.
et
4 x 1.283
G'σ2 = 宗丁玄宗i = 1,580 psi
π(0.1 0 1)3
3.3 Stress Determination of a Simple Straight Strand and
2 x 3.391 i
σ =一一一一τ= 2,090 psi. l
In the previous section, the loads acting on the individual wires for the case π(0.101)~  l
t i
l
of an axially loaded simple straight strand were determined. In this section The shearing force N' 2 is 0.53 lb. The maximum norm注1 tensile stress acting f
the stresses caused by these loads are investigated. It will be assumed , at this on an outer W1re IS
point, that the wires are initially stress free. Ill
In the case of the center wire, the axial wire stress is Tσ2 + G'σ2 = 83，7∞+ 1,580 = 85,280 psi,

F. and this stress occurs on the inside of an outer wire (due to the sign of G'2)' 4
1t
Fσ1 = ;;亨， (3.45)
π~í It should be noted that the center wire sufIers a slightly greater stress than l;I
whereas the maximum shearing stress on the cross section is the outer wire. Again, the remark can be made that, an increase or a decrease ii
in the axial load (with 飞= 0) would cause a similar increase or decrease in
2M1 the stresses. The contact stresses are, of course, an exception to this, sin∞ they
M"'1 一一
1πR1.
(3.46)
do not depend linearly on the loads. Contact stresses will be considered later.
<
LF
t
l
h
22 3 Static Response of a Strand 3.4 Load Deformation Relation for a Simple Straight Strand 23
and
In general, the total axial force F and the total axial twisting moment M acting
on a strand can be expressed as 406
3= "'I n r
28，5∞，仅泊 X
rv'\ ^^^ ,n. ",n. r'\3 ..
(0.305)3 X ^
O.∞3
r.f\"'I = 0.167.
主=巳 e+ω (3.50)
00W1叫 = ε =0 叫 =0 ∞3问ua叫
Aιf 二
and
0=0.∞1+ 主CX 2
21=C3ε+ω，
]!;κ~  ~
(3.51) 7.6067
and, hence .1CX2 =一 O.∞76067. Equation (3 .3 1) yields
where
O.∞ 1 . ^ ^^~/^ '~ . 0.25(0.1 01 x 0.001)
A= :EπR;. (3 .5 2) 0.204τ= 一一一一
7.6067 +. 0.∞76067
_.__ .   _. .+ 0.204 x 7.6067
A is the total metallic area of the strand, RI is the radius of an individual wire,
C1 , ..., C4 are constants, which can be determined analytically, R is the radius and, therefore， τ. = 0.038012, with ß = 0.305 x 0.038012 = 0.011593. Equa
of the strand， εis the axial strain, and ß is the rotational strain of the strand tions (3.32) through (3.44) result in
defined by the equation 2 x 0.1 2923 x O.∞76067
R 情 .1K' ~ = 2.01980
ß=R飞， (3.53)
where τ. is the angle of twist per unit length of the strand. +025(0.101 × 0.∞1) x 0.016989
=0.仪)()97442.
As mentioned previously, the value ofthe constants in Eqs. (3.50) and (3 .51) 0.204 x 2.1 980  . _.. ,
F
e EPUW e'e
n
一
岛
A (3.55)
五 =一 O.附2970.
ERi
Example 3.3. Consider again the strand used in Examples 3.1 and 3.2. The
metallic area is 主 =0 ∞31416.
ER~  .    ,
A = π(0.103)2 + 6 x π(0.101)2 = 0.2256 in. 2
and 王三 = 0.α)()()2832.
ER 2
R = 0.1 03 + 2 x 0.1 01 = 0.305 in.
Equations (3.50) and (3.51) and the results of Example 3.1 yield 主"
ERi
= 0.018665.
, 1 .1
24 3 Static Response of a Strand 3.5 Pure Bending of a Simple Straight Strand 25
旦己= 0.019546.
ER~ l沪、
F1 ^
Efv,
生
ERt
=0 ∞246.'
where F = 5,426 lb and M, = 76.6
Equations (3.50) and (3.51) yield
+ 57 3. 9 = 650.5 in. lb.
认s
C.• = 5426
 ._ = 0.0728
J. 0.2256 x 坷，5∞，α)() x 0.011593
and
650.5
= 0.0694.
马 2ω∞，0∞ x (ωow x 0.011593
Therefore, Eqs. (3. 50) and (3 .5 1) become, for the given strand, FIGURE 3.5. He!iω1 spring bent by ∞uple.
主=
AE
0.975ε + 0.0728ß The equations of equilibrium Eqs. {2.4) through (2.6) and (2.8) through (2.1 0)
yield
and
dG 伞
fi=0167川 0.0694ß 忑 G'τ1 + H"I' = 0, (3.58)
ER 3
dG' i
It should be noted that the constants C 1 , C2, C3 , and C4 are independent of

EFHKI+Gτ1 = 0, (3.59)

[』
the modulus of elasticity, E and depend only on 11.2, R2/Rl' and Y.
l
and
'eti
dH i
3.5 Pure Bending of a Simple Straight Strand EJGKU+G'κ1 = 0, (3.60)
Consider an initially straight helical spring with a heJix angle， α， and let the where "1' 叫" and 't 1 are the fmal (deformed) curvat1ires and twist per unit
spring be subjected to a bending moment, m. , which is applied about an axis
巩忖布
length. Then by virtue ofEqs. (2.12) and (3.56), the equilibrium equations [Eqs.
perpendicular to the original axis of the spring. Figure 3.5 shows such a spring. (3 .5 8) through (3.60)] can be written as
Since the initial configuration of the wire is a helical spring, the initial r dG 4 sin αCOS !1. cos2α
_._ vG'H 一  ~斗 G'+ 二二 H=O. @
curvatures and twist per unit length are 一一一
ds 一
πR 4E    r . r  , (3.61) 'lIa
1
K=O; K' 一 坐兰 and
smαcosα
dG' 4 ___ sin αcosα
r
τ=
r
, (3. 56)
一一+一_A_ vGH + 一一一一":::'_::_G=O.
ds πκ'IZr' 6 (3.62)
4it;:
的
where r is the initial radius of the helix and, sinæ the spring is subjected to a
一r
mmLω
and l
pure bending moment only, the following results:
G AV
叭 (3.63) l'
X=Y=Z =K =r=8 =N =ff =T=Q (3. 57)
26 3 Static Response of a Strand 3.5 Pure Bending of a Simple Straight Strand 27
Equations (3.61) through (3.63) constitute a nonlinear system of firstorder When the work done by the bending moment m. is equated to the strain
ordinary difTerential equations thatωn be integrated numerically (Euler's energy, the result is
method or Picard's method, for example) under suitable initial conditions. If
these three equations are, respectively, multiplied by G, G', and H and the
resulting equations are added, the following results:
f MZl .
m.(Ø)dØ = 一」一
πR"E
(3.71)
i~ constant (independent of s). 千辛~脚却伽制 whereas an integration of Eq. (3.72) yields (sin四 m.(O) = 0)
Once Eqs. (3. 61) through (3.6'3) are integrated numerically for G, G', and H,
Eq. (2.1 2) can be used to calculate the final curvature and twist. When the πER 4
m. =一(/) (3.73)
curvatures and twist are lënown, the deformation of the centerline of the • 41 '1'
deformed wire is completely determined apart from its position in space [7]. Now let
In most engine难ring problems, however, an exact determination of the
centerline of the deformed wire is not needed. A more practical approach h= Isinα， (3.74)
would be to assume that, under the action of a pure bending moment，叫， where h is the length ofthe spring. Then Eq (3.73) becomes
,
applied pe叩endicular to the original axis ofthe helix, the spring behaves like a 、
a beam, as shown in Figure 3. 1. The initially straight axis of the spring then 甜1I1 ~ 4m. ø 1
deforms into a circle of radius p with the angle øshown. 4揭叫K BFlfrz (3.75)
Consider, for example, the case of v = O. Equations (3.61) through (3.63) 1 fi
The above equation is valid for v = O. :
become linear and therefore have the solution
When the exact solution for v = 0 is used in Picard's method to obtain a
G= C1 ∞ s ks + C2 sin ks (3.65) solution when v =F 0 [句， the following results: l
ω一"q
α}
FLWM
禽
where Mb is the total bending moment applied to the strand, p is the radius
iκ
，h
句，.
(3.82)
of curvature of the strand, and A * is the bending sti lTness, of the simple strand,
defined by the equation
mπR~Esinα2
(3.83)
.  2ρ(2 + vcos 2α 2)'
s
+Rt I
…
A* == 1tEI ~m2 ~ R~ (3.78)
4 1(2 + vcos~α2) ‘ 'J Gσ2 and G' σ2 are the maximum normal bending stresses on a given cross
section due to the bending moments G2 and G马 ' Hσ2 is the maximum shear
Example 3.4. Consider again the strand used in Example 3.1. The bending
stress on a given cross section due to the twisting moment H 2 • The maximum
sti lTness of this strand is given by Eq. (3.78) and, hence,
normal stress on the cross section m吨。∞urs at s = 0, s ==π(r2/cos a( 2 ), ...,
πx 28，5∞，侧 r6 x 2 x 0.99147 X (0.1 01)4 . '^' ",,,41 and, therefore,
+(0.103Y l ~ . 4陀 、RE， S/Î邮 ii1
4 I (2 + 0.25 x 0.016989) .，~ ' J
F"~ 以包 m 0"2 == 1tR~':: î  (3.84)
== 16,350 lb in. 2.
The center wire is also subjected to pure bending and, therefore, the maximum
Let , for example， ρ=8 仇. In this case, Eq. (3.76) yields bending stress in the center wire m 们 is
mnn
s32 2x 24.00 x 0.13034
'κ
一
O
σ
eo
一π
G (3.79)
a
FLW
吨，.
= π(0.1 01)3
4π
mnk
s32 n n 'k'&eJ"
=
N抽
ea
σ
e。
G (3.80)
句，.
句，
mnk
Oeaa''mb n
'κ
s组J'''
一
σ
eo

FU'
H 2 {3.81) Since a strand wrapped around a sheave is generally restrained against rota
句''
tion ('t. = 0), an axial twisting moment is developed in the strand along with
where the tension and torsion. Figure 3.6 shows an equilibrium configuration of a
30 3 Static Response of a Strand 3.7 Stress Detennination of a Strand Passing over a Sheave 31
LetF = 10，仅)() lb，飞= O, and ρ= 8 ft. From the results ofExample 3.1, where
for F = 18,8051b and 飞= 0, the moment M , = 406 in. lb, the moment iti、this
case IS
10.αm
M.• = 406 x 一，
.__. 一= 216
18,805 in . 屿，
For the axial case and for any value of s the stresses are at TABLE 3.1. Total normal stress in an outer wire
(F = 10，α)() Ib，飞 = O, p = 8 仇， Rl = 0.103 in. ,
10α)0
pomt a, σ= (83 ,700 + 1,580) x : ~'~一;. = 45 ,350 psi; R 2 = 0.101 in. , and P2 = 9.75 in.)
18,805
s 。 a b c d
10α)()
point b, σ= 83，7∞×一二一一= 44,510 psi; 0 。 45,350 14,850 43,670 74,170
18,805 2.46 πρ 15,940 44,510 73,080 45,510
10α)()
4.92 π 45,350 74,170 43,670 14,850
pomt c, σ= (83 ,700  1,580) x 一二一一 = 43,670 psi; 7.38 3πρ 74，7ω 44,510 14，2ω 44,510
18,805
and at
point b, σ= 0 psi;
10.创丑。
point d, σ= 83，7∞×一二一一 = 44,510 psi. pomt c, σ= 29,410 psi;
18,805
and at
For pure bending and for s = 0 at
point d, σ= Opsi.
point a, σ= Opsi;
4x 24 Table 3.1 shows the total normal stress in an outer wire at the points a, b,
point b, σ=  ' ^ ~~"C\ 29,660 psi; c, and d for the indicated values of S or ().
πxρ.101)3
it
a;1
pomt c, σ = 0 psi; The maximum normal stress in the center wire is
ili
and at 10.000 2:8.5∞.α)() x 0.103
σ1 = 85 ，5∞ x 一主一一 + ' ~  . .~ _._ = 7仇045 psi,
point d, σ= 29,660 psi. 18,805 . 8 x 12 l
For pure bending and for s = π'2/(2 cosα2) at which again is greater than the maximum tensile stress in an outer wire. The
li
4x 24 x 0.99147 maximum shearing stress in an outer wire is
point a, σ= 主= 29,410 psi;
πx (0.10 1)3 10αm
σ2=2090x 一二一一 + 1,930 = 3,040 psi. 
i
R 一
vp
pr
句"
，
r、
= + "' 2
』'
3
』'
， 

