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MULTI-CRITERIA DECISION ANALYSIS FOR IDENTIFYING OF

GROUNDWATER POTENTIAL SITES IN HARIDWAR, INDIA


ABSTRACT objective, parameters such as precipitation,
slope, lineament, vegetation, drainage
Water in the voids of the Earth is called
density, land use land cover and lithology
groundwater. As surface water,
will be used. Regarding different weight of
groundwater is almost available
these parameters effect, Analytic Hierarchy
everywhere, and although renewable, is not
Process (AHP) will be used. After
stable. The groundwater availability of
developing informational layers in GIS and
depends on the type and physical properties
weighing each of them, a model will
of rocks, such as porosity, permeability,
developed. The final map of ground waters
storage capacity, and transmissibility.
potential will calculate through the above
Conventional methods to potentiality of
mentioned model. Through applying our
groundwater are based largely on studies
developed model four areas having high,
and field surveys. However, conventional
average, low potential and without required
exploration methods such as terrestrial
potential distinguished.
surveys and geophysical methods do not
always account for the diverse factors that Keywords: GIS, Remote Sensing, AHP,
control the occurrence and movement of MCDA, Groundwater Potential
groundwater. With the advent of remote
INTRODUCTION
sensing and GIS techniques, mapping of the
potentiality within each geologic unit has Groundwater is a precious natural resource
become easier. Incorporation of remote of water that is held in aquifers. It is an
sensing and GIS has become one of the important source of water supply
tools for the discovery of groundwater throughout the world. The management of
resources that helps us in assessing, groundwater resources is the pre-requisite
monitoring and protection of groundwater for whole world due to increasing demand
resources. of water, as these resources remain
constant. The total volume of water on
The purpose of the project is to use
Earth is about 1.4 billion km3, out of these
Geographical Information Systems (GIS)
35 million km3 or about 2.5% of the total
and Remote Sensing for determining the
volume is freshwater as shown in Figure 1.
best areas having ground water potential in
The 70% or 24 million km3 volume of the
Haridwar District. To achieve this
total freshwater resources are in the form of
ice and permanently snow covered in menaces to human health, economic
mountainous regions, the Antarctic & development, and social wealth.
Arctic regions. About 30% of the world’s
Need to Study Groundwater Potential
freshwater resources are available in the
form of groundwater (Figure 1). The total The decreasing water table and
usable freshwater supply for all living groundwater contamination are critical
beings is about 200000 km3 of water; which problems in effective groundwater
will be less than 1% of all freshwater management of Haridwar watershed, the
resources. sub-watershed of Ganga basin in
Uttarakhand State, India. In this study,
spatio-temporal analysis has been carried
out with the help of RS, GIS and
groundwater flow modelling to manage
groundwater resources of the watersheds in
an effective way.
Fig. 1.1: World fresh water scenario
(Source: Google) Since the groundwater of the area is not
In India, groundwater table is declining, adequately investigated, lack of
along with the degradation of groundwater information and knowledge may be a
quality due to rapid unplanned problem for the development and
urbanization, high growth of population, management of the aquifer in the area. In
modern agricultural practices (such as, order to ensure a judicious management of
extensive use of fertilizers and pesticides in groundwater, proper evaluation is required.
agriculture), poor sewage system and not In addition, its present status should be
proper disposable sites for waste water of studied and prediction for the future status
household and industrial activities. Once attempted. Then it is necessary to allocate
groundwater is contaminated, it is very areas with high groundwater potential to
expensive to make it uncontaminated as its improve control of abstraction rates to
takes long time to recover. Additionally, ensure proper groundwater management.
spatial inconsistency and data limitations Due to the lack of reliable data on the
preclude monitoring of all waters and make particular basin, the proposed work will
remediation activities expensive and often serve for the future hydro-geological study
impractical. Groundwater contamination in this area. Moreover, this work can be
not only affects the water quality but also extended to the entire catchment as more
detail information is collected and added to 34301.28 hectare. The study area is focused
the database. In addition to above, the scope on groundwater potential of region as it is
of this work is to develop a web interface, being exploited at a high rate due to urban
and online decision making tool that sprawl and growth of industries in nearby
supports GIS to facilitate sustainable region. The Figure 2 represents the study
development of groundwater resources. area map. Haridwar has subtropical climate
which on average lies from 29 degree
THE STUDY AREA
centigrade to 39 degree centigrade and is
Haridwar is regarded as one of the religious generally high on humidity and faces three
city to Hindus and the second largest city of distinctive seasons i.e. winters, summers
Uttarakhand. It is situated in the south- and rains.
western part of Uttarakhand is chosen as the
study area. Haridwar is situated on the bank
of river Ganga and many other seasonal
streams flow though it, most of the region
of this city is covered with forest. Haridwar
is referred as the main religious,
commercial and financial centre of the
state. Having such a high importance and
densely populated area this city offers
plethora of education and business
opportunities, provide shelter to many
people from the nearby villages and town.
Haridwar is facing exploitation of
groundwater at a faster rate due to which it
should be properly classified and Fig 2: Study area map (As Generated in
sustainably used. ArcGIS)

