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INTRODUCTION

Agricultural education is an important tool in ensuring


increased agricultural productivity, sustainability, environmental and
ecological security, profitability, job security and equity. Agricultural
education is a dynamic one, which is undergoing change in a very
rapid manner to meet the need of the society. The students of
agriculture are learning well on basic and applied issues of
agricultural science and technology which include laboratory exercises
and field practical training and acquisition of skills; however, they do
not possess adequate self-confidence in starting their own commercial
farming or agri-business. In order to further sharpen the knowledge
and skills of agricultural students, Rural Agricultural Work
Experience Programme (RAWE) is offered in the B.Sc. (Ag.) degree
programme which includes, training, demonstration, observation,
practice and participation in purposeful activities, and to orient our
agricultural graduates for participation in various rural developmental
programme. This programme is for providing work experience to the
students in rural setting. Someone very rightly pointed out that this
experiential system in agricultural education has a strong potential to
prepare a better agricultural technocrats with high level of skill in
combination with the modern out-look and management capacity.

RAWE is one of the best means to produce well trained agricultural


graduates with broad based knowledge and techniques to meet the
emerging challenges.

In India, Randhawa Committee of ICAR (1992) recommended


the Rural Agriculture Work Experience (RAWE) Programme for
imparting quality, practical and productive oriented education for the
agriculture degree programme. The World Bank (1995) stated that
there was little emphasis in the curricula on preparing the
agricultural graduates for better career in agriculture or agribusiness
outside government jobs. Getting hands-on training during higher
education towards self-employment, is very essential. It provides

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significant hands - on experience in acquiring skills, which are mainly
aimed at creating a product or providing a service to those who
demand. In fact, RAWE is basic to develop graduate competence as a
teacher, researcher and extension specialist.

OBJECTIVES OF RAWE PROGRAMME


To develop communication skills, confidence and competence
among the students using extension training methods to interact
with the farmers, to make them better extension worker for
transfer of agricultural Technology.


To provide an opportunity to work and acquaint the students with
the functioning of various agricultural researches, development,
agro-based marketing industries, extension agencies and other
allied organizations involved in rural development.


To develop an understanding of rural life and different life
situations prevailing in villages, rural institutions, socio-economic
conditions and constraints faced by the farming community with
special reference to agriculture among the students.


To develop the understanding regarding agricultural technologies
being followed by farmers and to prepare alternate farm plans
according to the local situation in consultation with the farmers.


To help the students to acquaint with ongoing thrust on rural
development and programmers related to transfer of technology
programme related to agriculture and allied aspects.


To impart practical hands-on training to the students to become
entrepreneurs or self-employed.

“Tell me, and I will forget. Show me, an and I will understand"

.... Confucius (450 BC)


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INTRODUCTION

Potential of rich resource base from the peninsula to the peaks


of the eastern Himalayas in developing agriculture in the eastern India
was realized long back by Prof. M. S. Swaminathan, Father of Indian

Green Revolution. His visionary zeal led to establishment of the ICAR


Research Complex for NEH Region with its headquarters at Shillong
(now at Umiam) on 9th January, 1975 with research priorities and
strategy that were guided by three major recommendations:

1. Development of alternative farming systems to replace the practice


of jhuming.

2. Making up the gap in the food needs of different States/U.T.s by


introducing improved and adaptable varieties of crops; efficient
management of soil, water and pests and increasing the animal
production by adopting scientific system.

3. Increasing the rural income and employment through developing


high-value low-volume produce/products that can be sold at a
competitive advantage outside the region.

Fig:1. Front View of ICAR Research Complex for NEH


Region, Manipur

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ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Manipur Centre was
also established on 9th January, 1975 as a regional centre of the
institute, with an objective to create the long felt farm research base
in the state of Manipur and to help in solving the problems relating to
agriculture, horticulture, animal husbandry, fishery and agroforestry.

MANDATE OF THE INSTITUTE

After going through a series of modifications to meet the


requirements of changing times, the institute currently has been
operating with the following mandates:

1. To develop and improve sustainable farming systems for different


agro-climatic and socio-economic conditions of the region.

2. To improve crops, livestock, fishery and to impart training for


development of local competence for management of resources to
enhance agricultural productivity.

3. To maintain, analyze and project database resources for


perspective planning.

4. To collaborate with the State Departments of the region for testing


and promotion of improved farming technologies.
5. Research on organic agriculture.

6. To develop local human resources through post graduate training


and research.

7. To act as a repository of information on different farming systems


of the region.

8. To collaborate with national and international agencies in


achieving the above objectives.
9. To provide consultancy.

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ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

DIRECTOR, ICAR RESEARCH COMPLEX FOR NEH REGION, MEGHALAYA

JOINT DIRECTOR (MANIPUR CENTRE)

Main Scheme Krishi Vigyan Centralized


/ Sections Kendra Services

1. Agril. Economics 1. Chandel 1. Experimental Farms


2. Agril. Entomology 2. Churachandpur 2. Central Laboratory
3. Agril. Extension 3. Imphal West 3. Tissue Culture Lab
4. Agroforestry 4. Tamenglong 4. Central Library
5. Agronomy 5. Ukhrul 5. Agro-meteorology Unit
6. Fisheries 6. Agricultural Knowledge
7. Horticulture Management Unit
8. Plant Breeding 7. Intellectual Property
Management Cell
9. Plant Pathology
8. Publication Cell
10. Seed Technology
9. Administration, Store
11. Soil Science
and Accounts Section
12. Veterinary Public Health 10. Estate & Vehicle Section
11. RTI Cell
12. Conference Hall
13. Exhibition Hall
14. Scientists’

OPERATIONAL AREA OF THE INSTITUTE

The state Manipur lies at latitude–25°68’Nof 23°83and longitude


of–94°78’E93°03’Ewithageographical coverage of 22,327
sq. km. As per figures of 2011 census, the state has approximately

27.21 lakh population with 79.85% literacy rate. The state has
currently nine administrative districts namely Bishnupur, Chandel,
Churachandpur, Imphal East, Imphal West, Senapati, Tamenglong,

Thoubal and Ukhrul. The state is landlocked and shares international


border with Myanmar and inland border with Assam, Mizoram and
Nagaland.

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Manipur has two distinct topographical zones, the central valley
that comprises about 10% of total geographical area and the
mountainous range encircling the central plain. The hill region has
difficult terrain with wide variation in slopes and altitude. The altitude
varies from 40 (Jiribam) to 2994 m (Mt. Iso) above MSL. The climate
varies from tropical to subtropical with sub-temperate conditions
prevailing in higher altitudes. The temperature varies from sub zero

(during winter) to 37-40oC (during summer). Period from June to


September is the monsoon season with an average annual rainfall of

1400-2000 mm. Due to high rainfall during monsoon and faulty land
use pattern, the hill regions suffer from soil erosion. The soil of the
region is acidic to strongly acidic in reaction, rich in organic matter,
but often found to be deficient in phosphorus, zinc and boron. The
soils are broadly classified into 4 orders viz., entisols, inceptisols,
alfisols and ultisols. Approximately 17,418 sq. km. area of the state is
under forest cover. Manipur is also known for the largest fresh water
lake of North Eastern India 'Loktak Lake', a veritable miniature inland
sea of 287 sq. km surface area. Infrastructural facilities in the state
like communication, irrigation, power, transport, marketing and
storage etc. are in poor shape. In nutshell, the region is characterized
by marginality, fragility, inaccessibility and heterogeneity.

ICAR

Fig:2. Location of ICAR Manipur

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ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Manipur Centre is
located at state capital Imphal (24049'N latitude, 93055'E longitude
and at an altitude of 780 m above MSL. The centre also has five Krishi
Vigyan Kendras in Chandel, Churachandpur, Imphal West,
Tamenglong and Ukhrul. The catchment area of the centre extends to
whole Manipur.

AGRICULTURAL SCENARIO OF MANIPUR

During 2012-13, the gross and net cropped area of the state
239.43 and 136.28 thousand hectares, respectively with a mean
cropping intensity of 175.69%. The area under shifting cultivation
(jhum) was 7568.70 sq. km. in 2008-09 (Source: Wastelands Atlas of
India 2011). The status of the agriculture and allied sector is as given
below:
Table:1.1 Land use Classification (Area in 1000 hectares)

Area sown
Particulars Net area sown more than Total Crop
Area
once
Manipur 233.62 106.67 340.29

Table:1.2 Estimated area and production of rice and maize during


2014-15

Area Yield Production


Crop
(’000 he (kg./hectare) (‘000 t
Rice 178.20 2706.23 482.25

Maize 5.30 2135.85 11.32

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Area under some fruits and vegetables in Manipur during 2014-15.

Horticultural
Area in ’00
Crop
Pineapple 0.69
Orange 2.21
Lemon 0.42
Papaya 0.17
Arum 8.08
Banana 9.38
Passion fruit 0.35
Bean 5.52
Cabbage 6.52
Cauliflower 1.42
Pea 4.73
Potato 2.97

Source: Directorate of Economics & Statistics, Govt. of Manipur.

The Production Statistics of Major Crops during 2012-13

Crops Productio Productivity


Area (‘00
MT) (t/ha)
Paddy 122.69 257.58 2.10
Maize 19.44 44.47 2.29
Pulses 30.30 28.35 0.94
Oilseed 44.10 36.71 0.83
Wheat 2.40 6.00 2.50
Sugarcane 5.50 311.69 56.67

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Potato 15.00 127.00 8.47
Fruits 51.32 43.610 8.50
Vegetables 21.75 22.00 10.11
Spices 13.56 12.17 8.97

The Status of Animal and Poultry Sector

Animals/Poultry Number Animals/Poultry Number


Cattle
219536 Pigs (Local) 161476
(Indigenous)
Cattle
44307 Pigs (Crossbred) 182546
(Crossbred)
Buffalo 66369 Mithun 10131
Goats 65158 Horse and Pony 1101
Sheep
7514 Poultry Backyard 2422320
(Indigenous)
Sheep
3949 - -
(Crossbred)

Source: 19th Quential Livestock Census 2012, Department of Animal


Husbandry, Dairying andFisheries. The Status of Fishery Sector
Fish Production: 30500 MT during 2014-15

Source: Economic Survey 2015-16

FACILITIES & INFRASTRUCTURES

EXPERIMENTAL FARM

The centre has two experimental farms viz. Lamphelpat Farm


(37 acres) and Langol Farm (200 acres). The farm has different

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facilities like Hi-tech Horticulture Complex (Mist Propagation Unit,
Shade Net House, Naturally Ventilated Poly House, Poly Tunnel,
Mushroom Production Unit etc., Controlled Environment Plant
Growth Chamber, Dairy Unit, Piggery Unit, Feed Block Unit, Chaff
Cutter Unit, Poultry Unit (Parent House, Brooder cum Grower House,
Hatcher and Setter, Feed Grinding Unit), Fishery Unit (Circular Carp
Hatchery, Solar Energy Operated Fish Drier, Fish Smoking Kiln, Fish

Ponds and Nursery Tanks etc.), Field Laboratories (Horticulture, Plant


Breeding, Seed Technology and Home Science), Biopesticide

Production Unit, Workshop, Threshing Shed, Implement Shed,


Godown, Water Harvesting Unit, Borewell, Farm Shed etc.

Experimental Farm Threshing Floor Fishery Unit

Poultry Unit Plant Growth Chamber Hi-Tech Horticulture Complex

CENTRAL LABORATORY

The centre has a modern, well equipped Central Laboratory


facility for carrying out research work on different disciplines. The
laboratory has different instruments like DNA Sequencer, Thermal
Cycler (PCR), Gel Imaging System, Gel Casting Unit, Electrophoresis
Assembly, NIR Spectrophotometer, High Performance Liquid
Chromatography (HPLC), Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS),

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Digital UV-VIS Spectrophotometer, ELISA Reader, Laboratory Spray
Drier, Laminar Air Flow Cabinet, Soxhlet Apparatus, Nitrogen
Analyzer, Flame Photometer, Leaf Area Meter, Refrigerated Centrifuge,
Micro-centrifuge, Digital pH Meter, Digital Conductivity Meter,
Moisture Balance, Microscope with Photographic Attachment,
Precision Analytical Balance, Hot Water Bath, Hot Air Oven, Ice
Flaking Machine, Autoclave, Ultra Low Temperature Freezer (-200C),
Laboratory Refrigerators, BOD Incubators, Rotary Shakers, Hot Water
Bath, Ultra Pure Water Purification Unit, UV Cabinet, Magnetic

Stirrer, Vortex Shaker, Hot Plate, Gel Rocker, Microwave Oven,


Temperature Humidity Data Logger, Homogenizer, etc.

