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Talk 8-Mar 26, 2011 :

Essential points of shloka 1 :

A brief recap of the first shloka which was concluded. The first sloka predominantly talks about
tvam padArtah i.e, jiva svarupa. It was said that jiva due to ignorance was seeing this dualistic
world outside even though in reality it is inside. But at the time of knowledge, he discovers
himself to be non-dual. He discovers that the external world is really not external, it is inside
him. When we say inside, we should not think that it is like a particular body-mind complex
inside the hall or like the sugar inside the container. Similarly inside Brahman there is this world.
That is not what is meant here by the word inside –antargatam. Inside means it is
superimposed upon, dependent upon Brahman. It is not in terms of space that it is inside.

The jiva discovers this fact, that really nothing is outside him. The one who discovers this fact, he
alone is iswarah as dakshiNAmurti. He alone is in the form of a teacher. This jiva may become a
teacher once he is enlightened and share his wisdom. There is no reason that he will reject, if
right student comes to him. When he gives the wisdom, he is called jnAnapradAtA guru. My
salutations to that jiva who is in the form of guru, who is non-separate from dakshiNAmUrti.

A question may arise – why this namaskAra when there is only one reality which is in the form
of guru, iswara, jiva?
namaskAra here is in the form of ekatva jnAnam - the appreciation of oneness of all them.
There are different types of namaskara. One type is called vastu smaraNam - appreciating
oneness of guru-ishvara and AtmA. I drop my individuality and appreciate that there is only one
reality appearing in the form of jivatma, isvara and guru. This type of namaskAra will be done
by a sAdhaka deliberately who has understood, but he has not imbibed completely. Whereas
for a wise person, it is spontaneous appreciation of the oneness.
This was a brief summary of the first shloka where the journey was from bottom to top i.e,
from jiva to ishvara.


In the second sloka, the journey is from Ishvara to the world - top to bottom. From Ishvara the
whole world has come down. Whenever we talk about Ishvara – when tat padArtha vicAra
comes. Then srishTi prakriyA ie, topic of creation will come. Because that is how Ishvara is
generally defined in sAstra. In upanishad – yatovA imAni bhutAni jAyante, in brahmasutra –
janmAdyasya yatah, in Bhagavatavam - janmAdasya yatonvayAdi …. To begin with Brahman is
presented as jagat kAraNam.

Like when we talk about a politician – immediate question will be which party? His position?
Similarly for Ishvara, the srishTi prakriyA will come. There are various opinion, contentions
about this creation. What is the relationship between the kAryam-effect which is the world
which we are seeing and the kAraNam - cause, which is there behind the effect. What is the
nature of the cause?

There are two types of kAranam:

1. upAdAna kAraNam – material cause. Ex. For pot the clay is the material cause.
2. nimitta kAraNam- efficient cause. Pot-maker is the efficient cause.
Regarding this two different views are there.
We had seen that naiyAyikAs and vaisheshikAs say paramANus i.e, the smallest particles which
cannot be further divided and which are niravayava - partless by themselves, are upAdAna
kAraNam and Ishvara is nimitta kAraNam.

naiyAyikA and vaiseshikA’s mata is called ArambhavAdah - the product was not there before. It
is newly initiated. Like before the pot was born, there was no pot. Because if pot was there,
why should we create? It is born afresh. This is ArambhavAdah. It is also called asatkArya
vAdah – product was not there before creation.

The second one is sAnkhya and yoga who say that paramANus are not fundamental, but this
prakriti or primordial energy, otherwise called triguNAtmikA prakriti or pradhAnam is the
material cause and the efficient cause as well. That is the karanam for the entire world and we
need not search for any other cause. Prakriti which is jaDa is the cause for creation. It is based
on karma to be done.

The mata of sAnkhya and yoga is called pariNAma vAdah - before the product pot was born, it
was already there. The question would be - if it had been there, why should it be born? Answer
is it was in an unmanifest form and now it has become manifest by the process of creation. The
process of creation is nothing but manifestation. Like the idol was already there in the stone.
By the sculptor, the non-idol is removed from the stone and this is called creating the idol. The
sculptor is paid for removing that which is not idol!

Like in the dough, idli, dosa etc. were there in unmanifest form. This is called pariNAma vAdah-
mAyA getting modified into the product, otherwise called satkArya vAdah - the product was
already there. This is sAnkhya vAdah.

