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Chapter 2

Exercise 2.1

Chapter 2 Exercise 2.1 Chapter 2 Average rate of change  y  x  f

Chapter 2

Average rate of change

y

x

f

x  x

f x

x

Exercise 2.1

Q1. Find the average rate of change of the following functions over the indicated intervals:

a).

Sol: We have

2

y x

4

from x=2 to x=3

2

y f x x 4

average rate of change

y

f

x  x

f x

x

x

With

x x

max min

x

y

f

3

f

2

x

x

then x 3 2 1

y

x

3

2

 

4

2

2

4

1

y

x

y

x

9

5

4

4

4

13

8

b).

2

y x

1

3

x from x=-3 to x=3

Solution: We have

y f

x

1

x x

2

3

With

x x

max min

x

then x 3 3 6

 

y f

3

3

f

average rate of change

y

3

1

2 3

3

x

3

2

1

3

6

3

 

x

6

y

9

1

9

1

x

6

y

10

8

2

x

6

6

y

1

x

3

c).

s

2t

3

5t 7

from t=1 to t=3

 

Solution: We have

s



t 2t 5t

3

7

 

With

t t

t

max min

then x 3 1 2

 
 

s s 3 s

1

 

 

average rate of change

s

2 3

3

5 3

7

t



2 1

3



5 1

2

7

t

s

  2 27

15

 

7

2

2

5

 

7

t

2

 

s

54

8

4

42

 

t

2

 

2

s

21

 

t

d).

Solution: We have h t

   t d). Solution: We have h  t   h  2 t

h 2t 7

from t=8 to t=8.5

h  t   h  2 t  7 from t=8 to t=8.5 2

2t 7

average rate of change

h

h

t  t

h t

t  t  t then t  8.5  8  0.5  t
t  t
 t
then t  8.5  8  0.5
t
t
max min
With
2t  7
Substituting h t 
 h h
 8.5 
 h
 8 
 t
0.5
7 
7 
 h
2  8.5  
2 8
 t
0.5
 h
17 
16 0.246
 t
0.5

Q2. Use definition to find out average rate of change

over specified interval for following functions:

a). s 2t 3

from t=2 to t=5

Solution: We have s t 2t 3

average rate of change

s

s t  t

s t

t

t

With

t t

t

max min

then t 5 2 3

s

s

5

s

2

t

s

2

5

3

 

3

2

2

3

t

s

10

3

 

4

3

3

 

t

3

s

6

 

2

 

t

3

s

t

2

 

b).

2

y x

6 x 8

from x=3 to x=3.1

Solution: We have

y f x x 6 x 8

2

average rate of change

y

f

x  x

f x

With

x x

max min

x

x

x

then x 3.1 3 0.1

 

y

f

3.1

f

3

x

0.1

 

3.1

2

 

8

 

3

2

6

3

 

8

y

6

3.1

 

x

0.1

 

y

9.61

18.6

8

9

18

8

x

y

0.99

 

0.1

1

 

x

0.1

 

y

0.99

1

0.01

1

0.1

 

x

0.1

0.1

 

10

c).

Solution: We have

A r

2 from r=2 to r=2.1

A r r

2

average rate of change

A

r

A r   r r

A r

With

r r

max min

r

then r 2.1 2 0.1

A A

A

2.1

2

r

0.1

2.1

2

 

2

 

A

2

r

0.1

A

4.41

4

 

r

0.1

A 4.41   4      r 0.1 Khalid Mehmood Lect: GDC Shah
A 4.41   4      r 0.1 Khalid Mehmood Lect: GDC Shah

Chapter 2

Exercise 2.2

Chapter 2 Exercise 2.2  A 0.41     A r 0.1  4.1

A 0.41

  A r 0.1  4.1 12.88   r d). h  t
  A r 0.1
 4.1 12.88
 r
d).
h  t  9
t  t
from t=9 to t=16
Solution: We have h t 
t
then t  16  9  7
t  9
max min
With
 h h 16   h  9    average rate of
 h h
16 
h
 9 
 average rate of change
 t
7
 h
 16 9  9 9 
 t
7
 h
4 
9
 
3
9
 t
7
 h
4 
3
1

t

7

7

Q3. A ball is thrown straight up. Its height after t seconds

Find the

is given by the formula



h t  16t

2

80t

average velocity

h

t

for the specified intervals

a).

Solution: We have

With

From t=2 to t=2.1



h t  16t 80t

t

2

t t

then t 2.1 2 0.1

max min

average rate of change

  h t

h 2.1h

2

0.1

  16 2.1 80 2.1

2

  

16 2 80 2

2

h

 

t

h

16

0.1

4.41168 16 160

4

t

0.1

h

70.56 168 64 160

 

t

 

0.1

h

1.44

14.4

 

t

0.1

b).