Fig: Instruments inside the Central Laboratory

SEED TESTING LABORATORY AND SEED PRODUCTION UNIT

The Centre has a Seed Testing Laboratory under its Seed


Technology unit. It provides seed testing facilities for seed
certification, crop cutting competition of the State Agriculture
Department. The laboratory is also equipped with NIR Grain Analyzer
for non-destructive measurement of grain quality. The centre

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produces about 60 tonnes of quality seeds of the recommended
varieties of different crops.

TISSUE CULTURE LABORATORY

The centre has a small tissue


culture laboratory, established
under Horticulture Mission for
North Eastern and Himalayan

States (Mini Mission I). The


laboratory has undertaken micro-
propagation of banana for
distribution to the farmers.

Fig: Tissue Culture laboratory


Protocol for standardization of
Shirui Lily has been standardized.
Besides, research activities related to in-vitro regeneration and tissue
culture of selected crops have been
undertaken.

CENTRAL LIBRARY

The Centre has a good


collection of 2995 books on
Administration (137), Agricultural
Economics (46), Agricultural
Engineering (62), Agricultural
Entomology (175), Agro-forestry
(43), Agronomy (155), Animal
Science (171), Biochemistry (26), Fig: Central Library

Botany (33), Fishery (125), General


Books (285), Hindi Books (494), Home Science (134), Horticulture
(397), Nematology (14), Plant Breeding (144), Plant Pathology (190),
Seed Technology (34), Soil Science (188), Statistics (66) and
Proceedings (76). The library also subscribes 4 National and 2 Local
Newspapers.

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AGRICULTURAL KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT UNIT

The centre has a Agricultural


Knowledge Management Unit
(Formerly known as ARIS Cell) which
deals with information technology and
related aspects. From this unit high-
speed internet connectivity (under

National Knowledge Network


implemented by NIC, GoI) is provided

to the scientists and staffs. The e- Fig: AKMU

journal facility from the Consortium


for E-resources in Agriculture (CERA) is accessible to the scientists
and other workers.
The unit also deals with PME, PIMS, PERMISHNET, HYPM and

KIRAN (the ICT portal of the institute). Besides, the entire campus has
been brought under round the clock CCTV surveillance to strengthen
the security system of the centre. Visitor management kiosk and
digital EPBX system has also been installed at the campus.

CENTRE TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT


COMMITTEE

The centre technology management


committee (CTMC) islooking after the
various issues such as documentation
and registration of varieties and
germplasm, commercialization of
technologies, patent filling under the
guidance of Institute Technology
Management Unit (ITMU). The cell
Fig: CTMC
conducts Awareness Programmes on

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Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers' Right Act in collaboration
with KVKs in different Districts of the state.

AGRO-METEOROLOGY UNIT
The Agro-meteorological Field
Unit (AMFU), Imphal Unit, which
regularly provides the weather
forecast, related Agro- Advisory
Services for the state of Manipur
was started since 1995 with an
observatory at Lamphelpat. At
present there are six observatories
in five districts (viz. Imphal West,
Ukhrul, Chandel, Tamenglong and
Churachandpur districts) under this
centre. It provides advisories
Fig: Agro-Meteorology Unit
through media and SMS twice a
week. The weather data are sent
daily to India.

Meteorology Department, Pune and Delhi; NCMRWF; FICCI and


Regional Meteorological Centre, Guwahati; Doordarshan Kendra
(DDK), KVKs, Regional Web-sites, All India Radio (AIR) and morning
and evening local newspapers through e-mail, SMS and phone

Manipur Bulletin’containingweather summary of past few days,


weather forecast for next five days along with agro advisories for the
farmers are weekly provided to these media. Observed data and
weather forecast are supplied to government departments, non-
governmental organizations, research scholars, students, farmers etc.
as per requisition.

PUBLICATION CELL

The centre has one publication cell for facilitating publication of


books, technical bulletins, training manuals, extension bulletins,
newsletter, leaflets, folders, etc.

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RTI CELL

The RTI Cell of the centre deals with different queries made
under RTI Act. The cell also maintains c quality of public services.

CONFERENCE HALL

The air-conditioned
conference hall can accommodate
50 persons and is well equipped
with modern audio-visual aids like
ceiling mounted LCD projector,
motorized projection screen,
wireless presenter, white marker
board, quality audio system etc.
Fig: Conference Hall

EXHIBITION HALL

The Centre has one small


exhibition hall to showcase latest
technologies and outreach
activities in form of photographs,
publications, models, live material
and specimen, etc. The exhibition
hall opens from 9.30 to 16.30
hours in working days.
Fig: Exhibition Hall

STAFF POSITION

The centre is headed by Joint Director. At present 16 scientists


(2 Principal Scientist, 3 Senior Scientists and 11 Scientists) of various
discipline are actively involved in research and developmental
programmes. The centre has 5 administrative, 12 technical and 7

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supporting staffs. There are 5 KVKs working under this centre
where 74 staffs are involved in extension and other activities.

RESEARCH

The Centre has, since inception, been trying to solve location


specific and state agricultural problems through a number of
Research Projects funded both by the institute other outsources.

Major contributions of this centre are in rice varieties, horticulture


based farming systems, increased cropping intensity through
oilseed production and production of quality seed and planting
material. At present 16 institutional and 10 externally funded
projects are ongoing at the centre on plant breeding, agronomy,
seed technology, horticulture, soil science, animal science, fishery,
agricultural entomology, plant pathology, agricultural extension,
molecular biology and climate change. During last five years, the
centre has published 4 books, 16 book chapters, 59 research
papers, 26 popular articles, 9 technical bulletins, 3 training
manuals, 17 research abstracts, 17 extension folders, 17 success
stories and 2 multimedia modules.

EXTENSION ACTIVITIES

For improving the agricultural productivity, increasing the


cropping intensity, promoting conservation of natural resources,
disseminating scientific technologies, ensuring the livelihood & food
security of the farming community and building capacity of the
stakeholders, the centre has been actively engaged in multi-
disciplinary outreach activities since its inception. The major
extension activities are undertaken in collaboration with KVKs.
Besides, the centre has established effective linkages with line
departments, CAU, NGOs and other organize Club, SHGs and
Growers Group have also been formed in different villages. During
the last five years, extension activities have been

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carried out under Horticulture Mission for North Eastern &
Himalayan States (Mini Mission I), National Initiative on Climate
Resilient Agriculture (NICRA), Tribal Sub-Plan (TSP) and National
Agricultural Innovation Project (NAIP) etc. Besides, organizations like
ICARDA, DBT, NHB, NFDB, NOVOD Board, NABARD, PPV&FRA,
RCOF, ATMA, CRPF, FMC, IICPT and other ICAR institutes have
sponsored various extension activities. The centre and its KVKs also
participate in various extension activities conducted by other
organizations and line departments.

HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT & ACADEMIC ACTIVITIES

The centre is actively involved in human resource development


and different academic activities. The centre organizes National,
Regional and State level Seminar, Symposium and Workshop etc.
Scientists of this centre regularly undergo International Training
Programme in other countries and also attend Summer School, Winter
School, Short Courses and different Seminar, Symposium,

Conference, Workshop etc. on various subjects. Scientists of this


centre act as resource person in UGC Sponsored Academic Staff
College, Manipur University; Central Agricultural University and other
academic institutions. They also act as External Paper Setter/External

Examiner for CAU and different SAUs. The centre acts as host
institute for National Fellowship (sponsored by DBT, DST etc.) and
Women Scientist Programmes. The centre organizes vocational
training programme, wet lab workshop and rural agricultural work
experience (RAWE) programme for the students from different
agricultural university/institutions and also organizes human
resource development and capacity building programme for State
Govt. Officials, Bankers, NGOs, SHGs, Extension Functionaries, etc.
The centre periodically organizes with Farmers
KVKs.

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COLLABORATIONS & LINKAGES

The centre has developed active collaborations and linkages


with different international, national, state level and local
organizations for R&D programmes:

I. International Centre for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas


(ICARDA).

II. National Oilseeds and Vegetable Oils Development Board, Govt.


of India.

III. National Fisheries Development Board, Govt. of India.

IV. Department of Agriculture, Govt. of Manipur.

V. Department of Horticulture and Soil Conservation, Govt. of


Manipur.

VI. Department of Veterinary and Animal Husbandry Services,


Govt. of Manipur.

VII. Department of Fisheries, Govt. of Manipur.

VIII. Manipur Science and Technology Council, Govt. of Manipur.

IX. Manipur Small Farmers’-business Consortium, Agri Govt. of


Manipur.

X. Central Agricultural University, Imphal.

XI. Manipur University, Imphal.

XII. Institute of Bio-resources and Sustainable Development,


Imphal.

XIII. Regional Centre of Organic Farming, Imphal.

XIV. National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development, Manipur


RO, Imphal.

XV. The Synthetic & Art Silk Mills' Research Association (SASMIRA),
Mumbai

XVI. Forward Market Commission, Mumbai.

XVII. Other ICAR Institutes.

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XVIII. Krishi Vigyan Kendras of different districts in Manipur.

XIX. NGOs (UDCRMS-IFAD, DSSS, RNBA, VVD, PARDA, SHIFT,


SMART Society etc.).

XX. Farmers’ Club, Growers’ SHGs, Cooperatives etc.

GOALS & TARGETS (VISION 2050)

I. Making the region self-sufficient in food production.

II. Placing the region in organic food production map of the world.

III. Reduction of area under jhum and ensuring livelihood security of


the Jhumias.

IV. Inventorization and development of utility mechanism of


biological diversity.

V. Establishing climate-ready agriculture in changing climate


scenario.

VI. Creating a robust agricultural information network system to


narrow down the distance between farmers, researchers, policy
makers, business houses and entrepreneurs through effective IT
interfaces.

VII. Establishment of surveillance, detection and management of


plant and animal diseases including the trans-boundary pest
and diseases.

VIII. Agricultural technology for conservation of natural resources.

IX. Enhancement of technology adoption for agricultural growth.

X. Establishment of strong institutional linkages with line


departments, national and international organizations, NGOs
and other stake holders.

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PRESENTATION SCHEDULE

During the institute attachment programmes, following topics


were covered by the scientists, technical staff and subject matter
specialists.

Training
Duration: 1 Month
period:

DATE Day 11:00 -12:00 am 12:00-1:00 pm 2.00-3.00 PM 3.10-4.00 PM

2 Saturday Registration, Basic concepts of Agriculture career: Field visit in ICAR


March Basis and agricultural its scope and farm
importance of marketing prospects of higher Kh. Rishikanta and
RAWE Dr. Kh. Rishikanta studies Dr. T. Dr. T. Basanta
programme Singh Basanta Singh
Dr. Kh. Rishikanta
Singh
4 Monday Basics of Tissue Tissue Culture- Chemistry and Visit to Exhibition
March culture and its Lab Visit and management of Hall and
application in demonstration problematic soil demonstration of
Agriculture Dr. M.R. Sahoo Dr. P.K. Saraswat display
Dr. M.R. Sahoo Dr. Kh. Rishikanta
Singh
5 Tuesday Prospects and Cultivation Principle and Practical on Plant
March importance of practices of methods of Plant Breeding
seed production vegetable crops Breeding Dr. E.
for sustainable Mrs. Lily Dr. E Lamalakshmi Lamalakshmi Devi
agriculture Rangnamei, KVK Devi
Dr. I.M. Singh IW

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March Wednesday Agronomic Scope and Package of Visit to seed
practices for importance of practices of Seed production unit
cultivation of Bee keeping for Production of S. Gunamani
pulse crop enhancing farm Important crop Singh, KVK IW
Dr. Lydia Zimik, income S. Gunamani Singh,
KVK IW Mrs. Aruna KVK IW
Beemrote

Soil and
7 Thursday Mendel’s Understanding water Visit to Library
March Inheritance soil borne plant conservation in hill Dr. S.K Sharma
Dr Konsam Sarika pathogens in Dr. K. Sonamani and Mrs A.
major field crops Singh, KVK Chandel Rajlakshmi Devi
Dr. Dipak Singh

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Conservatio
8 Friday Cultivation n Major Farm Demonstration of
March practices of Agriculture equipment used in important Farm
horticultural Shri. N. Agriculture Er. L. equipment
crops Arunkumar Singh Kanta Singh, Er. L. Kanta Singh,
Ph. Chandramani KVK, Imphal West KVK IW KVK IW
Singh, KVK Ccpur