MimAmsakAs say – there is no creation. World has been like this, it is not created.
MimAmsakA need not give any mata for creation because to them the process of creation has
not been there. It is always there for us to experience. Therefore we don’t have to think about
creator, sustainer, destroyer of this creation.

6) Vedantis view:
VedAnti does not have to dismiss all of them. Most of them are fighting with themselves. So
sAnkhya will dismiss the naiyAyikA. They will say – If paramANus are niravayava ie, partless,
then how two paramANus join together. Particles join and become molecules, molecules join
and create the compound. Sayoga or association between two bodies can happen only when
they have parts. Because association is a quality which is avyApya vritti- remaining in the parts
of the things which are joining.

If two objects have to have association, they will have to have parts because association will
remain in one part of the object. The quality of association cannot remain in the entire bodies
associated. It has to be in a part. But since by your own definition, these paramANus being
partless, cannot be joined. Suppose two partless paramANus are joined completely, what we
will have is one paramANu only. It cannot be made into many. Thus naiyAyikA and vaiseshikA
mata are dismissed by sAnkhya.

So we have to handle sAnkhya only. It is called pratamamalla nyAya – in a wrestling

championship, the last world cup champion has to handle the winner of this year’s
championship. Similarly, sAnkhya is dismissing others and the vedAnti has to only dismiss
sAnkhya to win the argument.

VedAntin refutes sAnkhya mata –

Your prakriti being the independent cause of creation is not acceptable. Because prakriti is
jaDa ie, inert and jaDa cannot have vyApAra ie, transaction independent of chaitanyam, the
Like the car cannot run by itself. However automatic it may be, it has to be run by a conscious
entity. This entity is called ishvara. Therefore vedAntin does not accept - jaDa prakriti as
upAdAna kAraNam.

What is the vedAntin’s contention on creation ?

vedantin says we don’t have any idea of our own. We go by shAstrA. Creation is such a thing
that it cannot be figured out by the human intellect independently. Even scientists have
accepted that what happened at one billionth of the second when the creation started will
remain a mystery forever, because the density was so much that light cannot pass through.
Whatever data we have about the creation is based on light.

Even in the big-bang theory it is said something came from nowhere and started expanding. It
means it will remain a mystery forever.

Therefore the only means of knowledge we have is shAstrA. So why should we try to figure it
out through our human intellect independently ? Just as I cannot see the colour of this object
with my ears how much ever I try. So why try at all because ears are not meant for it. Thus we
say shAstrayonitvAt - this subject matter is known through shAstram. Human being has
difficulty in accepting this, especially people who are pseudo intellectuals.

In Taittriya Upanishad, brahmAnandavalli it is said – “satyam jnAnam anantam brahma tasmAt

va etasmAt Atmanah AkAsah sambhutah – from that Brahman who is existence, conciousness,
bliss this world space has come. So vedAntin’s view of creation is that brahman is both
upAdAna kAraNam and nimitta kAraNam. Brahman is nimitta kAraNam because it is said in
sHAstra - sokAmayata brahma – ishvara desired and it happened. Desiring is done by a
conscious entity.

Brahman is upAdAna karaNam because there is a rule – yadanvitam kAryam sarvadA drshyate,
tat upAdAna kAraNam – the material cause will be inherent in the effect. Whenever you are
seeing the product, you can appreciate the cause. It is not that the product is here and material
cause is somewhere else. Wherever the product is, the material is available there itself.
So when we say Brahman is upAdAna kAraNam of jagat, it is not that some object is left out.
Everything is included. In every object we can appreciate brahman as sat and chit. Shining
existence means not dazzling, but it is available for knowledge. So shining existence is upAdAna
kAraNam which is Brahman. Brahman is upAdAna kAraNam because shining existence is
always available in the product and that shining existence is Brahman. Therefore we can
understand how Brahman can be upAdAna kAraNam.
This idea will be further explained in the third shloka. But here itself it can be seen as upAdAna

Regarding nimitta kAraNam – we have seen that nimitta kAraNam has to be chetana and the
original source of consciousness is Brahman. The gross body derives consciousness from subtle
body and the subtle body derives the consciousness from AtmA which is Brahman. Therefore
chetana alone has to be nimitta kAraNam. Brahman being chetana it is nimitta kAraNam of
jagat. According to shruti, Brahman is abhinna nimitta upAdAna kAraNam – it is material and
efficient cause both. Thus shruti says this and we have got some supporting logic to assimilate
what shruti says about this creation.

