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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ

РЕСПУБЛИКИ БЕЛАРУСЬ

Белорусский национальный
технический университет

Кафедра английского языка № 2

ТУ
 
 
 
О.Н. Кобяк

БН
Н.А. Финская

й
ри
SHIPBUILDING  

Кораблестроение
о

Пособие
з ит
по
Ре

Минск
БНТУ
2015
МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ РЕСПУБЛИКИ БЕЛАРУСЬ
Белорусский национальный технический университет

Кафедра английского языка № 2

ТУ
О. Н. Кобяк
Н. А. Финская

БН
SHIPBUILDING
й
Кораблестроение
ри
Пособие
по английскому языку для студентов специальности
1-37 03 02 «Кораблестроение и техническая эксплуатация
о

водного транспорта»
з ит

Рекомендовано учебно-методическим объединением


по образованию в области транспорта и транспортной деятельности
по
Ре

Минск
БНТУ
2015

1
УДК 811.111: 656.62(075.4)
ББК 81.2 Англ. яз 7
К55

Р е це н зе н ты:
кандидат филологических наук, доцент кафедры лексикологии английско-
го языка УО «МГЛУ» Т. Н. Руденко;

ТУ
кандидат филологических наук, доцент БГАТУ Л. И. Копань

БН
Кобяк, О. Н.
К55
й
Короблестроение : пособие по английскому языку для студентов
специальностей 1-37 03 02 «Кораблестроение и техническая эксплуата-
ри
ция водного транспорта» / О. Н. Кобяк, Н. А. Финская. – Минск :
БНТУ, 2015. – 109 с.
ISBN 978-985-550-534-2.
о
ит

Пособие написано в соответствии с типовой программой по иностранным языкам


для неязыковых вузов и состоит из четырех разделов, построенных по единому
принципу, направленных на развитие языковых и коммуникативных умений и навы-
ков в профессиональной сфере, а также на формирование навыков понимания, пере-
вода и реферирования текстов по специальности.
з

Материалом послужили оригинальные тексты, которые предназначены как для


по

аудиторного чтения, так и для самостоятельной работы.


Пособие предназначено для студентов, обучающихся по специальности 1-37 03 02
«Кораблестроение и техническая эксплуатация водного транспорта». Может быть
использовано широким кругом читателей, желающих повысить и расширить уровень
владения иностранным языком в области эксплуатации водного транспорта.
Ре

УДК 811.111: 656.62(075.4)


ББК 81.2 Англ. яз 7

ISBN 978-985-550-534-2 © Кобяк О.Н.,


Финская Н.А., 2015
© Белорусский национальный
технический университет, 2015

2
ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ

Пособие имеет профессиональную направленность и предназна-


чено для студентов 1-го и 2-го курсов заочной формы обучения
специальности 1-37 03 02 «Кораблестроение и техническая эксплуа-
тация водного транспорта», имеющих базовую подготовку по ан-
глийскому языку. Пособие подготовлено в соответствии с требова-
ниями типовой программы по иностранным языкам для высших

ТУ
учебных заведений.
Целью пособия является систематизация и совершенствование
знаний и умений студентов, расширение их словарного запаса по

БН
предлагаемой тематике, формирование навыков понимания, пере-
вода и реферирования оригинальных текстов по специальности.
Учебное пособие состоит из четырех разделов, построенных по
единому принципу. Основной структурной единицей является линг-
вометодический комплекс, который представляет собой тематически
й
завершенный блок (Unit). Каждый блок соответствует определенно-
му этапу обучения (Unit I – первый семестр, Unit II – второй семестр,
ри
Unit III – третий семестр, Unit IV – четвертый семестр).
Каждый раздел включает профессионально ориентированные
тексты для обучения различным видам чтения и упражнения к ним.
о

Система упражнений способствует усвоению профессиональной


лексики и повторению основных грамматических явлений.
ит

В пособие включены тексты для дополнительного чтения, кото-


рые могут быть рекомендованы как для самостоятельного изучения,
так и для других учебных целей, например, обучения переводу, ра-
з

боте со словарем, грамматическому анализу и т. п.


по

Работу с устными темами рекомендуется организовать по усмот-


рению преподавателя, как с точки зрения методики, так и форм
проведения.
Проверка изученного материала осуществляется преподавателем
Ре

на практических занятиях.
Авторы выражают искреннюю благодарность всем тем, кто спо-
собствовал созданию и изданию этого пособия.
Авторы

3
UNIT I
WATER TRANSPORT

VOCABULARY
1. Read and memorize the active vocabulary.
Nouns and noun phrases

ТУ
barge – баржа movement – движение
bulk carrier – сухогруз paddle – гребное колесо
cargo – груз passenger ship – пассажирское

БН
combined tonnage – общий судно
тоннаж power – мощность
compass – компас protection – защита
container vessel – контейнеровоз raft – плот
craft – судно raw materials – сырье

distance – расстояние
й
destination – пункт назначения safety – безопасность
sail – парус
ри
engine – двигатель steam turbine – паровая тур-
equipment – оборудование бина
foodstuff – продукты питания steamship – пароход
о

freight transport – грузовые tanker – танкер


перевозки terminal – терминал
ит

fuel – топливо trading activity – торговая де-


galley – галера ятельность
ice-breaker – ледокол unloading – разгрузка
з

improvement – улучшение vessel – судно, корабль


по

loading – погрузка
Verbs and verbal phrases
to accompany – сопровождать to launch – спускать судно на
Ре

to develop – разрабатывать, воду


развивать to oversee – наблюдать, следить
to equip – оборудовать to own – владеть
to focus on – сосредотачиваться to promote – способствовать
to improve – улучшать to register – регистрировать
to include – включать (в себя) to regulate – регулировать
to increase – увеличивать to weigh – весить

4
Adjectives
atomic – атомный negligible –незначительный
clumsy – неуклюжий powerful – мощный
diesel – дизельный rapid – быстрый
magnetic– магнитный reliable – надежный

Proper Names
the International Labor Organization (ILO) – Международная орга-

ТУ
низация труда (МОТ)
the United Nation’s International Maritime Organization (IMO) –
Международная морская организация при Организации Объеди-

БН
нённых наций

2. Read the following international words and guess their meaning.

transformation revolution radiation


telecommunication
magnetic
й
turbine
motor
international
territorial
ри
compass nuclear terminal
industrial reactor operate
о

3. Match the words and their transcriptions.


ит

compass ['kɑːgəu]
barge [lɔːnʧ]
cargo [bɑːʤ]
з

engine ['kʌmpəs]
по

freight ['neglɪʤəbl]
launch [freɪt]
diesel ['enʤɪn]
negligible ['diːz(ə)l]
Ре

4. Look at the following list of nouns. Write down the corresponding


verb in the space provided. The first one has been done for you.

NOUN VERB NOUN VERB


development develop product ____________
equipment _____________ promotion ____________
improvement _____________ protection ____________
5
inclusion _____________ registration ____________
increase _____________ regulation ____________
introduction _____________ replacement ____________
movement _____________ transportation ____________
operation _____________ weight ____________

5. Look at the following list of nouns. Write down the corresponding


adjectives in the space provided. The first one has been done for you.

ТУ
NOUN ADJECTIVE NOUN ADJECTIVE
atom atomic reliability ____________

БН
diesel _____________ magnet ____________
power _____________ safety ____________
rapidity _____________ mariner ____________

6. Match the terms and their definitions.

a) engine
й
c) compass e) waterway g) steam
ри
b) ship d) vessel f) tanker h) cargo

1) A passenger or freight-carrying ship, boat, etc.


о

2) Any machine designed to convert energy, esp. heat energy, into


mechanical work.
ит

3) A river, canal, or other navigable channel used as a means of travel


or transport.
4) An instrument for finding direction, usually having a magnetized
з

needle which points to magnetic north swinging freely on a pivot.


по

5) A large sailing vessel with three or more square-rigged masts.


6) A ship, lorry, or airplane designed to carry liquid in bulk, such as oil.
7) Freight carried by a ship, aircraft, etc.
8) Pressurized water vapor used to provide mechanical energy.
Ре

7. Combine the words from the column on the left with the suitable
nouns from the column on the right.

1) main a) engine
2) long b) distances
3) small c) turbine
6
4) floating d) craft
5) ancient e) advantage
6) magnetic f) compass
7) raw g) reactor
8) diesel h) effort
9) steam i) materials
10) nuclear j) times
11) negligible k) radiation

ТУ
12) powerful l) quantities

8. Combine the words with the help of the preposition of.

БН
1) the movement a) freight transport
2) the means b) products
3) the advantage c) the magnetic compass
4) the introduction d) water transportation
5) the middle
6) the size and power
й of e) goods
f) the 19th century
ри
7) great quantities g) the engine
8) the capacity h) ships
9) the operation i) the services
о

10) the nature j) the nuclear reactor


ит

9. Choose the right word or word-combination.

1) The introduction of the magnetic … allowed long voyages to be made


з

with much greater safety.


по

a) equipment b) compass c) material

2) The rapid … in the size and power of ships was promoted by the in-
dustrial revolution.
Ре

a) drop b) decrease c) increase

3) Improved ports permitted larger ships to use them and to make …


faster.
a) speed b) loading and unloading c) motor ships

7
4) In the late 1950s a few ships were being built which were … with nu-
clear reactors for producing steam.
a) equipped b) installed c) protected

5) In spite of the …. of her engine being 44,000 h.p., it will need only a
few grams of atomic fuel a week.
a) power b) capacitive c) capacity

ТУ
6) National governments control movements within … waters, register
vessels, and regulate the nature of the services.
a) local b) international c) territorial

БН
7) Local governments own and control … that form the terminals for
shipping operations.
a) ports b) harbors c) vessels

й
10. Fill in the words listed below.
ри
Assignment 1

a) more d) container f) approximately


о

b) ferry e) ships g) tonnage


c) carries
ит

In the early XXI century the international shipping industry


1)
_______ about 90 % of global trade by weight. Shipping also provides
з

important 2)_______ and passenger services. In 2005 globally there were


по

3)
_______ 42,200 registered ships with a combined 4)_______ of nearly
600 million gross tons. Of these 5)_______ than 20,000 were general
cargo vessels, 6,100 bulk carriers, 3,200 6)_______ vessels, 11,300 tank-
ers, and nearly 5,700 passenger 7)_______.
Ре

Assignment 2

a) influence c) roads e) development


b) seas d) transportation f) navigable

8
Shipping is 1)_______ of passengers and goods on waterways. From
prehistoric times shipping has had a major 2)_______ on human social
3)
_______. Water routes, unlike 4)_______, did not need building, and
the difficulties and dangers were less than those offered by mountains,
marshes, and enemy tribes. Therefore many early civilizations developed
on 5)_______ rivers or on the coasts of warm 6)_______.