Understandin
9 Saturday Activities Basic concepts of g Practical on
identificatio
March undertaken by agricultural diseases of n of
importan
KVK for uplifting finance t field diseases of
socio-economic Dr. Kh. Rishikanta crop & its important filed
condition of Singh managemental crop
farmers Dr. practices Dr. S.K. Sharma
Niranjan Lal Dr. S.K. Sharma

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March Monday Scientific pig Care and Scientific poultry Visit to dairy and
managemen
farming t of management poultry farm
Dairy
Dr. Blessa Sailo animals Dr Ch. Sonia Dr. Blessa, Dr.
Dr. B.K. Sharma Sonia and Dr B.K.
Sharma

12 Practica
March Tuesday Care and Practical on l on value Practical on value
management of gardening added products of added products of
Garden Mrs. A. seasonal fruits and seasonal fruits
Mrs. A. Rajalakshmi Devi vegetables and vegetables
Rajalakshmi Devi Dr. S. Roma Devi, Dr. S. Roma Devi,
KVK Ccpur KVK Ccpur

13 Practica
March Wednesday Basics of Agro- Visit to Agro- l on Practical on
meteorology meteorology Lab processing and processing and
Mrs. Nomita Mrs. Nomita preservation of preservation of
Chanu Chanu & M. selected high value selected high
Gyaneshowor crop value crop
Dr. Prabhabati Dr. Prabhabati
Devi, KVK Chandel Devi, KVK Chandel

14 Thursday Agronomic Identifying Understanding Scientific duck


diseas
March practices for e of major Farmer Club and farming
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kharif crop and
cultivation of its SHG’s Dr. R.K. Nirmala
KVK
major field crops managemental promoting rural IW
Dr. M.A. Ansari practices farmers
Dr. Johnson, KVK, Er. Kh. Hera Singh,
Ccpur KVK IW

15 Friday Scope and Mushroom Scope of Integrated Student group


cultivation Farmin
March importance of : g System in discussion on
mushroom Process and North East Climate change
cultivation as a procedure Dr. Ramakrishan
profitable Dr. S.K. Sharma
enterprise
Dr. S.K. Sharma

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March Saturday Understanding Management of Feeding Visit to fish farm
various fish fish pond and management for Dr. Ch. Basudha
profitable
species and its water quality fish
economic rearing
importance Dr. N. Dr. Ch. Basudha
Soranganb
N. Sureshchandra a
Singh, KVK Ukhrul KVK, Ccpur

18 Monday Vermiculture: Visit to Visit to


March Basic Theory vermicompost unit vermicompost
S. Sanjay
Singh and demonstration unit and
Dr. Basanta Singh demonstration
Dr. Basanta Singh

19 Tuesday Mushroom Mushroom Hi- tech Nursery Visit to Hi-tech


cultivation:
March cultivation: Media and polyhouse Nursery unit and
Media preparation & cultivation Tissue Culture-
procedur Dr. S.S.
preparation & e Roy Lab
Dr. S.K.
procedure Sharma Dr. S.S. Roy & Dr.
Dr. S.K. Sharma Ch Tania
Differen
20 Thursday Cropping system t Bee Practical Practical
managemen demonstratio
March t in species and its n on demonstration on
the context of economics Bee Box and its Bee Keeping
horticultural importance componen

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t
farming
Dr. Romila
Ak
Dr. Ch. Tania
22 Basi
March Friday Mushroom Mushroom c concept and Student group
discussio
cultivation: cultivation: approached for n on
organic
Practical Practical farming organic farming
Dr. S.K. Dr. S.S.
Dr. S.K. Sharma Sharma Roy
& Th Surjit Singh & Th Surjit Singh

23
March Saturday Mushroom Mushroom Demonstration on Visit to soil lab
cultivation: cultivation: collection of soil and demonstration
Practical Practical sample on soil sample
Dr. S.K. Sharma Dr. S.K. Sharma & Dr. T. Basanta analysis
& Th Surjit Singh Th Surjit Singh Singh Dr. T. Basanta
25
March Monday Integrated Pest Chemical Scientific Video aided
Managemen
t pesticide and its Management of scientific
Dr. Arati N effect in orchard demonstration of
environment Ps. Lavid, KVK technology
Dr. Romila Ak Tamenglong Dr. Kh. Rishikanta
Singh

26 Economi Scienti Understanding


Tuesday Socio Tools and
March c fic PRA
studi managem and its
of component of
es ent importance
Dr. Kh. vegetable Dr. Kh.
PRA
Rishikanta nursery Rishikanta
Singh farm Singh Dr. Kh. Rishikanta
Mrs. Lily Singh
Rangname KV
i, K
IW
27 Wednesd PRA Practical (Visit to village for conducting Socio-
March ay Economic Study)
Dr. Kh. Rishikanta Singh, Dr. T. Basanta Singh, Er. Kh. Hera Singh and Mr. S.
Gunamani Singh

28 Agrono Understand
Thursday PRA report PRA report
March mic ing
preparatio Dr. preparatio cultivati Socio economic
23
n n on
Rishikant Dr. Kh.
Kh. practices in hill system of hill and
a Rishikanta
Singh
Dr. T. Singh, Dr. T. farming tribal areas
,
Basanta Basanta Gaipuich
Kamei, Th. Motilal Singh
Singh Singh ug
KVK
KVK Tamenglong
Chandel
29 Visit to Agro
Friday
March Industries
Kh. Rishikanta Singh, Dr. T. Basanta Singh & Th
Surjit Singh
30 Report Report
Saturday Report writing Report writing
March writing writing

Preparatio Preparatio
1 April Monday of Discussion on Discussion on
n of n
slide and slide and
selected topic selected topic
ppt ppt

Presentatio Presentati Valedict


2 April Tuesday by by Valedictory
n on ory
studen
student
t

EXPOSURE VISIT
Besides classroom presentations and practical, exposure visits
were arranged to the following units.

I. Central Laboratory

II. Exhibition Hall


III. Fishery Farm

IV. Hi-Tech Horticulture Complex

V. Mushroom Spawn Production Unit

VI. Tissue Culture Laboratory

VII. Terat Food (Chahou bujiya) at Keirang Maning Leikai, Imphal


East

VIII. Progressive Bee farm at Karong village, Imphal West

IX. COA, CAU, Iroisemba Imphal various labs and experimental


section

X. Participatory Rural Appraisal Heigrujam village, Imphal West.

24
PHOTO OF EXPOSURE VISIT

Fig: Visit to Langol Hill Research Farm

Fig: visit to tissue culture lab

Fig:Coriender and Cabbage farm


Heigrujam Village

25
INTRODUCTION

Mushroom belongs to a group of organisms called Fungi.


Mushrooms are reproductive structure of edible fungi that belong to
Ascomycotina and Basidiomycotina. Like any other fungus, the
vegetative parts of the mushroom consist of thread like thin
mycelialthallus which under suitable conditions form fruiting bodies
(sporocarps), commonly referred to as mushroom. The fungi are plants
but do not possess chlorophyll, the green colouring matter. Hence, the
direct sunlight is not indispensable to them for manufacturing their
own food. Fungus bears spores that serve as seed. Mushrooms occur
under various ecological conditions from desert to forest. They prefer
grassy ground (lawns, garden, pastures, meadows and fields),
woodland such as coniferous wood, mixed wood deciduous wood

(birch, beech, chestnut, mulberry, willow, etc.) swamps, sand dune,


orchards, dung, burns ground, richly manure ground, mossy rock and
soil (rocky soil, alluvial soil, acidic soil etc.). Mushroom comprise a
large heterogeneous group with different shapes, sizes, colour and
edibility. It possesses an excellent source of many vitamin B such as
thiamine, riboflavin, nicotinic acid and pantothenic acid. They also
contains high percentage of protein (4.5%) and mineral like calcium,
phosphorus, iron, potassium and copper. Since mushrooms are low in
starch content, they form a good diet for people suffering from
diabetes. Mushrooms are capable of agro-waste degradation.
Mushrooms are grown on organic substrate either raw or composted.

These substrates are mostly waste materials from farms, plantations


or factories. In this process, environmental pollution can be reduced
because disposal of these agriculture and industrial waste and by-
product may become less of a problem. Examples of such materials
are cereal straw, corn cobs, saw dust, bagasse, wood pulp, cotton
waste, banana leaves, poultry wastes, coconut husks, tree bark and
leaves. Further, used compost left after growing the mushrooms may

26
also be recycled for use as animal feeds, soil conditioning and
fertilizer.
Most probably, mushroom was first cultivated in Paris in 1650.
Duggar (1905) developed a method of making pure culture spawn
from mushroom tissue. In around, 1910, a standard mushroom house
was evolved in U.S.A. However, in India commercial cultivation of
mushroom was first initiated in New Delhi and Solan and later it
spread to other states. Research work done on mushroom laboratory,
Srinagar and mushroom culture laboratory IIHR, Bangalore were
helpful in development of mushroom cultivation in the country.
Gradually with the innovation of improved culture practices,
mushroom growing has been simplified. In artificial cultivation of
mushrooms, in lower altitude (762-1300 m.a.s.l.) four crop Pleurotus
spp. (March-November), two crops of Agaricus bisporous (September -
October) and two crop of Volveriella volvecea (June-August) can be
grown successfully. However, higher altitude (above 1300m.a.s.l.)
three crops of Agaricus bisporus and two crops of Pleurotus spp. are
possible.
The history of cultivation of Oyster mushroom is of recent one.

In the beginning, people use to collect wooden logs in Oyster


fruitification in nature and kept them in cool and moist place to
harvest Oyster mushroom periodically during favorable natural
conditions. Later on many tried on wooden logs, saw dust etc. in
India, cultivation of Pleurotus flabellatus was successfully achieved by

Bano & Srivastava in 1962. It was then cultivated on different


substrates using different species of Pleurotus and has become the
largest cultivated mushroom in the world. In Manipur, the earliest
attempt to artificial cultivated mushroom was made by State

Agriculture Department during early seventies. Spectacular result in


growing mushroom was achieved by Dr. R.N. Verma (1978) at the
laboratory of Plant Pathology, I.C.A.R. Research Complex for North

27
Eastern Hill Region, Manipur centre, Babupara (now at Lamphelpat),
Imphal. It was the beginning of Mushroom Cultivation in Manipur.
The prevailing weather conditions in Manipur during project work
were mainly suited with the cultivation of Pleurotus spp. Therefore, the
project work on mushroom cultivation was under taken only on
Pleurotus spp. with the following work programmed.
a) Preparation of culture media.
b) Preparation of Pure mother culture.
c) Cultivation of spawn from mother culture
d) Cultivation of Pleurotus spp. and
e) Management of insect, pests and diseases if any

MUSHROOMS IN MANIPUR

In Manipur mushroom have been a part of dietary habits for


their flavour and higher food value since ages. Naturally occurring
edible mushrooms found in Manipur are:-
1. Lantinus edodes (Uyen)

2. Auricularia auricula (Uchina)

3. Schizophylum commune (Kanglaiyen)

4. Termitomyces eurrhijus (Narin Chengum)

5. Tricholo magiganteum (Khongnangchengum)

6. Lentinus eladopus (Tek-Tek- pan)

7. Lactarius princes (Khomthokpi)

8. Pleurotu ssepidus

9. Volvariela valvacae (Charuyen)

10. Ramariaflavo brunnescens (Sendrang Makhong)

11. Favolus spatulalus (Uyangan)

12. Termitomyces robusta (Phoubak chengum)

28
PREPARATION OF CULTURE MEDIA

For raising pure culture of mushroom, a semi synthetic culture


medium namely Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) was prepared.

Ingredient required
1. Peeled Potato = 200g
2. Dextrose = 20g
3. Agar = 15g
4. Water = 1000ml

PROCEDURE

1. Peeled potatos were cut into thin slices and boiled with 500 ml
water till becoming soft when felt between fingers.

2. The decoction was collected in a beaker by filtering through muslin


cloth.

3. Agar agar was dissolved in remaining 500 ml warm water by


constant stirring with a glass rod.

4. The two lots (1 & 2) were mixed and final volume was made up to
1000 ml by adding distilled water.

5. 20 g dextrose was added to the mixture and stirred well for


homogenous mixing.

6. 3 ml of prepared medium were dispensed in each test tubes and


plugged with non-absorbent cotton.