7巧


point d, σ=  29,660 psi. 3 (3.89)
，.
F or pure bending and for s = 3π'2/(2 cosα2) at
pomta, σ= 29,410 psi;
Çl =ι+ 坐L， lanα3
(3.90)
34 3 Static Response of a Strand 3.8 Multilayered Strands 35
(R 1 çl + 2R 2ç2 + R3ç3) Also 0( 2 = 82.51 0 and α3 = 104.490 ; the metallic area A is given by
ß3 = 叭=一 ðCX3
tanα3 ~
+V r3 tan α3
(3.91)
A= π[(0.103)2 +6 x (0.101)2 + 12 X (0.096)2] = 0.573 in.2
sα3 ... ~~ . (R 1 çl + 2R 2ç2 + R 3 ç3)COS 2 α3
R飞 ð'" 、 =Aa飞 +v
.,.. ., r3/ R 3 ..,. r3r3/ R3 '
(3.9勾 Using the above, and pro臼eding in a similar manner to that used in the
previous examples the fo lIowing result are obtained:
RzAh = (12 sin 2α3 !ðα +v~R 1 Çl + 2R2Ç2 + R 3ç3) sincx3 cosα3
3~' 3  r3/ R 3 . "'''''3 T • r3r3/ R 3 (3.93) _!_ = 0.9274ε0.ω67ß
AE
立=马、
ER~ 4' J
ð，ç~且 (3.94) and
X3 N'3 sin 问 cosα3 T3 cos 2α3 given by the above equation and hence,
H
(3.97)
页了两丁页7 两三页了'
ll
I T. . N毛 
，，
F.
J'J
': = m~
J
1 ': smα~J+'τ;coscx
' .. J， 1 (3.98) The minus sign occurs, sin臼 the outside layer is left lay.
ER~ I ER~
~
ER~ I
轧 m札如扪制机制
and
闪闪 Jgj
+ 一~ =""COSα. 一
4 . . . 1.
=,," SIDIX. _'4 (3.99) conduct electricity and is ca11ed an ACSR (aluminum conductor steel reinforced)
ER~ R3 J'
~. . ~
ER~ R3
J J
where subscript 3 indicates those previously discussed quantities pertaining mechanical response of such a conductor.
ut
to the wires in the third layer. Consider, for example, a simple strand consisting of a 臼nter steel wire and
The tota1 axial force acting on the strand is m2 aluminum outside wires wrapped helically around the center steel wire.
l:is
Equations (3.41) and (3.42) determine the axial force F1 and the twisting
灿mwm 川作 忏川川
Example 3.7. Let R 1 = 0.1 03 in., R 2 = 0.1 01 in., R3 = 0.096 in., P2 = 9.75 in., 7t ~.R1 τs
krt 阻 '陪 『阳 旧 的 UMM
P3 = 9.75 in., v = 0.25, and E = 30;以刀，α)() psi. Let tbe second layer be right M.1 = 

4(1 +川'
(3. 103)
lay and let the third layer be left lay, where m2 = 6 and m3 = 12. Therefore,
the total radius of tbe strand R is where E. is the modulus of elasticity for steel, R 1 is the radius of the center
仲KK
steeI wire, Çl is the axial strain of the conductor， τ. is the angle of twist per
R = 0 .1 03 + 2 x 0.101 +2x 0.096 = 0.497 in.
unit length of the conductor and 飞 is Poisson's ratio for steel. Similarly, Eqs.
K川
i
i 36 3 Static Response of a Strand
lEh ht
l
· (3.34) through (3 .40) become, for the outside aluminum wires,
· om3=t , +JEL
6.16277
G' ， π H •
I LJR1llJ
t
∞一马"
fEm .m R 211K'2 =  0.000084726 R 2 11τ2 0.α)()21986.
∞一
and
飞 
几 
XaFa R
αr卢〕 Z+ S
α
waw'ι"
s
2 BnaAa
句，
Z
A 「仆 L
瓦几一点
一一一一
一
EE
一
72E
:'
 (3. 108)
nk
zzmM
龟 ，
"
nkznA E /
I
A
2nA
F = Fl + F2 = + 2351 =
l
1269 36201b.
.HH
ni

:2
(3 .1 09)
，
E
饨
'
，伽4
It is interesting to note that the steel wire and the aluminum wires carry 35 .1%
啕
;
and Il
_T: cosα句一一
+ 一"""，， η N'2 一smα，
巳1.1. (3 .1 10) li
IT
where E. is the modulus of elasticity for aluminum, R 2 is the aluminum wire Again expressions can be written down for the stresses.
14111Jlf!
radius, Ç2 is the axial aluminum wire strain, and v. is Poisson's ratio for
aluminum. Equations (3 .3 2) and (3.33) become di
3.10 Contact Stresses
到附则附附川 ud 川、 忖hl
R 2 11K' 2 =一
2sinα2COS 0:2.
;~  . .ð!X +. (v.R1çl + v.R 2 ç2 )
\;)~  .l.".1 U "， 7~~ 二寸言一
COS 2 0:2
2
•
(3. 111)
t'oil '2 ' .1.、 2 '2 '21 .1. 、 2 The line of contact between the outside wire and the 臼:nter wire of a simple
and strand is a helix of radius Rl' An estimate of the contact stresses can be made
叶
if the contact force per unit length is known. It should be noted that the
II
li
= ._ .,
(1  2sin 2α 2)....... , (V.Rl ç1 + v.R 2 Ç2) sinα2 cosαz resultant force per unit length X 2 is calculated per unit length along the
I
R..
， 缸， 110:噜+ 一一一一一一 (3.1 12)
:
 • ",. centerline of an outside wire and hence should be calculated per unit length
r2/ R 2 r2 r Z/ R 2
内 d 址 u
i
of the contact line. This results in the approximate equation
Equation (3.27) remains the same; however, Eq. (3.31) becomes
Xcvlp~ + (2πRl)2 = X2 .jP~ + [2π(R 1 + R 2)]2 ,
才什
(3 .1 14)
(飞 R 1 çl + v.R 2ç2)
1
l
Figure 3. 8 shows a point along the line of contact betw回n the two wires
The following example will i1l ustrate the above equations.
where the cross section ofthe outside wire is shown circular. In this figure, the

o:
叫H
cross section of the 臼 nter wire is shown elliptical and hence the radius of
Example 3. 8. Let m 2 = 6, E. = 30 X 10 6 psi, E. = 10 X 106 psi, Rl = 0.067
l
 l curvature of the surface of the center wire, at the point of contact, is Pl , where
ll
in., R 2 = 0.066 in., v. = 0 .25, v. = 0 .33, and P2 = 5.15 in. Hence, r2 = 0.067 +
} Rd
叶 J 川H 川 川
1α

0.066 = 0 .1 33 in. and α2 = 80.783 0 • As before, let 飞= Oand ε= 0.003. Equa AY 03 6 (3 .1 15)
! tions (3.27) and (3. 113) become
l
H HZ
i
38 3 Static Response of a Strand 3.1 0 Contact Stresses 39
 .,..

吼一QM
nu句3
句
3anu
OF anu oxu
nu MoB n
4[ 一 (0.25)2]
â= 7 飞 = 6.7674 x 1O 9 in. 3月b
(1 1 飞
l一一一
\ 0.1048 +. 0~一
.1 0 1/I x 28.5∞∞0
and
9
b= ,户 x. 
225 .. _.. _. . ..x 10
x 6.7674  = 9.8456 x 1O 4 in.
vπ
FIGURE 3.8. Contact between center and outer wire. 9.8456 X 104
Uc = 一。9 =
6.7674 X 10
 145,900 psi.
It will now be assumed that the contact stress is the same as that determined It should be noted that 'the contact stress is not linearly related to the
by two cylindrical bodies in line contact [6]. Hence, the maximum contact axial load F. It varies as the square root of the axialload. An axial load of
stress 民 is given by the equation 10，α)Q lb would produce a contact stress of
bAU
= 10.0∞
σ
h1
叫了一A
The above stresses were calculated based on the assumption that the material
+
'『
AU
 nι
IIL
/川
of Helix A归
r2
•\
and, hence , the normal contact fo rce per unit length Q is given by
FIGURE 3.9. Line of contact between two outer wires.
Q= __ X
一一 (3.121)
: 'Ie
2cos )l
It should be noted that, if the outside wires are touching each other, Eq.
"咱
R 2 tan(~ 一王}
MEA则对NHHMU
·l SI旷 α2
飞.. "'2 j " 飞~ "'2 J be linearized to determine '2/'2.
, Since the projection of a circular crωs section on the transverse section is
elliptical, the radius d intersects the ellipse at point A , as shown in Figure 3.9.
Figure 3.10 show宫 a true crosssectional view of an outer wire depicting the 3.1 2 Other Types of Strand Cross Sections
contact angle )1. Again an analysis of Figures 3.9 and 3.10 yields
In other types of strand cross sections, the pre∞ding equations have to be
+J[R6(1 vç6)+R 7(l VÇ7)]2  {[Rs (l vçs)+R 6(1vç6)] sin 200 }2.
A
(3 .1 24)
Again 1'7 can be linearized with the result that
，，‘，〈‘，，.、
ReJ + Rau au)
匀，&
v' nu
VF
F、
一
叮
Fa
0
。
户LW
"v
向3
v
吨，
哑飞
εJ
』'
+!R6 + R7)(R6ç6 + R 7ç7)  (Rs + 儿)(Rsçs + R6~6)sin2 却。 l
.J(R6 + R7)2 一 [(Rs + R 6)sin20 ]2 J 0
(3 .1 25)
FIGURE 3.1 1. Cross section of a Seale wire rope. A similar procedure can be followed with other types of cross sections.
1!!
4
:
Static Response of a Wire Rope
1 1 R3
R4
 n ..z=r
c; e n ., nu ··
α
shape they assume in the unloaded rope and are this shape under no external
α
。 z
2r
α
c··2
α
e
08
e。
08
。
AU ., '4·E
咽，.
于b
loads (preformed strands). Such a cross section is often used as a rope ∞re in 9·
(4.2)
a more complex rope and as such is sometimes called an independent wire rope
core (IWRC). The ∞nter strand will be called strand 1, an outside strand will in which
be denoted strand 2.
The bending stiffness of strand 2 will be approximated by a summation of r飞 = R 1 + 2R 2 + 2R4 + R 3, (4.3)
the bendìng stiffness of each wire in the strand. Therefore, the bending stiffness, and where, due to the Poisson's ratio effect,
A 飞， for strand 2, is given by the 饵pre唱;sion [s时 Eq. ' (3.78)]
严2=r飞  v(R 1 çl + 2R 2ç2 + 2R4ç4 + R 3ç3)' (4.份
πER! 2sinα4 . 1tER~
A* ~= 6:':'一一一
'" ~ 4 (2 +
+一一
v cos 2α 4)' 4 '
(4.1)
in which ç1> Ç2' Ç3 , and Ç4 are the axial wire strains in wires 1, 2, 3, and 4,
respectively. Again, Eq. (4.2) can be linearized.
where R3 is the center wire radius in strand 2, R4 is an outer wire radius in Guided by the analysis of strand 1, the following equations can be written:
strand 2, and α4 is the helix angle of an outer wire in strand 2.
ln the foregoing theory, for the solid.wire strands in strand 1, the twisting ^*
Çl = Ç3 + . ''''' : (4.5)
moment and the axial force in the strand wires are determined from the tanα'2
properties of a straight solid wire with an angle oftwist per unit length of ~'!.'2
and an axial straing of C; 2, that is, H = πER~~τ2/4(1 + v) and T = 宵ER~Ç2' Ç3 = Ç4 +坐乞， (4.6)
tanα4
Thus, if the cross section of a strand in a rope resembles that shown in Figure
3.1, the axial strain and the angle of twist per unit length will be used to 川 zτ= 二*
r飞严1 ..' _ ð^llt*~\
 I
+ Ç3) a.• 2 I __1
.~
,..
determine the axial force and the axial twisting moment in the curved strand r. 2 \ tanα.2 ; tanα飞 '1
[13]. I
Let the helix angle of strand 2, shown in Figure 4.1 , be α* 2' As the rope is =J主:;:  ~IX*? +工(R 1 çl + 2R山 +2ιÇ4 + R 3e3) (4.7)
loaded, this helix angle assumes a new value iX飞. The angle of twist per unit tanα.2  r.2 tan lX .2
length for strand 2 becomes and
44
l
·t·
Et
l
46 4 Static Response of a Wire Rope 4.1 Axial Response of an lnde严ndent Wire Rope Core 47
J
ill
lOBIIS
(R 3ç3 + R 4ç4) and
il
(R 3 + R4)åτ飞 =~å问
α4
+v
.. . (R 3 + R 4 )tanα4
l M飞z = 6(H飞 sinα飞+ G;.cosα飞 +T飞 r飞 cosα飞  N'z.r飞 sinα飞).
ljae
i
: =飞旦[(1 μi川 (4.16)
;sp The total axial force and axial twisting moment acting on the rope would ,
of ∞urse， be
4
v R çl + 2Rzçz 十~ 2R ç4 + R3ç3) ~:
+( _.一 .21
1
SI日民 2'"'Uα2 1,
tJ
;· r~2 J F=F飞 +F飞 (4.17)
(4.8)
i:·
, and
where τis the twist per unit length of the rope and Aτ飞 is the angle of twist
per unit length of strand 2. Also for strand 1, M， =M气 1+Af*22· (4.1 8)
ll lX. Since the linearized form of Eq. (4.1 3) will be needed, 'it is listed below.
Çl = Çz + =::于 (4.9) Henc晤，
and
‘au 崎Z
and since 0.05967 in. < 0.060475 in., Eq. (3.9) indicates that the wires are not
53=C4+JEL
touching each other. Therefore， α2. = 73.706940 and r2 = 0.060475 in. d 峙 6. 36144 '
Equations (3.50) and (3.51) can now be determined for strand 1 and the
Lωu
vr
A
、，』，句
nu = *
pro∞dure used is the same as that used in Chapter 3. Hence, for strand 1, the
α
}句，&
甲。。
AY
''
ι
.
following results,
+0.29(0.以沟047325 + 0.0α)()78059 + 0.05163ç4 + 0.027725ç3)
王=
AE 0.8
脱8 
..  . • (a)
0.1 6876 x 2.87ω9 '
and and
Ç4 •... ^ "'^ (0.027725ç3 + 0.025815ç4)
一之三一 .10(... + 0.29
乓=
ER'>
0.3189ε + 0.1 183ß, (b) 6.36144 _.... _. 0.05354 x 6.36149
0.05354 J .. . _ _ _ _. 0.29
il
+…
J部部
l
王 = 0.9642e + 0.0853ß (。
AE +0 侧78ω + …Ç4
llur
1
and
which have the solution Ç3 = O.∞12965， Ç4 = O.∞12399， .10(4 = O.α)()36032，
3
21=01928ε + 0.0721ß' (d) and .10(飞 =0.0∞58535. Equation (4.8) can be solved for .1τ飞 and yie1ds
勤 可 Ef 
ER'>
I
川世tti
.1't'*~ 一 ~∞
. _.12399
= . _1_.
The bending stifTness of strand 2 is given by Eq. (4.1), and therefore τ2 一百豆豆 II 6.36144
. ..  O.α)()36032
飞
2
那
It should be mentioned that a check of strand 2 shows that the wires and， henc哩， ßfor strand 2 is 一 0.079355 x O.∞2∞9= 0.α沟159413. i
lit
3
in strand 2 do not touch each other. Also a check of strand 2 shows that strands ηle metallic,crosssectional areas of strand 1 and strand 2 are 0.0188977 l
4
''o

