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J. Gunakar Rao
Executive Engineer



■ Rain is decentralized and so is the demand. But the

supply has not been decentralized.
■ Perennial drought conditions in some pockets
■ Many upland areas starve for water
■ In the prevailing situation, the gap of socio-economic
conditions between the regions is getting widened
causing imbalance w.r.t. economy as well as
■ Though Dams & barrages able to meet most of the
requirements, due to obvious reasons given below, LI
Schemes assumed greater significance and gained
momentum to narrow the gap of socio-economic
conditions between the regions.
Dams & Barrages have inherent and never ending
problems of :
■ Submersion
■ Rehabilitation
■ Land Acquisition
■ Environment Clearance
■ Inter-state disputes and
■ Most importantly they are time consuming by taking many years /
some times decades for completion.
■ Due to the above problems, the major irrigation structures require
very huge financial support and often, the estimated costs gets
multiplied due to delay in the completion causing escalation of
■ Further, there are some upland areas which unable to get water,
even after having a major dam in the vicinity due to various
reasons ( ex. SRSP of Godavari basin and PJP, SriSailiam &
Nagarjuna Sagar of Krishna basin) which promted to take up the
projects like AMRP, Kalwakurty, Nettampadu, Bhima,
Dummugudem, Yellampally etc.,
Reasons for Opting Lift Schemes Over Gravity System
■ In the present circumstances, lift irrigation schemes assumed
greater significance and seems to be the only viable solution to
meet the aspirations of the upland people for the following reasons :
■ Speedy Completion of the Scheme
■ Lesser initial Cost
■ No need of extensive and time investigation
■ Flexibility of Location of Head works
■ Does not have foundation problems

■ Absence of problems in dams such as Submersion, Environment

Problems, Rehabilitation & Land Acquisition Problems and
Inter-state Disputes.
Though lift irrigation schemes have some drawbacks and are costly, in
the prevailing situation, they are inevitable since the situation
demands them in the contemporary irrigation planning.
LI schemes are going to play vital role in the inter linking of rivers.
Limitations of L.I. Scheme
■ They are costly w.r.t. benefit cost ratio compared to other
irrigation schemes / Gravity schemes
■ Require assured un-interrupted power supply
■ Require assured flows from the source
■ Recurring cost on power bills
■ Regular maintenance is required for civil as well as mechanical
■ Life of L.I. scheme is shorter than dams & barrages
■ Needs periodical replacement of mechanical & electrical
In spite of above drawbacks, to bridge the gap between
developed areas and un-developed areas with reference to
socio-economic conditions and the vacuum created by the
absence & non-provision of dams & barrages, lift irrigation
schemes are ought to be taken up judiciously which lessens the
apprehensions of the farmers.
LI Schemes(Completed)
1. AMR Project
2. Chagalnadu
3. Chinnamaroor
4. Torrigeda
5. Bhima (2 Stages)
6. Alisagar ( 3 Stages )
7. Guthpa ( 2 Stages )
8. Kalwakurthy ( 3 Stages )
9. Nettampadu ( 2 Stages )
10. Tadipudi ( 2 lifts )
11. Pushkar ( 2 lifts )
12. HNSS
13. Guru Raghavendra
14. Venkatnagaram ( 3 Stages )
■ Pumps
■ Intake / Sump
■ Pump house
■ Pressure mains
■ Surge Protection Devices
■ Approach Canal
■ Delivery Cistern
■ Gantry for Pumps, Stoplogs & Trash racks
■ Control Panels etc.,
Pump is the HEART of the LI Scheme.
A designer should have sound knowledge of various types of pumps
that are available in the market, their applicability and limitations to
achieve economy without sacrificing the performance of pumps.
Depending upon the type of pump and its limitations, number &
specifications of the pumpsJ.shall be Rao
Gunakar finalized.
■ Various types of Pumps that Executive Engineer
are used for irrigation purpose are:
■ Submersible Pumps & Polder Pumps
■ Horizontal Centrifugal Pumps
■ Vertical Turbine pumps
■ Concrete Volute Pumps ( Dry Pit Pumps )
■ Francis Turbine Pumps ( Dry Pit Pumps )
Pump House for VT Pump
Preferable Conditions for Adopting Various Pumps

Horizontal Centrifugal Pumps

➢ Suction Lift shall be less than 6.0m and HP of pump is

within the manufacturing limits ( Approx 4000 HP )

➢ Discharge and the pumping head are within the limits to suit
the capacity of pumps