7. The test tubes containing PDA medium were autoclaved at 15


lb/inch2 for 20 minutes at 121°C.
8. The pressure was allowed to lower down to zero and removed the

test tube from the autoclave and kept in the slanting po on a wooden plank to
make slants.

9. After solidifying, the slants were stored in a room temperature for 1


or 2 days. These were used for rising of pure culture.

29
PREPARATION OF PURE CULTURE
Pure culture was prepared either from a) Tissue culture from a
mushroom tissue or b) Spore culture raise from a single or mass
spore.
a) Tissue culture:

Mushrooms used in tissue culture were 24 to 48 hours old. The


lower portion where the gill joins the stem was used for excision of
tissue. The mushroom was thoroughly washed in water. The scalpel
was then dipped in alcohol and flamed until it was red hot. The
mushroom was then cut lengthwise from the cap downwards. With a
flamed needle, a small piece of internal tissue of the broken
mushroom was cut and removed. The needle with the tissue attached
was then immediately inserted into agar tubes and the tissue laid on
the agar surface. The mouth of the tube was flamed before the needle
was inserted. The cotton wool plug from the agar tube which was held
by the little finger of the hand holding the needle was then
immediately replaced. About 3 to 4 excision was transferred to three to
four agar tubes. The inoculated tubes were incubated at 25 ± 1˚
darkness for 5 days. In 3 to 4 days, the tissue was covered with a
white mycelium that spread on to the agar surface. White thread like
mushroom mycelia originated from the excised tissue. The mycelia
growth from the tissue was cut by hyphal tip cut method carefully and
aseptically lifting and transferring it to a fresh agar tubes to get pure
mother culture.
b) Spore culture:

(i) Single Spore culture: A mushroom fruit with the open was clean
and laid flat on a filter paper lining a petridish. This was then covered
with a bell jar. The petridish and bell
1½ hours before use. The mushroom discharged the spores after 1 or

2 days on the filter paper. The bell jar was removed and sterilized lid
was placed on the dish. The spore print was stored in the refrigerator
for future use. In the case of Pleurotus, the fruit use to obtain the

30
spores was newly opened. Spore print of Pleurotus was stored at room
temperature. When ready for use, the filter paper with the pore print
was aseptically cut into strips and one small strip was placed in a
10ml of sterile distilled water. For heavy pore loads, a dilution series
was made. A suspension of the spore was then planted in a 2 cm wide
band on a nutrient medium in a petridish. After marking with a
marker pen, the germinated spores are transferred with a portion of
the agar to a new medium in test tubes.

іі) Multispore or:For massraisingculture,sporesuspension was


prepared in sterilized distilled water. 1 ml of spore suspension
containing more than hundreds spores was mixed in each test tube
containing about 5 ml of sterilized wheat extract. The slants were
incubated at 28˚C for spore germination thread became visible on
slants surface.

1. Substrate preparation:
a. Substrate selection:

Pleurotus species can grow on most of the plant waste materials


containing lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses but the best are
obtained on paddy straw. Paddy straw with golden yellow in colour is
selected. It should not be more than 6 months and not exposed to rain
and sun. Straw should be cut into 2 to 3 inches. Soak the cut straw
into water overnight and drain off the excess water.

Fig.2.1: Preparing paddy straw

31
Pasteurization of the substrate:

(i) Hot water treatment: The substrate is directly put in the hot
water at 60 to 80o C for one hour.
(ii) Chemical treatment: The substrate is treated with 125 ml
formalin and 7.5 g carbendazimin 100 litre of water for 16 hours.
After this treatment, the substrate is taken out, excess water is
drained out and allowed to dry under shade.
2. Spawn preparation:
a. Medium preparation:
(i) Potato Dextrose Agar Media: 100 g of fresh peeled potato
dissolved in 500 ml of distilled water + 10 g of dextrose + 10 g
of Agar.

(ii) Malt Extract Agar: 5 g of Malt Extract Agar dissolved in 100


ml of distilled water.
b. Maintenance of pure culture:

(i) Tissue culture: Tissue culture refers to mycelium grown from a


piece of fruit body. A big healthy fruit body with veil still intact is
selected from cropping tray/polythene bag for tissue culture.
Whole of the fruit body is longitudinally divided into 2 halves,
thereafter 2 small pieces of the fruit bodies are cut out under
sterile condition from the centre of stipe and pileus and
inoculated on a nutrient medium.

(ii) Sub culture: Culture prepared from already prepared spawn is


known as sub culture.

c. Grain spawn preparation: Healthy and clean wheat grains were


boiled to cook properly. Excess water was drained properly and
grains were dried under shade for 4 hours. Then CaCO3 (0.5%) and
CaSO4 (2%) was added and mixed with the grains thoroughly. Now
these thoroughly prepared grains were filled in milk bottles (250 –
300 gm) or polypropylene bags (7 x 11 inches). The filled bottles or
polypropylene bags were plugged and autoclaved at 22lbs psi for 2
hours at 121°C. After autoclaving the bottles or polypropylene bags

32
were left at room temperature for 12 hours to let them cool. Then
growing mycelium or spawn grains were inoculated in to it. After
inoculation, incubation was done at 25±2oC. The spawn became
ready in about 20 days.

3. Spawning:
The process of mixing spawn in fully prepared substrate is
called spawning. Freshly prepared (20 –30 days old) grain spawn is
best for spawning. The spawning is done in closed pre-fumigated
room. The spawn is mixed @ 2% of the wet weight or 10% dry weight
of the substrate. One bottle of (270 –300 gm) spawn is sufficient to
seed 3 kg dry substrate or 12 kg of wet substrate.
Four methods of spawning are as follows: -
1. Spot spawning: Planting the lumps of spawn about 5 cm
below the surface of substrate at 20 –25 cm apart.
2. Surface spawning: Spawn is spread on the top of substrate
and then mixed with substrate up to a depth of 3 –5 cm.

3. Layer spawning: Placing spawn in layers at 3 –5 cm depth


in substrate while filling the substrate in containers, the last
layer of spawn is spread at the top.
4. Thorough spawning: Mixing the spawn thoroughly with the
substrate while filling.

Fig: Pleurotus flabillatus Fig: Local species of Pleurotus

33
4. Cultivation methods:
a. Tube method: A Polythene bag of 45 cm x 60 cm is required.
Polythene bags should be tied with a sutli (a small rope) at the top
in case of this method. Polythene bags should be punctured.
b. Cube method: Wooden moulds of size 50 cm x25 cm x 18 cm,
pressing board size of 45 cm x 22 cm x 3 cm and polythene sheet
of 1 m x 1 m are required. The straw is water soaked and given a
bread shape after draining using wooden mould and pressing
board followed by wrapping and puncturing of plastic sheets. These
bags were then tied with sutli after spawning.

c. Cylindrical method: Circular grill base of 14 to 18 inches in


diameter and PVC pipe of 2 inches in diameter and 6-8 ft are
required. In cylindrical method plastic tube is used to surround
straw mat around PVC pipe and holes are punctured on PVC pipe
only.

5. Incubation:
The bags/cube/cylinders are transferred to the incubation room to
be incubated at 24±2oC for mycelial ramification or spawn run. A
high range of humidity in the room is maintained. They are kept for

15 –20 days. Optimum temperature of 22 –25oC is required.

6. Cropping:
For cropping the polythene bags were removed completely from the
substrate blocks by turning the bags upside down and tapping the
substrate block on both sides. Bags were placed 15 cm apart on
shelves and cubes 20 cm apart. Cylinders should be placed 50 cm
apart. The space was maintained for various operations like
watering, aeration as well as growth of fruit bodies. Spraying of
water was done to keep the humidity at 80 –90% and keeping the
straw wet. Mushroom started fruiting in the form of pin heads of

34
primordial which became mature after 3 –4 days. The crop flushes
were seen at the interval of 7 –10 days.

7. Crop management:

a. Harvesting: The right stage for picking can be judged by the shape
and size of the fruit body. The oyster mushroom are harvested
when the pileus is of 10 –12 dia i. e. before the pileus start curving
upwards which is generally 2 –3 days after the pinhead formation.
Picking is done in 3-4 flushes. An average yield of 2 –3 kg is
obtained from 10 kg bags on wet weight over a period of 20 –22
days. Thus from 1 kg straw about 600 –1000 gm mushroom can be
harvested.

b. Packing: After harvesting lower portion of the stalk with adhering


debris should be cut using knife. Stipe is kept short or almost non–
existent because it is hard and not liked by consumers. Fresh
mushroom are packed in polypacket, generally 200 gm and 400 gm
packs for retail sale. Polypackets are stored at low temperature at

5oC till they are consumed but not more than 3 days.

c. Preservation: Mushroom are highly perishable in nature and in


the peak period of harvesting they are much in excess than
demand. There are different techniques of preservation available
for mushroom such as follows:

(i) Dehydration of mushrooms: For dehydration, mushrooms


may be harvested at fully grown stage or at the stage at which
it is preferred. Fully grown dried mushrooms may be powdered
for preparation of mushroom soup. Mushrooms can be dried
by using solar energy or mechanically by using other sources
of energy like electricity, gas, coal etc. Freeze drying is done by
immersing the sliced mushrooms in a solution of 0.05%
sodium metabisulphite and 2% salt for about 30 minutes.

35
These are blanched in boiling water for 2 minutes followed by
cooling. The product is frozen at -22oF for one minute.
(ii) Controlled atmosphere: Self life of fresh mushrooms can be
increased under a controlled atmosphere of 9% oxygen and
25% carbon dioxide.

d. Pest and disease control:

Like all crops plants, mushrooms are also attacked by large


numbers of diseases which may cause complete or partial failure of
the crop. The important diseases are being discussed below:

(i) Fungal diseases:

Several fungi have been reported from mushroom beds/cubes.


Some are weed mushrooms while some are active competitors. A
few weed mushroom and mould competitor commonly found on
Pleurotustrays/cubes/bags are described as:

Peziza spp.: Controlledby removing them with hands at young


stage.

Coprinus spp.: Controlled by removing at button stage and


overwatering should be avoided.

Green mould: Controlled by treating the affected area with 4%


formalin as spot treatment by using a cotton swap dipped in
formalin solution.

(ii) Bacterial diseases: These are rarely seen in Pleurotus cultivation.


Several species of Pseudomonas are known to cause brown/dark
brown spots and yellowing of mushrooms. It can be controlled by
avoiding direct spraying of water on mushrooms and bleaching
powder 20 –30 gm/litre may also be used.

(iii) Insects: The most common insects attacking Pleurotus


mushrooms are flies. It can be controlled by checking the entry of

36
adult flies by using 30 mesh copper screen on doors, window,
ventilation etc.

(iv) Mites: These tiny crawling insects have been observed in


Pleurotus mushroom especially in gills and over mushroom body. It
can be controlled by spraying 0.1% kelthane on walls, floor and
beds at weekly interval.

Fig: Photographs of spawn production training under RAWE programme.

IMPORTANCE OF MUSHROOM

1. Food value of mushroom:

a. Mushrooms contain 20 –30% protein (dry weight basis) which is


higher than fruits and vegetables. Mushroom proteins are very

37
easily digestible and may be considered intermediate to that of
animals and vegetables.
b. They are rich in lysine and tryptophan and these two essential
amino acids are deficient in cereals.
c. Mushroom contain good amount of vitamin C and B –complex
groups (thiamin, riboflavin, niacin).
d. They are also rich in minerals like potassium, phosphorus and
sodium.
e. Mushrooms contain low but available form of iron and folic acid.

f. Potassium-sodium ratio is very high in mushroom which is


desirable for patient of hypertension.
g. Low calorie food with very little fat.
h. Low sugar and contain no starch.
i. Cholesterol is absent and ergosterol is present in the mushroom.

2. Medicinal value of mushroom:

a. Studies in Japan and United States shown that cultivated A.


bisporus, Lentinusedodes and Pleurotus spp. contain high amount
of retene, a substance that have an antagonistic effect on some
form of tumor.

b. Recently Maitake (Grifolafrondosa) has been found 80% inhibitory


to tumour, HIV virus, helpful in reducing blood sugar, blood
pressure and constipation.
c. Some mushroom extract have the ability to lower cholesterol level.

d. They are hypolipedelmic, hypocholsiclemic, hypotensive,


hypohglycemic and immunomodulatory etc.
e. It is useful for anaemic patients and lactating women.

3. Economic importance:

a. Mushrooms have the ability to transform nutritionally useless


waste into highly acceptable nutritious food.