What type of upAdAna kAraNam is brahman?

upAdAna kAraNam is of two types –

a. pariNAmi upAdAna kAraNam – the material cause which is undergoing some change to
become the product.

b. vivarta upAdAna kAraNam – the material cause which appears to be the product
without undergoing any change like the rope is the cause for the appearance of the snake.

Brahman is vivarta upAdAna kAraNam for the entire universe. This is implied in this shloka.
The world is compared to the tree represented by the sprout. Just as this sprout was there in
the seed but in undifferentiated condition. In the seed, you are not able to see the branch,
flower, fruit etc. But all of them are there in the seed. Similarly this world before creation was
in unmanifest or undifferentiated condition in brahman. This idea is expressed in shloka 2.

Shloka 2 - Word meaning :


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bIjasyAntarivAnkuro jagadidam prAng nirvikalpam punah
MAyAkalpitadeshakAlakalanA vaichitryachitrIkrtam
MAyAvIva vijrmbhayatyapi mahAyogIva yahsvecchayA
tasmai shrigurumUrtaye nama idam shridakshiNAmUrtaye.

Anvaya of this sloka:

Idam jagat prang bijasyAntah ankura iva nirvikalpam AsIt.
punah yah mAyAviva mahAyogi iva api mayakalpita deshakAlakalanA
vaichitrya chitrikrtam. vijrmbhati svecchayA.
Tasmai DakshiNAmUrtaye gurumUrtaye idam namah.

Shloka meaning -
My salutations to Lord DakshiNAmUrti who is in the form of Guru, the one who is creating this
world which was undifferentiated before creation like the sprout inside the seed and at the
time of creation manifests this world which is variegated by different varieties brought about
by time and space projected by maya, by his own will like a magician and also a great yogi,

1) bijasyAntah iva ankurah idam jagat prAng nirvikalpam –

before creation, this world was like a sprout inside a seed without being differentiated.
savikalpa means differentiated - that which has variety. nirvikalpa means undifferentiated -
that which is without variety, without differentiation.

So this world was nirvikalpa before creation, like sprout (inside the seed) which represents the
entire tree. So we accept satkArya vAdah. This world was there even before it was created but

punah - again at the time of creation. The word ‘again’ is used to show that this is
not a fresh creation, but only unmanifest becoming manifest. Before creation, it was
unmanifest and before that it was manifest. But when did it start? Beginning-less. It has been a
cyclical process. Before creation there was pralaya and before pralaya there was creation. This
cycle is anAdi. This is how we are different from mimAmsakAs.
Bhagavan Krishna says in 8th Chapter of bhagavad gitA – having come to manifestation, it is
dissolved. This is little difficult for many people to accept. They say creation should have
started at some time. If you accept that it started at some time, it will be very absurd. It is like
saying fire has become hot. Fire is hot is a fact.

So before creation it was undifferentiated like the sprout inside the seed and then what

2) mAyAkalpita deshakAlakalanA vaichitrachitrIkrtam – by the association of space and

time (deshakAlakalanA) projected by mAyA, this world is painted (chitrIkrtam) by
variegatedness (vaichitram) i.e, nirvikalpa became savikalpa. So this world became full
of varieties through the association with time and space. We have to say this because
variety is possible only where there are many things. When there is division, one object
is getting over and the other object is starting. Manyness is possible only when there are
Like we say two fingers because one finger begins where the other ends.
Boundaries are in terms of space and time. Where space is there, time has to be there. That is
why it is said that time is the fourth dimension of space. Time also is defined in terms of space.
Like we say – “now it is ten past eight in India”. Time and space are interconnected. Time and
space define the object i.e., it particularizes the object. Object particularized is the object
which is limited. So to have manyness, we have to particularise the object, and time and space
are the agencies which can particularize the object. That is why vaichitram is brought about by
the association with time and space.

Then the question will be – How did this time and space come?
mAyA kalpita – projected by mAyA.
It will be easy to understand why we have to bring in mAyA if you think of this question.

We say that time and space are bringing about the varieties. From where and when did time
and space come from? If you think about this, then you will understand that time and space
have to come only from mAyA.