1↑白了 i
2 do not touch each other. in. 2 and 0.01497648 in.2, respectively. The axial for∞ and axial twisting t
'il
oj
Nowlete = O.∞15and τ= 0 for the rope. Equations (4.9) and (4.10) become moment in strand 1 can be computed from Eqs. (a) and (b), above. Hen∞，
l
F飞= 30 X 106 x 0.0188977 x 0.8864 x O.∞ 15 = 753.831b
O.∞15=52+JEL
iogee
~ . 3.42127
and
、 1
and
106
H门HU盯川 们川川 υ川Vtitv川UKh
!t
0= 一一一ι一 Also for strand 2, Eqs. (c) and (d), abov巳， result in
3.42127  .1O(?
~~2.' + 0.060475 x 3.42127 '
T飞= 30 X 106 x 0.01498765(0.9642 x O.∞12965 一 0.0853 x 0.0∞159413)
which have the solution Ç2 = 0.001349 and .1α2 = O.α泊5154. Equations (4.5)
through (4.8) become = 555.531b
A_* and
O.∞15 = Ç3 _:::二一
+ 2.87649
。 H*2 = 30 X 106 x (0.079355)3(0.1 928 x O.∞12965  0β721 x O.∞0159413) i
1
where = 3.575 in. lb. 1:
KM

' l
VEi
liil
50 4 Static Response of a Wire Rope 4.1 Axial Response of an Independent Wire Rope Core 51
Since the values o.f T飞， N'2*， G'2*, and H飞 are kn o.wn, Eqs. (4.1 5) and
(4. 阶 can be used t o. determine F* 2 and M气2' Hen饵，
4.2 Axial Response of a Wire Rope
F*2 = 6[555.53 x 0.94455 + 2.550 x 0.32837] = 3153.4 1b It is o.bvio. us ho.w the preceding equatio.ns co.uld be extended t o. a wire r o.pe
with mo. re co.mplex cro. ss sectio.ns. Figure 4.2 sho.ws such a cro. ss sectio.n. It is
and
called a 6 x 19 Seale ro. pe with an IWRC.
M飞2 = 6[ 3. 575 x 0.94455  0.1 4420 x 0.3 2837 + 555.5 3 x 0.1 6876 It is instructive at this po.int to. discuss the results o.f applying the previ o.us
theo.ry to. the Seale r o.pe sho.wn in Figure 4.2. Le t R 1 = 0.03155 in., R 2 =
x 0.32837  2.550 x 0.1 6876 x 0.94455]
0.028925 in. , R3 = 0.027725 in. , R4 = 0.025815 in. , Rs = 0.05731 in. , R6 =
= 202.2 in. lb. 0.02805 in.，只7 = 0.049928 in.， α2 = 73.7069飞 α4 = 8 1.0664 0 ， α6 = 102.2670 , 0
 In the case of a spring subjected to pure bending, Eq. (3.76) indicates that
A , 0.14420.

川?= 一一一一 =0.∞ 1904 in. 1 •
‘ 75.728  . L. SlD αI
ll! m.• = _..
Elð." = 
EI (2
.. + vcos
 z~ v) 二鼻
ρr
(4.23)
l'Eli and, hence, the maximum normal stress in the center wire of strand 2 is
[Eq. (4.21)] where m. is the bending moment applied to the spring, ð. K is the maximum
σ2 = 30 X 10 6
X O.∞1297 + 30 x 10 x 0.027725 x O.∞ 1904
6 change in curvature of the wire (since m, is the maximum bending moment on
a wire cross section), E is the modulus of elasticity of the wire material, 1 is
lili = 38,910 + 1584 = 40,494 psi , the moment of inertia of the wire cross section， αis the helix angle, v is
E which again is less tban the stress in the center wire of strand 1. Poisson's ratio , and ρis the radius of curvature ofthe centerJine ofthe spring.
It is interesting to compare tbe maximum norma1 stress in the center wire This means that 忧心ause of the helix angle the maximum change in cu凹ature
of strand 1 with the stress computed by taking tbe total axial load and dividing in an outer wire is equal to the product of 2 sin 01:/ (2 + v cos2α) times, the
it by the metallic area. This yields the nomina1 stress change in curvature of the centerline 1/ρ. In the case of a rope, the wires in
an outer layer have tbe shape of a heJix on a helix. Hence, the change in
a
3907 curvature of such a wire will be taken as
= 一一一~ = 35,910 psi,
0.1088
( 2sin 厅飞 { L. sinα* \ 1
K= I 一二一一一一 11 ^ . ~.. ? • 1':" , (4.24)
which is considerably less than the 45，α)() psi in the center wire. 飞2 + vcos 2 α } \.2 +泸∞S2 俨 /ρ
As was mentioned previously, the stresses in the outer wires of strand 2 can where ρis the radius of curvature of the centerline of the rope， α· is the heJix
be determined by treating strand 2 as a straight strand with axialloads T* 2 angle of the strand，俨 is a Poisson's ratio of a strand (which will be taken
andH飞 and bending moment G' 2*. The bending moment G' 2* produ臼sa equal to v, sin∞ the term 泸∞S2 ♂ is very smalI compared with 匀， αis the
change in curvature ð.K飞， and thus Section 3.6 四n be used to determine the helix angle of the wire in the strand, and v is Poisson's ratio of the wire material.
stresses due to this bending. As is shown in Section 3.6, the stresses depend It is this changρin curvature that will be used to calculate the stresses due to
upon arc length along an outer wire and on position in the cross section and bending of the rope.
this thus compIicates the problem. This variation in the bending stress is not Consider a straight thin rod of diameter d bent over a sheave of diameter
significant in comparison to the maximum stress in an outer wire, and hence, D. Let the axialload on the rod be F. The maximum normal stress in the rod
as a conservative estimate, the maximum bending stress in an outer wire, due IS
to the change in curvature .1."飞， will be added on to those produω:d by T飞 4F _d
i:i
andH飞. This stress, due to .1.κ飞， is given by the expression [see Eq. (3.76)] σ =;'+E 一， (4.25) !
πd ‘ D' ;
σ=2SlDOI:~ ð.K飞 ER. 1
(4.22) which can be written as
(2 + v ∞S2α.d ‘·
Ed (4.26) v
The work above considered the stresses in an IWRC. Similar expressions 一一=1+ 一τ~=1+ 一一一一一=了，
σnol1'O σnomμσnom ," 1 U
can be written for a Sea1e rope with an IWRC. It is worth noting that the Seale 一二
E " 'd
strand has the largest wire radius (Rs) of all the wires in the rope and, hence,
should be checked for the bending stresses. where the nomina1 stressσ'nom is given by the expression
4F
"
吨。m =
1td 2 '
(4.27)
4.4 Stresses in a Wire Rope Due to Axial Loading and
Bending Equation (4.26) shows that σ/σnom can be expressed as a function of the
variable σnom D/Ed. An equation similar to Eq. (4.26) can be determined for a
The previous section dea1t with stresses in ropes due to axial loads on1y. To rope with a complex cross section. There is computer program for such a result
obtain the stresses in a rope which, in addition to axial loads, is subjected to [15]. A plot of the maximum normal wire stress for each wire as a function
bending, the principle of super position wil1 again be used , that is, the stresses ofσ'nomD/Ed is shown in Figures 4.3 and 4.4. Figure 4.3 is for a 6 x 19 Seale
due to bending wiJ1 be added to those in the axial 饵se. IWRC (7 x 7 core), wbereas Figure 4.4 is for a 6 x 25 F fi lIerwire IWRC. Use
56 4 Static Response of a Wire Rope 4.4 Stresses in a Wire Rope Due to Axial Loading and Bending 57
n67'
8
E 。CX
zrhocxmE 』
口气
b\bd"。』窃国
7
旬在』·
p
udEHMOL主ωEUHE=E而
·
'
6 6
11i!tli
」E23EUHE3εx℃
5 5
4