38
b. Mushroom cultivation provides opportunities to the landless
labourer and weaker section of the society.
c. It provides the advantage of rural employment generation to the
educated unemployed youth.
d. Spent mushroom substrate (SMS) along with cow dung and other
organic sources may be used for biogas plant.

e. Spent mushroom residues are converted into wealth by


vermicomposting.
f. SMS could be used as animal feed.
g. SMS are rich in NPK and used as organic fertilizer.

CONCLUSION

Edible mushrooms are rich in quality protein, vitamins and


minerals. The FAO (Food And Agricultural Organisation) recognized
mushroom as a good source of protein for the countries depending on
cereals. Many mushrooms are traditionally taken as medicines in
China and South East Asian countries. Some mushrooms such as

Lentinula edodes, Ganoderma lucidium, Cordyceps sinensis, etc are


said to be anti-viral, anti-tumour and immune enhancer. Pleurotus
mushroom is generally referred to as “Oy in India. The name Pleurotus has its
origin from Greek word, “Pleuro” means formed laterally or lateral position of the
stalk or stems. In
Manipur, it is known as ‘Chengum’ or ‘Ui it is known as ‘Pache’ and ‘Payeh’ in Pa
indoor (under controlled conditions) on a wide variety of cheap

materials including agricultural by-products and industrial wastes


etc. It is less prone to diseases/competitor mould than other
mushrooms. Finally, Pleurotus mushroom is suitable for rural areas
and can create self-employment and also can be grown at low
investment.

39
INTRODUCTION
Apiculture is the management and study of honeybees.
Beekeeping is one of the oldest forms of food production. Some of the
earliest evidence of beekeeping is from rock paintings, dating to
around 13,000 BC. It was particularly well developed in Egypt and
was discussed by the Roman writers Virgil, Gaius Julius Hyginus,
Varro a Columella. Traditionally beekeeping was done for the
bees,honey harvest, although nowadays crop pollination service can
often provide a greater part of a commercial beekeeper's income.

Other hive products are pollen, royal jelly and propolis, which are also
used for nutritional and medicinal purposes, and wax which is used

in candle making, cosmetics, wood polish and for modeling. ‘Propo is a wax-like
resinous substanceistype. of“Royalbee je secretion that aids in the development of
immature or young bees.

Jan Dzierżon,wasthefather of modern apiology and apiculture.


All modern beehives are descendants of his design. L. L. Langstroth,
Revered as the "father of American apiculture", no other individual
has influenced modern beekeeping practice more than Lorenzo
Lorraine Langstroth. His classic book The Hive and Honey-bee was
published in 1853. Moses Quinby, often termed 'the father of
commercial beekeeping in the United States', author of Mysteries of
Bee-Keeping Explained.

BEE KEEPING
The beekeeping is an art and skill of maintaining the bees in
modem movable frame hives for hobby or fascination, production of
hive products (honey, beeswax, etc.) and for pollination services.
Advantages of beekeeping as an income generation activity

1. Bee keeping requires less time, money and infrastructure


investments.

2. Honey and beeswax can be produced from an area of little


agricultural value.
40
3. The Honey bee does not compete for resources with any
other agricultural enterprise.

4. Beekeeping has positive ecological consequences. Bees play


an important role in the pollination of many flowering plants,
thus increasing the yield of certain crops such as sunflower
and various fruits.

5. Honey is a delicious and highly nutritious food. By the


traditional method of honey hunting many wild colonies of
bees are destroyed. This can be prevented by raising bees in
boxes and producing honey at home.

6. Beekeeping can be initiated by individuals or groups.

7. The market potential for honey and wax is high.

EFFECT OF BEE POLLINATION ON CROP

1. It increase yield in terms of seed yield and fruit yield

2. It improves quality of fruits and seeds

3. Bee pollination increases oil content of seeds in sunflower

4. Bee pollination is a must in some self incompatible crops for


seed set

Fig: A bee collecting pollen from a flower.

41
Table: Yield advantages through bee pollination

Fruit Crops Vegetables/Oilseed/Pulses


Crops Increase in Crops Increase in
benefited yield (%) benefited yield (%)
Apple >200 Onion 90
Pears >200 Mustard >150
Cherries 50-1000 Sunflower >1000
Strawberry 90 Pulses 10-40
Orange 40-900 Cotton 17-19
Guava 70-140 Cucurbits 30-100
Papaya 5-10 Coriander >100
Litchi >6000 Cardamom 37

SPECIES OF HONEY BEES

There are five important bee species.

1. Rock bee (Apis dorsata):


They are good honey gathers with an average yield of 50-80 kg per
colony. This is the largest honeybee. Builds single large open comb on
high branches of trees and rocks. Produces large quantity of honey,
but this bee is difficult to domesticate. This bee is ferocious, stings
severely causing fever and sometimes even death.

Fig: Apis dorsata and its hives.

42
2. European bee [Italian bee] (Apis mellifera):

The average production per colony is 25-40 kg, somewhat like the
Indian bee (Apis indica). This has been introduced in many parts of
the world including India. It is easily domesticated.

Fig: Apis mellifera

3. Little bee (Apis florea):

They are poor honey yielders and yield about 200-900 g of honey per
colony. It is small –sized and builds single small combs in bushes,
hedges, etc. Honey yield is poor.

Fig: Apis florae and its hives

4. Indian bee (Apis cerana indica):

They yield an average honey yield of 6-8 kg per colony per year.
Medium –sized, Hive consists of several parallel combs in dark places
such as cavities of tree trunks, mud walls, earthen posts, etc. This
bee is not so ferocious and can be domesticated.

43
Fig: Apis cerena indica & its hive.

5. Stingless or Dammer bee:


Besides true honey bees, two species of stingless or dammer bees, viz.
Melipona sp. and Trigona iridipennis occur in our country in
abundance. They are not truly stingless, but sting is poorly developed.
They are efficient pollinators. They yield 300-400 g of honey per year.

Fig: Trigona iridipennis and Dammer bee hives.

THE BEE COLONY- THEIR VARIOUS CASTE AND THEIR


ACTIVITIES
A honey bee colony has three castes
1. Queen – only one; functional female
2. Workers –20,000-30,000, sterile females
3. Drones – a few only, functional males available prior to
swarming.

44
Worker bee Drone bee Queen

(i) Queen Bee: Queen bee is the only perfectly developed female, that
is has well developed ovaries and other organs of female reproductive
system. She is largest in size. Its wings are smaller and are shriveled.

The mouth parts for sucking food are shorter than that of workers.
She has no wax glands and lives for about 3 - 4 years and may lay
eggs at the rate of 800 - 1500 per day. Usually at the age of 7-10 days
in her parent hive this new virgin queen goes out for marriage

(nuptial) flights. The drones from the same hive chase her. This
swarm may also be joined by drones (male bees) from other hives.
Mating takes place, while flying, on an average, the queen mates with
about six drones and then returns to the hive. The sperms she has
received are enough for her whole life, and she never mates again. The
queen has a control mechanism on the release of the sperms from the
spermatheca (sperm store). She can lay two types of eggs:

1. Fertilized –eggs that produce females (either sterile workers or


fertile females (new queens)
2. Unfertilized –eggs which produce drones.

45
(ii) Worker bees: Worker bees are imperfectly developed females.
These are smaller than the queen. These have strong wings to fly.
These have a large and efficient proboscis (mouth parts packed
together like a thin tube) for sucking nectar. A well-developed sting is

present. Hind legs have “pollen basket” workers have a life span of about 35
days. The different duties which
they perform age-wise are as follows:

Period Work activity


Day 1-3 Cleaning cells and incubation
Day 3-6 feeding older larvae
Day 6-10 Feeding younger larvae
Day 8-16 Receiving honey and pollen from field bees
Day 12-18 Wax making and cell building
Day 14 onwards Entrance guards; nectar and pollen foraging

For foraging, some scout bees set out in the morning. On


locating good sources of nectar (i.e. flowers) they return to their hive
and perform characteristic movements (bee dances) at the comb.
These dances communicate to the other worker bees the distance and
the direction of the food source. This is how more and more worker
bees are deployed in food gathering. The workers visit flower to flower,
collect nectar and pollen and return to their own nest against taking
clue from the position of Sun as well as by certain amount of memory
and finally the smell of their own particular hive.

The bee dance: In this dance the middle course of the dance
communicates to the other bees the angle from the hive with reference
to the sun. Taking a hint from this angle they have to fly to reach the
food source.

46
(iii) Drones: Drones are the male bees produced from unfertilized
Eggs. They do not work, do not forage for pollen or nectar and are
only produced in order to mate with new queens and fertilize them on
their mating flights. At the age of 14-18 days the drones perform
mating flight chasing the virgin queen in the air. Drones can live up to
about 60 days, although they are stung and killed after the mating.

Fig: Schematic Representation of the Formation of Different


Caste in Honey bee.

47
Schematic representation of the formation of different castes in
honeybee

Queen lays

Unfertilized Eggs Fertilized Eggs

Hatch into Larvae Hatch into Larvae

For first few days fed on “Royal


Fed on the “Ro jelly” (Saliva of
workers)For firstthenfewdays on

honey and then on honey and


pre-digested pollen

Pupa Royal jelly replace by honey Royal jelly feeding


and pre-digested pollen continued

Drones

Pupa Pupa

Worker Queen

Emergence of New Queen and Swarming of Old One


When the queen gets older (usually in the third year) her body
gives out a chemical stimulus to the workers to construct a few
rearing cells for queens. She places one fertilized egg in each of such

48
brood cells. The larvae are fed on royal jelly (saliva of workers). They
turn into pupae and then into queens. The first queen to emerge from
the brood cells kills the remaining ones. Now the old queen takes to
swarming along with a mixture of workers of all ages, leaves the old
hive to develop a colony at some new site. The new queen in the old
hive takes to mating flight with the drones and returns to the same
hive, as described earlier.

BEE BEHAVIOUR
Mating Behavior: Queen bee may mate with one or many drones
during its mating flight and further it may even make multiple mating
flights before it starts laying eggs. For mating queen bee flies out of
the hive and flies very fast with several drones following it and mating
occur in air. The sex organs of the drone get detached inside the
queen bee during mating and the drone dies. The following drone
removes the broken sex organ of the previous drone before mating.
Queen bee returns with the sex organ (mating sign) of the last drone
which removed by the worker bees of the colony.

Brood Care: Nurse bee (worker bees of age 3-13 days) looks after the
open (larval) brood in feeding them. Queen bee larva feeds on royal
jelly during larval period. Queen bee larva feeds the royal jelly about

1,600 times during its larval period. Out of the five days period, a
total of 17 hours are spent on feeding queen bee larva. Queen bee
larva, thus, remains floating on the bed of royal jelly. Worker bee
larva, on the contrary, is progressively fed and is given fewer feedings.

For the first three days of life, the worker larva is fed on royal jelly but
during the next two days, thinner type of royal jelly mixed with pollen
and nectar is fed by younger nurse bees (3-6 days old). Drone larva, is
also fed by the nurse bees near to this latter kind of diet. Adult drone

(after 14 days of age) and worker bees (immediately after emergence)


start feeding at their own, whereas the adult queen bee is fed on royal
jelly by the worker bees throughout its life. In-house bees also

49
regulate the brood-nest temperature during winter by converging and
covering the brood and producing metabolic heat, and during
summer, by expanding and fanning with wings. Brood is also
protected from various diseases by quicker removal of the infected!
dead brood from the colony to prevent further spread to the healthy
brood.

FORAGING BEHAVIOUR


Foraging bees collect nectar and pollen from flowers as their food.
Besides, bees also forage for propolis (plant resins) and water.
While foraging, bees collect nectar by inserting their tongue
(proboscis) in between the petals from the side without touching
the reproductive parts of the flower.


Top workers are thus better pollinators.


Foraging intensity (number of bees visiting per unit area and per
unit time) on the flowers is higher during the peak time of nectar /
pollen availability.

Honey bees also exhibit floral fidelity/floral constancy. Floral
fidelity means that the foragers will keep on visiting the flowers of a
particular crop foraging either for nectar or for pollen or for both
till the particular kind of flowers remain available. This kind of
behavior makes them more dependable pollinator.

STINGING BEHAVIOUR


On realizing any threat, worker bee stings its enemy by bending its
abdomen through petiole (the second constricted abdominal
segment). On stinging, it loses its sting left broken inside the stung
organism and the bee dies soon.