➢ These pumps are best suited for lifting from canals or from
tanks with shallow depth of water
Vertical TurbinePumps
■ When the suction is more than 6.0m
■ When the discharge is considerable and some times suction
is less than 6.0m and requiring many no. of horizontal
pumps, then VT pumps may also be provided.
■ May be adopted when the discharge of pump is less than 3
cumecs and total pumping head is less than 75.0m
■ When the fluctuation of water levels in the source / river is
more than 25.0m, these pumps are not desirable
■ Max manufactured HP of pump is 4000 HP only.
Concrete / Metallic Volute Pumps
■ When the discharge is more than 3 cumecs and less than 10
cumecs with pumping head upto 75.0m Concrete volute are
preferable and Metallic volute are preferable when the head
is between 75.0m to 150m
■ When fluctuation is more than 20.0m, these are preferable
over VT
■ For HP of pumps more than 4000 HP

Francis Turbine Pumps

■ All concrete volute conditions
■ Best suited when the discharge is more than 10 cumecs and
head more than 100m
■ Until now the L.I. Schemes are proposed for smaller
discharges, head & magnitude, but with the improved
technology and developments in the field, major L.I.
schemes with huge magnitude, discharge & head are
going to play a decisive role in irrigation in coming days.
■ Planning & design of lift irrigation schemes needs proper
attention as any defects would lead to unsatisfactory
performance with reduced efficiency of the system. For
effective and efficient function of a L.I. scheme, the
designer should have sound knowledge in planning &
design of L.I. schemes.
■ More attention is needed in finalization of H.P.’s and
design of various components for the L.I. schemes
comprising series of pumping stations or multi stage lifts
and with intermediate ayacut, as all the pumping stations
are to be well synchronized as well as synthesized.
Stages of Planning & Design of L.I. schemes

1. Finalization of the Alignment w.r.t

Balancing Reservoir
Location of Pumping Stations
Length of Pressure main
Gravity Canal
2. Design of Hydraulic particulars w.r.t
Design Discharge
Approach / Intake canal
Delivery Canal
3. Design of Pumps and Pressure mains
4. Design of Intake and Jackwell/sump
5. Design of Pump house
6. Design of Delivery Cistern & Gravity canals
Finalization of the Alignment
While choosing the alignment, the following points are to be
duly considered to the extent possible:
■ As much as possible, shorter length of the pressure mains shall
be adopted as lengthy mains have bearing on the pumps as
well as on the cost of the scheme
■ To the extent possible, greater length of gravity canals shall be
adopted to reduce the length of pressure mains
■ Alignment with smaller length of approach / intake canal from
the source to the pump house shall be explored to minimize the
maintenance problems
■ At the off-take point of approach canal, there should be
assured flows from the source to meet the requirements
■ It is desirable to have minimum number of lifts with
greater length of gravity canal in between the lifts as more
number of pump houses increases the cost of civil,
electro-mechanical arrangements etc.,
Additional pump house in the Alignment