3
Ex℃UN
m由
2
N
ε=由E 』OZ
由ε
 』。z
QL 。』
O 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 。 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30
!
li (D/d). G nom/E (D/d). Gnom/E
"们扣"μr LI
;1:lf FIGURE 4.3. Maximum normal wire stresses as a function ofload and curvature (6 x 19 FIGURE 4.4. Maximum normal wire stresses as a function of load and curvature
Seale IWRC, 7 x 7 core). (6 x 25F filler wire IWRC).
l 
E
』 ltt
F
争
!
ofthe figures will be demonstrated in the example worked out below. 1t should It should be noted that in Figures 4.3 and 4.4 some of the cu凹es cross one
lH
V LMMwt 昨
机 phEH
i be remembered that these figures are valid for a rope that is not allowed to another. For a large radius of curvature, the center wire suffers the greatest
RHH
rotate. stress under the axialload. As the radius of curvature becomes smaller, the
'
1
bending stresses dominate in the wires and, hence, the largerdiameter wires
HhJJJ 咱
il
Example 4.3. Consider a Seale 6 x 19 1WRC with a metallic area of 1.∞ in. 2
will receive the largest stresses.
and an axialload of 25 tons. The nominal stress then becomes
l
25 x 20∞
f
冲吁 Jf
σnom =一一「一= 50，0∞ psi.
lit 
Then if the D/d ratio is 30 and the rope is made of steel, the corresponding
1
value of E x 旦旦 is
吁 E
d E
FSav
d E ._,
I
t。
and, hence, from Figure 4.3 , the maximum stress, which 0∞urs in the center
his;i
wire of the Seale strand, is
σ= 2.9 x 50，α)() = 145，∞o psi.
重
5.2 Frictional ElTects in the Bending and Axial Loading of a Strand 59
5F
c 0n n w ROPAe
again involve a~uoernosìtio!l of the stresses caused by the axialloads and the
bending loads. ....普及』
ρuv
4E·w
ri vi
Hence, let the strand be subjected to bending only where the ∞ntact is
maintained between the outside wires and the 臼 nter wire. Between any two
cross sections along an outside wire, the only way an external load can be
applied to the outside wire is along the line of contact. Therefore, if a force
per unit length acts on the boundary of a thin wire, of radius R , as shown in
Figure. 5.1, the following can be written down by transforming the force on
the boundary to an equivalent force and couple acting along the 臼nterline of
the wire [16]
Zds = Zodso cos ß  凡dsosinß， (5.1 )
Yds = Zodso sin ß + 马 dSocosß， (5.2)
5.1 Friction in an Axially Loaded Strand and, hence,
Chapter 3 considcred the static rcsponse of a simple straight strand with the K=O, (5 .3)
cross section shown in Figure 3. 1. It was assumed in that chapter that the
K' = ZR , (5.4)
wires were frictionless. It will now be shown that friction plays a very small
role in the axialloading of a simple strand. and
Consider án infl,D.i'tesimalline element in an outer wire cross section that，江
9= YR , (5 .5)
extend时， passes 甜甜咱1 the centerline of the straight center wire in the
unloaded configuration. This is the line element "a" discussed in Chapter 2.
When the strand is axially loaded with a force and twisting moment, this line
element, if extended, st山 passes through the centerI ine of the straight 臼nter
strand. The shearing force N 1 in an outer wire cross section as determined by
Eq. (3. 17) is equaI to zero. This means that all radiallines eminating from the
centerline of the ωnter straight wire and passing through the centerJine of the
outer wires remain straight under the axial loading. There is no relative
motion between the points of contact of an outer wire with the center wire.
This results in no frictional loads even 江 the material has a coefficient of
friction.
In the case of a multilayered strand in which the lays are alternate, there Center line
will be a small efJect due to friction. At the contact points, a deformation is
caused by contact stresses. As tbe strand is loaded, tbere is a rotation of one
wire relative to another at the contact points about a normal to the contact
points, since the wires tend to straighten out under an axialload. This will be
a very small efTect as far as the axial response of the rope is concerned.
58
 1if
恻
il
60 5 Friction in Wire Rope 5.2 Frictional ElTects in the Bending and Axial Loading of a Strand 61
3 where 凡 and Zo are the forces per unit length acting along the contact curve, Figure 5.2 shows the centerline of an outside wire in a deformed position
11I
!
li ßis the angle shown in Figure 5.1, ds o is a differentiallength along the contact in which the outside wire is wrapped around the center wire. The deformed
↑
ll
curve corresponding to a differential length ds along the centerline of an components of the curvature and twist per unit length will now be obtained
ill
l!l
outside wire, and K , K' , and e are the components ofthe external moments by again proj巳cting the angular velocity vector of a rotating reference frame ,
it
f
it
per unit length along the centerline of an outside wire. which moves with a unit velocity along the deformed centerline of an outside
1
Therefore the differential equations of equilibrium [Eqs. (2.4) through (2.6) wire. This can be accomplished by noting that the absolute angular velocity
1
'iT;ita
and (2.8) through (2.1 0)] become vector of the x , y, z frame is equal to the angular velocity vector with respect
sill to the X , Y, Z system plus the angular velocity vector of the X , Y, Z system
dN
Ill 气一 N'τ + T x:'+X =0, (5.6) with respect to the fixed ABC system. If it is assumed that tanα = p8/r仇 then
lo
as

''i
smαa
t'
e
dN' κ= 一costþ，
~ T" + Nτ+ y=O, (5.7) ρ
l
l!li
as
cos~αsm~α .

 dT κ= 一一一 一一一 s
创m~伊
P，
i j! iiE
llil M 一';Nκ'+ N' x:+ Z=O, (5.8) rρ
'S$t 1ι
l
as
and
剑unn" "" " MMH U配刷 刷 缸刷
,
iilili dG
τ一 G'τ + H ,,'  N' = 0, (5.9)
as
C
dG'
一?一 Hx: +Gτ +N RZ=O, (5.10)
U vt Itv 4酌 ' Z ZVE E创fvErtmHrL
l as
i
IlleAll
and
dH
一~
as
 Gx:' + G'x: + R Y = o. (5 .1 1)


The following interesting observations can be made upon an examination
配刚
Hbsι
o of Eqs. (5.6) through (5.11). Since the original curvatures and twist per unit
l length of an outside wire are known, assumed values of the deformed curva
1 og'1
tures and twist per unit length will yield, by Eq. (2.1 2), the values of G, G', and

巾
uri'
H. Equations (5.9) and (5 .1 1) can then be used to solve for N' and Y. Equation
(5.10) determines the value of Z in terms of N. Hence, Eqs. (5.7) and (5.8) can
now be combined to yield a linear, firstorder, ordinary differential equation
X
of T in terms of s. The equations of equilibrium of an outside wire will thus
yield the tension T along the wire for assumed curvatures and twist per unit
length.
In the deformed configuration, fairly a∞urate estimates can be made for
the deformed curvatures and twist per unit length. The tension T, due to
bending in an outside wire, can then be determined from the solution of the
differential equation discussed above. This procedure eliminates the difficult
气
task of estimating the axial strain and , hence, T, along an outside wire.
It should be remarked that the above pro∞dure was used to determine the
二嘈
tensions in an outer wire for the axial1y loaded strand. The final curvatures
and twist per unit length were assumed and the loads required to hold the
wires in equilibrium were determined from the equations of equilibrium. FIGURE 5.2. Helix on a circle.
62 5 Friction in Wire Rope 5.2 Frictional EfTects in the Bending and Axial Loading of a Strand 63
smαcosαSIOαcos (x •
(5.1 2) and , hence, has the solution
τ= 一一一一一 + 一一一smφ，
r p
T C3+Cz (5.20)
where K and K' are the final components of the curvature， τis the angle of =严百否+汇'
twist per unit length , p is the radius of curvature of the center wire , r is the where
radius to the centerline of an outer wire， αis the helix angle of an outer wire,
and 仇 which lies in the XYplane, is the angle shown in Figure 5.2. C1= 」?Lcdα1 ， (5.21)
‘ ρcos~α1 R J
Hen白， as mentioned previously , Eqs. (5.9), (5 .1 0), and (5.11) yield
and
f徒四川， (5.23)
πER 4 V Sinαcos 2α cosø which indicates that the change in length due to bending of an outer wire in
RY= 一一一一一一一 , (5 .1 5)
4 (1 + v) ρr one lay length is assumed to be zero.
where Since C1 << 1, Eq. (5.23) yields the value of C 3 as
r GG
s= 一一 @ (5.1 6) c 's = (5.24)
cosα
(5.26)
(i 一∞S2α+jahs叫
一一…
4ρ "
dT r
一+一飞 / • 、 L. (costþ)T
G' πER sin 2α inø.
4
一+一 '? 1
ρcos 2α LR
一 cos 2α 1 (∞siþ)T= 一斗一一一一 1 ';;'
J
句广 (1 +吵 ρLR
 cos 2α
J z 一 πER
4
dtþ
v 11 cos2αl cos <x cos tÞ. (5 .3 2)
(5 .1 9) 一一一一一…… m
4Rρ(1 + v) LR r J 二 '町  打
64 5 Friction in Wire Rope 3。
and
2。
πER 4 V _ rt r V r • .1
x=一寸一一: COS 2α 11 一 1+'R'
叩广 (1 + v)  1 飞 R}
一 (1  2cos气)
_' "'JIsintþ. (5.33)
It should be remembered that the above equations are for bending only when 10
Z

之aJ}N
the assumed deformed curvatures and twist per unit length are given by Eq.
(5.12).
。
Equation (5.25) indicates the rather unexpected result that the tension T,
〉·
althoJ,lgh positive for 0 < tþ < π， is small. Let, for example, R 1 = 0.031 in.,
X
R2 = 0.029 in.， α= 70 0， ρ= 60 in., E = 30 X 106 psi, and v = 0.25. The previ
ous equations yield values of G = 0.2610 cos 仇 G' =  0.2453 sin 仇 H= 10
Y'/
0.0714sin 仇 x = 10.5874 sin 仇 Y = 3.5093 cos 仇 Z = 21.3 139cos 仇 N=
0.6181 cos 仇 N' =  0.0348 sin 仇 and T = 3.5 277 sin tþ. Plots of the above
loads are shown in Figures 5.3 , 5.4, and 5.5. 20
Now let the total axialload on the strand be 710.3 lb. The contact load for
the axial case with no rotation is 196.45 lb/in., and this is sufficient to
generate the frictionalloads for small coefficients of friction. However, in the 30
axial case, the tensile load in an outside wire is 101.751b, which is considerably 0 60 120 189 240 30。 36。
higher than the maximum tensile load of 3. 53 lb due to the bending. '" (DEGREES)
The total stress acting on an outside wire at a point furthest from the
socalled neutral axis consists of four parts. The axial and bending stresses FIGURE 5.4. Contact loads as a function of ø.
.3 4
气
/
//
、
\ 3
,,
、、
,,,,
. 2
,, 2
G ·\/ ,,,
,,,
,,,
• 1 10
(国J}z←
(5.ZD ,,,
。
0.0.z
.
2
飞
飞
飞
飞 1
、
. 1
飞
、
飞 2
、
飞
.2 飞
、
、， 3
·、_./
.3 4
0 60 120 180 240 300 36。 0 6。 120 180 240 300 360
,. (OEGREES) ,. (OEGREES)
due to the axialloading and the axial and bending stresses due to bending curvature is less than the deformed pitch on the side furthest frorn the 臼nter
with radius ρ. The value of these stresses are 38,510  4,950  1,330 + of curvature and yet the spring does not experience a tensile force.
12，8∞= 45,040 psi, whi1e the maximum stress on an outside wire at the It is therefore felt that, in the actua[ case of bending of a sirnp[e strand, the
neutral axis is 38,510 + 13,630 = 52,140 psi. The maximum tensile stress in tensile forces due to bending are rather srnall and can be neg[ected in a
the ∞nter wire is 45，仪沟+ 15，5∞ =ω，5∞ psi. determination of the stresses. The bending stresses are generally considerable,
The above results show, for the curvatures and twist assumed, that the however, and should be taken into a∞ ount. It is a[so interesting to note that
tensile stresses, caused by T, due to the bending of a simple strand are sma1[ the experirnents of Hobbs and Ghavarni [17] confirmed that in bending
when compared with the tensile stresses due to T for axial loads. fatigue the first failures occurred in the wires located at the neutral axis in a11
In the case of a spring subjected to pure bending [8], the final curvatures SIX tests.
and twist per unit length are approximated by Two estirnates for the curvatures and twist per unit length were considered
2sinα1
above. In bOí. h cases, the tensile forces in an outer wire were very srnall when
κ 一 . .. .、。 (5 .34) compared with the usual tensile loads in the axially loaded case. Since the
一。+ vcos 2α) p叩
tensile loads were srna11, the bending stiffness was predorninantly detennined
cos 2α 2 sin20: •
(5.35)
by the bending stiffness of each wire, and hence, it is felt that Eq. (3.78)
K =一一一 牛  ~l U 哩'
r (2 + vco泸州 p , represents a fairly accurate estirnate of the bending stiffness and , as rnentioned
previously, experimental investigations [10] tend to confirrn this. It should be
and noted, however, that srnallline loads per unit length acting along the contact
sm α ∞S 出‘ 2(1 + v) sinαcosα_!_ 1. line due to friction rnay cause relatively large stresses along the line of contact,
τ 一一一一十 (5.36)
 r ' (2 + v ∞泸州 一~Ul
p … v
"，
since these are line loads.
The expressions for the curvatures are close to those assumed previously, since
2/(2 + vcos 20:) is close to unity. A substitution of the above curvatures and 5.3 Frictional Effects in Wire Rope
twist per unit length into the equations of equilibrium yields the result:
T=O. In the case ofaxially loaded ropes, the effects due to friction are again felt to
be srnall, especially in the case in which the outer strands are not in contact.
Also, In this case, the strand cross sections are allowed to rotate about an axis
N = 0, N' = 0, X = 0, Y = 0, Z = 0, (5 .37) passing through the centerline of the rope. In the case of a rope with a fiber
core, the cross sections are not as free to rotate about an axis passing through
G=πER
4
2sinα16 (5.38) the centerline of the rope and, hen白， friction will ha ve some effect.
一…4 (2 + vcos 2α) p __v .,. In the bending and tension of a wire rope with an independent wire rope
4 core, again , since the core tends to keep the strands from contacting each
G'πER 2sin 2α1·6 (5.39) other, the outer strands tend to contact the independent wire rope only and