While stinging, it also releases a chemical known as 'alarm
pheromone' marking the enemy and indicating to the other bees a
potential threat to them

50

So, the other bees come to attack the already stung animal at the
same place.


The immediate masking the effect of the alarming chemical can be
achieved by immediate removal of the first sting followed by
rubbing over the stung place. Giving a little smoke at opening a
hive, pacifies bees urge for stinging.

COMMUNICATION BEHAVIOUR


Distance of the food source from comb/ hive is communicated
through different dances as depicted in the.


Scout bees on their return into the hive perform different kinds of
dances on the comb depending upon the distance of the food
source from the hive. Other bees observe these dances and then
proceed to that bee flora (the food source).


Round dance indicates nearness of the food source while tail
waggle dance (side-wise movement of the abdomen) indicates
different distances depending upon the intensity of the tail wagging
and the number of circuits (half dance circles) of the scout bees per
unit time.


In between, there is sickle dance to indicate medium distance.

Fig: Wagging dance of honeybee

51
The direction of the food source is indicated by the angle which
a scout bee makes with the line of gravity (straight up) during tail
waggle dance. Dance with the straight run directed upwards on the
comb indicates food direction towards the sun from the hive and if the
straight run of the tail waggle dance is directed downwards, it
indicates that the food source is in opposite direction to that towards
the sun from the hive. If the scout bee moves straight up during
straight run of tail waggle dance without any angle with the gravity, it
means food is exactly in line towards the sun while bee moving
straight down without any angle with the gravity indicates the food
source just opposite to the direction of the sun. Any angle to the line
of gravity during the straight run of the dance means that the food
source is at that angle with the line of hive to the sun's direction.

ESTABLISHMENT OF HIVES AND BEE COLONY


Establishment of Hives
• The apiary must be located in well-drained open area, preferably
near orchards, with profuse source of nectar, pollen and water.

• Protection from sunlight is important in order to maintain an


optimum temperature in the hive.

• Ant wells are fixed around the hive stand. The colonies must be
directed towards east, with slight changes in the directions of the
bee box as a protection from rain and sun.

• Keep the colonies away from the reach of cattle, other animal, busy
roads and streetlights.

Establishing a Bee Colony


To establish a bee colony, bees can be obtained by transferring a wild
nesting colony to a hive or attract a passing swarm of bees to occupy
it. Before putting a swarm or even a colony in a prepared hive, it

52
would be beneficial to make the hive smell familiar by rubbing old
brown comb pieces or some bee wax. If possible, the Queen bee can
be captured from a natural swarm and placed under a hive to attract
the other bees. Feed the hived swarm for a few weeks by diluting a
half cup of white sugar in half a cup of hot water as this will also help
in building the comb along with the bars rapidly. Overcrowding
should be avoided.

MANAGEMENT OF COLONIES

Inspect the beehives at least once in a week during the honey-
flow seasons preferably during the morning hours.

Clean the hive in the following sequence, the roof,
super/supers, brood chambers and floorboard.

Observe the colonies regularly for the presence of healthy
queen, brood development, storage of honey and pollen,
presence of queen cells, bee strength and growth of drones.

Look for the infestation by any of the following bee enemies.


Wax moth (Galleria mellonella): Remove all the larvae and
silken webbings from the combs, corners and crevices of bee
box.


Wax beetles (Platybolium sp.): Collect and destroy the adult
beetles.


Mites: Clean the frame and floorboard with cotton swabs
moistened with freshly made potassium permanganate
solution. Repeat until no mites are seen on the floorboard.

MANAGEMENT DURING LEAN SEASON



Remove the supers and arrange the available healthy broods
compactly in the brood chamber.

Provide division board, if necessary.

Destroy queen cells and drone cells, if noted.

53

Provide sugar syrup (1:1) @ 200 g sugar per colony per week for
Indian bees.

Feed all the colonies in the apiary at the same time to avoid
robbing.

MANAGEMENT DURING HONEY FLOW SEASON



Keep the colony in sufficient strength before honey-flow season.

Provide maximum space between the first super and the brood
chamber and not above the first super.

Place queen excluder sheets in between brood and super chamber
to confine the queen to brood chamber.

Examine the colony once in a week and frames full of honey should
be removed to the sides of the super. The frames, which are three-

fourth filled with honey or pollen and one-fourth with sealed brood
should be taken out of brood chamber and in its place empty
combs or frames with foundation is added.


The combs, which are completely sealed, or two-third capped may
be taken out for extraction of honey and returned to supers after
honey extraction.

BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENTS AND THEIR USES


There are different types of beekeeping equipment required at
various stages. We shall explain the features important equipment.

Bee Hive: It is a movable wooden home for bees with an entrance


and parallel movable frames on which bees raise combs. It provides
protection to the colony front, adverse environment and various
intruders including enemies. The important parts of the hive are
bottom/floor board with alighting board, entrance, lower/ brood
chamber, frames, dummy board, super/honey chamber, inner cover
(crown board) and top cover (root).

54
Parts of Newton’s bee hive


Floor board: 14” x 91/2” in size with serves as an alighting board.


Brood chamber: 93/4”x in81/4”sizex with63 an en of 31/2” x 3/8” at the base;
it is moun


Wooden frames: Seven separate wooden framesx 8 6”in size and 7/8” broad:
they are hung


Super chamber: 93/4”31/8”X in81/4”size:X it is k brood chamber.


Top cover: It is board having same dimensions of brood or super
chamber. In the centre there is an opening covered with wire
gauge. It is kept on super or brood chamber.


Hive Stand: It is a rectangular four legged angle iron. It is used to
support the hive and protect from soil moisture and keep colony
safe from ants, termites, etc.

Fig: Floor board Fig: Brood chamber

Fig: Wooden frames Fig:Top cover


55
Fig: Hive stand
Other components
1. Bee Smoker: It is a device to puff cool smoke into the colony for
suppressing the stinging instinct of the bees. Bellows, smoker
body, fire pot and nosecone are important parts of bee smoker.
Apart from this, PAD Battery Operated Smoker can also be
used, which works on just one push button and is operated
through 9V dry cell battery.

2. Protective coverings: These are required to prevent bee stings on


the face, hands and other body parts.

3. Bee Brush: It is usually a thin 16 inch long horizontal brush


having light soft bristles of about 2 inch long. It is used to
brush off the bees from the comb and other hive parts during
comb examination or at the time of honey extraction.

Fig: Different types of smoker Bee Veil, Gloves and Overall

56
Fig: Hand gloves Fig: Bee veil Fig: Bee brush


Queen Excluder: It is a perforated or wired device with wooden
frame which is placed just above the brood chamber to restrict the
queen bee in the brood chamber to prevent her to lay eggs in the
honey chamber combs. Thus, by using the queen excluder, brood
tree honey combs can be obtain


Comb Foundation: It is bee's wax sheet with worker brood cell
impressions providing the base to the bees for raising comb. The
comb foundations are fixed in the empty wooden frames (one in
each). It is a thin sheet of bee wax embossed with a pattern of
hexagons of size equal to the base of natural brood cells on both
sides. The size of the hexagon varies with bee species. The sheet is
fixed to the frames on fine wires threaded through holes in the side
bars and stretched tight.

Fig: Queen Excluder Fig: Comb foundation sheets

57

Wire Embedder: It is a tool to fix comb foundation with the wires of
frame. Presently, the electric operated wire embedder is also
available.


Uncapping Knife: It is double edged ordinary or steam heated knife
of about 10 inch long and 2 inch wide with a handle. It is used for
removing the capping from the comb of fully ripened honey prior to
honey extraction.

Fig: Wire Embedder and Uncapping knife

Honey Extractor: It is used to extract honey from uncapped combs


with least damage to the raised wax combs. Two to four frames
tangential honey extractors or multi-frame (4-8 frame) radial honey
extractors are available in the country. While tangential extractors
need reversing of combs for extraction of honey from other side of the
comb, radial extractors require rotation in the opposite direction for
the extraction.

Feeder: It is required for feeding of the bees during lean period. It is


an ordinary one litre tin, wide mouth bottle having two-three narrow
holes in lid placed on bottom board and inverted on division board.

58
Sugar syrup feeding can also be done through polythene bags or in
raised empty combs. Division board feeder is a frame sized feeder with
a rectangular receptacle for filling sugar syrup and it has a wooden
bar serving as float, sitting on which the bees can pick-up the feed.

Fig: Hone yextractor Fig: Feeders

Queen Cages: Queen cages are small captivities used for


transporting/mailing the queen bees or introducing the queen in a
queen less colony. Benton queen cage is extensively used. It is made
up of wood and has three round compartments which are covered,
with a wire screen. The outer round compartment is used for filling
candy. Plastic made hair-roller type queen cages can also be used.

Fig: Queen cages

Miscellaneous Equipments: Apart from the above mentioned


equipments, there are several miscellaneous equipment which are
required from time to time such as swarm catcher (basket), bee

59
escape board (used for clearing the bees from super for extracting
honey), entrance guard, drone trap (used at the entrance to reduce
the drone population inside the hive), pollen trap (It is set at the hive
entrance) , propolis screen, venom extractor, Queen excluder ( useful
to confine the queen to brood chamber, It prevents the queen from
laying eggs in honey combs. It is also used in producing royal jelly in
queen rearing and in forming multi-queen colonies), queen bee
rearing equipment, wax melting drums, comb foundation making
equipment, honey straining, storage and processing equipment, etc.

HARVESTING OF HONEY


Harvest the honey by smoking the bees off the parts which needs
to be harvested and cut the combs carefully.


Harvests are normally possible during and shortly after the two
main flowering seasons, namely October/November and February-
June.


A ripe comb is light in colour and filled with honey. More than half
of the honey cells on both the sides are sealed with wax.

PRODUCTS FROM A BEE HIVE


A. Honey

Honey is a food material for the bees and their larvae. Large quantities
of honey are stored in the hive to meet the demands in scarcity.
Chemically, honey is a viscous water solution of sugar. Its
approximate composition in percentage is as follows:
Water 13-20
Fructose 40-50
Glucose 2-3
Minerals Trace
Vitamins (B1, B2, C) (minute quantities)
Fig: Honey
60
Nectar is sucked from flowers and mixed with saliva. It is swallowed
into a special region of the gut called honey stomach. Nectar is a
disaccharide (sucrose) it is hydrolyzed by the salivary amylase to
produce monosaccharide (fructose and glucose). Inside the hive the
workers regurgitate the processed nectar. The honey thus produced is
still very dilute. After placing this honey onto the storage cells of the
hive the bees “fan” with their wings to bring the honey to its required
concentration. Extraction of honey from the combs is done by
centrifugation.

Uses of Honey

Honey is a nutritious food, rich in energy and vitamins.

It is used as a carrier in ayurvedic and unani medicines. It acts as

a laxative and prevents cold, cough and fever.



It is used in religious ceremonies.

It goes in the making of alcoholic drinks and beauty lotions.


Another important use is in scientific research for making bacterial
cultures.

It is also utilized for making poison baits for certain insect pests.
B. Beeswax
Beeswax is secreted by the wax glands located on the underside of the
last four abdominal segments (4th to 7th) of the worker bee. This wax
is used in constructing bee combs in which the colony of the bees
develops. Uses of beeswax are:


Making of candles (the modern candles are made of paraffin wax, a
petroleum product);

Making pharmaceutical preparations;

Preparation of varnishes and paints;


Water proofing and waxing of threads; and


Formation of comb foundation (wax foundation in apiaries).
61
Fig: Photographs of bee-keeping training under raw programme.
62
CONCLUSION
Beekeeping does not require much physical labour and
investment in comparison to other agro based enterprises. It can fit
well in diversification of the agriculture. With the introduction of Apis
mellifera, a highly productive species, the people in India especially in
the northern plains, have now realized the importance of beekeeping.
It is the most profitable enterprise both as subsidiary industry as well
as a full time profession. It is very much suitable for the conservation
of the natural resources. Beekeeping does not need any special land
or elaborate structural requirements. Heavy initial investment is not
required and recurring expenditure is also negligible. It does not
require continuous labour and heavy physical work. Thus, it is very
ideal as a part-time occupation, especially for women and children.