11. Give the comparative and superlative of the following adjectives.

ТУ
slow, expensive, heavy, long, great, large, smooth, efficient, reliable,
powerful

БН
12. Give the three forms of the following verbs.

to be, to use, to build, to become, to begin, to do, to introduce, to drive,


to equip, to launch, to regulate, to oversee, to bring, to produce, to ac-
company
й
13. Choose the sentences with Passive Voice and translate them.
ри
1) Water transportation is generally used to transport heavy products
over long distances.
о

2) The small effort is needed to move floating craft.


3) The raft was made of logs of wood.
ит

4) The water transport in ancient times developed on great rivers.


5) One of the earliest steamboats was tested at the end of the 18th
century.
з

6) The first steamship to cross the Atlantic was the Savannah.


по

7) A great deal was done to improve ports.


8) The largest ships are still generally driven by steam turbines.
9) In the late 1950s a few ships were being built which were
equipped with nuclear reactors for producing steam.
Ре

10) The world's first atomic ice-breaker was launched in Leningrad.


11) The atomic ice-breaker has three nuclear reactors.
12) The engine will need only a few grams of atomic fuel a week.
13) The United Nation’s International Maritime Organization over-
sees safety and environmental matters.
14) The ILO focuses on labor standards in the shipping industry.
15) Ports form the terminals for shipping operations.
9
14. Complete the sentences with an active or passive form.

ACTIVE PASSIVE
1) The industrial revolution pro- 1) The rapid increase in the size
moted the rapid increase in the size and power of ships was promoted
and power of ships. by the industrial revolution.
2) The industrial countries ______ 2) Great quantities of goods are

ТУ
great quantities of goods. produced by the industrial coun-
tries.
3) Ships carried products to all 3) Products _______ to all parts of
parts of the world. the world by ships.

БН
4) Powerful radiation________ the 4) The operation of the nuclear
operation of the nuclear reactor. reactor is accompanied by power-
ful radiation.
5) Shipping also provides im- 5) Important ferry and passenger
portant ferry and passenger ser- services ________ by shipping.
vices.
й
6) Local governments also ______ 6) Shipping is also regulated by
ри
shipping. local governments.

15. Choose the right answers to the following questions.


о

 What means of transportation is the most ancient?


ит

a) air b) water c) rail

 What is the earliest type of boat?


з

a) barge b) galley c) raft


по

 What are the main advantages of water transportation?


a) high cost d) low cost
b) high speed e) low speed
Ре

c) high safety f) low safety

16. Discuss these questions.

Where did the water transport develop most rapidly? Why?


What influenced the development of water transportation?
What allowed long voyages to be made with much greater safety?

10
READING
17. Read the text and translate it into Russian.
TEXT A
Water Transport
Transportation concerns the movement of products from a source such

ТУ
as a plant, factory, or work-shop to a destination such as a ware-house,
customer, or retail store. Transportation may take place via air, water, rail,
road, pipeline, or cable routes, using planes, boats, trains, trucks, and tele-

БН
communications equipment as the means of transportation.
Water transportation is the least expensive and slowest mode of
freight transport. It is generally used to transport heavy products over
long distances when speed is not an issue. The main advantage of water
transportation is that it can move products all over the world.
й
The small effort is needed to move floating craft. A heavy boat or a
barge weighing several tons can be moved through the water, slowly but
ри
steadily, by one man.
The raft made of logs of wood is the earliest type of boat. It seems to
be clumsy vessels, although the Norwegian scientist Thor Heyerdahl and
о

his five companions in 1947 made a voyage on the raft from Peru to Tu-
amotu Islands – a distance of 4,500 miles.
ит

The water transport in ancient times developed most rapidly on great


rivers. The ancient Romans used vessels to carry their armies and sup-
plies to colonies. These ships, usually called galleys, continued to be
з

used in the Mediterranean till 1750.


по

The introduction of the magnetic compass allowed long voyages to be


made with much greater safety. At the end of the 15th century, sailing
vessels carried men from Europe to America and round Africa to India.
One of the earliest steamboats was tested at the end of the 18th centu-
Ре

ry. The first steamship to cross the Atlantic was the Savannah, 98-foot
ship built in New York, which made the crossing in 1819. Like all the
early steamships, it had sails as well as paddles. By the middle of the
19th century it became possible to build much larger ships as iron and
steel began to replace timber.
The rapid increase in the size and power of ships was promoted by
the industrial revolution. The industrial countries produced great quanti-
11
ties of goods which were carried to all parts of the world by ships. On
their return voyages, the ships brought either raw materials such as cot-
ton, metals, timber for the factories, or grain and foodstuffs for the grow-
ing population.
During the same period, a great deal was done to improve ports, and
that permitted larger ships to use them and to make loading and unload-
ing faster.
Improvements introduced in the 20th century included the smoother

ТУ
and more efficient type of engines called steam turbines and the use of
oil fuel instead of coal. Between 1910 and 1920 the diesel engine began
to be introduced in ships. These diesel-engined ships are called motor

БН
ships. The largest ships, however, are still generally driven by steam tur-
bines. In the late 1950s a few ships were being built which were
equipped with nuclear reactors for producing steam.
In 1957 the world's first atomic ice-breaker was launched in Lenin-
grad. This atomic ice-breaker is equipped with an atomic engine owing
й
to which her operating on negligible quantities of nuclear fuel is possi-
ble. In spite of the capacity of her engine being 44,000 h.p., it will need
ри
only a few grams of atomic fuel a week.
The atomic ice-breaker has three nuclear reactors. The operation of
the nuclear reactor is accompanied by powerful radiation. Therefore, the
о

ice-breaker is equipped with reliable means of protection.


In the early XXI century the international shipping industry carries about
ит

90 % of global trade by weight. Shipping also provides important ferry and


passenger services. In 2005 globally there were approximately 42,200 regis-
tered ships with a combined tonnage of nearly 600 million gross tons. Of
з

these more than 20,000 were general cargo vessels, 6,100 bulk carriers,
по

3,200 container vessels, 11,300 tankers, and nearly 5,700 passenger ships.
The shipping industry is regulated at several levels – most notably at
the global level by the United Nation’s International Maritime Organiza-
tion (IMO) that oversees safety and environmental matters and the Inter-
Ре

national Labor Organization (ILO) that focuses on labor standards in the


shipping industry. National governments control movements within terri-
torial waters, register vessels, and regulate the nature of the services that
can be used for their trading activities. Shipping is also regulated by lo-
cal governments that often own and control ports that form the terminals
for shipping operations.

12
COMPREHENSION CHECK

18. Decide whether the following statements are true or false accord-
ing to the text.

1) Transportation concerns the movement of products from a desti-


nation to a source.
2) Water transportation is the most expensive and slowest means of

ТУ
freight transport.
3) The first steamship built in New York had sails and paddles.
4) In the late 1950s a few ships with nuclear reactors for producing
steam were being built.

БН
5) Although the capacity of the engine is 44,000 h.p., it will need on-
ly a few grams of atomic fuel a day.
6) Powerful radiation accompanies the operation of the nuclear reactor.
7) Local governments control movements within territorial waters.
й
19. Complete the following sentences according to the text.
ри
1) Transportation may take place via …
2) The raft made of logs of wood is the earliest …
3) One of the earliest steamboats was tested ...
о

4) The rapid increase in the size and power of ships was promoted by ...
5) Shipping also provides important ferry and ...
ит

6) The shipping industry is regulated at the global level by …


7) The United Nation’s International Maritime Organization over-
sees …
з

8) The International Labor Organization focuses on ...


по

20. Answer the following questions.

1) What is water transportation generally used for?


2) What is the main advantage of water transportation?
Ре

3) Where did the water transport in ancient times develop most rapidly?
4) What allowed long voyages to be made with much greater safety?
5) Why did it become possible to build much larger ships by the mid-
dle of the 19th century?
6) What did the improvements introduced in the 20th century in-
clude?

13
7) Did the diesel engine begin to be introduced in ships between 1810
and 1820?
8) Is the ice-breaker equipped with reliable or unreliable means of
protection?
9) What is the shipping industry regulated by?
10) What does the United Nation’s International Maritime Organiza-
tion oversee?
11) What does the International Labor Organization focus on?

ТУ
12) What do national and local governments control?