一…
4 (2 + vcos 2α)ρ
........a
"f'
behave somewhat like the sirnple strand considered in Section 5.2. The total
and load in à strand due to bending is felt to be small cornpared with the load
for the axially loaded case. Hence, it is felt that the methods employed in
H=一一
πER 4
sin αcosαin
2
一… ，p (5.40)
Chapters 3 and 4 to determines stresses are fairly accurate for deterrnining
+ v∞ S2α)ρ
… Y
4 (2
stresses in a rope with friction.
Consider again the same strand examined previously. In this case, the tensile
stress at the socalled maximum distance from the neutral axis is (38,510 
4,950 + 12,620) = 46, 180 psi. The maximum tensile stress acting on an outside 5.4 Effective Length of a Broken Center Wire in a Simple
i11 wire at the neutral axis is (38,510 + 13,430) = 51 ，9ωpsi. Strand
The fact that the tensile loads T, due to bending in the outer wire, are small
seems difficult to ac∞ pt when one examines the bending of a beam in which
i111 Consider a simple strand axially loaded and not allowed to rotate. Let the
plane sections remain plane. However, if one considers the pure bending of a
center wire stress beσl ' Now let an imaginary cut be made in the center wire
spring, the deformed pitch on the side of spring closest to the center of
6lli of a simple strand that has a stress σo acting on it. This will divide the center
1
E
68 5 Friction in Wire Rope 5.4 Effective Length of a Broken Center Wire in a Simple Strand 69
wire into two parts. If σ。=町， the parts will not separate. Let the material be Equation (5 .43) indicates, the important result, that, for t' = 0, this maxi
frictionless and the axial loads constant. If the stressσ。 is now reduced, the mum slip length, 1".., is independent of the axialload F , since σ1 and X 2 are
parts wi I1 separate. The outside wires wi1l pick up the additionalload being both linear in F.
released by the center wire. The contact force between the outer wires and the
Example 5. 1. Consider a simple strand with the following properties: Rl =
center wire will increase.
0.03155 in. , R 2 = 0.02893 in., P2 = 1. 3 ín., v = 0.25, E = 29 X 10 6 psi, m2 = 6,
Consider now the same strand in which the material coefficient of friction
and μ= 0. 1. Let Çl = O.∞3 and τ= O. The theory in Chapter 3 yields a value
is infinite. Again, let the center wire be separated into two parts by an
of X 2 = 266.91b./in. Equation (5 .43) becomes
imaginary cut and let the stress beσ'0' As stressσ。 is reduced from stress 町，
the faces will again separate except at the m2 contact points. The faces in the 0.1 x  266.9 x 1
center wire will be deformed into a dishlike shape ifσ。 is constant. The outside 29 X 106 x O.∞3 xπX (0.03155)2 + 6~ "x ~.. :n.r^n衡阳 =0
wires will again pick up the additionalload, which is released from the ∞nter
wire. Since the ∞nter wire is not allowed to slip relative to an outside wire, with the result that Ims = 1.631 in. The actual slip length will be less than this
an invocation of SaintVenant's principle yields a relatively short length in value. The actual stress in an unbroken center wire for the above strains is
which the stresses will again be distributed as thought the center wire were 87，∞o psi. If for example the actual slip length was 1.378 in., Eq. (5.4 1) would
notcut. yield a value of 鸟= 73 ,530 psi. The remainder of the wire would not slip and,
The actual case of the center wire experiencing a fracture is, of course, thus, in a very short length , the stress in the center wire will nearly be 87,000
somewhere between the two cases mentioned above. Le t the material have of ps1.
coefficient of frictionμ. As the center wire stress is reduced, two regions may
develop in the center wire. The region nearest the fractured end may slip
relative to the outside wires and the region that remains will not slip. An 5.5 Effective Length of a Broken Outer Wire in a Rope
estimate of the slip region can be ascertained by using the values of the line
contact loads developed in the unbroken center wire strand and the coefficient Figure 5.6 shows the fatigue failure of an independent wire rope core of
of friction μ. As mentioned previously, this line load is less than that of the 0.875in. diameter regular lay 6 x 25 IWRC wire rope subjected to axial
broken 臼nter wire strand and thus should give a somewhat conservative loading only. The outer wires show no visable signs of fracture , although the
result [18]. wires in the internal coie of the rope are fractured into relatively short lengths.
Let 1. be the length of slip measured from the fractured end of the center The wires in the internal core are subjected to the largest axial stresses when
wire. A summation of the axial forces on the ∞nter wire of length 1. yields the rope is subjected to axialloading only. The fractures of the short lengths
(since X 2 is negative) appear to be the result of friction , which enables the 臼nter wires to sustain
their appropriate share of the load in a relatively short length. If the wires
σsπRî + m2μXZJL=0，
sma
(5 .41) were very smooth, the tensile stress in the wires would remain at low levels
for a relatively long length along the wires from the fractured end and thus
in which σ~ is the tensile wire stress at the length 1.. This stress is less than the would not fracture into small pieces.
In general, the performance of a wire rope is usually not a tTected by an
stress in the unbroken wire. Let 1be the length of no slip along the center wire
wherein the stress increases from σ~ to nearly，叭， the stress in the center wire occasional broken wire in a rope. In fact in long ro庐s， it is possible to have
every wire broken somewhere along its length and yet the rope will still
of an unbroken strand. Thus, the effective length L., measured from the
fractured end of the center wire, in which the 臼nter wire picks up its appropri function satisfactorily. There is sufficient friction in the rope to enable a broken
ate share of the load is given by wire to develop its total share of the load in a relatively short length. The
problem, however, becornes acute when a number of broken wires 0∞urin a
L. = 1. + 1. β.42) relatively short length along the rope. In the mining industry, for example,
some ropes may measure up to 7;α)() ft. Broken wires in the rope are monitored
It should be noted that the maximum s1ip length can be obtained by setting by passing the rope through an electromagnetic field that wi1l detect broken
乌 = σ1 in Eq. (5.41). Let this length be denoted 1...., and thus, wires. Many times the number of broken wires in a given length is used as a
retirement criterion for the rope. Since visual inspection will detect only
TL 」 broken outer wires and since the outer strands carry the main portion of the
1 饥Rf + m2μ. 气一一 =0. (5.4 3)
smoc2 load, an estimate of the effective length of an outer wire is important.
也
‘'
、
"
70 5 Friction in Wire Rope 5.5 Effective Length of a Broken Outer Wire in a Rope 71
Also , as the outer wire wraps around the strand it experiences line contact
loads with adjace fl. t wires. This line contact load increases as the tension in
an outer wire increases, and thus, if the wire is slipping, its tension will increase
due to the friction caused by the line contact loads.
Again the line contact load X 33 that acts on an outer unbroken wire as it
wraps around the strand can be calculated by the methods developed in
Chapter 4. When the wire is fractured, the contact line load decreases. It wi1l
now be assumed that the line contact load in the broken outer wire is
proportional to the tension in the wire. When the tension in the broken wire
reaches the tension in an unbroken wire, the line contact load will be the same
as that ofthe unbroken wire. 1t would be noted that theline contact load X 33 ,
actíng on an outer wire, is the resultant of the two line contact loads of the
inner lay of wires in an outside strand (see Figure 4.3). Each outside wire comes
in contact with two inner wires. This tends to increase the frictional force ,
since the components of X 33 must be used. Thus, the frictional force per unit
length J, due to the resultant contact load X 33 , is (since X 33 is negative)
X 一ω
3叮
rJ
一
μ
FUV
(5.46)
A
e
in which 33 is the angle on a given cross section of an outer wire between the
resultant line load X 33 and a point of contact.
Example 5.2. Consider the l.306in. diameter, Seale rope used in Section 4.2.
Let the axial strain be O.∞3 and the rotational strain be zero. From the theory
developed in Chapter 4, the following values are obtained: X 3 • = 一 1 ，725
FIGURE 5.6. Axial fatigue failure of an independent wire rope core of a 6 x 25 IWRC. lb/in"X33 = 436.81bfin. , T33 = 5101b, e33 = 21.99 0 , P33 = 2.467in.andS33 =
2.646 in. , where T33 is the tension in an outer unbroken wire and S33 is the
length of an outer wire from contact point to contact point. Let an outer wire
be fractured at a contact point. Thus, for a length of 2.646 in the tension in
The method employed to determine the efTective length of a center wire in
this outer wire will be zero. At the next contact point, the contact load, given
a simple strand can now be extended to the complex cross sections of wire
by Eq. (5.44), is F( = 472. 81b; thus, Eq. (5.45) yields an increase in tension，巧，
rope. Consider the 6 x 19 Seale IWRC rope shown in Figure 1.1. In Chapter
in the outer wire in which T,. = 0.1 x 2 x 472. 8 = 94.561b, where μ= 0.1 has
4, equations are presented that will determine the contact force per unit length
been used. Thus, as mentioned previously, the contact line load X 33 , in the
X 3 • Sinc晴 there are nine wires in an outer Seale strand, each outer. wire
next section from contact point to contact point, wil1 be assumed as  436.8 x
experiences a contact load, F( , in which (since X 3 is negative)
94.56/510 = 80.99 lb/in. Equation (5 .46) yields J = 0.1 x 80.99/0.9273 =
8.733 lb/in. This frictional force acts on the next length of 2.646 in., and thus
…
"
•(
Xd33
9 (5.44) the tension in the outer broken wire just after the next contact point becomes
94.56 + 8.733 x 2.646 = 212.21b. This process is continued until the tension
where P33 is the pitch ofthe outer wires in the strand. Each time an outer wire in the wire is at least 510 lb (the tension in an unbroken wire).
comes in contact with the wire rope core it is su歧jected to the load F( acting & In this example, after a length ofjust greater than 4 x 2.646 = 10.58 in. , the
on both sides of the wire. Thus, if a broken wire is slipping relative to the other
h万••
calculated tension turns out to be 540.8 lb, which is greater than the 510 lb.
adjacent wires at the contact point, the change in tension T,. of the broken Thus, the maximum efTective length ofthis broken wire will be taken as 10.58
wire across the contact point will be given by in. This translates into a length of 9.284 in. along the rope. It is interesting to
note that the pitch of an outer strand is 7.88 in. , and thus the efTective length
马 =μ2F(. (5 .45) of a broken outer wire is about 18% greater than the pitch.
6.1 Axia! Testing ofa Wire Rope 73
6
Testing of a Wire Rope
72
60
74 6 Testing of a Wire Rope
的GZ30ιz040
」
20
10
l iaAU
Nominal wire Actual wire Spring rate Young's
回
α
MMJ
AMAU
ð. F/& modu1us E
diameter diameter
m
0.037 0.0379 X X
eif
ZI
ll
K
JI
ual wires within the strand had been splayed in the collar prior to the pouring
of the molten zinc. In the testing machine, the col1ars were rigidly held by
means of Jζgroove grips, as shown in Figure 6.5. In view of the massiveness
of the testing machin四 and the method of gripping that was employed, one
can argue that the ends of the specimen were effectively prevented from
rotating.
FIGURE 6.4. 2∞，α)()lb testing machine.
m
''·
w
illll!i1
1
1
i1il
test illustrated , the loading curve is slightly nonlinear right from the origin.
it I
The spring rate !l F/!le near the origin is approximately 0.42 x 106 lb. The
p o川
l
···BEE
』
t  !l l'il
' E Ii
metallic area of the strand A. is 0.01768 in.2 • The effective modulus is then
4
l l
圳 lin
noted that the computed value of Ee is about 81% ofthe value of E ofthe wire
material.
FP I lli
1111h;ttkkM
nHMHMMHUHMMM""HnM
Tests on the 仨in. diameter rope were run on the same Richle 200，000凸
HU
machine used to test the strands. Also, the same 12in., gagelength clip gage
V
t
酌
b
UNhUHMNJH
was used to determine the axial de f1 ectÍon. The ends of the rope specimens
were held by zincfilled cylindrical sockets that were gripped by Vgroove grips
to prevent rotation.
The detai! of the contact between the clip gage and the rope is shown in
明 UUH
Figure 6.7. The clip gage spanned approximately 22 crests of the sixstrand
"HERm
fL 霄'''tFEss'eEEEElate'ti'BE
FU创 刊 MUHill
i(;1f
i
UM UUMUUH"""HMUn
11!il!d?"14JJ
i