Beekeeping requires simple equipment and encourages the rural


artisans to undertake the jobs for their fabrication. Thus, beekeeping
generates new employment opportunities. Honey itself is a very
hygienic food, medicine and makes the diet more balanced.
Beekeeping is a multiple source of income. Income from honey
supplements the income from the crops. Beeswax is the second bee
product which has great commercial and industrial value. Sale of
queen bees and nucleus colonies by division of parent colonies are
other sources of income. Production of other bee-products like royal
jelly, bee venom, pollen and propolis can further be additional sources
of income. It leads to generation of several other avenues of
beekeeping related trades and employment. Above all, pollination by
bees improves the quantity and quality of the crop and benefits the
community as a whole rather than the individual beekeepers. Thus, a
beekeeper can further increase his income by renting out his honey
bee colonies for pollination service.

63
SOCIO ECONOMICS (ALSO KNOWN AS SOCIO-
ECONOMIC OR SOCIAL ECONOMICS)
It is the social science that studies how economic activity affects
social processes. In general, it analyzes how societies progress,
stagnate or regress because of their local or regional economy, or the
global economy. In other words, to put simply, socio economic study
is the Study which focus on social and economic status of the
people/community/ village.

Social status denotes age, education, family size, social participation


(Panchayat, coop. society, social worker, caste leader, and youth
club), source of communication (Informal, Formal Sources) and social
contact (Block personnel, Village Pradhan, research station,
development agencies and so on.

Economic status denotes housing, size of holding occupation, land


operation (orchard /paddy land/), irrigation facilities
(canal/well/tank/tube well), farm power, farm implements, livestock,
material possession etc.

HOW TO KNOW THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS?


The socio-economic status of the village/ community/ farmer is
known through various tools used for data collection. The choice of
method is influenced by the data collection strategy, the type of
variable, the accuracy required, the collection point and the skill of
the enumerator. Links between a variable, its source and practical
methods for its collection can help in choosing appropriate methods.
The main data collection methods are as follows:

Census: Complete Enumeration of the population which is done in


population census. This is not applicable in social sciences as it
requires lot of time, money, manpower.

64
Questionnaires: Forms which are completed and returned by
respondents. An inexpensive method that is useful where literacy
rates are high and respondents are co-operative.

Interviews: Forms which are completed through an interview with the


respondent. More expensive than questionnaires, but they are better
for more complex questions, low literacy or less co-operation.

Direct observations: Making direct measurements is the most


accurate method for many variables but is often expensive.

Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA): This is one of the techniques


of data collection for socio economic study. PRA has evolved and
spread in early 1990’s has been described as a growing family of
approaches and methods to enable local (rural or urban) people to
express, enhance, share and analyse their knowledge of life and
conditions to plan and to act (Robert chambers). The difference
between different data collection are mention below:

Characteristics Schedule method Questionnaire


method
Presentation Self by investigator Mail method
Filling By investigator By informant
Area Small Large & scattered
Response In face - to -face Alone –no –face to
face
Technique Go in the field Not to go
Time and money More less
Observation Yes No
Contact with Both literate and Only from literate
illiterate person person
Intensity of More Less
information
Relation Good due to face-to-face Poor

65
Questionnaire PRA (Participatory Rural
Appraisal)
Formulated by the researcher Checklist prepared by the team

Close ended questions Open ended questions

Fixed sample frame Purposive sampling

Each informant is asked the Guiding to discussion


same set of questions visualisation
The same question for all Triangulation; Sources of
segment of population information change, men, women,
different questions
Analysis take time On the spot analysis

The process is not influenced Informant ask questions, open


discussion, two-way
communication

PRA has the following features:



Multi-disciplinary team work

Seeking diversity


Listening and learning from the community

Hence, to have hands on experience about the different techniques of


PRA, a village visit was made.

METHODOLOGY

Rapport building:

Before conducting PRA in the village rapport building is very


essential. There are important aspects one should do before doing
PRA exercise. The PRA team cannot go suddenly to a village and do

66
any form of data collection. People get gather for doing this exercise. Hence,
rapport building is a very
essential tool before doing any form of data collection exercise. Here,
these Heigrujam village farmers are already known and familiar to the
KVK Imphal west district hence the farmers gathered for the PRA
team.

Materials required:

The multidisciplinary team doing PRA will need the


documentation sheet, white paper for copying the map. If drawing on
the ground materials required were soft ground, sticks and local
material for symbols and rangoli powder. If drawing on paper
materials required were big sheet of paper, pencils, eraser, markers,
sketch pen etc. In addition to this, writing pad, pen, voice or video
recording device (optional), camera, GPS Navigator, (optional), Laptop/
Tablet (optional) can also be used for data collection.

PRA techniques:

There are many techniques in PRA and the techniques can


categorized under two broad headings viz., analytical and visual. The
analytical PRA consists of basic information, seasonal analysis,
gender analysis, matrix ranking, problem tree, solution tree,
consequence diagram, wealth ranking, and livelihood analysis
whereas social map, time trend, venn diagram, general transect, agro-
ecological map, mobility map, time line, indigenous technology map,
bio-resource flow, map, resource map, and technology map constitute
visual PRA. During PRA, the name of the key informants for each PRA
technique should be recorded.

VISIT TO HEIGRUJAM MANING LEIKAI FOR PRA

Socio economic conditions of the farmers is an important part


to assess the livelihood aspects, infrastructure present in the village,
relations between different institutions present in the village,
67
technology use pattern in terms of agriculture and allied activities,
seasonal activity of the men and women farmers of the village and to
formulate projects. Hence, to undertake the socio-economic study,
Heigrujam was selected which is located in Imphal West district and
data were collected on various aspects through Participatory Rural
Appraisal (PRA) technique. Altogether two scientists of ICAR, 3 Subject
Matter Specialist (SMS) of Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK), Imphal West and
39 students were present in the PRA programme. The students were
grouped into different teams in order to work on the differentools of
PRA. Each PRA team members along with the farmers in the village
interacted and collected information from villagers including women.
PRA made use of wide range of tools and techniques. Main tools used
were direct observation, direct/indirect interviews, interaction with
elderly people of the village, individual contacts, and the various PRA
techniques used in the study are as follows:

1. Basic information about the village: It includes general


information of the village viz. no. of households, major occupation,
major river, etc.

2. Resource Map: It represents the social structure of the village viz.


the religious institution, household patterns and local governing
bodies present in the village. Interactions with the villagers and
general observations will be required for social map. Resource map
shows the availability of various resources like irrigation facility,
communication system and other resources needed for agricultural
development.

3. Time Line: It explains the history of agricultural development in


the village with the period of introduction of modern technologies in
the village.

4. Seasonal Calender of Crops: This explain about different


agricultural, horticultural, animal husbandry and fishery activities

68
undertaken by farmers on monthly basis with specific abnormalities
observed in particular season of the year.

5. Venn Diagram: This is drawn to explain the relationship between


the communities with the organizations found in their environment.
This is also used to show the amount of benefits, role, influence and
the closeness of the relation between a certain organization with the
community based on the judgment of the people. Hence the
association between the agencies /person is shown in the Venn
diagram.

6. Indigenous Technical Knowledge: Through this study we can


know the traditional practices and remedial measures followed by the
villagers in curing diseases for human, livestock and crops. It also
helps to know the technique followed by the farmers in predicting
weather and crop performance in advance. For this information has to
be collected from adult old villagers.

7. Wealth Ranking: This analysis helps us to know about the wealth


status and distribution of the village. Income inequality of the
villagers can also be known from it. It also helps us know the asset
possession and resource of the farmers and the source of their
income.

8. Matrix Ranking: This type of ranking method is also made in PRA.

This technique is used to compare any variety or technology being


adopted in a village.

9. Technology Table: Through this exercise, we could identify the


technology adopted by the villages related to crop, livestock, fishery or
any practices related to agriculture and allied method and helps to
identify the technology which is unaware and important.

10. Problem Analysis: It discusses the major problems of the village


and relevant causes for that particular problem of the village.

69
Fig: Photographs of PRA exercise under RAWE Programme.

BASIC INFORMATION (HEIGRUJAM VILLAGE):


Heigrujam is located in Imphal west district which is 20km
away from the Imphal city. The main occupation of the village is
Farmimg.
The basic information about the village are given below:

 Name of the state:Manipur


 District name :Imphal West
 Name of the Block/Tehsil1:Lamsang
 Name of Panchayat: Kammong
 Name of village: Heigrujam Maning Leikai

70
Demographic Profiles (As per 2011 census)
Crops Husbandry:
 Kharif Crop : Paddy
❖ Rabi Crop : Cabbage,Pea,Cauliflower

❖ Nursery Farm : 1

Soil Characteristics:
Soil type: Sandy Soils
Soil Fertility Level : Rich
Water holding capacity: Poor
Extend of Soil erosion: Less

Land Use Pattern:


Total Cultivated Area : 400 ha

Irrigated Area : Nil

Water sources:
No. of River : 1 Merakhong river

No. of pond :14Village pond & water supply pond

Key Informant: Ngambam Bijoy Kumar, Naorem Bimol, Ngambam


Chingkhei, Longjam Angou

The basic information of the village reveals that crop


diversification is observed in this village. Water is scarce during the off
seasons which hamper the cultivation of Ravi and Zaid crops.

Further, farmers are not practicing mushroom cultivation or


vermicomposting technique.

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AGRO-ECOLOGICAL MAP
This PRA tools help to assess the system, sub-system and component
with respect to the ecology of the village. It also helps to know the
agro-ecological aspects of the village and agriculture in particular. The
meteorological parameter like rainfall, humidity and temperature are
depicted and also depict the hillocks, the crops grown, livestock
reared, water bodies and the major problems.
e.g: Rodents menace or anything which is peculiar to the village.

Fig: Agro-Echological Map of Heigrujam Village

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RESOURCE MAP
Participatory Resource Mapping is a tool used by practitioners
of participatory methods to acquire a systematic and graphic
understanding of the layout of a farmer’ in the village space. This tool
permits a picturesque representation of a farmer’s village term
environment to fits make-up,thelocation in of objects or features and
their disposition with respect to other related or neighboring objects.
This is one of the important PRA tools to identify the different
resources of the village. The map is drawn by the local people to show
natural resources of an area, location and use of natural resources
like fields and land uses (including forests, pastures lands, etc.),
Physical land features, Water resources, quality and use, Soil types,
uses, location, Power supply, Crop and animal resources, etc. The
resource map of the village is as given below.

Fig: Resource Map of Heigrujam Village

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TIME LINE:

The purpose of the timeline is to explain the history of


development and other important changes happened in the village i.e.,
agriculture and other allied sector development in the village. It also
explains the introduction of modern technology and other important
infrastructure of the village. The timeline of the Heigrujam village are
as given below:

Year Events

1963 LP school established

1973 Local club established

1984 Village electrified

1991 Farmer started using fertilizer

1993 Power tiller introduced

1995 Telephone introduced

2008 Drinking water available

2009 -Anganwadi centre


-Village pond constructed

2006 Poultry farming started( broiler )

2008 -Fish farming started (rohu,catla,grass carp, mrigal)


-Introduction of Tampha phou(HYV seeds of rice)

2009 Estd. of farmer’s club(Heigrujam Farmer Club)

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2010 Installation of solar street lamp

2011 Handloom workshed constructed

2013 Pucca road constructed

2015 Community hall constructed

2017 Flood

Drought
2018 Famine outbreak
Village adopted by KVK

2019 Drain constructed

Key Informant: Palmei Makugangpou, Ngambam Bembem, Longjam


Ranjita, Atom Subhadani.

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SEASONAL CALENDAR OF THE VILLAGE

Month Jan Feb March April May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec
Crop

Garden H LP+P I I+W -


Pea

Rice LP+BA P+I W+TD W In+TP H H+T

Potato - H LP P I I

Tomato LP+W P+I In H

Cucumber LP LP P+BA I+H H H

Cabbage H H H LP+BA P I I+In H H

Lady’s LP+BA P W+TD H


Finger

Green LP P I+In W+TD H H H


Chilli

Spring I - H LP+BA P+I I TD


Onion

Where,
L.P –Land preparation, S-Sowing, P –Planting, B.A –Basal application,
I –Irrigation, W –Weeding, L- Levelling, TP- Transplanting, FA- Fertilizer
application, T. D –Top dressing, H –Harvesting, T –Threshing.

Key Informant:Thoudam Romita,Thoudam Gyaneshori,Kosam


Bijiya,Ngambam Patma,Thoudam Purnima.

