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# ECE 350 Fields and Waves II Fall 12

Final Exam

## Wednesday, Dec 18, 2012 — 7:00-10:00 PM

Name:

Section:

This is a closed book exam. You are allowed to bring four sheet of notes — both sides of each sheet may
should include units wherever appropriate.

There are 6 problems in this exam booklet. You are asked to complete only 5 of them. Even though you
may work on all of them, you will need to decide which 5 you want graded before you hand in the exam.

Please “X out” unambiguously the problem that you wish not to be graded both in the table below
and on the question page.

## TOTAL (125 points)

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1.
(25 pts) Match the descriptions (a)-(d) below to the plane-wave reflection/transmission cases depicted
in cases 1-4 in the figure shown above. The quantity λ appearing in the figures indicates the wavelength
in the specific medium at the operating frequency. Also θp is Brewster’s angle.
Your answers will be evaluated as follows: 1 point will be given for identifying each correct case,
7 points will be given for your justification of your choice for a maximum of 25 points — this means,
you only need to fully justify three of your four choices.

Description Case #
a 11.1% of the incident power is reflected
b Has a transmittance of 0.75.
c The reflection coeﬃcient is 0.60
d All of the incident power is reflected

First justification:

2
Second justification:

Third justification:

3
2. Recall that a collisionless plasma can be modeled like a dielectric with µ = µo and relative permittivity

ωp2
ϵr = 1 −
ω2
that depends on the wave frequency ω = 2πf and plasma frequency ωp = 2πfp .
a) (4 pts) Express the wavenumber k in terms of ω, c, and ωp for plane TEM waves in a collisionless
plasma.

b) (4 pts) Express the intrinsic impedance η in terms of ω, ηo , and ωp for plane TEM waves in
a collisionless plasma.

c) (5 pts) Consider an infinite current sheet on the z = 0 surface embedded in an infinite homoge-
neous plasma such that the oscillation frequency of the surface current density J̃s is f = 21 fp = 5
MHz. Will the current sheet radiate propagating TEM waves or not? Discuss.

d) (7 pts) Determine the numerical values of (including the algebraic sign) k and η for the fields
produced by the current sheet in part (c) in the region z > 0?

e) (5 pts) Determine the numerical vaue of the phase diﬀerence between Ẽ and H̃ produced by
the current sheet in part (c) in the region z > 0?

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3. A technician is working inside a long service tunnel of rectangular cross-section of dimensions

## a = 2.5 m and b = 1.2 m.

Because of the metallic armature embedded in the walls, the tunnel behaves approximately like an
ideal rectangular wave guide filled with air.
a) (10 pts) Determine the frequency band for which only the fundamental mode (mode with the
lowest cutoﬀ frequency) propagates inside the tunnel.

b) (5 pts) The technician carries a consumer radio that can receive the following frequency bands
• AM broadcast band: 530 kHz – 1.7 MHz
• FM broadcast band: 88.0 MHz – 108.0 MHz
• NOAA weather radio: 162.4 – 165.55 MHz
For which of these bands should the technician expect reception when deep inside the tunnel?

c) (10 pts) How many modes can propagate inside the tunnel at 165.55 MHz?

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The metallic rectangular microwave cavity
depicted in the figure on the left has
dimensions a = 20 cm, b = 10 cm, and
d = 20 cm. The metallic walls are assumed
to be perfectly conducting. The three
questions below are independent of one
another.

4.
a) (5 pts) Assume that the cavity is filled with a lossless dielectric having µ = µo . If the resonant
frequency of the TE101 mode is 500 MHz, calculate the refractive index of the dielectric.

b) (10 pts) Assume that the cavity is air-filled and operated in the TE101 mode. The medium
surrounding the cavity is also air. The plate at z = d is removable to access the cavity inte-
rior. If the plate is removed while the cavity is operated, radiation leakage will occur from the
cavity. With the plate at z = d removed, the field inside the waveguide amounts, initially, to a
superposition of positive and negative going guided TE10 -mode waves.
Using this observation, the aforementioned radiation leakage can be quantified (approximately)
through the reflection coeﬃcient for the TE10 waveguide mode encountering a resistive load of
value equal to the intrinsic impedance of air. Calculate this reflection coeﬃcient.

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ωo
c) (10 pts) In ECE 210, Q ≡ 2α of a lossy resonator was shown to equal 2π TW s
o Pl
, where ωo = 2π
To
and α are the frequency and damping constant of the resonator signal, while Ws and Pl are the
stored energy (in joules) and average power loss (in watts) in the signal, respectively. Examples
of resonators for which these definitions apply include RLC circuits, children’s swings, and
rectangular cavities (with voltage, angular velocity, EM field being the pertinent signals in each
case).
Assume that the rectangular cavity above is air filled but it is slightly lossy because of dissipation
in its good-conducting walls. In the TE101 mode its Q is found to be 104 . Calculate the damping
constant α and average power loss Pl of the TE101 mode oscillation when its stored energy Ws
is 5 × 10−3 J.

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5. A ŷ-polarized half-wave dipole is located at the origin and has a gain function
cos2 ( π2 cos θy )
G = 1.64 , where cos θy ≡ sin θ sin φ.
sin2 θy
a) Suppose that the half-wave dipole described above is radiating a time-averaged power of 2 W in
free space at a frequency of 100 MHz.
i. (5 pts) What is the time-average power density of the radiation field of the dipole at a
location of (x, y, z) = (0, √12 , √12 ) km ?

ii. (5 pts) What is the electric field vector E(r, t) at the same location when its magnitude
reaches a maximum — specify the magnitude and the direction in vector form using unit
vectors x̂, ŷ, ẑ as needed.

iii. (5 pts) Find the magnetic field intensity H(r, t) that accompanies the vector E(r, t)
determined above. Specify the magnitude and the direction in vector form.

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b) Next, consider a short-dipole antenna located on the x-axis at a distance of r = 1 km away from
the half-wave dipole described above.
i. (5 pts) Should the short-dipole be polarized in x̂-, or ŷ-, or ẑ- direction in order to detect
the signal coming from the half-wave dipole most strongly? Explain your reasoning with the
help of a simple sketch depicting what you think is the optimum geometry.

ii. (5 pts) What is the total power available of the short-dipole antenna (assuming optimal
orientation)?

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6. A right-hand circular polarized plane TEM wave with an electric field phasor
−j x+z
Ẽ = (X x̂ + Y ŷ + Z ẑ)e

2

and having a specific electric field value of ŷ 2 V/m at t = 0 at the origin is incident on a ẑ-polarized
short dipole antenna located at the origin. The short dipole has an input impedance Zant = 1 − j1 Ω
and its transmission gain is G = 32 sin2 θ.
a) (2 pts) Determine the wavelength λ of the incident wave.

## b) (3 pts) Determine the numerical values (possibly complex) of the coeﬃcients X, Y , Z.

c) (5 pts) Determine the co-polarized component of the time-averaged Poynting vector associated
with E with respect to the antenna at the origin. Hint: it is possible to answer this part
correctly even if your answer for part (b) is not completely correct.

d) (5 pts) Determine the average power Pr delivered by the antenna to its matched load, ZL = 1+j1
ohms.

e) (5 pts) Determine the magnitude of the open circuit voltage, |Vo |, for the antenna at the origin.
Hint: make use of Pr from part (d).

f) (5 pts) What fraction is Pr , of the value determined in part (d), if an antenna load of ZL = 1
ohm is used?

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