Haridwar, a district of Uttarakhand is DATA USED


situated at cardinal points at Latitude
One scene has been taken from Landast-8
30.080481 and Longitude 78.143989 to
OLI data acquired on 19 October 2016 from
Latitude 29.848912 and Longitude
US Geological Survey (USGS) Global
78.089107 and have an altitude of 1030 ft.
Visualization Viewer. The obtained
above mean sea level covering an area of
Landsat data were georeferenced to UTM
zone 43 North projection using WGS-84 B1 0.43
datum with the help of topographic maps of Coastal/ 5-

the area. Another satellite data has been Aerosol 0.45


1
acquired from BHUVAN (Indian
B2
Geographic satellite portal) about the 0.45

elevation model of the region. The Table 1 2-


Blue
0.51
explains the specification of satellite data
2
used in the study and Table 2 description of
B3 0.53
Satellite Landsat 8 and its Spectral bands
3-
used in Study. Green
0.59
30 0
30 B4 0.62
30
3-
Red 30
0.67
Table 1.Specification of satellite data used 30
3
30
Satellite Sen Pa Ro Resol OLI
Land 30 B5 0.85
sor th w ution /TI
sat 8 1-
RS NIR
0.87

Landsat 8 OLI 14 44 30 9

/TIR 5 meter B6 1.56


S 6-
Cartosat I DE - - 30 SWIR-I
1.65
M meter 1

B7
Table 2.Description of Satellite Landsat 8 2.10

and its Spectral bands used in Study 7-


SWIR-2
2.29
Satell Sen Band Resol Ban Spe 4
ite sor ution d ctra
B9 1.36
(m) Nu l
3-
mbe Ban Cirrus 30
1.38
r d
4
(µm
) B8 0.50
Pan 15
3-
0.67 solve complex decision making problems,
6 which uses weights of different classes to
B10 10.6 generate proper result.
0-
TIR-I
11.1 AHP is implemented in three simple steps
9 (Saaty, 1980)
100
B11 11.5
 Computing the vertex of criteria
0-
TIR-2 weights
12.5
1  Computing the matrix of option
scores.
 Ranking the options
METHODOLOGY
To estimate groundwater potential analysis
The first step includes identification of all
we compare Earth’s physical parameter i.e.
parameters, criteria, sub-criteria and
Geology, Elevation, Slope, Drainage
alternatives which will be responsible for
Density and others. Study of these
problems. The second step is to set datasets
parameters in preparation of site suitability
in the hierarchic structure with the help of
map is very important. There are several
expert human decision. Experts can rate the
methods used by researchers to study
comparison as good, medium, moderate
groundwater potential analysis and
and poor. The third step is pair wise
mapping. They can mainly be classified
comparisons of multi criteria generated in
under three groups: expert evaluation,
step 2 are organized in square matrix
statistical method and deterministic
formats (m x n). This comparison matrix
method. The successful use of one method
gives the relative importance of the multi
over the other strongly depends on many
criteria being compared. Comparisons
factors such as scale of the area, accuracy
made by this method are subjective and the
of the expected results, availability of data,
AHP tolerates inconsistency through the
parameters considered etc.
amount of redundancy in approach. If this

In the present study of AHP is used to consistency index has failed to reach a

determine the site suitability. AHP is multi required level then answers to comparisons

criteria decision making approach and may be re-examined.

technique introduced by Thomas L. Satty. CI = (λmax − n)⁄(n − 1)