21. What parts of the text can you define? Do they correspond to the
paragraphs? Name each part.

БН
1. ________________ 4. ________________
2. ________________ 5. ________________
3. ________________ ... ________________
й
22. Find key words and phrases which best express the general
meaning of each part.
ри
23. Make a short summary of Text A. Do it according to the follow-
ing plan.
о

1. The title of the text is … .


ит

2. The text is devoted to … .


3. It consists of … (parts / passages).
4. The first passage deals with … .
з

5. The second (third, forth, etc.) passage deals with … .


по

6. The main idea of the text is … .


VOCABULARY

24. Practice saying the following words.


Ре

archipelago [ˌɑːkɪ'peləgəu] maneuver [mə'nuːvə]


canal [kə'næl] nautical ['nɔːtɪk(ə)l]
fairway ['fɛəweɪ] occur [ə'kɜː]
harbour ['hɑːbə] piloting ['paɪlətɪŋ]

14
25. Read and memorize the active vocabulary.
Nouns and noun phrases
archipelago – архипелаг, груп- piloting – лоцманская провод-
па островов ка судна
bay – залив port – порт
canal – канал river shipping – речное судо-
coast – побережье ходство

ТУ
depth – глубина rule – правило
fairway – фарватер, проход shipping lane – морской путь
harbour – гавань strait – пролив
icebreaking – вскрытие ледя- surrounding waters – прибреж-

БН
ного покрова ные воды
maneuvering ability – способ- traffic intensity – интенсив-
ность к маневрированию ность движения
marking of lanes – обозначение traffic separation system – си-
морских путей й стема разделения судопотока
nautical chart – навигационная underwater topography – рельеф
ри
карта дна
open-sea shipping – судоход- weather conditions – погодные
ство в открытом море условия
open-water entrance – выход в width – ширина
о

открытые воды
ит

Verbs and verbal phrases


to affect – влиять, воздейство- to maintain – поддерживать,
вать обслуживать
з

to approve – одобрять, утвер- to occur – происходить, слу-


по

ждать чаться
to connect – соединять to perform – выполнять, ис-
полнять
Ре

Adjectives
considerable – значительный unfavourable – неблагоприят-
narrow – узкий ный

Proper Names
the Sea Security Agency of the United Nations – Агентство безопас-
ности на морях при Организации Объединённых Наций

15
READING
26. Read the text and answer the questions below.
TEXT B
Shipping
Seas, rivers and lakes have been trafficked by boats and ships since

ТУ
the earliest times. Today shipping is larger than ever. The great majority
of all freight transport to, from and between the countries in sea areas
occurs on ships. In addition to transportation of goods there is a consid-

БН
erable passenger transport.
The infrastructure of shipping consists of the shipping lane system
maintained by the state and harbour service. Shipping lanes connect the
harbours and give prerequisites for shipping through the supplied service
of nautical charts, marking of lanes, piloting and ice breaking.
й
Shipping may be divided into open-sea shipping, river shipping and
inland shipping. The river traffic, mostly with barges, is considerable on
ри
many of the larger world rivers. Lakes are trafficked similarly with the
rivers or canals that connect them with surrounding waters.
Along the coasts traffic is focused in the ship lanes close to the ports.
о

Little commercial shipping is performed in the protected fairways, espe-


cially in archipelago areas. The marking of fairways on open-water en-
ит

trances and over straits and bays is usually narrow. There is thus a limit
to the size of the ships in such waters. A number of factors, such as ves-
sel size and manoeuvering ability, traffic intensity, exposure to weather
з

and wind and over- and underwater topography affect the width of the
по

fairways. The use of the archipelago fairways is limited by water depth.


The traffic separation system is a rout system approved by the Inter-
national Maritime Organization (IMO), the Sea Security Agency of the
United Nations. The traffic separation system is marked on nautical
Ре

charts. It is mainly used by coastal and through traffic. Ships longer than
20 meters shall, according to the shipping rules, use traffic routes.
Smaller ships are obliged to use the water between land and the actual
traffic separation system.
Smaller fishing boats exhibit a transport pattern between the open sea
and the port. When weather conditions are unfavourable, the fishing
boats use the protected fairways along the coasts.
16
1) Today shipping is smaller than ever, isn’t it?
2) What does the infrastructure of shipping consist of?
3) What do shipping lanes do?
4) What may shipping be divided into?
5) What factors affect the width of the fairways?
6) What is the use of the archipelago fairways limited by?
7) Is the river traffic significant on many of the larger world rivers?
8) What is a rout system approved by?

ТУ
9) Where is the traffic separation system marked on?
10) What are smaller ships obliged to?
11) When do the fishing boats use the protected fairways along the

БН
coasts?

VOCABULARY
27. Practice saying the following words.

bulkhead ['bʌlkhed]
й longitude ['lɔnʤɪt(j)uːd]
ри
chronometer [krɔ'nɔmɪtə] pier [pɪə]
gyrocompass ['ʤaɪərəuˌkʌmpəs] radar ['reɪdɑː]
latitude ['lætɪt(j)uːd] sextant ['sekstənt]
о

28. Read and memorize the active vocabulary.


ит

Nouns and noun phrases


aid – вспомогательные сред- electronic navigation equipment –
з

ства электронное навигационное


automatic pilot – автоматиче- оборудование
по

ская система управления суд- fire-fighting equipment – по-


ном жарное оборудование
bulkheads – переборки gyrocompass – гирокомпас
Ре

chronometer – хронометр high seas – открытое море,


collision – столкновение глубокие воды
distress signal – сигнал бед- latitude and longitude – широ-
ствия та и долгота
docking pilot – лоцман, совер- lifeboat – спасательная шлюпка
шающий проводку судна lifejacket – спасательный жи-
лет

17
lights – огни Plimsoll mark – грузовая мар-
local harbour pilot – местный ка, диск Плимсоля
портовый лоцман radar – радиолокатор, радар,
loran, for long-range navigation – радиолокационная установка
Лоран (импульсная дально- rudder – руль
мерная радионавигационная sand bar – песчаная отмель
система),дальняя навигация sextant – секстант
navigator – штурман, навига- ship officer – боцман

ТУ
тор tugboats – буксирное судно,
obstacle – препятствие буксир
pier – пирс, причал visibility – видимость

БН
Verbs and verbal phrases
to accept – принимать, допус- to navigate – вести, плавать
кать to prevent – предотвращать
to calculate – высчитывать to pull – тянуть
to determine – определять й to reach – достигать
to follow – следовать to require – требовать
to guide – вести, проводить
ри
to set on course – стать на курс
to link – соединять to transmit – передавать
to measure – измерять
о

Adjectives
accurate – точный successful – успешный
ит

lifesaving – спасательный tried-and-true – проверенный


remarkable – замечательный watertight – водонепроницаемый
з
по

READING
29. Read the text and speak on navigation equipment and safety
standards for ships.
Ре

TEXT C
Navigating a Ship
When a large ship leaves port, three or four small tugboats pull it
from the pier into the harbour. A docking pilot directs the tugs and the
ship until the vessel clears the pier and is underway in the harbour. Every
merchant ship enters and leaves port with a local harbour pilot aboard.
18
The harbour pilot guides the ship into the harbour or out into open
water. The harbour pilot must know every channel, turn, sand bar, or
other obstacle that could endanger the vessel. After a ship reaches open
sea, a small boat carries the pilot back to port. The ship officers then
navigate the vessel to its destination.
As sailors have done for thousands of years, the navigator checks the
position by observing the sun, moon, planets, and stars. For hundreds of
years, the most important navigation devices have included a compass to

ТУ
tell direction, a chronometer to tell the exact time and help to determine
a ship's longitude, and a sextant to calculate a ship's latitude by measur-
ing the angle of the sun or of a star above the horizon.

БН
At present time modern ships also have highly accurate electronic
navigation equipment. One system determining their position through radio
signals is called loran, for long-range navigation. With loran, an accurate
position can be obtained in bad weather and poor visibility without a com-
pass, chronometer, or sextant. Many ships also can determine their position
й
by signals that are transmitted from orbiting satellites.
Modern ships also carry radar. At night and in bad weather, a ship's
ри
radar can spot icebergs, rocks, and other vessels in time to prevent a col-
lision. Some modern ships also have an automatic pilot, which, after a
ship has been set on course, holds it there. This device is linked to gyro-
о

compass, which determines direction, and it operates the rudder automat-


ically. In spite of all these remarkable devices, navigators still also use
ит

the tried-and-true compass, chronometer, and sextant.


Many ships have automatic navigation aids and automatic devices to
speed up the loading and unloading of cargo.
з

To provide successful navigating some measures and safety standards


по

for ships have been set up by International Safety of Life at Sea conven-
tions, which were held in 1914, 1929, 1948, 1960, and 1972. The stand-
ards require that ships have watertight bulkheads, fire-fighting equip-
ment; and enough lifeboats, life jackets, and other lifesaving equipment.
Ре

In addition, ships must follow the International Rules of the Road which
deal with such points as the rights of way of ships on the high seas, the
lights ships must show, and the signals that ships must give in fog and
during times of distress.
In 1930, all the leading seafaring countries accepted rules set up by
the International Load Convention to keep ships from being overloaded.
These rules require that cargo ships have a series of short lines painted
19
on their side to show the depth to which the vessels may be safely load-
ed. The lines are called Plimsoll marks. They are named after Samuel
Plimsoll who brought about their adoption in Great Britain's Merchant
Shipping Act of 1876. In 1966, the world's maritime nations agreed to
new rules that raised the limits to which ships may be safely loaded.

VOCABULARY

ТУ
30. Practice saying the following words.

БН
acidification [əˌsɪdɪfɪ'keɪʃən] exhaust [ɪg'zɔːst]
anchor ['æŋkə] liquid ['lɪkwɪd]
cause [kɔːz] quay [kiː]
combustible [kəm'bʌstəbl] repository [rɪ'pɔzɪt(ə)rɪ]
discharge [dɪs'ʧɑːʤ] prohibit [prə'hɪbɪt]
й
31. Read and memorize the active vocabulary.
ри
Nouns and noun phrases
acidification – окисление liquid – жидкость
о

anchoring – постановка на pollution – загрязнение


якорь quay – причал
ит

coastguards – береговая охрана rags – ветошь


construction – строительство repository – контейнер
dredging – дноуглубительные rescue service board – спаса-
з

работы тельная лодка


по

emission – выделение resources – ресурсы


environment – окружающая responsibility – ответствен-
среда ность
exhausts – выпуск, выхлоп, вы- solid-waste disposal – удаление,
Ре

хлопные газы сброс твердых отходов


fumes – дым, газы, испарения spill – пролитая жидкость
hazard – опасность substance – вещество
impact – влияние surface water – поверхностная
lead – свинец вода
leakage – течь, просачивание, threat – угроза
утечка waste – отходы
20
Verbs and verbal phrases
to allow – позволять to involve – включать
to cause – вызывать to leak – иметь течь, проса-
to constitute – составлять чиваться
to discharge – разгружать, уча- to mean – значить
стие to participate – принимать
to disinfect – дезинфицировать освободить
to imply – предполагать to prohibit – запрещать