Solution: We have

With

From t=2 to t=2.01

t



h t  16t 80t

2

t t

then t 2.01 2 0.01

max min

   

h h

2.1

h

2

average rate of change

t

h

  16 2.01 80 2.01

2

 

0.1

16 2

2

 

80 2  

t

h

16

0.01

4.0401160.8 16 160

4

 

t

0.01

 

h

64.6416 160.8 64 160

 

t

 

0.01

 

h

0.1584

15.84

 

t

0.01

 

Q4. The rate of change of price is called inflation.

price P in rupees after t years is

p



t 3t t 1

2

Find the average rate of change of inflation from t=3 to t=5 years. What the rate of change means? Explain

Solution: We have

p



t 3t t 1

2

average rate of change

p

p t  t

p t

t

t

With

t t

t

max min

then t 5 3 2

p

p

5

p

3

t

2

3

5

2

5

 

1

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

p

3

3

3

1

t

p

3

25

 

6

3

2

9

4

 

t

p

75

6

 

27

2

4

t

2

p

50

 

25

t

2

First principle for derivative

dy

dx

lim

 

x

0

  y x

lim

 

x

0

f x

 x

x

f x

Slope when two point P1 x1 , y1 , P2 x2 , y 2

given

Slope =

y

2

y

1

m

x

2

x

1

are

Differentiation of

y x

n by first principle Rule

If

Using first principle for derivative of

f

x x

n

f

so

x x x x

f x

n

d

dx

f

f x



x

f x

x lim

x 0

x



x

n

x

x

n

x

f x lim

x 0

Using binomial theorem

 x  x  n  x nx n  n  1 
x

x
n
x nx
n
n  1
 
x
n n
1
x
n  2
x
2
2!
x

x
n
x
n
f  x  lim
so
x 
0
x
n
n
1
n
n  1
2
n
2
x
nx
 
x
x
n
x
x
f
 x
2!
 lim
x
 0
x

f

f

f

f

f

x

x

x

x

x

lim

  0

x

lim

x 0

nx

n

1

n

n 1

2!

x

n

2

x

2

n  1 n  n  1  2! x n  2  

 

x

x

x   nx

n

1

n n 1

2!

x

n

2

 

x

 
 

x

lim

x 0

 

  

nx

nx

n 1

n

nx

n

1

n n 1

2!

1

n n 1

2!

x

n

2

x

n

2

0

 

x

 
 

0

 

0

 
 

Exercise 2.2

Q1. Use first Principle to determine the derivative of the following functions.

a). f x 3 x f x 3 x

Solution: We have

First principle for derivative

dy

dx

lim

 

x

0

y

x

lim

 

x

0

f x

 

x

f x

x

Substituting

f x 3 x

x  f x   x Substituting f  x   3 x Khalid
x  f x   x Substituting f  x   3 x Khalid

Chapter 2

Exercise 2.2

Chapter 2 Exercise 2.2 dy dx dy dx dy dx dy dx  lim  

dy

dx

dy

dx

dy

dx

dy

dx

lim

 

x

0

lim

 

x

0

lim

 

x

0

lim

 

x

0

y

x

y

x

y

x

y

x

lim

 

x

0

lim

 

x

0

3

x



x

3

x

3

x

x

  

3

x

3

x

x

lim

 

x

0

3 x

x

lim 3 3

x

0

b). f x 5 x 6

Solution: We have First principle for derivative

dy

dx

  y x

0

f x

 x

x

f x

lim

 

x

0

lim

 

x

lim

 

x

lim

 

x

0

lim

 

x

0

 

5

x



x

6  

Substituting

dy

dx

dy

dx

dy

dx

dy

dx

dy

dx

lim

 

x

0

lim

 

x

0

lim

 

x

0

y

x

y

x

y

y x

5 6

x

5

x

  x

5

6

x

5

x

6

5

x

0

x

x

lim lim 5

x 0

y x

x 0

lim 5

x 0

x

c).

Solution: We have

First principle for derivative

f x

x

2

f 1 x

x

2

1

dy

lim

y

lim

f x

 

x

f x

dx

x 0

x

Substituting

 

 

x

0

x

dy

dx

dy

dx

dy

dx

dy

 

y

 

x



x

2

1

 

x

2

1  

 

lim

 

lim

 

  0

x

lim

x

y

 

x

0

lim

2

x

 

x

2

x

2

  

x x

1

x

2

1

 

x

0

x

y

 

x

0

x

2

2

x

x x

 

lim

x

0

x

y

 

lim

 

x

0

x

x

  2

x

x

 

lim

 

lim

dx

dy

dx

dy

x

0

lim

x

0

x

y

x

y

 

x

0

x

lim x 2 x

 

 

x

0

 

lim

 

0 2 x

dx

x 0

x

dy

lim

y

2 x

dx

x 0

x

d).

f x 12 x

2

 

Solution: We have

f x 12 x

2

 

First principle for derivative

dy

dx

lim

 

x

0

y

x

lim

 

x

0

f x

 

x

f x

x

Substituting

f x 12 x

2

dy

dx

dy

dx

dy

dx

dy

dx

dy

dx

dy

dx

dy

dx

dy

dx

lim

 

x

0

lim

 

x

0

y

x

y

x

lim

 

x

0

lim

 

x

0

 

12

x



x

2

 

 

12

x  

2

12

2

x

x

  x

2

2

x x

12 x

2

x

lim

 

x

0

y

x

lim

 

x

0

12

2

x

 

x

2

2

x

x 12 x

2

x

lim

 

x

0

lim

 

x

0

lim

 

x

0

lim

x 0

y

x

y

x

y

x

y

x

lim

 

x

0

x

2

2

x x

x

x

lim

x

lim   2

x

  2

x

0

0

x

x

 

x

 

x

 0 2 x

lim

x 0

y

x

 2 x

e).

Solution: We have

f x 16 f x x 7 x 16 x 7 x

2

2

First principle for derivative

dy

dx

lim

 

x

0

y

x

lim

 

x

0

f x



x

f x

x

Substituting

dy

dx

dy

dx

dy

dx

dy

dx

dy

dx

lim

 

x

0

y

x

lim

  0

x

lim

 

x

0

lim

 

x

0

lim

 

x

0

y

x

y

x

y

x

y

x

lim

 

x

0

16



x x

2

7

x  x

  

2

16

x

x