叫 J 川
!
dAa ，
l
lii
1
HM
l
BEEgl
mmMmw
1
1
mwwm
1
Il
川

，

ιEEEEF
明阳出 tutM
0 .1 2
山rIM川川咀14州地川 川泪刑
BEHHHm
4
80 6 Testing of a Wire Rope 6.2 ElTect of Rope Size on Rope Strength 81
TABLE 6.2. Actual and calculated nominal strengths for two ty严:S ofrope. 1. 5

。
6 x 19, 6 x 37, IWRC fiber core 1.3
NR
气的
1.2
d, Actual S Calculated S Difference Actual S Calculated S Difference
M】M气M
(in.) (1 b) (lb) (%) 。b) 。b) (%) 1.1
1.029  0.02519 Cd/dol
i 4 28 占 4且 aa 4 ?古
{
、剧
5,880 5,750 2.2
、唱
刷刷刷刷刷翩翩翩翩
13,120 12,994  1.4
AU 句，句 3
的}"【。咽气可】的』
23,000 23，以)() 0.0 23,600 ····E··
B7
0
35，8∞ 35,940 0.4 36,870
。
51，2∞ 51 ,750 1.1 53， 1∞
·
ErO
69，2∞ 70,440 1.8 72,270
'··tA'
A
i a
y
138 ，8∞ 143,750 3.6 147，5∞ 0.5 ‘
i21 2
197，8∞
句
314
266，'α)() 281 ,750 5.9 239， 1∞ d/d。
344，'α)() 368，α)() 7.0 377，6∞

' 叫42d
12A
Also, a11 the ropes were made of the same material Yellow Strand Improved d Actual S Calculated S Difference
(in.) dJdo (l b) 。b) (%)
制制制翩翩翩翩
Plow Steel.
∞纺 mN
约 620mA2但 2mA
'A
'
舍 4且 sa aT
It should be noted that the higher the value of dp/d". , the higher the percent ,
23,686 0.3 6
••
dilTerence, which indicates that the largerdiameter ropes exhibit lower unit 36,778 0.49
，且，
52,626 0.43
巧∞ mM
nominal strengths than the sma11erdiameter ropes. Also, the percent dilTer JP
二
••
71, 174 0.53 ;
en∞ seems to be independent of the type of rope 口 1].
句"
'A'A'A'A
9 2,368 0.40
， ，&2J
Aa 2 且 a
Now let the size elTect be taken into accoun t. The nominal strength S for a 14之467 0.33
∞ mN
!
td
given type of rope can be assumed as 202,477 0.24 i
气
ω翩
JA
271,952 0.02
∞
·
e
句.
S 二 j与(d， v, E, n, K , do), (6.6) l
怜
350,477
，
0.牛，
!
where do is a specified reference rope diameter and is introduced for the i
purpose of describing the size elTect. By dimensional analysis, Eq. (6均 t

becomes from the Yellow Strand Wire Rope Handbook. Wheri the technique oflinear
I
S _1 d . K飞 regression is used, Is can be expressed approximately as
一τ=141 ~ ， v， h 一 l (6.7)
剧' 气d o "'''' E)
Is = 川9  0.02519手， (6.9)
For given stock material, Eq. (6.7) can be written as
"。
where do = 吉 in.
S SO r (d 飞
苟言=百ZM 飞do )'
(6.8) For a given stock material, Eqs. (6.8) and (6.9) are valid for any reasonable
type of rope. Equations (6.8) and (6.9) can now be applied to a 6 x 25
since So /Ed5 is a constant, and So is the actual nominal strength for the rope FlattenStrand fibercore wire rope. The results are shown in Table 6.3. Table
of diameter do. 6 .3 indicates that Eqs. (6.8) and (6.9) yield very a∞urate predictions for the
Let , fór example, do be chosen as 专 in. Figure 6.9 shows a plot of the nominal strengths. It therefore seems reasonable to consider do as one of the us''
function 15 for a 6 x 19 IWRC wire rope. Again a11 the data were taken primary parameters in the testing of wire rope.
J~:
! 1l
'!
.
.‘。
6.3 EfTect of Rope Size on Fatigue Life procedures. The experimental data shown in Table 6.4 are adopted from
referen出s 22 and 23. The type of rope under consideration is a 6 x 41FWS
Consider now the fatigue testing of a wire rope running over a sbeave. In tbis Lang LayIWRC wire rope for which it is assumed that E = 29 X 106 psi.
section, a testing metbodology for smalldiameter ropes will be introduced ,
Each N in Table 6.4 is an average of two tests; ß, which is sometimes used to
such that the fatigue life of largerdiameter ropes can be ascertained from the predict the fatigue life, is called the DruckerTachau bearing pressure ratio,
testing of smalldiameter ropes. Again, before a testing program is undertaken, which is defined [24] as
a dimensional analysis of the problem should be made. 卢 2T
In order to simplify the problem, only tbe effects of the axial tension in the
=
UDd'
(6 .1 3)
rope T, the sheave diameter D, and the rope diameter d on the fatigue life of
where U is the ultimate strength of the wire material. The purpose of this
the rope will be studied. It will now be assumed that the number of cycles to
,
failure N for a given type of rope can be assumed to be
procedure is to predict the fatigue life of 3in. diameter rope from the test data
of the 0.75in. and 1.5in. diameter rope. 白le error is about 1∞% if one uses
l斗 =j斗(T， D， d， E， v, 6"c, u'"b, do), (6 .10) the DruckerTachau criterion.
Let the values of do be chosen as 0.75 in. Figure 6.1 0 shows the relationship
where 6'f is the fatigue ductility coefficient of the stock material, c is the fatigue
ductility exponent of the stock material， σí is the fatigue strength coefficient
of the stock material, and b is the fatigue strength exponent of the stock TABLE 6.4. Fatigue life data.
material. Again, additional parameters may be listed but they will not affect d(in.) D(in.) T( Ki ps) η'Ed 2 Djd djd。 乌 (cycles) F
the conclusions drawn below. Also do is a specified reference rope diameter,
吨，&句
<
which is introdu臼d for the purpose of describing the size effect. 0.75 15.0 17.83 1.093 X 103
UAU
74,665 11.10 X 10 3
0.75 15.0 13.37 0.820 X 103 101,985 8.35 X 10 3
，
.、 3'3
A dimensional analysis of Eq. (6.10) results in <
0.75 22.5 17.83 1 朋3 X 103 UAU
123，2∞ 7.42 X 10 3
h占
(T D σ飞 d 飞 0.75 22.5 13.37 0.820 X 10 3
183，2∞ 5.57 X 10 3
冉 =j与卜::J'2一，吨， c，~， b， v 一 l (6.1 1)
句，&句，&饨
句a
AUAUAUAU
J 飞Ed 2 ' d , I'~' E , ,., d ) 1.50 30.0 59.06 0.905 x 10 3 58,671 9.16 X 10 3
， 句，"句
U u
o
1.50 30.0 53.ω 0.821 X 10 3 65,737 8.33 X 10 3
If the tests are now limited to a specific stock material, Eq. (6.1 1) becomes 7.29 X
3 句3
1. 50 45.0 70.29 1.077 10 3 95,511 10 3
&饨，&
，
X
1. 50 45.0 53.60 0.821 X 103 131,339 5.56 X 10 3
_ (T D d 飞
(6.12) 3.∞ 90.0 330.∞ 1.26 10 3 30 4 29,346 9.40 X 10 3
叮=凡飞苟言'百'do )
X
\刊
1.5∞篇 10吗
the size effect on the fatigue life.
1. Choose a value of do. 1.2制翼盯.，
testing sheave. 
ω
、、

..
, 2
4. Plot the N versus T/Ed curve by changing the values of T. ~OOO 民
‘ ,
5. LetD/d = 屿，凡. . ., and repeat step 4. A family of N versus 盯Ed curves 2
4、

4
,
V
FIGURE 6.10. Plot of N as a function of T/Ed 2 and D/d for d/do = 1.
A
pu叩ose
1
An example will be given for the of describing the foregoing

tja tιLit
,
E
84 6 Testing of a Wire Rope 6.3 Effect of Rope Size on Fatigue Life 85
between TIEd 2 , Dld, and 1斗 for dldo = 1. Figure 6.11 shows the same relation. The value of 乌 for Dld = 30， η'Ed 2 = 1.264 X 10 3 , and dldo = 1 can be
ships for dldo = 2. In this example, it is assumed that the relationship between obtained from Figure 6.1 0 , and hence, Nf = 85，6∞ cycles. Also when dldo = 2,
TIEd 2 and 1斗 is 1inear, since only two sets of data were provided. However, Figure 6.11 yields 1斗= 69,340 cycles. Hence, the points A and B are shown
it should be noted that more than two sets of data should be provided for one plotted in Figure 6.1 2. This yields a plot of Nf as a function of dldo for Dld = 30
curve in practical cases and then the relationship would probably not be and 盯'Ed 2 = 1.264 X 10 3 • Finally, the value of Nfforthe 3in. diameter rope,
linear. that is dldo = 4, can be ascertained by uti1izing the technique of extrapolation;
Consider now the prediction of the bending fatigue life of a 3in. diameter hen饵，乌= 36,780 cycles. Since the test result ofthis example is 29,346 cycles,
wire rope running over a 90in. diameter sheave, where the rope is subjected this yields an eπor of about 25%.
to an axial tension of 330 kips. Hence D/d = 30 and T/Ed 2 = 1.264 X 10 3 .
l500 翼10.3
1.254.10咋….. "、..申........三气‘
'. 、.
! ,..........
'.~
rlrt.
."严、I'U
1.... _~^
J、，
'\.."守d.2Q人\
1.1αXh lOlI
Hh、v
i\\ 飞\\
← M}
lJJ
5，α)()提盯4
才
~'õ m双~ 1.0.丽E 飞.5 .1届 2.0‘盼'
Nf. Cycles
1 .5拢。，
。 Id .30
T/(Ed l ).1.264xIO'1I
!~.~[飞\\\
ODa 2 z s 6
d/d。
7
Birdcaging in Wire Rope
86
88 7 Birdcaging in Wire Rope 7.1 Equations of Motion 89
remain in contact with the ∞nter wire, X 2 < O. When X 2 > 0; the outside where
wires separate from the center wire. Hence, setting X 2 = 0 in Eq. (7.7), yields
_x=R_u;;: F~ M _ t
εas a linear function of ßso that the outside wires are just touching the center =百， κ= 瓦 ， u= γ= 石， JYl = 汪古， t=百万' (7.12)
wire. Figure 7.2 shows such a plot.
A consideration of the variations of the axial force F and the axial torque 飞J AE
M, for a strand leads to the equations of motion for a strand element. The 2 3
ðF. =òF mR h òM mR h ""òM
resulting equations are a= 一一 .b=R 一一 c= 一一一一:"'::"'_d=:':':一R 一 (7 .1 3)
。ε ， ' òß" JA ðε' 四 IA •. òß'
muh
gτU
Pa au
RYx
2Uτ 。
uz
句AeEb
Uτa
《
+ AMHF
DLV
一
 m (7.8)
VA AU <
x is the axial coordinate along the strand, u = u(x, t) is the axial displacement ,
ø= Ø(x, t) is the axial rotation, t is time, A is the metallic area of the strand,
and m is the mass per unit length of the strand, and 1 is the mass moment of inertia
ðMòε . òM òß
ι ::::::
.ò2
1.
ø (7.9)
per unit length of the strand. Since
òe òx . òß òx  ò(1'
F= C 1ε +C2 ß (7.1 4)
内一♂
which can be written as
and
情 P
uvT
《
《
U
AU甲《U
+
，。
a (7 .1 0)
之U
M=C3 ε + C4 ß, (7.1 5)
川
where the constants C1> C2 , C3 , and C4 are determined in Section 3.4, Eqs.
and (7.1 0) and (7.11) are a set of coupled linear partia1 differential equations for
。2Ü
c oτ
, ò2 ð Ø ø 2
(7.1 1)
which the solution 回n be found for various boundary and initial conditions.
òx 2 +d~τ= 2 一=亨，
'  òx Òγ'
飞
P
。t
=0, 22(又 0) = 0,
RUAV
nu•• 
凡
Z = ..,
AU
、
ü(芳;0) =础， Ø(王;0) Ut , , (7.1 8)
，
AXial Strain , f 。t
and

h叮
刷叭 r们川
η
ut
队， f
nvJU=d n
同凡呱 nu
' ü(l， η=11σ)， Ø(l， η=0，
WLU VA
T
A  'n =
(7.19)
庐UV
a
ρUV
Equations σ.10) and (7.1 1) become, after taking the Laplace transform, Equation (7.25) yields
非 T