Introduction of additional pump house reduces length of pressure mains &

increases length of gravity canals, the scheme may be economical as capital
cost on pressure mains, water hammer devices and pumps may be reduced
as well as cost on power bills may comedown.
■ When the total lift ( including losses ) is more than 100.0m and the
discharge of each pump is more than 5 cumecs, then second stage of
pumping may be necessary.
■ Limitation of pump capacities have bearing on the number of lifts.
■ Greater length of the pressure mains with huge heads has implication on the
cost of the scheme and needs
■ Increase of thickness
■ Provisions for water hammer devices,.
■ (There is a need for working 2 or 3 alternatives particularly where there is
huge head & lengthy pressure mains are involved. Cost economics shall be
worked out for different alignments from which best and economical
alignment should be explored. Hence, the alignment should be judiciously
decided in fixing the lengths of the pressure mains, gravity canals, number
of lifts and pumps)
Balancing reservoir in the Alignment
Proposal of introducing a reservoir ought to be considered if
the site conditions permit or utilizing the existing tank in
between the lifts. Advantages of reservoir / tank in between the
lifts are :
■ The design discharge will be less than the discharge required
to meet the peak period of crop
■ With the reduced discharge, pump capacities, sizes of pressure
mains, pump house sizes and canal sizes will also be reduced
resulting in the considerable economy
■ Usually L.I. schemes are proposed for pumping flood water
and hence by introducing a balancing reservoir, the water can
be preserved for later usage as and when required to suit the
cropping pattern.
■ Multi stages of lifts need proper synchronization of all the
stages of lifts. Failure of any single stage, makes grinding halt
to all the lifts, but with a balancing reservoir, the above
problem can overcome as it will act as a buffer.
Intake Location :
Precautions in locating the intake structure at source
■ Bed level of the approach canal shall be kept above the source
bed level
■ Line of intake shall be normal to the axis of the pump house.
■ There shall be a driving head to draw water from source to intake
■ Intake structure shall be sited in river source regions at low
■ Intake canal shall be located where the river flows in straight line.
■ Intake structure shall be located nearer to the contour 2.0m above
MWL/FRL of the source to have smaller length of approach road.
■ Intake shall be sited where the low water level in the source is
nearer by which smaller length of intake canal will be required.
■ When the source is unapproachable or the alignment is passing
through a restricted area ( protected forest area ), then a tunnel
can be thought off instead of intake canal ( as done in AMRP ).
Also as it was found that tunnel is cheaper than the pressure main,
the pump house is shifted further to D/S in order to reduce the
pressure main length and increase the length of tunnel.
Finalisation of Hydraulic Particulars
Proper design of hydraulic particulars is most important
aspect for good functioning of L.I. scheme which improves the
efficiency of the scheme. The design of hydraulic particulars
comprises of the following :
■ Crop water requirement : The crop water required for
recommended crop type & pattern and its period of operation (
or crop period & wettings ) shall be obtained. Quantity of
water required for each wetting of the crop is to be computed.
■ Seepage & Evaporation Losses : After knowing the length of
canals and the capacity of the reservoirs in between if any, the
seepage & evaporation losses are to be computed.
■ Design Discharge of Pumping: Total quantity of water to be
pumped in the specified period shall be arrived by the
summation of crop water requirement, seepage & evaporation
losses and drinking water if any. From the total quantity of
water and the proposed period of operation w.r.t. crop period,
the design discharge can be computed.
■ Whenever there is no intermediate reservoir, the design
discharge shall be w.r.t. peak period during which the crop
requires max. water. But whenever any reservoir is present, a
mechanism has to be worked out depending upon the reservoir
capacity and crop requirement in such a way that making use
of the reservoir the design discharge can be minimized, which
makes the scheme more economical.
■ Pumping hours : The L.I. schemes will be provided dedicated
power lines and hence the pumps shall be designed for 24
hours operation except in special conditions. If they are
designed for 20 hours pumping, the cost of the project
increases by 20% and so on. Pumping hours has the bearing
over the HP’s and obviously on the cost of the scheme.
■ Intake / Approach Canal : The intake canal shall be designed
for the design discharge such that it draws full discharge at the
lowest water level ( LWL ) of pumps i.e., the level below
which pumping will not be done and the availability of
required water during the period of operation in source at the
level shall be ascertained.
■ Delivery Canal :As the lift water is precious, lined canals may
be proposed for the conveyance to the field channels.
Section Of Pump House
Plan Of Pump House
Cross Section Of Pump House
Design Of Pumps

■ Pumps are important components and function

as heart of the L.I. scheme and play vital role
in the performance of the scheme.
■ Any wrong selection of pumps may lead to
procurement of unsuitable pump and the
scheme always may face threat of pumps
repair & maintenance.
■ It is not desirable to have casual approach in
the design & selection of pumps.
Design of pumps involves :

■ Finalisation of Data required for Pumps Design

■ Finalisation of types Of Pumps ( Keeping in view

the application & limitations of various types )

■ Freezing Number of Working Pumps

■ Calculation of Pump Capacities / Parameters

Data Required for Pumps Design
To takeup the selection & design of pumps, the
following data is pre-requisit:
Total discharge of the scheme to be lifted
■ Lowest water Level ( LWL ) below which
pumping need not be done
■ MFL / FRL / FSL of the river / reservoir / canal as
the case may be. This helps in fixing the platform
level and type of the pump based on the static
■ Delivery Level to which water is to be lifted
■ Number and Length of pressure mains with type of
Determination Of Pumping Head
Total pumping head shall be arrived with care since
any wrong calculation has the bearing on the
performance of the pump. Excess selection of head may
lead to un-necessary increase in higher pump capacity
and higher power consumption and lesser head may lead
to non-functionality of the pumps to their efficiency.

