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# Problem Set 2 on Energy Transport

1. During a picnic on a hot summer day, all the cold drinks disappeared quickly,
and the only available drinks were those at the ambient temperature of 80°F.
In an effort to cool a 12-fluid-oz drink in a can, which is 5 in. high and has a
diameter of 2.5 in., a person grabs the can and starts shaking it in the iced
water of the chest at 32°F. The temperature of the drink can be assumed to be
uniform at all times, and the heat transfer coefficient between the iced water
and the aluminum can is 30 Btu/h·ft2·°F. Using the properties of water for the
drink, estimate how long it will take for the canned drink to cool to 45°F.
2. Carbon steel balls (ρ = 7833 kg m–3, k = 54 W m–1 K–1, cP = 0.465 kJ kg–1 K–
1
) 8 mm in diameter are annealed by heating them first to 900°C in a furnace
and then allowing them to cool slowly to 100°C in ambient air at 35°C.
a. If the average heat transfer coefficient is 75 W m–2 °C–1, determine how
long the annealing process will take. If 2500 balls are to be annealed
per hour, determine the total rate of heat transfer from the balls to the
ambient air.
b. Investigate the effect of the initial temperature of the balls on the
annealing time and the total rate of heat transfer. Let the temperature
vary from 500°C to 1000°C. Plot the time and the total rate of heat
transfer as a function of the initial temperature, and discuss the results.
3. Consider the flow of fluid between two large parallel isothermal plates
separated by a distance L. The upper plate is moving at a constant velocity of
U and maintained at temperature T0 while the lower plate is stationary and
insulated.
a. Obtain relations for the maximum temperature of fluid, the location
where it occurs, and heat flux at the upper plate.
b. Using the results of (a), obtain a relation for the volumetric heat
generation rate G, in W m–3. Then express the original convection
problem as an equivalent conduction problem in the oil layer. Verify
your model by solving the conduction problem and obtaining a relation
for the maximum temperature, which should be identical to the one
obtained in the convection analysis.
4. Water is to be heated from 15°C to 65°C as it flows through a 3-cm-internal
diameter 5-m-long tube. The tube is equipped with an electric resistance heater
that provides uniform heating throughout the surface of the tube. The outer
surface of the heater is well insulated, so that in steady operation all the heat
generated in the heater is transferred to the water in the tube. If the system is
to provide hot water at a rate of 10 L/min, determine the power rating of the
resistance heater. Also, estimate the inner surface temperature of the pipe at
the exit. (Use the Dittus–Boelter equation).