?1 一X
RUZU
《
咱睛
AU州dv
TA
+ eo u eax
，。
饨，.
d 1 =gI Cl' d2 =gl 句， d3 = g2 C3, and d4 = g2 句，
，z ，.
AM
(7.20) (7.3 1)
where
向M
and

J
吗?
1 _ n.. 2 1 __2
‘
uτo
FLW + JU a'te2mv (7.21)
gl = 气乒 and g2 = 与严 (7.32)
aei oei
A satisfaction of the transformed boundary conditions
where
ü(O, s)=O, Ø(O, s) = 0, ü(l， s)=j(功， and ø(1, s) = 0
ü(又s) = L(ii) = 1'" iil阶ii T. d (7.22)
results in
(7.33)
ak
句，
二 LWS
•
glg2L'" sJe"'e
ddu =u
ku FIW
(7.25)
il tk
•
••••
'且
"、"
puw FUW
E 佬，
' z豆 =
U_ =  and ø =0. (7.26)
一一.一一 '\、 ..(2，， + 1)... (7.35)
··
p ee~  eeks "~o
L川
• s
hAttrHUJrti
Equation (7.24) yields four roots and, hence, the solution for the trans Since the solution for ü(又 s)and Ø(芳; s), is known, the inverse transform can
be obtained. The result is
formed variables can be written as
百(.5巳 η
创汇 s) = Cl (s)e'" 言 + C2(俨.x + C3(俨
g2 艺 {][t  (2n + 1 X' )e 1 J  孟}H[t  (2n + 1 一王)elJ
and 92  91 .~O
n 回

g
品(X'， s) = d1 (s)e"'x + d2(s)e"'x + d3(s)e' X + d4 (s)e句气 2
' (7.28) 一 三~ L {l[f  (2n + 1 +王)e 1 ]  6}H [t  (2n + 1 + 王)e 1 J zj
g2  gl ，，~O l
where L
h + d) +..j(λ辰一 4(叫一 bc) + _9_1 艺 {1[t  (2n + 1 一支)句]  6}H [t  (2n + 1 斗)e 2 J
irdv
e1 = (7.29) gl  g2'~
2(ad  bc)
and initia lJy under a uniform tensile load and twisting moment. The initial strains
areε=0.∞3 and ß = O. The end at x = h is displaced in a linear manner so
Ø(豆， η
as to reduce the tensile load. After a time, T, the end is held fixed at the
displaωment !J.j2. The quantity Tthen determines the velocity ofthe impacted
=生旦L 艺{1[f  (2n + 1  x)e 1J  孟}H[f一 (2n + 1 x)e 1J
end of the strand. The equation for the straight line shown in Fig. 7.2 for the
g2  gl 0=0
given strand is ß = 一 4.6805ε. If the impacted end has a velocity of23 .47 fps,
一生ι 艺 {Ï[T  (2n + 1 叶剑 J  K}H[T  (2n + 1 + x)e 1 J the strains at the end x = 0, after the first reflection, are ε=0.0∞257 and
g2  gl n";"O ß= 一 O.∞ 102， which indicate a point in Figure 7.2, where the wires do not
separate. If the impacted velocity is increased to 24.2 fps, the theory indicates
+主ι 艺{Ï[f  (2n + 1  x)e2J  K}H[f  (2n + 1 一支)e2J a strain ofε=0.0∞172， and ß = 一 O.∞ 105， which is in the separation zone.
gl  g2 n;""O
An impacted velocity of about 23.88 年s yields Xz = 0 at the fixed end x = 0,
with a strain ofε=0.α)()2232.
一主ι 艺 {Ï[T一 (2n + 1 刊)马]一句 H[T一 (2n + 1 +王)e 2 J， The above theory indicates wire separation even if the axial strain is
gl  g2 n;O
(7.3 7) positive. The wires can separate, due to twisting, with a reduction in the tensile
load. If a rope is carrying a heavy load and the load is suddenly partially
where H(t) is the unit step function. released,wire separation is possible.
The local strains ε = ðü/ðx and ß = ðØ/ð至 can be obtained by di fTerentia The above theory can be extended to wire rope with complex cross sections.
ting Eqs. (7.36) and (7.37). The form of the equations remains the same. It is possible, however, to have
the wires or strands separate and still not form a bird cage, for, as not巳d
previously, a bird cage is a permanent condition and thus would require
7.3 Numerical Results inelastic behavior in the wires.
The following numerical results are presented for a given steel strand with the
fo lJowing characteristics:
h = 120 in.
R 1 = 0.03155 in.
R 2 = 0.02890 in.
pz = 1.30 in.
v = 0.25
E = 30 X 10 6 psi
m2 =6
Let !J. = 0.360 in. and
仲{~刘A
for 0 ~ t $ T,
for t ~ T.
Also, let the ends of the strand be prevented from rotation, let the strand be
initially at rest under a uniform tension co口esponding to the displacement !J.
at the end x = h, and let the end x = 0 be fixed. This coπesponds to a strand
8.1 Rotation of a Wire Rope 95
8R M.
0 DA RO+ta 0n
页3' = 0.1 67ε+ 0.0694点 (b)
·唱EA
ρLV
&E·

Now let M, = O. Equation (坊， above, yields 卢= 2.406εand， henc哩， Eq. (a),
above, becomes
F
AE = 0.8∞ε
一= (c)
If F = 10，α)() lb， ε= 0.00194, ß = 一 O.∞468， and the angle of twist per unit
length becomes
O
h= 0.0153 radfin. (d)
8.1 Rotation of a Wire Rope If the strand , for example, were 30 in. long, the rotation of one end of the
strand with respect to the other would be
As was shown previously, the total axial force F and the total axial twisting
moment M, acting on a rope 四n be expressed as 360
0.0153 x 30 x 2~~ = 26.3 5 degrees. (e)
L=C1ε
AE . + C2 ß
(8.1)
When a rope is allowed to rotate fully, the results are even more oro
nounced. This is because a rope has relatively finer wires in a given 卢oss
and section than does a simple strand.For example, the equations for the 6x19
M_'. = C~e + ι8.
ER~ ., ~. •
(8.2) Seale IWRC wire rope considered in Chapter 4 are
where A = LπRf， R is the radius of the rope and εand ß are the axial and .!_ = 0.7020ε + O.l 232ß (F'A)
AE
rotational strains. The rotational strain is defined by the equation
and
ß=Rτ， (83)
where τis the angle of twist per unit length. 坐i' = 0.2060ε
也κ j   +. 0.04阳
_. ._,.., (g)
The above equations enable one to determine how much one cross section
rotates relative to another under a given loading system. For example, in ∞rd and , hence , for M, = 0,
composites , the rotation of cord becomes important in determining the axial
F ( ku)
stiffness of the cord. Also, some ropes are joined together by making a loop 一=
AE 0.0722ε.
_._ . ,
or an eye in the en.ds of the ropes and then tucking the ends of the strands
back into the main body of the rope (a splice). If one end of the rope rotates which indicates a large reduction in the efTective modulus. Also ß =  5.1128.
with respect to the other end, the efficiency of such a splice can be significantly
Example 8.2. Consider a rightlay 6 x 19 Seale IWRC wire rope is 30 ft long
redu∞d [25J.
and 3in.in diameter.Let this rope be attached to a leftlay 6x19Sealc IWRC
Example 8.1. Consider a simple straight strand with R 1 = 0 .1 03 in., R 2 = wire rope, 40 ft long and 2 in. in diameter. Let the rope be Ioaded so that both
0 .1 01 in., P2 = 9.75 in., E = 28，5∞，α)() psi, v = 0.25, and m2 = 6. This is the ends of the 70ft rope are prevented from rotating.
strand considered in Example 3.3. The results are The equations for the rightIay rope are
王=
AE
0.975ε + 0.0728ß (a) .!_ = 0.7020ε + 0.1 232ß (a)
AE
and and
94
96 8 Rope Rotation 8.2 HandSpliced Ropes 97
乓
1主 R
=0.20仙+。 ω0布;
j
(b)
TABLE 8. 1. Sling efficiencies for various test procedures.
Rope
for the leftlay rope, Oneend Loadunload breaking
Sling Straight fr<臼 to cycle with strength
id∞tification pull rotate rotation
0.7020ε 一 0.1232ß
。b)
F_ = (c)
AE Standard Eye 71.97 35.84 12.83 45，2∞
CargoMarine 73.98 73.61 56.69 45，2∞
and Admirality 76.88 68.92 67.92 45，2∞
Wallace Hidden Tuck ω.27 49.80 44.1 6 45，2∞
~'. =0却60ε+0 创038 (d) Loggers 67.39 68 .45 56.1 1 45，2∞
ER j
Locktuck 94.39 59.91 49.36 43，7仪沪
Tapered and Con∞aled 77.40 49.80 68.68 44，7∞·
The sign convention for positive ε，卢， F, and M , are the same as that used in Li verpool 89.45 58.05 50.27 43，7∞·
Chapter 3. Australian 49.77 43，7∞·
Let the 70ft rope be loaded with a 250，α刀lb load and left the metallic area PressGrip.. 91.65 83.43 74.56 45，2∞
of the rightIay rope be A , == 4.1 9 in. 2 and the leftlay rope, A = 1.86 in. ~ , • Estimated rope breaking strengths.
Equations (a), (坊， (c)， and (d) b巳come •• M民haniωllyspli∞d sling.
250，仅沟
:iï = 0.70208, + 0.1 232
3.ω
x 一一一一一一
o
2 30 x 12'
handspliced slings where the sling may rotate." In this arlicle, tests were run
3.00 ()
旦有言=
，、‘
0.20608, + 0.0403 x 一一一一
2 30 x 12'
on ropes to determine the sling efficiencies of various handspliced ropes.
Table 8.1 , taken from the abovementioned article, shows the efficiencies for
30 X 106 X 恬) various types of handspliced slings.
The results show that a rather large drop in the efficiencies can occur if one
250，αMD _ __ __ _ .__ _ 2.∞。
0.7020ε， .1 232 x 一一一一一::: end of the rope is free to rotate relative to. the other. As the rope rotates, one
1.86 x 30 X 10;;b = . . , +. 0. 2 40 x 12 ， end relative to the other, the strands tend to straighten out. This wíll reduce
and the line contact load between the strand and the core. Since a spli臼 depends
upon friction to sustain the load, this reduction in contact load will reduce
2.∞。
丛寸寸= 0.20606，一 0.0403 x 一一一
12\3 ., .  2 40 x 12
the allowable friction load and hence the axialload will be reduced. Sometimes
6 the unwinding is severe and, hence, the large strain theory should be used.
30 X 10 X t~)
where it is assumed that at the connection both ends ofthe rope rotate through
the same angle (). The solution to the above equations for () is
。= 3.∞85 rad = 172.37 degrees,
which means that both sections of the rope unwind. Also M , = 53,823 in. lb,
ε，= O.∞503， and ε， =0.ω748. Both sections of the rope should be checked
to see if the contact force between the strands and IWRC is negative.
9
Tension and Compression of a Cord
r=RF平 (9.1)
FIGURE 9.1. Cross section of a cord with three wires.
where R is the wire radius, r denotes the helical radius of a wire, and αis the
helix angle. When the cord is loaded, the following can be written: 1i h ，óα
ε= 
. 一 =é+ 一一一 (9.6)
h tan 出
r=R…F示，问 and
where it is assumed that the wires remain in contact with each other, r is the rτ= 主兰}=立工;: 4 .1 11AN
, , ,
deformed heli四1 radius 1i is the new helix an g1e v is Poisson's ratio and ç is
the axial wire strain. Since the change in the helix angle 'ó1X and the wire strain
• h tan IX" •
1
L{1 + 3 sin2α:)tan Zα
_
‘一
(9.7)
are assumed small, Eq. (9.2) can be written as where εis the axial strain of the cord , h is the originallength of the cord, ïi is
the finallength of the cord， τc is the ang1e of twist per unit length of the cord,
r r I _ COSα 伞 l
。 is the original angle !hat a wire sweeps out in a plane perpendicular to the
1、" ' (9.3)