AHP is a decision support tool it helps to Where
 λmax is the maximum Eigen value of Good
Medium 12 LINEAMENT
the judgment matrix. Moderate
Poor
 CI can be compared with random Good
Medium 19 GEOLOGY
matrix, RI. Moderate
Poor
Good
Medium 11 DRAINAGE
The ratio derived. CI/RI, is termed as the Moderate DENSITY
Poor
consistency ratio, CR. Saaty suggests the Good
Medium 9 SLOPE
value of CR should be less than 0.1. The Moderate
Poor
rating of each alternative is to be multiplied Good
Medium 12 ELEVATION
by the weights assigned to sub-criteria and Moderate
Poor
aggregated to get local ratings with respect Good
to each criterion. The local ratings are then Medium 7 LULC
Moderate
multiplied by the weights of the criteria and Poor
Good
aggregated to get global ratings. The AHP Medium
Moderate 19 Water Table
produces weight values for each alternative Poor
Good
based on the importance of one alternative Medium 11 Soil
Moderate
over another with respect to common Poor

criteria.
Landsat 8 image has been aquired from
USGS Glovis online portal, which has been
used for preparation several thematic layer.
Another data of Cartosat has been aquired
from BHUVAN online portal.
In order to generate LULC Map supervised
classification method is adopted using
Maximum Likelihood classifier using
ERDAS software. DEM data has been
captured from CARTOSAT satellite. Slope,
Aspect and Elevation are developed using
DEM data in Arc GIS software. The soil
Fig.3. Model used in present study
layer is developed by georefrencing soil
Table 3.Ranking for different Parameters
map of India obtained from the National
in Site Suitability Zone Mapping
Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use
Compare Weight Sub-criteria
criteria Planning (NBSS & LUP). Softwares like
ArcGIS and ERDAS have been used for elevation of area. ArcGIS has many built in
editing, digitization and topology criteria. features which can convert elevation map
Then combining all these raster layers final into derivative map. Figure 4 represents the
model is prepared as shown in Figure 3 in elevation map of study area. The elevation
ArcGIS map is devided into 10 classes as depicted
The next step is to assign weights value to in figure.
each raster layer (based on expert person
judgement) as shown in Table 3. Then these
steps are applied in AHP for pair wise
comparision matrix, Normalized Matrix
etc. AHP is a structured technique for
organising and analysing complex decision
making problem based on psychological
and mathematical method which was
developed by Thomas L. Saaty in 1970
AHP model used in study which was made
in ArcGIS and finally the site suitability
map is generated by using these parameters.

RESULT AND DISCUSSION


The result is developed using various Fig. 4 Elevation Map

thematic map layers, these layers are


Slope Map
defined in following section. Site suitability of an area is highly
dependant on the evenness of slope,
Degital Elevation Model (DEM) bedding of rocks and extent of faulting and
DEM is derived from Cartosat satellite folding of rocks. As the evenness of slope
whose data is present on BHUVAN. The remains constant, the probablity of
study area has almost flat topography with suitability of site increases. Figure 5 and
small variation at the northern region due to represents the slope map with 10 classes for
presence mountains. DEM is raster layer the study area. Slope of the study area lies
whose each pixel contains a fix elevation between 0-61.06, this area is mediumly
value. DEM are very comfortable for ranked as the area has flat terrain in some
calculations, manilulation and further region while it also includes mountainous
analysis of area which are based on
region. The class having higher value is an important role cleanig the enviroment by
categorized with lower rank relatively due removing harmful gasses. Image
to high run-off and low recharge. classification resulted into four land use
land cover classes namely devided as Open
land, vegetation, water, urban as denoted in
Figure 6.

Fig. 5 Slope map


Fig. 6 LULC Map
Land Use Land Cover (LULC)
Land use land cover layer is generated by Drainage Density Map

supervised classification with maximum The drainage network of the area is

likelihood algorithm which is applied in calculated using ArcGIS. Drainage network

ERDAS Imagine software. Maximum of an area are important as they decides the

likelihood algorithm is one of the most run off and groundwater recharge level of

widely used algoritthm of supervised that area. Thus drainage density of this area

classififcation used with remote sensing is calculated using ArcGIS, so we can

image data. Land use land cover is the most easily locate the area with high density. The

significant method depicts the urban places nearer to these sites have high

development of a particular study area. In potenial for future development as this

most of the conditions it is used to find the factor is of high importance settlement in

open land, vegetation land, urban cover any area.Figure 7 shows the drainage

area and water. Plants and vegetation play density map.