ТУ
Adjectives
chemical – химический nautical – морской

БН
combustible – горючий poisonous – ядовитый
harmless – безвредный protective – защитный
hazardous – опасный

READING й
32. Read the text and say what hazards substances are taken into the
ри
UN Act on measures against water pollution and how they are classi-
fied. Translate the text into the Russian language.
о

TEXT D
ит

Pollution by Ships

Shipping represents a serious threat to the environment, nature and


з

biological life. This is due to its infrastructure (in some harbours), to


по

traffic itself, and to exhausts and spills from ships and harbours. Some of
the major hazards are:
1) presence(disturbance of wildlife in coastal areas through boat traf-
fic, landings and spills);
Ре

2) physical impact (on coasts, shorelines and bottoms by wave actions,


anchoring, and on coastal areas during construction, dredging, etc.);
3) waste / solid-waste(solid-waste disposal along coasts and disposal
of toilet and kitchen wastes);
4) chemical pollution (oil-spills along coasts and in open waters; oil
leakage from motors and fuel tanks; accidents especially involving oil
tankers).
21
Many types of discharge from ships are prohibited and regulated, ac-
cording to the UN Act on measures against water pollution by ships.
The substances prohibited for discharge includes: oil; large volumes
of hazardous liquid substances; packed hazardous substances; toilet
waste; solid waste.
One might believe that tanker accidents constitute the major threat
but, in fact, they represent a few percent of the oil spills. But the less
well-recognized daily leakage from motors of small boats is the largest

ТУ
threat to surface water from shipping.
As for the large volumes of hazardous substances, they are divided
into four categories: A, B, C and D.

БН
Category A includes poisonous substances that, if discharged into the
sea, would constitute a severe risk to marine resources or human.
Category B implies hazardous liquid substances that may constitute a
risk to marine resources.
Category C means less hazardous liquid substances.
й
The substances of the category D are practically harmless to life in
water but cause decreases in the beauty of the area.
ри
The discharge of packed hazardous substances is strictly prohibited
altogether.
The rules for the discharge of toilet waste imply that ships are only al-
о

lowed to make a discharge more than 12 nautical miles from the nearest
land and the waste must be ground into finer particles and disinfected.
ит

Prohibited for discharge solid wastes include plastic materials, paper


products, rags, glass, metal, bottles, covering and packing materials. The
discharge of leftovers should be done as far away from land as possible.
з

Emission of fumes from ships also presents a serious problem as they


по

participate in acidification.
Responsibility concerning protective measures against the ecological
threats to water environment is spread out over many different authori-
ties: environmental protection agencies, coast guards, rescue service
Ре

boards, maritime administrations and even meteorological and hydrolog-


ical institutes. As close as possible to the quay there should be an envi-
ronmental station for attending waste from ships. The environmental sta-
tion should include at least one container for combustible waste and
three containers for barrels and other waste that may leak. There must be
a repository for oily rags as well as for lead batteries and accumulators.

22
FOLLOW UP

33. Read the texts of Unit I again, make notes under the following
headings. Then use your notes to talk about Water Transportation.

1. What is water transportation?


2. The history of water transport development.
3. Modern and tried-and-true navigation aids.

ТУ
4. Ship navigation.
5. Pollution by ships.

БН
й
о ри
з ит
по
Ре

23
UNIT II
TYPES OF VESSELS

VOCABULARY
1. Read and memorize the active vocabulary.
Nouns and noun phrases

ТУ
aluminum – алюминий layer – слой
arm – рука, стрела light alloy – легкий сплав
bow – нос (судна) main machinery – основное

БН
canoe – каноэ, челнок, байдарка оборудование
concrete – бетон oar – весло
craft – судно outrigger– утлегарь
dhow – одномачтовое араб. planking – обшивка досками
каботажное судно plywood – фанера
dory – рыбачья плоскодонная
лодка
й poop – полуют
propulsion device – движитель
ри
dugout – каноэ, узкая лодка, purpose – цель
выдолбленная из бревна sail – парус
edge – край, кромка sampan – сампан (небольшая
о

fiberglass – стеклопластик плоскодонная лодка)


fishing boat – рыболовное судно screw propeller – гребной винт
ит

flat-bottomed skiff – небольшая shore – берег


плоскодонная гребная лодка skiff – ялик
float – поплавок, буй steel – сталь
з

gondola – гондола stern – корма


по

half-deck – палуба, закрыва- umiak – большая эским. лодка


ющая переднюю или заднюю с широкими вёслами, покры-
половину тая шкурами
hollowed-out log – выдолблен- vane propeller – крыльчатый
Ре

ное бревно движитель


hull – корпус water jet – водомет
iron – железо waterway – водный путь
junk – джонка (судно) whaleboat – китобойное судно
kayak – лодка у эскимосов из
тюленьей кожи, управляется с
помощью двухлопастного весла
24
Verbs and verbal phrases
to mold – формовать to refer to – ссылаться на, от-
to propel – приводить в дви- носиться к
жение

Adjectives
architectonic-structural – архи- inner – внутренний
тектурный lateen-rigged – оснащенный

ТУ
carvel-built – с обшивкой дос- латинским (треугольным) па-
ками вгладь русом
clinker-built – обшитый вна- outer – наружный
крой overhanging – с нависающими

БН
coastal – береговой, прибреж- (выступающими) краями
ный overlapping – перекрывающий
deckless – беспалубный внахлест
elevated – приподнятый pole-driven – управляемый ше-
flush – идущая на одном й стом
уровне от носа до кормы (о projecting – выступающий
ри
корабельной палубе); не име- rugged – массивный, прочный
ющий надстроек над такой seaworthy – обладающий хо-
палубой (о корабле) рошими мореходными каче-
fore-and-aft planks – обшитый
о

ствами
тёсом вдоль всего корпуса versatile – универсальный
ит

2. Read the following international words and guess their meaning.

classify diagonally gondola


з

modern parallel prehistoric


по

principle stabilize term

3. Match the words and their transcriptions.


Ре

acacia [eʤ]
aluminum [ə'keɪʃə]
dhow [lə'tiːn rɪgd]
edge [ə'luːmɪnəm]
lateen rigged ['pɜːpəs]
Mediterranean [dau]
outrigger ['prɔʤekt]
25
project [ˌmedɪt(ə)'reɪnɪən]
purpose ['vɜːsətaɪl]
versatile ['autˌrɪgə]

4. Look at the following list of nouns. Write down the corresponding


verb in the space provided. The first one has been done for you.

NOUN VERB NOUN VERB

ТУ
development develop elevator _____________
building _____________ fishing _____________
construction _____________ living _____________
deck _____________ planks _____________

БН
drive _____________ propeller _____________
dwelling _____________ stability _____________

5. Match the terms and their definitions.

a) seaworthy
b) gondola
й g) poop
h) propeller
ри
c) oar i) waterway
d) whaleboat j) layer
e) outrigger k) hull
о

f) planking l) alloy
ит

1) A long shaft of wood for propelling a boat by rowing, having a


broad blade that is dipped into and pulled against the water; were used
for steering certain kinds of ancient sailing boats.
з

2) The act of covering or furnishing with planks.


по

3) Any projecting framework attached to a boat, aircraft, building,


etc., to act as a support.
4) A long narrow flat-bottomed boat with a high ornamented stem
and a platform at the stern where an oarsman stands and propels the boat
Ре

by sculling or punting: traditionally used on the canals of Venice.


5) In a fit condition or ready for a sea voyage.
6) A narrow boat from 20 to 30 feet long having a sharp prow and
stern, formerly used in whaling.
7) The main body of a ship or other vessel, including the bottom,
sides, and deck but not the masts, superstructure, rigging, engines, and
other fittings.
26
8) A sheet, quantity, or thickness of material, typically one of several,
covering a surface or body.
9) The aftermost and highest deck of a ship, esp. in a sailing ship
where it typically forms the roof of a cabin in the stern.
10) A mechanical device for propelling a boat or aircraft, consisting
of a revolving shaft with two or more broad, angled blades attached to it.
11) A river, canal, or other rout for travel by water.
12) A metal made by two or more metallic elements, esp. to give

ТУ
greater strength or resistance to corrosion.

6. Combine the words from the column on the left with the suitable

БН
nouns from the column on the right.

1) edges a) float
2) molded b) vessels
3) lateen-rigged c) logs
4) paralleled
5) flat-bottomed
й d) times
e) waters
ри
6) nautical f) flush
7)simple g) craft
8) hollowed-out h) boats
о

9) ancient i) dhow
10) stormy j) dugouts
ит

11) fishing k) seas


12) coastal l) fiberglass
з

7. Match the synonyms.


по

1) shore a) form
2) device b) external
3) versatile c) multipurpose
Ре

4) outer d) sea
5) propel e) coast
6) mold f) machine
7) marine g) traditional
8) conventional h) drive

27
8. Choose the right word or word-combination.
1) Boat is a small, open … vessel propelled by sail, oar, pole, paddle, or
motor.
a) sea b)nautical c) versatile
2) A number of special types of boat are generally … to by their individ-
ual names rather than by the generic term.

ТУ
a)referred b) called c) classified
3) Modern … boats are built in four ways.
a) aluminum b) steel c) wooden

БН
4) Many boats are now … of molded fiberglass or of aluminum.
a)built b) divided c) constructed
5) … or half-decked, with elevated bow and stern, these early boats took
the Norsemen to all the coasts of Europe and across the Atlantic.
a) decking й
b) deck c) deckless
ри
6) Whaleboat was developed from the Viking type of construction and
came to be used for numerous … .
a) goals b) purposes c) aims
о

7) The Viking boats were more … and they were believed to be the first
clinker-built boats.
ит

a) seaworthy b) nautical c) traditional


8) Dory is a small, versatile, … craft easily transported on shipboard and
з

used in the entire North Atlantic.