Total pumping head is obtained on summation of :

■ Static head
■ Frictional losses in pressure mains
■ Losses due to exit, entry and bends
■ System resistance losses due to the combined / operation of
pumps and pressure mains
Finalization Of Static Head

■ Static head is level difference between LWL / Avg Water

level & delivery level ( For Optimization of pumping
capacity and scheme economy, it is always desirable to
design pumps with normal / average water levels instead of
■ Whenever elevation higher than delivery level is located
before cistern, possibility of gravity flow in the pipe may be
verified to reduce the pumping capacities, in which case the
static head shall be w.r.t. the summit point.
Pump Capacity (HP Required) and Specific
Speed of Pump
HP Of can be calculated as given below :
■ HP = 62.45 * Q * h / ( 550*efficiency ) ( FPS units )
Where Q = discharge in cusecs ; h = head in ft
= 981 * Q * h / ( 75 * efficiency ) ( MKS units )
Where Q = discharge in cumecs ; h = head in m
Specific speed can be calculated as given
■ Ns = ( 3.65 * N * Q 1/2 ) / H 3/4 ( MKS units )
Where N = Rotative speed in rpm
Q = discharge in cumecs; h = Total head in m
Ns = ( N * Q 1/2 ) / H 3/4 ( F.P.S. units )
where Q = discharge in cusecs; h = Total head in ft
Speed of the Pump

The speed of the pump can be obtained from

formula given below :
N = 120 f / n = 6000 / n
■ Where N = Speed of the pump
f = Frequency ( In India, f = 50 )
n = Number of Poles in even no.
■ Various speeds to be considered in the designs
are : 1500, 1000, 750, 600, 500, 428, 375 and 333.
■ Speed less than 333 may be ascertained from the
Determination Of Pumping Head
Total pumping head should be arrived with care since any
wrong calculation has the bearing on the performance of the
pump. Excess selection of head may lead to un-necessary increase
in higher pump capacity and higher power consumption and
lesser head may lead to non-functionality of the pumps to their

Total pumping head is obtained on summation of the following :

■ Static head between LWL & delivery level ( For Optimization of

pumping capacity and scheme economy, it is always desirable to
design pumps with normal water levels instead of LWL )
■ Frictional losses in pumping lines and pressure mains
■ Losses due to exit, entry and bends
■ System resistance losses due to the combined / operation of pumps
and pressure mains
Note : To lift 1 cumec of water to 1.0m height, 15.0 HP of pump is required.
Extension of Pipe As Gravity From Peak
Determination Of Friction Losses
Hazen William Formula :