The seasonal calendar reveals that farmers are busy in most of


the months because of various cultural operations practiced and crop
grown. However, in the month September farmers are not involved
much in cultural operations. These months may be utilized for
training on important activities like mushroom cultivation,
vermicomposting, etc.
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The demonstration programme may be taken up after paddy is
harvested and processed. Further, in the month of April and May,
farmers may be trained on cultivation practices of important high
yielding rice varieties. If water source is good for pre kharif crop, pre
kharif rice varieties may be recommended for the region to increase
the cropping intensity as well as improving the livelihood of the
farmers. In this village, the farmers grow paddy as the main kharif
crop and among the vegetable crop Tomato, field pea, rapeseed, Bottle
gourd, chilli and pumpkin are grown both for home consumption and
commercial purpose.

VENN DIAGRAM:

The Venn diagram also called as chapatti diagram on institutions


shows institutions, organizations, groups and important individuals
found in the village as well importance in the community. The
institutional relationship diagram also indicates how close the contact
and cooperation between those organizations and its group. It also
explains the key role of the concerned institution, organizations
mention in the Venn diagram. The larger the circle the more important
the institution for the villagers. If there is no overlap between the
circles there is no relationship between the institutions present.

The below mention Venn diagram depicts the cooperation


between village market, agricultural implement/ equipment shop and
agricultural inputs store. Further, it also tells that ICAR, KVK and
veterinary hospital have been working and guiding the villagers. Also
rural bank, farmer club and post office are functioning in the village
though their performance and conduct does not have significant
impact at the current time. It is expected that the farmer club and
bank located in the village will very soon become an important
institution for the development of the village in coming days.

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Key informants
Atom Tombi
K.Bimol
Atom Sana

Fig: Venn Diagram of Heigrujam Village

1)Medical Facility: One Pharmacy


2)Aganwadi School: 1
3)ASHA: 1
4)Small Market: 1
5)Shop regarding for agriculture utility: 3
6)Madhabi Self Help Group: 1
7)Government ICAR and KVK: 1
8)Heigrujam Farmer’s Club: 1

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INDIGENOUS TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE

Indigenous knowledge are the wealth/ resource of the


community which has been used from generation to generation by the
villagers though not scientifically proven. Traditional farming system
in North East India is complex and unique of its own. There is lot of
diversity in culture and tradition, people are dependent on natural
system, land use system is dominated by slash and burn agriculture
and each community and people have developed their own means of
survival. Many agriculture and allied activities are carried over
generation using their own methods in cultivation practices, pest and
disease management in crop and livestock, traditional implements,
vegetable cultivation and prediction of abnormalities in weather and
so on. The list of Indigenous Technical Knowledge used by the farmers
in the Heigrujam village are given below.

ITK DESCRIPTIONS USES

• CATTLE(DIARRHOEA)-CANNABIS
(GANJA) LEAF IS CRUSHED AND GIVE
IT AS FEED.
PREVENTIVE
• CHICKEN(COUGH)-BOILED WATER OF
ITK- MEASURES OF
Phlogacanthus thyrsiformis GREGARIOUS
1 DISEASES OF
SHRUB (NOMANGKHA) IS GIVEN FOR
LIVESTOCK .
DRINKING.
• PIG(ALLERGY):DANDELION(Gynura
cusimbua USED AS FEED(RAW).

• PEA AND BEANS: DUSTING OF ASHES


TO CONTROL APHIDS.
PREVENTIVE
ITK- • PADDY FIELD: A MIXTURE OF COW
MEASURES OF
2 URINE AND NEEM ARE USED (THE
CROP PESTS.
MIXTURE IS DECOMPOSED FOR
MORE THAN A MONTH)

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ITK USES
DESCRIPTIONS

ITK-3 PREVENTIVE • CHILLY: SUN –DRIED ALONG WITH PRICKY


MEASURES FOR WINGED LEAF(Zanthoxylem acanthopodium)(
STORING . MUKTHRUBI)
AFTER THOROUGH SUN DRIED , IT IS STORED IN A
CONTAINER (THUMOK)ALONG WITH THE LEAVES(
MUKTHRUBI).
• MAIZE: HANGING THE CROP WITH THE HELP
OF ROPE OR IS PLACED IN A CONTAINER
MADE OF BAMBOO(THUMOK) USUALLY
KEPT IN KITCHEN WHERE SMOKE OR HEAT
IS AVAILABLE.
• POTATO:SUN DRIED AND STORE IN COOL
PLACE

ITK-4 TREATMENT • FEVER-ELEPHANT EAR


MEASURES OF
HEALTH (YENDEM) LEAF IS PLACED ON THE FOREHEAD.
PROBLEM. • HEADACHE-MUSTARD LEAF IS PLACED ON
THE FOREHEAD.
• BEE STING-TENDER LEAF OF ALOCASIA
(PANGKHOKLA) IS PLACED ON THE
INFECTED AREA.

ITK DESCRIPTIONS USES

ITK5 PREVENTIVE MEASURES TO • MAKING A BIRD SCARECROW .


CHASE AWAY THE BIRD IN THE
FIELD. • USING THE REFLECTION OF CD
DISK.

ITK6 INDEGINOUS IMPLEMENT. • LANGOL +KOLHA(TURNING


CLODS AND WEED)
• LONGON AHUMFANBI(TILLAGE)
• UKAI SAMCHET( LABELLING
+WEEDING)

ITK7 PREDICTION OF DROUGHT THE CHANCES OF DROUGHT ARE


PREDICTED FIRST THUNDER STORM
FROM THE WEST DIRECTION.

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COMPARISON OF FARMER CATEGORY

The asset and income wise comparison of different category of


farmers are given in table. The rich person has 5 hectare agricultural
field, has a car, a two-wheeler, a pucca house and has a saving of Rs.
40,000 per month and made decision by his own. The medium person
is farmer having crop cultivation as the main occupation. The poor
person works as a goldsmith and earns about Rs. 6000 per month
and has a saving of Rs. 3000 per month. The very poor farmer is a
farm labour and earns Rs. 4000 per month and has Rs. 2000 debt
every month.

TECHNOLOGY TABLE:

This is one of the most important PRA tools which is used to


understand the technology that has been adopted, introduced or
discontinued in the village. This also helps us to know the reason for
adoption, introduction and discontinuance of technology in the
particular area and also the technology gap. Information from
technological table helps policy maker and researcher to take suitable
decision and initiatives. Different technology adoption behaviour of
the particular village is given below.

It is pertinent from the table that Paddy Lanchenbi Phou and


Brojen Phou were introduced in the village due to high yield, good
taste and high demand in market. Paddy cultivar Thangjing Phou and
Homo Phou has been discontinued due to its low yield and easily
infested by disease and pests while Tampha Phou, Daram Phou, Piya
Phou and Black rice was still adopted because of yield and income.
Among crop potato, mustard, pea, bottle gourd, cabbages were still
adopted by the farmers. Among machineries tractor has been adopted
as it saves time and manpower while local threshing stick has been
discontinued because of consuming more labour and time.

Among livestock local hen, broiler and Jersey cow is still been
adopted by the farmers.
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Technology Table:
TECHNOLOGY TABLE OF HEIGRUJAM VILLAGE
Technology adoption behaviour
Technology Discontin Introducti Reason for adoption/ discontinuance /introduction
Adoption
uance on
CEREAL CROP
Daram Phou YES High yield and suitable environment.
Piya Phou YES High yielding, tasty and high demand
Thangjing Phou YES Easily Infested by disease and pest
Homo Phou YES Low yield,pest and disease infestation
Lanchenbi Phou YES High yield and high demand in market
Brojen Phou YES Tasty & Medium yielding Variety
Tampha Phou YES Tasty & High yielding Variety
OIL SEED CROP
Rapseed YES For household purpose
HORTICULTURE CROP
Cabbage & Cauliflower YES For marketing & household consumption
Tomato YES High market value & high demand
Turmeric YES High industrial demand and part of culture
King chilli YES Very high market value & high demand
MACHINERY
Tractor YES Easy field preparation/transport and for renting
Power tiller YES Easy field preparation/transport and for renting
Combine Harvester YES Easy harvesting,less time & lavour required
Rice mill YES Easy hulling and self economic generation
POULTRY
Local chick YES Less maintainance, high market demand
Coiler YES High meat demand in market.
Boiler YES Less time consumption and for marketing.
Exotic duck(Khaki cambel) YES Good egg yield,tasty meat & high market demand
Local Duck YES Tasty & high demand in market

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
Piggery YES High meat demand in market.
Dairy
Local Breed YES For milk purpose& power source in land preparation
Jersey YES For milk purpose.
FISHERY
Rohu (Labio rohita ) YES High market value & high demand
Puklaobi (Cyprinus carpio ) YES Fast growing & Low cost rearing
Catla (Catla catla ) YES Fast growing & easy rearing/farming
Snakehead(Channa marulius ) YES Highly carnivorous & high cost maintainance
Silver carp YES Easy maintainance
Grass carp YES Fast growing,High market demand,herbivores
Mirgal carp(Cirrhinus cirhosus) YES Tasty,Nutritious,High market demand.

Key informant:Ng. Padma Devi, K. Bijeiya Devi, Th. Purnima Devi,


Khaidem Lukhoi, Konnsam Khunou, Deven Ngambam, Atom
Chaoba, Rabi Loitongbam.
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PROBLEM ANALYSIS:

Problem and constraints are the stumbling block for any


growth and development. The nature and characteristics of problem
and constraints differ from place to place based on the resource
endowment, government policies and enterprise taken up. A thorough
understanding of existing problem and constraints is very important
for framing suitable policy options. The problems faced by the
villagers are sorted out and listed below.

Rank Problems Way to solve the problems

I. Lack of irrigation facilities Making Dams, Canals, Ponds etc.


Inavailability of extension Cooperation with department, KVK,
II.
experts Awareness, Research Institute
III. Irregular supply of electricity Provide prepaid connection

IV. Credit and loan facilities NABARD, Farmers club, Banks etc

V. Road connectivity Black topping

Use of rat baits, Warehouse, application of


VI. Storage problem
disinfectant in the surrounding
Providing HYV seeds and improved cultivars,
VII. Seeds helps from ICAR, KVK and agriculture
department etc.

Key Informant: Konsam Khunou Singh, Khaidem Lukhoi, L. Tombi,


Ngambam Bembem, Longjam Ranjita, Naorem Manglembi.

For that particular village, altogether 7 problems have been identified


which are lack of irrigation and drinking water, lack of seed supply,
insufficient supply agriculture inputs, financial problem, poor road
connectivity, shortage of labours and stray cattle. Among this lack of
irrigation and drinking water was the first and foremost problem and
the ways to solve this problem was constructions of irrigation canals
and dams. Likewise, the solution for the other problems the farmers
faced are given in the table.

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PRA OUTCOMES

1. Improved high yielding variety of paddy like RC series need to be


introduce for increasing paddy production and productivity.

2. As farmers are relatively free in the month of September farmers,


these months may be utilized for training on important activities
like mushroom cultivation, vermicomposting, cultivation practices
of high yielding variety crops etc.

3. Farmer club also exists in the village. The villagers should utilize
this institution as a means to improve the farming system by
taking technological input from ICAR and financial aid from
NABARD sponsored rural banks.

4. As water is a very scarce resources in the village, measures should


be taken up save water for the dry season like use of Jalkhund,
constructing more village pond, renovation and proper
maintenance of existing water structures.

5. Effort should be taken by the KVK, ICAR, and related department


to examine the farmer’s problem regarding discontinuation of
technology. Necessary support and remedial measures should be
taken up and expert guidance should be given.

6. More training should be organized to train farmers both man and


women in poultry, piggery and dairy production to improve the
nutritional and to enhance the livelihood of the villagers.

7. In order to make crop more productive and to encourage round the


year crop production soil fertility should be maintained for this soil
testing and analysis should be done and suitable remedial
measures like organic manure application, lime application, etc
should be taken up.

8. In order to provide guidance to farmers on modern farming


practices and pest and disease problem agro advisory service
center should be set up in the village on a community basis.

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CONCLUSION

Participatory rural appraisal (PRA) is a rapid method of data


collection. It involves local people and outsiders from different sectors
and multidisciplinary specialist. Outsiders facilitate local people in
analyzing information, practical critical self awareness, taking
responsibility and sharing their knowledge of life and conditions to
plan and act. It facilitates the local people to share problems, to
undertake their own appraisal, analysis, monitoring and evaluation.
Hence, PRA helps to improve the socio-economic condition of the
particular rural area in a short period of time. It provides the
knowledge required for the betterment of the village and its peoples.
The information from PRA helps in formulating policy and programme
for growth and development of the village.

**********

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