по

a) carvel-built b)clinker-built c) flat-bottomed


9. Fill in the words listed below.
Ре

Assignment 1
a) steel c) self-propelled e) river and lake
b) classified d) propulsion f) equipped
A great variety of ships may be 1)_______ into: civil shipsand war
ships. All they may be classified according to place of navigation, hull
material, propulsion system, propulsion.
28
According to the place of navigation ships may be divided into (a)
ocean and sea-going ships, (b)2)_______ ships and (c) coasters.
According to the hull material ships may be: wooden, 3)_______, re-
inforced, from aluminum alloys, plastic and compound.
Referring to propulsion system ships are divided into non-propelling
ships (such as barges, sailors) and 4)_______ ships (such as steamships,
motorships 5)_______ with internal combustion engine, electric propul-
sion ships, nuclear propulsion ships).

ТУ
According to 6)_______ ships are divided into floating, gliding, hy-
drofoil craft and hovercraft (air-cushion ships).
Assignment 2

БН
a) weather c) developed e) speeds
b) shipyards d) fast f) engines
Torpedo boat is a small 1)_______ warship built specially for using
й
the torpedo as a means of attack. The first modern torpedo boat was the
Lightning, built for the British navy in 1877 by the 2)_______ of Sir John
ри
Isaac Thornycroft. Torpedo boats were adopted by most of the world's
major navies, but as they increased in size the destroyer was 3)_______
as an effective defense against them. During World War II torpedo boats,
о

often referred to as PT boats, were commonly used in attacking enemy


coastal shipping and light naval forces under cover of darkness and bad
ит

4)
_______. They were usually wooden vessels 22.8–38.1 m long, pow-
ered by gasoline or diesel 5)_______ and capable of very high 6)_______.
з

Notes:
torpedo boat – торпедный катер
по

destroyer – эскадренный миноносец, эсминец


10. Translate the following phrases paying attention to Participle I
Ре

and Participle II.


Vessel propelled by sail; dugouts made from hollowed-out logs; boats
made of acacia wood and held together with pegs; fore-and-aft planks
laid with their edges flush; overlapping edges; planks running diagonal-
ly; planking consisting of large sheets of plywood; molded fiberglass; a
parallel float attached by projecting arms; overhanging bow; a skiff hav-
ing a mat-covered cabin with living quarters; elevated bow and stern; the
29
fishing boats built on Viking principles; flat-bottomed craft easily trans-
ported on shipboard and used in the entire North Atlantic.

11. Choose the correct translation of the sentence.

The Viking boats were believed to be the first clinker-built boats.

a) Викинги считали, что их лодки были первыми лодками, обши-

ТУ
тыми внакрой.
b) Считают, что лодки викингов – первые лодки, обшитые вна-
крой.

БН
с) Считали, что лодки викингов были первыми лодками, обши-
тыми внакрой.

12. Study the following chart and according to it complete the sen-
tences below.
й
о ри
з ит
по
Ре

30
 According to the type of main machinery ships are classified into …
 According to type of propulsion device ships may be with ...
 All ships can be classified into … and war ships.
 The main indications of ship’s classification are …
 According to their duties all civil ships may be …
 According to sailing area civil ships are divided into …
 … are taken into account according to architectonic-structural type.

ТУ
 Kind of material employed in hull structure may include …

READING

БН
13. Read the text and translate it into Russian.

TEXT A
й
The Varieties of Boats
ри
Boat is a small, open nautical vessel propelled by sail, oar, pole, pad-
dle, or motor. The use of the term boat for larger vessels, although com-
mon, is somewhat improper, but the line between boats and ships is not
о

easy to draw. A number of special types of boat are generally referred to


ит

by their individual names rather than by the generic term, e.g., the canoe,
the kayak (Eskimo decked canoe), and the umiak (Eskimo open boat).
Simple dugouts, made from hollowed-out logs, have been known since
prehistoric times to all peoples dwelling on waterways. The ancient
з

Egyptians used boats made of acacia wood and held together with pegs.
по

Modern wooden boats are built in four ways: with fore-and-aft planks
laid with their edges flush (carvel-built); with fore-and-aft planks laid
with overlapping edges (clinker-built); with inner and outer layers of
Ре

planks running diagonally in opposite directions; and with planking con-


sisting of large sheets of plywood. Many boats, however, are now made
of molded fiberglass or of aluminum. Primitive boats in many parts of
the world are stabilized by an outrigger – a parallel float attached by pro-
jecting arms. The varieties of boats in modern use are almost infinite.
The Chinese junk, with high poop and overhanging bow, is large enough
to be classified as a ship; the junk, together with the sampan (a wide,

31
flat-bottomed skiff, often having a mat-covered cabin with living quar-
ters), is a familiar sight in the rivers and coastal waters of East Asia. The
lateen-rigged dhow, in which energetic Arab merchants of the Middle
Ages plied their trade along all the shores of South Asia and East Africa,
is still in use today. A familiar local craft on the Mediterranean is the
flat-bottomed, canoelike, pole-driven gondola of the Venetian canals.
A typical Mediterranean vessel of ancient times was the galley, usually
propelled by oars. Because the northern seas were stormier, the Viking

ТУ
boats, which the Norsemen were building by the 5th century AD, were
more seaworthy; they were believed to be the first clinker-built boats.
Deckless or half-decked, with elevated bow and stern, these early boats

БН
took the Norsemen to all the coasts of Europe and across the Atlantic.
The later rugged whaleboat was developed from the Viking type of con-
struction and came to be used for numerous purposes. The fishing boats
of the North and Baltic seas, also built on Viking principles, are roughly
similar to whaleboats. Another important fishing boat is the dory, a
й
small, versatile, flat-bottomed craft easily transported on shipboard and
used in the entire North Atlantic.
ри
COMPREHENSION CHECK
о

14. Decide whether the following statements are true or false accord-
ит

ing to the text.

1) The use of the term boat is also common for larger vessels.
з

2) There are special types of boat named historically, which do not re-
по

ferred to a long row of boats with the similar characteristics.


3) Prehistoric boats were made of skins of animals, wood or hollow-
out logs.
4) The ancient Egyptians wooden boats were built in four ways.
Ре

5) A parallel float attached to the projecting arms gave the stability to


the boat.
6) Some kinds of boat of the Middle Ages are still in use today.
7) The galleys were more seaworthy; they were believed to be the
first clinker-built boats.
8) A lot of later rugged boats were built on Viking principles and
came to be used for numerous purposes.
32
15. Complete the following sentences according to the text.

1) Boat is a small nautical vessel…


2) The line between boats and ships is…
3) A number of special kinds of boat are generally referred to…
4) Since prehistoric times all peoples dwelling on waterway have
known…
5) Modern wooden boats are made in four ways: carvel-built,…

ТУ
6) Many boats are made of…
7) The Chinese junk, together with a sampan is the familiar sight…
8) The familiar local craft of the Mediterranean is the…
9) Because the northern seas were stormier, the Viking boats were…

БН
10) The fishing boats of the North and Baltic seas are also built on…

16. Answer the following questions.

1) What kind of vessel is a boat?


й
2) Why the use of the term boat is improper for larger vessels?
3) Some types of boat are generally referred to by their individual
ри
names, aren’t they?
4) What materials are boats made of?
5) How are modern boats built in?
о

6) Where is the difference between the carvel-built and clinker-built


methods?
ит

7) What for device was used to stabilize the primitive boats?


8) What Chinese boat, large enough to be classified as a ship is still in
use in rivers and coastal waters of East Asia?
з

9) Is the Mediterranean local craft – gondola popular nowadays as


по

well?
10) Why were the Viking boats more seaworthy? What features of
ship structure allowed Norsemen to reach the coasts of Europe and go
Ре

across the Atlantic?

17. What parts of the text can you define? Do they correspond to the
paragraphs? Name each part.

1. ________________ 4. ________________
2. ________________ 5. ________________
3. ________________ ... ________________
33
18. Find key words and phrases which best express the general
meaning of each part.

19. Make a short summary of Text А. Do it according to the follow-


ing plan.

1. The title of the text is … .


2. The text is devoted to … .

ТУ
3. It consists of … (parts / passages).
4. The first passage deals with … .
5. The second (third, forth, etc.) passage deals with … .

БН
6. The main idea of the text is … .

VOCABULARY

й
20. Practice saying the following words.
ри
hydrofoil ['haɪdrəufɔɪl] catamaran [ˌkætəmə'ræn]
cushion ['kuʃ(ə)n] knot [nɔt]
vehicle ['viːɪkl] estuary ['estjuərɪ]
о

21. Read and memorize the active vocabulary.


ит

Nouns and noun phrases


air cushion vehicle – транс- hydrofoil – гидрокрыло, судно
з

портное средство на воздуш- на подводных крыльях


по

ной подушке knot – узел


car ferry – паром propeller – движитель, про-
drag – сопротивление, тор- пеллер, винт
можение surface – поверхность
Ре

estuary – устье реки thrust of air – напор воздуха


fan – вентилятор, винт water resistance – сопротивле-
foil – подводное крыло ние воды
hovercraft – судно на воздуш- wave – волна
ной подушке wing – крыло
hull – корпус

34
Verbs and verbal phrases
to cross – пересекать to pierce – пронзать, прокла-
to exceed – превышать дывать, проходить
to mount on – устанавливать to provide – обеспечивать
to perform – выполнять, ис- to remain – оставаться, нахо-
полнять, делать диться

Adjectives

ТУ
kit-built – собранный из гото- marshy – болотистый
вых деталей military – военный
marine – морской

БН
Adverbs
completely – полностью

READING
й
22. Read the text and answer the questions below.
ри
TEXT B
о

Short-Distance Vessels
ит

Vessels for carrying passengers on short distances over water have


become increasingly important. Such short-distance vessels include car
ferries, hydrofoils, and air cushion vehicles.
з

Car ferries have carried automobiles, passengers, and even railroad


по

passenger cars across harbors, lakes, rivers, and other small bodies of
water for many years. Like cargo ships, ferries have become bigger and
bigger. Today, the biggest ones cross such large bodies of water as the
Adriatic and Baltic seas and the English Channel. The largest car ferries
Ре

can hold up to 800 passengers and 360 cars. They have dining rooms,
lounges, and bars.
Hydrofoils provide high-speed transportation over relatively short
distances. These vessels are mounted on foils (wings that skim near the
surface of the water). The hull remains completely out of the water,
greatly reducing the drag caused by water resistance. Hydrofoils can
reach speeds greater than 80 knots. These vessels have carried passen-
35
gers across New York Harbor, on the Nile River of Egypt, across the
Strait of Messina in Italy, and over other bodies of water in many parts
of the world.
Air cushion vehicles also provide fast trips for short distances. Such
vehicles are also called hovercraft or ground effect machines. Air cush-
ion vehicles have a powerful horizontal fan that produces a strong, con-
tinuous thrust of air between the vehicle and the water or ground beneath
it. The craft, which is driven by airplane-style propellers, rides on this

ТУ
cushion of air and can do almost 70 knots. Some are able to exceed
speeds of 95. These are normally called flare craft. Air cushion vehicles
are especially popular in Great Britain, where they have carried passen-

БН
gers on the River Thames, along the coasts, and cars and passengers
across the English Channel from Dover to Calais in France.
There is an increasing number of small homebuilt and kit-built vehi-
cles used for fun and racing purposes, mainly on inland lakes and rivers
and also in marshy areas and in some estuaries. In spite of alternative
й
over-water vehicles such as wave piercing catamarans, which use less
fuel and can perform most of the hovercraft’s marine tasks, they are still
ри
being developed in the world for both civil and military purposes.