Hf = L ( 1.1778 V / C R 0.63 ) 1.852

■ Where V = Velocity in m/s

R = Hydraulic Radius in m
C = Hazen William Coeff based on
type of material of Pressuremain
( Values for various types are
given below )
Hazen William Coeff For Various Types
C = 100 For Unlined Metallic Pipes
= 140 For Centrifugally Lined Metallic
Pipes ( upto 1200 mm Dia )
= 145 For Centrifugally Lined Metallic
Pipes ( Above 1200 mm Dia )
= 110 For Cement Mortar Lined Metallic
= 140 For PSC Pipes ( upto 1200 mm Dia )
= 145 For PSC Pipes ( Above 1200 mm Dia )
= 145 For PVC, GRP & Other Plastic Pipes
Standby Pump
■ Now a days, the provision for standby pumps is not being
considered for the following reasons :
■ Previously, the pumps were with smaller capacities and were
operated for 16 hours only. Hence to have continuity of the
pumping for the required discharge, a standby pump was
proposed in order to keep the pumps operation in rotation.
However with the advancement of the technology in the
pumps manufacturing, the pumps can be operated
un-interruptedly throughout the required period and hence
provision of standby is not necessary.
■ There is apprehension that any failure of single pump also
hampers the design discharge and endangers the crop, but it is
felt that with the improved technology, the frequency of
pump’s break down is minimum and also it can be got repaired
within a short period if attended in time.
■ High duty pumps does not get frequent repairs.
■ Further, the pumps will be designed for peak discharge
corresponding to peak requirement of water, the duration of
which will be max. of one month. During non-peak period all
the pumps will not be in the operation and hence even if any
pump gets repair in the non-peak period, there will be ample
time to get the repair done without hampering the system. The
chance of pump break down during the peak period is
hypothetical and with the requirement of very short period for
attending the repair, the risk of deletion of standby can be taken
for economy consideration.
■ Standby pump increases size of the pump house as well as
jackwell which results in the increase in the capital cost
proportionately and will not have any additional returns.
■ Sometimes Power billing may be done on standby pump also
irrespective of usage or operation.
■ Due to regional and social problems, users will tempt to make
the standby also as working during the scarcity causing
tampering of the system resulting in failure of projects in the
vicinity , which may lead to regional quarrels.
■ However, as an precautionary measure, regularly required spare
parts may be procured along with the Pumps for the replacement
Design of Intake and Jackwell / Sump
■ The objective of sump is to provide good flow conditions to
the pumps and to avoid cavitation, swirl and vortices in the
flow, which damages the impeller. If the design is with poor
geometric features, undesirable hydraulic conditions may
occur in the sump which may have impact on the pump &
■ The approach canal slope and driving head are to be designed
such that the velocity of water at the intake of sump should
not be more than 1.2m/s. The flowing water should not have
velocity more than 0.3m/s at the location of pumps.
■ If the approach canal width is kept more than required, it
reduces the length of the transition as well as the cost of the
■ Whenever the approach canal slightly silted up, it assures to
realize design discharge by absorbing the silt if the same
designed for higher Q(1.5Q).
■ The intake / jackwell width and intake canal width are
connected by the bed slope of not more than 10 0 in elevation
and not be more than 20 0 in plan.
■ Whenever any pump house is proposed on foreshore of any
reservoir, a circular jackwell will be ideal as there is no need
of provision for intake well as always minimum and stagnant
water level will be maintained. However when the pump house
is to be located other than in the reservoir, to make flow
uniform & steady from intake canal to pump house, an intake
well is needed. The intake well also functions as distributor of
the flow uniformly & equally to the pumps.
■ As the steel cost is increasing rapidly, the stoplogs &
trashracks can be proposed upto LWL only with breast wall in
between upto LWL from platform level. This economizes the
scheme as well as improves the hydraulic performance of
sump. Further, stoplogs need not be procured for all the vents
and instead only for one vent may be sufficient as it may be
used during repair to the pump.
Dimensions of Jackwell/Sump for VT Pumps
■ The dimensions of the intake / jackwell can be obtained
using BHRA / HIS guidelines. BHRA are given below:
■ Bell mouth dia( D ) = 1.5 d to 1.8 d
where d = column assembly dia
■ Side clearance ( a )= 0.5D to 0.75 D
■ Rear clearance ( b ) = 0.75 D to 1.0 D
■ Bottom Clearance ( C ) = 0.6D to 0.75 D
■ Minimum Submersion ( S ) = 1.5D
■ Distance between pump axis to trashrack shall be 4D to 6D.
■ During detail engineering, the above data shall be furnished
by the pump manufacturer.

Pressure mains are most important components and

acts as nerves of a L.I. scheme.

While finalizing the pressure mains, the designer

need to know the following aspects :

■ Importance & Impact of Pressure mains on the


■ Design considerations of pressure mains

■ Various types of Pressure mains

Importance & Impact of Pressure mains on
Pumps and cost
■ Pressure main is the key component in the lift irrigation schemes
which work as nerves of the scheme and are very expensive.
Whenever length of pressure mains is in kilometers, they take
away the lions share of 50 % to 80% of the total cost of the
scheme which reflects the importance their design.
■ In view of the huge cost involvement on pressure mains, the type
and diameter are to be very carefully designed with cost
economics on 2 or 3 alternatives. The type of pipe shall be
proposed depending upon the heads, field conditions and
■ Further, as much as possible / whenever there is feasibility of
gravity canal for more than a KM, pressure mains shall be avoided
by introducing intermediate pumping station in between duly
verifying the cost economics.( Ex : The Chagalnadu LI Scheme ).
Design Considerations Of Pressure mains
Higher velocity in pipe leads to higher frictional losses
results in incresed pump capacity & cost of the scheme.
■ Generally pressure mains are designed for the max.
velocity of 2.0 m/s for MS pipes with specifications IS :
2062 and 1.5 m/s for PSC / RCC pipes
■ Velocity upto 4 m/s is also considered in the Steel pipes
with specifications IS : 2002 (for Penstock specifications).
■ Similarly lengthy pressure mains increases the total head
causing increase in HP of pump further.
■ If the diameter of the pressure main is more than 2.0m,
then the fabrication cost of pipe may increase.
■ In view of the above, the number of rows of pressure
mains shall be decided duly considering the head
involvement, dia and type of material & allowable velocity
duly satisfying cost economics.
S.No Particulars Various Velocities in Pipe( m/s ) Remarks
1.5 2 2.5
1 Discharge in Cumecs 10 10 10
2 Dia of Pipe in m 2.913 2.523 2.256 it is inferred that
3 Length of Pipe in Km 10 10 10 smaller dia is
economical during
4 Velocity of Pipe in m/s 1.5 2 2.5 initial stage of
5 Thick ness of Pipe in mm 16 14 12 construction but
6 Hazen William Coeff 140 140 140 power consumption
is very high .
7 Friction Losses Hf in m 4.4 8.87 15.28 Higher dia needs
8 Quantity of Steel in tons 11488.406 8706.5198 6672.9773 less power but with
9 HP of Pump 640 1290 2221 high initial cost.