R
=1
RL
1  Ví 
.、 (1 + 3 sinzα) 剑n lX一I axis of the cord, and 9 is the final angle that a wiré sweeps out in a plane
perpendicular to the axis of the cord.
The original pitch p of the wires is given by
The loads and moments become (see Chapter 3)
p=2πr tanα (9.4)
G'π
= =R'óκ飞
4 ' (9.8)
Equation (9.3) yi巳lds the following: ER ~
r~ = 1 +..
vç +飞
Hπ
(9.5) τ~ = 一一二~ Rð.τ. (9.9)
(1  3 sin~α:) tanα ER" 4(1 + vr'
…
时
一收
An analysis of the deformed configuration of the cord shown in Figure 9.1 wM H
results in (see Figure 3.4)

w 7 (9.1 0)
98
1∞ 9. Tension and Compression of a Cord 9. 1. Tension (contact between adjacent wires) 101
一 (朵 N'
ER2 = 3~ER2 smα + ER:τ2' cos lX l ， α) (9.1 3) EXAMPLE 9. 1. Consider a cord consisting of three wires withα= 840 and
v = 0.25. Equation (9.1) yields
and
M, _1 H. G' r ( T N 飞 l
i=1 阳，
前= 31 昆主 mα + ER 3 COSα+ 豆 lE~2 COS IX  ~~2 sin 咐， (吼叫
and Eq. (9.7) results in
where G' is the bending moment in a wire, E is the modulus of elasticity, ð..,,' rrc = 0.1 3138ç  0.99726ð..α.
is the change in curvature of a wire, ð..τis the change in twist per unit length
Equation (9.15) and (9.1 6) become
of a wire, H is the twisting moment in a wire, N' is the shearing force in a wire,
T is the axial force in a wire, X is the resultant ∞ntact force per unit length R ð..K = 0.OO2362ç  0.1 79557Aα
acting on a wire, F is the total axial load acting on the cord, and 品{， is the and
total axial twisting moment acting on the cord.
The expressions for the changes in curvature and twist are given by Rð..τ = 0.022476e  0.84355ð..饵，
respectively.
Rð..,,' = 竖立一坐兰 Now， letτc = 0 = ß and ε=0.∞3. Equations (9而) and (9.7) become
f/R r/R
O.∞3 = ç+ 0.0105104ð..α
=土~
r/R l'(v cos
2α
 :)e+ 土
P
1"1 . ~ c~s子一
r/R L(
. sin a 2 sinαcosαI
+3sin'"α:)
ð..α;J
      J  and
(9 .1 5) 。= 0.13138ç  0.99722ð..α，
Rð.. K= 一 0.0仪沁6301，
。.17)
AE ,•
and
立=。 ω∞肌
ER~ ,
ii
生= C..,3 G + C4 ß， 阳) 王可 =0.ω296.
,
ER~ ER'" 

where Rc = r + R i沁sthec∞ord radius, A = IπR?扫is 白 t hemetalli比
ccros
ea ofthe cord, C 1 , C 2 , C3 , and C4 are constants, and ßis the rotational strain
ar附
主=一0;00008758.
ER  .,
i:
102 9. Tension and Compression of a Cord 9.2. Compression (no contact between adjacent wires) 103
The expressions for the change in curvature and twist of a wire become
士立=
ER 0.027736.
,
_._
cos 2 ã cos 2α
2
and
Since Rc = r + R = 2.1 5629R, Eqs. (9.1 7) and (9.18) become Rll't = SlO αcos cx S10αcosα
一一一
F F 0.027736 1'/ R r/ R
一 =γτ口= 一一一 = (0.∞3)C 1
AE 3πR 2E 3π sin αcosαllr (1  2 sin 2 α) •
r/ R r 斗 r/R ßa.、 (9.21)
and
where l' = r + llr. Equations (9.8), (9.9), and (9 .1 0) yield the result that
M O.∞2862
ER:
= E(2.1 5629)3 R 3 =一一一一=
10.0259
(0.∞3)C3 ， Nπv sin αcos 3α llr πcos 2α (1  2 sin 2α ‘\
气?τ .~. ( 一一一一一 + 2 sin 2α I lla. (9.22)
ER 2 4(r/ R)2(1 + v) r . 4(r/ R)2 \ 1+ v .  Y" . )
and [叩+
S10α
si~ .a. .~~~ a. ←一+
丁百药了飞
0 一川
1+ v
2 \
  a.
. 2 sin )]
..; lla. (9.24)
羔=
ER:
0.09伪 + 0.0179ß Equation (3.28) can be written as
rτ
8 e r (1 +ç
=r 一一 =  I ßα l 一 一
•\ 1
h l' \ tan α / tanα
N' T Hence, in the above case for separation, now, the various quantities are
= tanα= ==τ =ζ
ER ..._.. ER' ' (9 .1 9) functions of llcx and llr/ r.
2
104 9. Tension and Compression of a Cord 9.2. Compression (no contact between adjacent wires) 105
EXAMPLE 9.2. Consider, again, a cord consisting of three wires with α=84。
and v = 0.25. Equation (9.1) yields 主=一o
ER Z∞4431.
._, _.__ .
i=1 阳， and
respectively. 乓=
品且ε
0 ∞621ε + 0.0870ß
Now, lete = 0.OO3andß =: Rc飞= O. Hence, the above quantities become
Aα =  0.024095 , It should be noted that the effective modulus, defined by the equation (with
ß= 0)
生
r
= 0.22878, E. = CE,
has been considerably reduced from the case of tension to that ofcompression.
R ð.1C = 0.0021707,
In the above case of the compression of a cord, buckling was not considered.
,
主τ=0
ER J
∞17创8.,  
主= 0_._
则116低
h
,
J她
ER J
町、
主=
ER Z
一0刷15437.
_._ _._ .,
工=
ER 0川14687.,
2 _. _    
10.2. Theory 107
UA
)T and
h o vdo Fa PTI
U
σb
ρLV
ρLV
γi
4E·
'8Fpy
V p  3 苟言，
,
S is the tensile force in the rope, D is the pulley diameter, d is the rope diameter,
is the wire diameter, A is the metallic rope crosssectional area, ß is the lay
angle of the strand in the rope， αis the lay angle of the wires in the strand. F_
is the calculated breaking forc币 of the rope，几 is the press for白， l' is th二
influence function, E is the modulus of elasticity of the wi~e， m is a correlatin~
constant, n is a constant obtained from experimental data, N is the number
offatigue cycles, and the Cs are consunts with the subscript indicating the
initial of the author.A more basic theory to predict the fatigue life of a
rope is presented below. Using the stress anaJysis methods developed in the
10.1 Introduction previous chapters and a modified Goodman diagra叽 a method is presented
to predict the fatigue life of a simple strand.
An important factor in the life of a rope is its fatigue life. In many cases, a
rope fails because of fatigue rather than the load exceeding the rope's ultimate
strength. Because of the construction of a rope, the individual wires are 10.2 Theory
subjected to tension, contact, frictional bending and torsional stresses. Many
rope tests have been conducted resulting in empirical formulas for simulating A typical modified Goodman diagram is shown in Figure 10. 1. It is a conve
the fatigue life of diJferent wire ropes. However, there has been little research nient graphical representation ofvarious combinations ofmean and alternat
to predict the fatigue life of a wire rope by a detailed stress analysis. ing stresses which cause yielding and fatigue. To construct this diagram, one
Recent1 y [27] , the past 150 years of wire rope research has been summa needs to obtain some material properties by experiments. On the horizontal
rized. In this work, a list of the fo l1 owing empirical formulas for the fatigue axis, the stress amplitude is zero, i.e.， σ~ = O. Therefore, any stress states on
life of a rope is presented: this axis are caused by static loading. Yield and ultimate strength are plotted
at points A and B. The vertical axis indicates the mean stressσ._ = O. The
ai[l∞dj(d + D)]""N = CG (Giovannozzi), (10.1)
fatigue strengths corresponding to different fatigue cycles are generally ob
[2Sj (F,Dd)] . N = CDr (DruckerTauchau), (10.2) tained by rotatingbeam tests when the mean stress is zero. Hence, these data
and 106
/
/
(σ2: +σi. +σp)"'N = Cp (Pantucek), (10.7) /
革
/
/ ii
where / BL
σ'z = Sj(A cos Pcos tX), ι二
Sy 。 。m 

i
句 =iEd(F 土 α)，
! ..
,
106
108 10. A Theory of Fatigue 10.2. Theory 109
can be determined from SN curves and plotted on the vertical axis, such as that
points C , D , and E in Figure 10. 1. Connecting these points with B gives the
σm=σ:.+ 去σb = 555MPa
estimated lines of fatigue life.
When a rope is loaded, the wires in the rope are subjected to a thr饵' and
dimensional or muJtiaxial state of stress. To use the Goodman diagram, one
马= 专σb = 165MPa
must introduce the effective stresses which defined as
These stresses correspond to point P in Figure 10.2. When contact stresses
4= 方(σrσ2m)2 + 川 一 句..)2 + (σ1m 一 σ3m)2产 (10.8) are incJ uded, the effective stress must be used. Point Q in Figure 10.2 is the
result of considering the contact stresses.
and σa
690MPa. Let the diameter of the sheave be D = 635mm. Let the strand be
/
P.
subjected to an axialload of 1910N. Sy 。 σm Sy Su
For the given construction and material properties, the strand constant can
be calculated resulting in
FIGURE 10.2. Construction of modified Goodman diagram.
主 = 0.9752e + 0.0723ß
EA
11

qF
and
l
11;
主 = 0 阳ε + 0.0669ß
VJli
E R' 1
il
:it
The metal1ic area of the strand A = 4.97mm 2 • According to the frictionless
，
theory, the maximum stress will 0∞ur in the ∞nter wire. If the strand is
ntAU
constrained against axial rotation, that is, ß = 0, then, the axial tensile stress
and the bending stress due to passage over the sheave can be calculated with
the result that l
l
山

σ'.t = Ee = 390MPa
and
主R ，
% = EEi=mMPG
If contact stresses are neglected, the stress state will be uniaxial with the result
11.3. Assumptions and Approximations for a Wire Rope ··A11
f
叫 = Fdx+Md仇 
. A
r·飞
E ·EA
、‘EF
A
。u'
 JU
nk
therefore, be used only as a guide to predict the response. Many of the (1 1.2
assurnptions and approximations wi1l be discussed below, and comrnents will
be made concerning sorne ofthem, when appropriate. Many ofthe approxima where R is the radius of the strand. Now, Eq. (1 1.1) can be written as
叫 =f问ε +A叫hdε
tions depend upon the type of loading and the type of construction of the
rope's cross section.
+ (ER 3 C纠 + ER 3 ωidF (1 1. 3)
11.2 Assumptions and Approximations for a
This integral should be independent of the path. Hen∞，
Straight Strand
。
Consideration will be given, first, to a simple straight strand, consisting of a 布叫ε+AEGmh= ￡川C泸 川+ER
3 ε川 即附
R3吃4Cω4
眈 (1 1.4) !11
straight center wire surrounded by helical wires which do not touch each
which results in
other. It is assumed that the material is elastic and that friction is neglected.
It is also assumed that the response of a thin wire is given by Eqs. (2.1 1) and
(2.12). Contact deformation is also neglected. A助G=iMC3 (11匀
Assurning that the rnaterial is elastic speaks for itself. Neglecting friction for 宅、
the case ofaxialloading of a sirnple strand is left to be a reasonable assurnption This equation is not exactly satisfied by the examples worked out in the tex t.
since the contact points do not have a tendency to rnove relative to one
another. In the case of bending of the strand under an axialload, friction will
have an effect since the points of contact will have a tendency to move relative 11.3 Assumptions and Approximations for a Wire Rope
to one another. The smaller the contact loads, the smaller will be the effect of
friction. Manydtheassumptions andapproximationsIisted aboveforastrand apply
Some ∞mments will be made ∞nceming the use of Eqs. (2.11) and (2.1 2). to a mre ropeTest reSUIts indicate that, under axial loading, a strand has a
These approximate expressions relate the changes in curvature and twist per SUITer modulus at the origin than the wire rope because it is felt that the
unit length to the intemalloads for wires that are naturally cu凹ed. In [匀， an individ叫 wires in a rope have not 蚓削 in properly during 伽剧创 phases
expression is obtained from which the strains in the wires can be cornputed. ofloadin lZ

iu
I
f
110
战!，;~
F 可'‘
16. LeClair, R.A. and Costello, G.A. Axial bending and torsionalloading of a strand
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