1. What do short-distance vessels include?


2. What are car ferries used for?
о

3. What is a hydrofoil?
ит

4. What is the working principle of an air cushion vehicle?


5. What is the difference between an air cushion vehicle and a flare
craft?
з

6. Where are air cushion vehicles popular?


7. Where are small homebuilt and kit-built vehicles used?
по

8. What are the advantages of wave piercing catamarans?


Ре

VOCABULARY

23. Practice saying the following words.

freighter ['freɪtə] haul [hɔːl]


schedule ['ʃedjuːl] facilities [fə'sɪlətɪ]
hatch [hæʧ] modernize ['mɔd(ə)naɪz]

36
24. Read and memorize the active vocabulary.
Nouns and noun phrases
cell – отсек lifting equipment – грузоподъ-
container ship – контейнерное ёмное оборудование
судно liner – лайнер, рейсовое судно
derrick – грузовая стрела oil tanker – танкер, нефтена-
dockworker – докер ливное судно

ТУ
dry bulk carrier – балкерное opening – проем
судно, сухогруз package – упаковка, упаковоч-
elevator – грузоподъёмник ная тара
engine room control – система petroleum – нефть

БН
управления машинным отде- ramp – слип, трап
лением roll-on/roll-off ship – ролкер,
facilities – оборудование, при- трейлерное судно, трейлеровоз
способления schedule – расписание
framework – структура й trade route – торговый путь
guide rails – направляющие truck trailer – грузовой авто-
ри
полозья мобиль с прицепом
hatch – люк, отсек upriver port – порт, находя-
hold – трюм щийся в верховьях реки
iron ore – железная руда warehouse – склад
о

LASH ship – судно для перевоз- wheel – колесо


ит

ки груженных барж (на борту)


Verbs and verbal phrases
to stack – складывать to haul – перевозить транс,
з

to tow – буксировать, тянуть портировать


по

to roll – катить, везти to load – грузить


to divide into – делить, разде- to measure – измерять
лять to eliminate – устранять, ис-
Ре

ключать
Adjectives
giant – гигантский multipurpose – универсальный
Adverbs
aboard – на борту
in bulk – без упаковки, насыпью, навалом
37
READING

25. Read the text and speak on the classification, types and usage of
general cargo ships.

TEXT C

General Cargo Ships

ТУ
Cargo ships, or freighters, can be divided into four groups, according
to the kind of cargo they carry: general cargo ships, tankers, dry bulk

БН
carriers, and multipurpose ships. General cargo ships carry goods that
are put in packages or that form a package in them. Packaged items in-
clude such products as chemicals, foods, furniture, machinery, motor
vehicles, steel, textiles, etc. Tankers carry petroleum or other liquid car-
go. Dry bulk carriers haul coal, grain, iron ore, and similar products that
й
can be loaded in bulk (loose) on the vessels. Multipurpose ships carry
different classes of cargo – for example, liquid and general cargo – at the
ри
same time.
Cargo ships can also be divided into two types according to the ser-
vice they offer shippers – liner service or tramp service. Cargo liners run
о

on fixed schedules along certain trade routes and charge published rates.
They usually transport only general cargo. Some cargo liners also carry
ит

passengers. Large shipping companies operate cargo liners. Tramp ships


do not sail on regular trade routes or have regular schedules. They wan-
der the sea-lanes like taxicabs and can be hired to haul almost anything,
з

anywhere, anytime. Small shipping companies and private individuals


по

operate these ships.


Today cargo ship has powerful, electrically driven cranes and der-
ricks. It can be loaded at the side and stern as well as at the hatches. It
has automatic engine room controls and automatic navigation equipment.
Ре

Revolutionary versions of the general cargo freighter have also been


developed: container ships, roll-on/roll-off ships, and LASH ships.
The largest container ships measure about 210 m long. They can carry
over a thousand 6-meter containers that hold a total of about 12,000 tons of
cargo. Container ships eliminate the individual hatches, holds, and der-
ricks of the traditional general cargo vessel. The hull of a container ship
is simply an enormous warehouse divided into cells by vertical guide
38
rails. The cells are designed to hold cargo in prepackaged units called
containers. Most containers consist of a standard sized aluminum box
that measures either 20 or 40 ft long. A 40-foot container is about the
size of a railroad car.
Roll-on/roll-off ships take containers mounted on a framework of
wheels like a truck trailer. These ships have a stern opening and side
openings. Dockworkers drive the containers up ramps onto the ships and
then, by way of inboard ramps or elevators, take them to their assigned

ТУ
places. Roll-on/roll-off ships also haul cars, buses, house trailers, trucks,
and any other cargo that can be rolled aboard. The world's largest roll-
on/roll-off ships are 292 m long, can do 18 knots and can carry about

БН
1,100 12-meter containers and about 1,000 cars and trucks.
LASH ships (Lighter Aboard Ship) are huge freighters that carry pre-
loaded seagoing lighters (barges) stacked one upon the other. The light-
ers are loaded at upriver ports with any kind of cargo and then towed by
tugs to the seaport. There, cranes on the carrier ship lift the barges on
й
board. The freighter then carries the barges to a seaport across the ocean.
There, the barges are lowered into the harbor and then towed upstream to
ри
their final ports. LASH ships measure up to 267 meters long and 33 me-
ters wide and can travel at 20 knots. They can hold from 70 to 90 barges,
each of which can carry 370 tons of cargo.
о

All these modern ships need special port facilities. Throughout the
world, ports are being built or modernized to handle these vessels. The
ит

new facilities have giant cranes and other lifting equipment because con-
tainer ships have few or no derricks. In port, the ships chiefly need large
open areas where their thousands of containers can be left while waiting
з

loading or pickup.
по

VOCABULARY
Ре

26. Practice saying the following words.

design [dɪ'zaɪn] dangerous ['deɪnʤ(ə)rəs]


ocean ['əuʃ(ə)n] maneuverable [mə'nuvərəbəl]
salvage ['sælvɪʤ] strengthen ['streŋθ(ə)n]
rescue ['reskjuː] reefer ['riːfə]

39
27. Read and memorize the active vocabulary.

Nouns and noun phrases


assistance of divers – помощь perishable commodities – ско-
водолазов ропортящиеся товары
bow – нос (судна) pilot ship – лоцманское судно
cable layer vessel – кабельное reefer – судно-рефрижератор
(кабелепрокладочное) судно refrigerator ship – рефриже-

ТУ
capability – способность, воз- раторное судно
можность salvage ship – спасательное
foam – пена судно

БН
high seas – море за пределами seiner – сейнер
территориальных вод, от- stranded ship – судно, сидящее
крытое море на мели
inshore fishing craft – прибреж- strengthened hull – усиленный
ное рыболовное судно корпус
lighthouse – маяк
momentum – скорость дви-
й trawler – траулер
tugboat – буксирное судно,
ри
жения буксир
naval fleet – военно-морской
флот
о

Verbs and verbal phrases


ит

to assist – помогать, способ- to offer – предлагать


ствовать to require – требовать
з

Adjectives
по

articulated – сочлененный inseparable – неотделимый,


conventional – традиционный неразрывный
giant – гигантский integrated – комплексный
heavy-lift – большой грузо- invaluable – бесценный, неоце-
Ре

подъёмности нимый
immense – огромный, обшир-
ный

Adverbs
in distress – терпящий бедствие, в бедственном положении

40
READING

28. Read the text and say for what specialized vessels are used.
Translate the text into the Russian language.

TEXT D

Specialized Vessels

ТУ
Many ships and boats have been designed to do particular jobs. Re-
frigerator ships, tugboats, salvage ships, train ferries, icebreakers, ocean-

БН
ographic ships and of course fishing vessels of different types has be-
come an inseparable part of the world fleets.
Fishing vessels range in size from small inshore fishing craft (motor-
powered cobles) to large, freezer-factory ships, they differ in the sup-
posed area of fishing (deep-sea, inshore and middle-water fishing) and
й
the model of operating (trawlers, seiners, drift net vessels, whale facto-
ries, etc.).
ри
Salvage ships are an invaluable part of any naval fleet, and their ca-
pabilities cover many areas. When a ship becomes disabled on the high
seas, a salvage vessel can assist by towing or by using its heavy-lift
о

equipment. In addition, it will remove stranded ships from shorelines,


and offer the assistance of divers for rescue operations. These ships can
ит

also provide firefighting help, using either foam or seawater.


Service ships are designed for a particular kind of job. They include
tugboats, pilot ships, refrigerator vessels, icebreakers, fire-fighting ships,
з

cable layers, floating lighthouses and a lot of other types.


по

Tugboats provide assistance to large vessels heading into port. With-


out their help, the giant ships would find maneuvering in shipping lanes
to be very difficult. In addition, tugboats can tow massive vessels in dis-
tress, bringing them out of dangerous areas. Tugboats are quite strong for
Ре

their size and maneuverable.