For every 0.50 m/s rise in Velocity of pipe, pumping head rises by 75% to 100%
with reduction of dia by 11% to 13%. Hence, it is desirable allow higher velocities in
shorter length of pipes and lower velocities in lengthy pipes ( particularly when the
length of pipe is in KM ) owing to the recurring power consumption annually ).

S.No Particulars Number of Rows Of Pressure mains Remarks

Single Two Three
1 Discharge in Cumecs 10 2 x 5 = 10 3x3.33 = 10
2 Dia of Pipe in m 3.0 2.12 1.713
3 Length of Pipe in Km 10 10 10 More number of pipes
leads more
4 Velocity of Pipe in m/s 1.416 1.416 1.416 frictional losses as
5 Thick ness of Pipe in mm 16 12 10 well as enhanced
6 Hazen William Coeff 140 140 140 pumping heads /
pumping capacities
7 Friction Losses Hf in m 3.8 5.73 7.25 and more quantity
8 Quantity of Steel in tons 11830 12540 12800 of steel.
9 HP of Pump 553 833 2221

It is been reflected that more number of pipes increases the capital cost along
with the pumping head ( i.e., More pipes with smaller dia causes more frictional
losses and initial cost as well as recurring power cost over lesser no. of pipes with
bigger dia with same velocity ).
Thickness of Pipe

■ The thickness of the pipe shall be determined for the internal fluid
pressure as well as for the probable head generated from the water
hammer analysis and often head due to water hammer effect will be
■ The head from the water hammer analysis may be approximately 1.5
times total pumping head with provision of pressure relief
arrangements and without the arrangements the head may be 10
times of total head, which underline the necessity of the measures to
be taken against water hammer effects. Economical design of pipe
thickness is must for financial viability of the scheme.
■ Thickness of pipe shall also be verified for pipe buried condition
with over burden pressure.
■ However, thickness of pipes shall not be less than specified values
given in IS 1916 for various diameters of MS pipes.
Conditions of Verification to Buried pipeline
■ Allowable Permissible Stresses & Deflection of MS Pipe :

■ Working Stress for combined bending and direct tensile stress

shall not exceed 66 % of yield stress of the material making
due allowance for efficiency of welded joint

■ Working Stress for combined bending and direct Compressive

stress shall not exceed 50 % of yield stress of the material
making due allowance for efficiency of welded joint

■ The allowable deflection of pipe shall not be more than 2% of

outer dia of MS shell, for external load & partial vacuum
pressure condition and for external pressure and internal
pressure condition.
Various Types Of Pressure mains
■ Concrete Pipes :
■ Pre Stressed Concrete Pipes :
■ Cast Iron Pipes :
■ Steel or MS Pipes :
■ Ductile Iron
■ Bar Wrapped Steel Cylinder Concrete Pressure Pipes
■ Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic Pipes ( G.R.P. )

Whenever MS pipes with huge heads are to be laid in

the ground, they need protection against corrosion by
applying epoxy coating or cement mortar on both sides
of the pipe, which may escalate the cost of the scheme
further as MS pipe itself is uneconomical.
■ Owing to the smoothness and economy over MS pipes,
importance of GRP pipes is steadily increasing, but the
performance of them for longevity has to be established.
PSC Pipes are Preferable Over MS pipes
■ Cost of 2.50m dia MS pipe with lining & coating is almost 50,000/-
per metre length as against 20,000/- for PSC which underlines the
cost savings in LI scheme with PSC pipes
■ The apprehension of bursting of pipes is present for the MS pipes
also ( It is noticed that MS pipe of Hyderabad water supply from
AMRP is frequently getting busted ).
■ Since the danger of pipes bursting is there for both PSC & MS,
former is preferable, owing to easy installation and remedial
measures in the case of emergency.
■ Generally, there will be movements in the earth fill over a period,
which causes the pipe alignment to drift away from the alignment at
the joints. However, PSC pipes will be having rubber members in the
joints, which enables the pipe to move slightly and absorb the
horizontal deflections any. Where as, MS pipes will be rigid and the
joints are susceptible to fail in the above case. To avoid them for MS
pipes, it is desirable to have lap joint between two shells instead of
butt joint, which is again un-economical as well as tedious.
Importance Of Surge Protection Devices
■ Design of pipe stability against water hammer / surge is
the critical exercise for a LI Scheme and must be done
for all the LI schemes, since pipe costs 70% to 80% of
scheme cost and failure of pipe at any location causes
abrupt halt of the system.
■ Surge analysis / Transient analysis is a very complicated
phenomena which needs thorough analysis of the pipe
line profile w.r.t. pumping heads to assess the type and
number of surge protection devices at appropriate
locations. The analysis may be done using a software,
exclusively meant for surge analysis, in the absence of
which, the scheme functionality may not be assured to its
full efficiency.
Water Hammer Conditions
■ High Points in the pumping main alignment