Fig. 8 Geology Map
Fig. 7 Drainage density map

Soil Layer
Geology Map
Geology map is prepared using visual The soil map of the study area was obtained
interpretation of satellite image with the aid from the National Bureau of Soil Survey
of Geological Survey of India (GSI) map. and Land Use Planning and converted into
In the present study area, four types of digital format. The soil map was updated
geology namely; Damtha group, Berinag with the Landsat TM image. The soils for
group, Bajinath group and Ramgarh the study area reveal five main soil
formation are present, as shown in Figure 8. categories, namely; Typic Urdorthents,
Udic Haplustepts, Typic Haplustepts and
Udifluventic Haplustepts as described in
Figure 9.
Fig. 10: Depth of water table
Fig. 9: Soil Map
Lineament Density Layer
Depth to Water Table Layer
Lineament density layer informs about the
Depth to water table layer of pre-monsoon movement and storage surface run off water
and post-monsoon season has been which makes it important for the study. The
prepared using IDW interpolation area is divided into five classes from 0 -
technique. The depth to water table is 7.54 indicating a density near the each
divided into two zones: at 5 meter depth and lineament layer. The Figure 11 depicts the
10 m depth. In both pre-monsoon and post- lineament density map of our study area.
monsoon seasons major part of the study
area have 5 to 10 m depth to water table as
shown in Figure 10.
Fig. 11: Lineament Density Map Fig.12. Groundwater Potential Map

Table 4.Area covered by each resultant


Preparation of Groundwater Potential
class
Map
Suitable Area Area in Percentage
sq.
All the criteria in the map are converted in Meter
Most suitable 27.77 11.39 %
raster format, so that each pixel can be
Moderately 118.47 48.60 %
calculated and result can be determined. All suitable
Suitable 90.63 37.18 %
the criteria are integrated and overlaid to
Less Suitable 6.60 2.07 %
generate a site suitability map with a Permanently 0.25 0.10%
specific weightage according to their role in not suitable

future development.
After applying weights to develop raster
Suitability map = ∑(Criteria map x weight)
layer final map for potential site for future
Suitability index = {[Lineament x (0.12)] +
urban development is developed as shown
[Geology x (0.03)] + [Drainage density x
in Fig.12 and the total area is divided into
(0.11)] + [Slope x (0.09)] + [Elevation x
five classes as displayed in Table 4.
(0.12)] + [LULC x (0.07)] + [Water table x
(0.19)] + [Soil x (0.11)]}.

Conclusion
This study is focused on selection of sites as
most suitable, moderately suitable, suitable,
less suitable and permanently not suitable psychology. Volume 15, Issue 3, PP
land for groundwater potential. AHP matrix 234-281
along with GIS is used to analyses of 2. Chowdhury, A., Jha, M. K.,
different criteria considered for Chowdary, V. M., & Mal, B. C.
groundwater suitability. AHP along with (2009). Integrated remote sensing
GIS was found to be very useful for and GIS‐based approach for
groundwater suitability identification. The assessing groundwater potential in
result is adopted for decision making West Medinipur district, West
process for site suitability analysis of an Bengal, India. International Journal
area. The study includes physical of Remote Sensing, 30(1), 231-250.
parameters for expansion and need to 3. Kaliraj, S., Chandrasekar, N., &
include social and economic parameters. Magesh, N. S. (2014). Identification
Decision support system has been preferred of potential groundwater recharge
to identify appropriate site for best location zones in Vaigai upper basin, Tamil
for living in Haridwar city. To determine Nadu, using GIS-based analytical
site suitability for Haridwar city mainly hierarchical process (AHP)
three steps are followed: technique. Arabian Journal of
1. To determine best suitable site in Geosciences, 7(4), 1385-1401.
city for groundwater potential. 4. Prashant K. Srivastava, Dawei
2. Survey of city in Study area. Han, Manika Gupta, Saumitra
3. Analytical Hierarchy Process Mukherjee. (2012) Integrated
(AHP). framework for monitoring

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