There are two groups of tugboats, either Inland (harbour and river
tugs) or Oceangoing (the conventional tug, the notch tug, the articulated
tug and barge (ATB), the integrated tug and barge (ITB)).
An icebreaker is a special purpose ship or boat designed to move and
navigate through ice-covered waters. As for a ship to be considered an
icebreaker it requires three components: a strengthened hull, an ice-
41
clearing shape, and the power to push through, none of which are pos-
sessed by most normal ships. To pass through ice-covered water, an ice-
breaker uses its great momentum and power to drive its bow up onto the
ice, breaking the ice under the immense weight of the ship.
The reefer (or refrigerator ship) is a type of ship typically used to
transport perishable commodities which require temperature-controlled
transportation, mostly fruits, meat, fish, vegetables, dairy products and
other foodstuffs.

ТУ
As for the other ships like cable layers pilot vessels, fire fighting
ships, floating lighthouses their functions are quite obvious.

БН
FOLLOW UP

29. Read the texts of Unit II again, make notes under the following
headings. Then use your notes to talk about Types of Vessels.
й
1. The varieties of boats in modern use.
ри
2. Short-distance vessels.
3. General cargo ships.
4. Specialized vessels.
о
з ит
по
Ре

42
UNIT III
SHIPBUILDING

VOCABULARY
1. Read and memorize the active vocabulary.
Nouns and noun phrases
adjustment – настройка, сбор- mooring line – швартов, при-

ТУ
ка, согласование чальный трос
berth – причал, якорная стоянка rigging – такелаж
bulwark – фальшборт, волнолом rudder – руль

БН
casting – литьё, отливка screw – винт
circuit – цепь seam – шов, стык, спай
drawing – план, чертёж sequence – очерёдность, по-
island – остров следовательность
jig – шаблон, зажимное устрой- shipyard – верфь
ство й
lofting – развертка (трехмер-
sternpost – старнпост
subdivision – подразделение
ри
ного объекта) superstructure – надпалубные
mast – мачта сооружения
mechanization – aвтоматизация wheel – колесо
о

winch – лебёдка
ит

Verbs and verbal phrases


to bobble – качаться, прыгать to keep in touch – поддержи-
по волнам вать связь, быть в контакте
to bolt – прикрутить болтами to knife through – разрезать
з

to drive – приводить в движе- to pitch – испытывать киле-


по

ние, запускать вую качку


to enable smth. to float – оста- to pump out – откачивать
ваться на плаву to roll – испытывать борто-
Ре

to flood – затапливать вую качку


to increase – увеличивать to turn – поворачивать
to jut out – выступать to wedge – закреплять клином
Adjectives
ascending – восходящий, под- bladed – с лопастями
нимающийся descending – нисходящий
auxiliary – вспомогательный
43
geared-drive – приводимый в power-driven – электрический
движение с помощью передачи prefabricated – заводской
hinged – подвешенный watertight – водонепроницае-
longitudinal – продольный мый
2. Read the following international words and guess their meaning.
engine ballast maneuver

ТУ
propeller structure crane
pump modern stabilizing systems
turbine electricity radiotelegraph

БН
3. Match the words and their transcriptions.
surface ['ʤen(ə)reɪtə]
compartment ['enʤɪn]
generator ['sɜːfɪs]
engine й [kɔːz]
cause [naɪf]
ри
gear ['fɜːðə]
knife ['æksɪd(ə)nt]
accident [rɪ'djuːs]
watertight [gɪə]
о

anchor ['wɔːtətaɪt]
ит

further [kəm'pɑːtmənt]
reduce ['æŋkə]
4. Look at the following list of nouns. Write down the corresponding
з

verb in the space provided. The first one has been done for you.
по

NOUN VERB NOUN VERB


connection connect loading _____________
flooding _____________ point _____________
Ре

generator _____________ pumping _____________


knife _____________ stability _____________
equipment _____________ prevention _____________
production _____________ design _____________
reduction _____________ roll _____________
usage _____________ creation _____________
revolver _____________ rotation _____________
44
5. Look at the following list of nouns. Write down the corresponding
adjectives in the space provided. The first one has been done for you.

NOUN ADJECTIVE NOUN ADJECTIVE


electricity electric pumping _____________
diesel _____________ stability _____________
horizon _____________ tooth _____________
power _____________ point _____________

ТУ
6. Match the terms with their definitions.

a) hull c) bow e) rudder

БН
b) helm d) screw f) boiler

1) A tank for generating steam under pressure in a steam engine.


2) A tiller or wheel for steering a ship or boat.
3) A ship's or aircraft's propeller.
й
4) The forward end or part of a vessel.
ри
5) The main body of a ship or other vessel, including the bottom,
sides, and deck but not the masts, superstructure, rigging, engines, and
other fittings.
6) A flat piece hinged vertically near the stern of a boat or ship for
о

steering.
ит

7. Combine the words with the help of the preposition of.

1) a number most modern ships


з

2) the shell metal


по

3) stabilizing systems many larger vessels


4) the upward moved fin the descending side of the ship
5) the bladed wheels of hulls
Ре

6) a pointed bow the turbine


7) seawater as ballast instead cargo
8) a large flat piece a ship
9) the operation horizontal surfaces
10) additional screws loading and unloading cargo

45
8. Match the English and Russian equivalents.

1) watertight shell a) уменьшить крен


2) pointed bow b) вращать лопастное колесо
3) underwater fin c) зубчатое колесо, шестерня
4) merchant ships d) рассекать воду
5) to spin the bladed wheels e) лебёдка с механическим приводом
6) to supply current to a motor f) подводный стабилизатор

ТУ
7) toothed wheel g) заострённый нос
8) to reduce rolling h) выхлопные газы
9) to bobble like a cork i) торговые суда

БН
10) power-driven winches j) водонепроницаемый корпус
11) to knife through the water k) подводить ток к двигателю
12) exhaust fumes l)качаться на воде как пробка

9. Combine the words from the column on the left with the suitable
й
nouns from the column on the right.
ри
1) watertight a) stern
2) pointed b) winch
3) rounded c) shell
о

4) underwater d) wheels
5) descending e) side
ит

6) bladed f) fume
7) propeller g) bow
8) exhaust h) piece of metal
з

9) advanced i) equipment
по

10) flat j) shaft


11) power-driven k) ship
12) radiotelegraph l) fin
Ре

10. Choose the correct word or word-combination.

1) Bulkheads form…
a) compartments b) decks c) shell of a ship

2) … compartments enable a ship to float even with a hole in its hull.


a) pervious b) permeable c) watertight
46
3) Most ships … seawater as ballast.
a) supply b) utilize c) are interested in
4) On turboelectric ships, the turbine turns a generator that produces …
for a motor.
a) electricity b) steam c) fuel
5) On a diesel-electric ship, the engine … a generator that supplies cur-

ТУ
rent to an electric motor connected to the propeller shaft.
a) involves b) uses c) revolves
6) The engine turns a shaft that … out underwater from the stern.

БН
a) projects b) estimates c) hinges
7) When the helm is turned to the left, the rudder and bow … to the left.
a) fall b) rotate c) lean
11. Fill in the words listed below.
Assignment 1
й
ри
a) cargo c) immerse e) longitudinally
b) opposite d) deformation f) withstand
о

The hull of going vessel must 1)_______ water pressure tending to


collapse it from sides, while the heavy masses of 2)_______ together act
ит

from inside. These cargo masses with the hull weight directed vertically
downwards tend to 3)_______ the hull into water, while water sustaining
forces directed vertically upwards tend to force it up. Thus being sub-
з

jected to the diametrically 4)_______ forces the hull tends to bend


по

5)
_______: in addition stresses caused at rolling display tendency to
transverse section 6)_______.
Assignment 2
Ре

a) bending c) machinery e) hull


b) construction d) is f) stresses
When grounding or resting in dry deck the 1)_______ is subjected to
new stresses from 2)_______ and engine room operation. Thus the prin-
cipal stresses to which the hull of a vessel 3)_______ subjected depend
on the longitudinal 4)_______ of the hull overall, its transverse defor-
47
mation and various 5)_______ acting in different parts of a vessel. The
hull 6)_______ therefore must be strong and rigid enough to withstand all
indicated stresses.

12. Make up the Participle I and Participle II from the following


verbs.

To turn, to use, to create, to supply, to screw, to push, to steer, to

ТУ
swing, to discharge, to hold, to load, to produce, to drive, to close, to
float, to design, to pitch, to stabilize, to increase, to carry, to take.

БН
13. Translate the following sentences paying attention to Participle II.

1) It is divided into a number of horizontal surfaces called decks.


2) Each compartment has special doors that, when closed, make it
watertight.
й
3) Steam produced in the boilers spins the bladed wheels of the turbine.
4) Hulls have a pointed bow so they can knife swiftly through the water.
ри
5) Vessels propelled by diesel engines are called motor-ships.
6) Power-driven winches also operate the cranes for loading and un-
loading cargo.
о

14. Translate the following sentences paying attention to Participle I.


ит

1) Bulkheads are walls built between the decks, forming compart-


ments.
з

2) Most modern ships also use stabilizing systems to reduce rolling.


по

3) The fin moves upward on the descending side of the ship and
downward on the ascending side and so reduces the roll.
4) When the sailor at the helm turns the wheel to the right, the rudder
moves to the right, causing the stern to swing left and the bow to swing right.
Ре

5) The rudder is connected to the helm (steering wheel) on the ship's


bridge.