■ Possibility of Water column separation in the main due to

sudden power failure

■ Pipe line gradient is steeper than 1 : 20

■ Ratio of frictional loss to working head is less than 0.7

■ Presence of Check valve with slow closing arrangement

■ Velocity of normal flow exceed 1.0 m/s


They are required to :

■ Minimize the length of the returning water column causing water hammer
■ Dissipate energy of the water column length by air cushion valve and
■ Provide a quick opening pressure relief valve to relieve any rise in pressures in
critical zones.
The above objectives are achieved by the following valves :
Zero Velocity Valve: When forward vel becomes 25% of the max, the flap starts
closing and comes to the fully closed position when the vel becomes zero. Thus,
water column on U/S of valve is prevented from acquiring a reversed vel and
taking part in creating surge pressures.
Air Cushion Valve : Allows large quantities of air in the pumping main during
separation, entrap the air, compress it with the retuning air column and expel the
air under controlled pressure to dissipate the energy of returning water.
Surge Tanks : Exposed to atmospheric pressure and acts as a balancing tank for the
flow variations. Generally placed near the pumping station.
Types Of Pump Houses
Pump Houses types based on type of pumps are :
1) Wet Pit Pump House
■ Access to pump is not possible
■ Substructure will be always with water for full area
2) Dry Pit Pump House
■ Access to all components of pump is possible
■ Substructure will be always without water and in dry
■ In view of the dry condition with access to every
component is possible, making maintenance is easy
Types of Pump Houses with its components

Bhima LIS Type – SemiUnderground

■ Approach channel
■ Ramp
■ Tunnel Intake
■ Tunnel
■ Surge pool
■ DT Tunnels
■ Pump House
■ Small Delivery mains
■ Cistern
Bhima Type Pump House
Sripada Yellampally Project
– Semi Underground
•Volute Type
•Approach Channel
•Fore bay
•Pump House
•Long Pressure Mains
Metallic Volute Type
Design of Pump house
■ Pump house will come exactly on the jackwell for vertical turbine
pumps and in the case of centrifugal ( horizontal ) pumps the pump
house will be located adjacent nearer to the intake/ sump.
■ Additional bay with sufficient area should be provided connected to the
pump house to carry the repairs & maintenance of pumps.
■ Depending upon the site conditions, the control panel bays can be
connected to pump house or kept away from it.
■ The platform level of pump house should always be kept 1.0m to 1.50m
above HFL / MWL / FRL. The gantry and the roof levels may be kept
8.0m and 11.5m respectively above the platform.
■ In front of pump house, provision for trash rack & gates may be given.
■ Service gate(Stop Logs) for one vent only may be procured wherever
independent pump chambers are provided.
■ The platform slab & pump house will be subjected to dynamic loads in
addition to static load of pumps when the pumps are in operation.
Various Loads Acting On Pump House
■ Pump & Motor ( Static & Dynamic )

■ E.O.T. & Gantry Crane

■ Control Panels

■ Earth Pressure on 3 sides

■ Water Pressure from inside

■ Self Wt of Structure

■ Other Live Load

Delivery Cistern

■ Delivery cistern is required to absorb / dissipate

the energy of water falling freely from the
pressure mains and delivers into the canals. It
shall be designed as vertical drop.
■ The jet projectile length of water fall from the
culminating point of the pressure mains shall be
calculated and accordingly the length &
thickness of the bed required shall be provided to
sustain the energy.
■ To have better energy dissipating arrangement,
the bed level of the cistern should always be kept
below the bed level of the leading canal.
■ There is growing demand for lift irrigation schemes due
to non-availability of funds for conventional irrigational
structures which also have prolonged & unending
problems related to submersion, rehabilitation,
environment etc,. As the L.I. schemes can be completed
in brief periods, their necessity is growing day by day.

■ Since the L.I. schemes are going to play major role in

future, due attention should be given to the concepts of
planning & design for better performance & efficiency
of scheme.

■ The proposals should be finalized only after considering

all the possibilities for different alternatives and
respective cost economics.
■ Cost of the pressure mains should always be kept in
mind while formulating the proposals as it has bearing
on cost of the scheme. Bigger dia with lesser number of
rows are always economical w.r.t. installation cost as
well running cost.

■ Low velocity of flow in the pipe would always be

economical for the schemes with very lengthy pressure
mains. More velocity may be permitted in the pipes for
the schemes with shorter length of pipes.

■ Though lift irrigation schemes necessity is ever

growing, considering the limitations of power
availability & recurring power bills annually, financial
returns, recurring maintenance problems and periodical
replacements of mechanical components, they should be
proposed judiciously.
Advantages Of Lesser No. Of Pipes With Bigger Dia
Ex : Using Hazen William Formula, it is observed that lesser number of pipes with
bigger dia gives minimum frictional losses and optimum HP of pump as against
more number of pipes with smaller dia, which is illustrated below :

i) For 10 Cumecs Discharge for a single row of pipe with Velocity 2.0 m/s, dia of
pipe required is 2.523 m for which the frictional loss for 1.0 km length of pipe is
0.89 m. ( i.e., for 10 km , it is 8.90 m )

ii) For 10 Cumecs Discharge for two rows of pipes with Velocity 2.0 m/s, dia of
each pipe required is 1.784 m for which the frictional loss for 1.0 km length of pipe
is 1.33 m. ( i.e., for 10 km , it is 13.30 m )

iii) For 10 Cumecs Discharge for three rows of pipes with Velocity 2.0 m/s, dia of
each pipe required is 1.456 m for which the frictional loss for 1.0 km length of pipe
is 1.68 m. ( i.e., for 10 km , it is 16.80 m )

iv) Difference of HP of Pumps for 10 km length of pipes between above i & ii cases
is 650 HP, between ii & iii is 525 HP and between i & iii is 1150 HP.

v) Further, lesser no. of pipes results in economy due to requirement for smaller
width of trench for laying, land acquisition and CM & CD works.
Importance of Velocity in Pressure main
■ Velocity of pipe does have bearing on the pumping head, functionality of the scheme as
well as on the over all cost of the project.
■ The allowable velocity in the PSC pipes is 1.50 m/s and in the MS pipes is 2.0 m/s.
■ Higher velocity creates severe water hammer problems
■ Higher velocity increases pumping head abnormally, particularly when the velocity is
more than 1.50 m/s
■ Higher velocity necessitates higher thickness of pipes as well as more number of surge
protection devices

i) For 10 Cumecs Discharge in a single row of pipe with 3.0m dia, the velocity in the pipe
would be 1.4147 m/s for which the frictional loss for 1.0 km length of pipe is 0.38 m. (
i.e., for 10 km , it is 3.10 m ). Quantity of steel for 1Km is 1183 t.

ii) For 10 Cumecs Discharge in two rows of pipes with 2.12m dia, the velocity in the pipe
would be 1.416 m/s for which the frictional loss for 1.0 km length of pipe is 0.573 m. (
i.e., for 10 km , it is 5.73 m ). Quantity of steel for 1Km is 1254 t.

Lesser dia has more frictional losses and also un-economical compared to
higher dia.

With the above calculations, it can be inferred that more number of rows
increases not only the pipe cost but also the pumping head and in turn pump capacity
& running cost of the scheme annually.

S.No Discharge Pumping No. of Dia of Eff V T Pumps Horizontal Pumps

in Cusecs Hours Pumps Pipe n HP Total HP Speed Remarks

1 70 24 2 1.3 0.8 80 160 - - Not Suitable

70 24 3 1.3 0.8 55 165 55 740

70 24 4 1.3 0.8 43 172 960

2 105 16 2 1.6 0.8 115 230 - Not Suitable

105 16 3 1.6 0.8 80 240 - Not Suitable

105 16 4 1.6 0.8 61 244 61 590

105 16 5 1.6 0.8 50 250 50 740

3 140 12 2 1.85 0.8 150 300 - Not Suitable

140 12 3 1.85 0.8 103 309 - Not Suitable

140 12 4 1.85 0.8 80 320 - Not Suitable

140 12 5 1.85 0.8 65 325 65 590

140 12 6 1.85 0.8 57 342 57 590