15. Translate the following sentences paying attention to Infinitive.

1) Watertight compartments enable a ship to float even with a hole in


its hull.
48
2) The overall shape of a hull is designed to make the ship as stable as
possible.
3) A ship must not roll (rock from side to side) or pitch (rock from
front to back) too much.
4) Most modern ships also use stabilizing systems to reduce rolling.
5) On a geared-drive ship, the engine works through gears to turn the
propeller.
6) Other parts and equipment of a ship include funnels (smokestacks)

ТУ
to discharge smoke and exhaust fumes, an anchor on the left and right
sides of the bow, and enough lifeboats to hold all persons on board.
7) Modern ships have power-driven winches to raise or lower the anchors

БН
and to bring in or let out the mooring lines used to tie vessels at a pier.
16. Translate the sentences. Find the examples with the Gerund.
1) Closing the doors will trap the water there and prevent it from
flooding other compartments.
й
2) Most modern ships also use stabilizing systems to reduce rolling.
3) Power-driven winches also operate the cranes for loading and un-
ри
loading cargo.
17. Discuss these questions.
о

1) On what stage of construction are the problems of hull safety dis-


cussed?
ит

2) What engines do the most modern ships have? How do they work?
3) Whether you know the most important parts of the ship equip-
ment?
з
по

READING
18. Read the text and translate it into Russian.
Ре

TEXT A
Ship Structure
The chief parts of a ship are the hull, the engines, the propellers, and
the rudder.
The hull is the watertight shell of a ship. It is divided into a number of
horizontal surfaces called decks. Bulkheads are walls built between the

49
decks, forming compartments. Each compartment has special doors that,
when closed, make it watertight. If water floods one compartment be-
cause of an accident, closing the doors will trap the water there and pre-
vent it from flooding other compartments. Watertight compartments en-
able a ship to float even with a hole in its hull.
The deck at the top of the hull is called the main deck. Several more
decks may be above it. All the structures above the main deck make up
the superstructure.

ТУ
Hulls have a pointed bow so they can knife swiftly through the water.
Most hulls also have a rounded stern, which helps the water close
smoothly behind as the ship cuts through the water. The overall shape of

БН
a hull is designed to make the ship as stable as possible. A ship must not
roll (rock from side to side) or pitch (rock from front to back) too much.
Most modern ships also use stabilizing systems to reduce rolling. One
such system has a horizontal underwater fin on each side of the hull. The
fin moves upward on the descending side of the ship and downward on
й
the ascending side and so reduces the roll.
о ри
з ит
по

Pic. 1. Elements of Hull Structure:


1 – bow; 2 – forecastle; 3 – stem;4 – life-rails; 5 – hatch cover; 6 – bridge; 7 – wheel
house; 8 – butt;9 – seams; 10 – side; 11 – upper deck; 12 – bottom; 13 – sternpost;
14 – stern; 15 – poop; 16 – hatch coaming; 17 – bulwark
Ре

To increase stability further, ships carry extra weight called ballast.


Without ballast, an empty cargo ship would bobble about in the ocean
like a cork. Most ships use seawater as ballast. As a ship takes on cargo,
the ballast water is pumped out.
The engines of most ships are steam turbines, gas turbines, or diesel
engines. The largest and fastest ships have steam turbines. Steam pro-
50
duced in the boilers spins the bladed wheels of the turbine. The turbine,
through a series of gears (toothed wheels), drives the propeller shaft and
makes the propeller revolve. On turboelectric ships, the turbine turns a
generator that produces electricity for a motor. The motor, in turn, drives the
propeller. Almost all merchant ships use oil as the fuel to heat the boilers
that create the steam. On nuclear-powered ships, a nuclear reactor creates
the steam. Many of the most advanced ships have gas turbines. Gas turbines
work much like steam turbines but use hot gases instead of steam.

ТУ
Vessels propelled by diesel engines are called motor-ships. They have
either geared-drive or diesel-electric machinery. On a geared-drive ship,
the engine works through gears to turn the propeller. On a diesel-electric

БН
ship, the engine turns a generator that supplies current to an electric mo-
tor connected to the propeller shaft. The propellers, also called screws,
move a ship through the water. The engine turns a shaft that juts out un-
derwater from the stern. The propeller is bolted to the end of the shaft.
Most propellers have four blades. As a propeller turns, it screws itself
й
through the water and so pushes the ship forward. Most small ships have
one propeller. Many larger vessels have two propellers, and very big
ри
ships have four. Additional screws increase a ship's power and make the
vessel easier to maneuver.
The rudder is a large flat piece of metal that steers a ship. It is hinged
о

to the stern and so can be swung like a door. The rudder is connected to
the helm (steering wheel) on the ship's bridge. When the sailor at the
ит

helm turns the wheel to the right, the rudder moves to the right, causing
the stern to swing left and the bow to swing right. When the helm is
turned to the left, the rudder and bow swing to the left.
з

Other parts and equipment of a ship include funnels (smokestacks) to


по

discharge smoke and exhaust fumes, an anchor on the left and right sides
of the bow, and enough lifeboats to hold all persons on board. Modern
ships have power-driven winches to raise or lower the anchors and to
bring in or let out the mooring lines used to tie vessels at a pier. Power-
Ре

driven winches also operate the cranes for loading and unloading cargo.
Radiotelegraph equipment keeps ships in constant touch with the rest of
the world.

51
COMPREHENSION CHECK
19. Decide whether the following statements are true or false accord-
ing to the text.
1) The hull is the permeable shell of a ship.
2) The overall shape of a hull is designed to make the ship as steady
as possible.

ТУ
3) Stabilizing systems are used to increase rolling.
4) The fin moves upward on the ascending side of the ship and
downward on the descending side.
5) Steam turbines work similar to gas turbines and they use steam.

БН
6) Vessels propelled by diesel engines have geared-drive and diesel-
electric machinery.
7) The rudder causes the stern to swing left or right and the bow
swings right or left.
8) An anchor is either on the left or right side of the bow.
й
9) Power-driven winches raise or lower the anchors, bring in or let
out the mooring lines and operate the cranes for loading and unloading
ри
cargo.
10) The world is in constant touch with vessels by means of radiotel-
egraph equipment.
о

20. Complete the following sentences according to the text.


ит

1) The hull is divided into ...


2) The main deck is …
з

3) A rounded stern helps …


4) A ship must not … or … too much.
по

5) A horizontal fin is located ...


6) The engines of most ships are ...
7) …move a ship through the water.
Ре

8) Additional screws increase … and make the vessel easier ...


9) Funnels (smokestacks) are used to …
10) … are used to hold all persons on board.
21. Answer the following questions.
1) Do doors of each compartment are waterproof? Why? Why not?
2) What makes up the superstructure?
52
3) Why do hulls have a pointed bow?
4) Why do ships carry ballast?
5) What does steam produced in the boilers spin?
6) What does the turbine drive?
7) What type of fuel is used to create steam on almost all merchant
ships / on nuclear-powered ships?
8) How many propellers do different ships have?
9) Where is the propeller bolted to?

ТУ
10) What is a rudder?

22. What parts of the text can you define? Do they correspond to the

БН
paragraphs? Name each part.

1. ________________ 4. ________________
2. ________________ 5. ________________
3. ________________ ... ________________
й
23. Find key words and phrases which best express the general
ри
meaning of each part.

24. Make a short summary of Text A. Do it according to the follow-


о

ing plan.
ит

1. The title of the text is … .


2. The text is devoted to … .
3. It consists of … (parts / passages).
з

4. The first passage deals with … .


по

5. The second (third, forth, etc.) passage deals with … .


6. The main idea of the text is … .
Ре

VOCABULARY

25. Practice saying the following words.

engineering [ˌenʤɪ'nɪərɪŋ] representative [ˌreprɪ'zentətɪv]


purchasing ['pɜːʧəsɪŋ] chief [ʧiːf]
specification [ˌspesəfɪ'keɪʃ(ə)n] technological [ˌteknə'lɔʤɪk(əl)]
53
requirement [rɪ'kwaɪəmənt] berth [bəːθ]
completion [kəm'pliːʃ(ə)n] sequence ['siːkwən(t)s]
joint [ʤɔɪnt] volumetric [ˌvɔlju'metrɪk]

26. Read and memorize the active vocabulary.

Nouns and noun phrases


advisability – выгодность, це- launching – спуск на воду

ТУ
лесообразность lofting – развёртка (трёхмер-
assembling – сборка ного объекта)
building berth – стапель, ко- number of the ships in the series –

БН
раблестроительная верфь количество выпущенных судов
degree of completion – уровень этого класса
завершённости placing – установка
delivery – доставка requirement – требование
design stage – стадия проек- specification – техническая
тирования
extent – степень, размер
й характеристика
template drawings – шаблонные
ри
fitting out – оснащение чертежи
installation – установка
о

Verbs and verbal phrases


to alter – изменять to float out – держаться на
ит

to approve – одобрять, утвер- плаву


ждать to lay off – выкладывать
to be agreed – быть согласован- to mark off – размечать, рас-
з

ным краивать
по

to decide upon in advance – to perform – выполнять


решать заранее to satisfy – удовлетворять

Adjectives
Ре

complicated – завершенный purchasing – платёжный


dispatched – отправленный volumetric – объёмный, волю-
particular – особый метрический

54
READING

27. Read the text and answer the questions below.

TEXT B

Modern Principles of Shipbuilding

ТУ
Ships are extremely complicated engineering structures and high re-
quirements are made of the materials and technological processes em-
ployed in ship construction.

БН
In modern shipbuilding, the principal technological problems in con-
structing a ship are solved in the design stage. The materials and struc-
ture of the hull must satisfy the technological requirements. The follow-
ing must be decided upon in advance: 1) the optimum subdivision of the
hull into sections (or blocks); 2) the method of assembling the ship on
й
the building berth; 3) the sequence in which the hull is to be assembled
and welded in every stage of construction; 4) the extent to which sec-
ри
tions (or blocks) should be completed before placing them in position on
the building berth, so that the optimum amount of work is performed
beforehand; 5) the combined sequence of hull and fitting operations;
о

6) the degree of completion of the ship before launching; 7) the amount


and sequence of work left to be done after launching (afloat); 8) the eco-
ит

nomic advisability of using a particular technology for constructing a


ship depending on the number of ships in the series.
The basic work of shipbuilding is performed in the 'following se-
з

quence: 1) the lines of the ship are laid-off (full size) to make the tem-
по

plates, patterns, etc.; 2) the hull components are marked off on the metal,
or set out on template drawings; 3) the hull components are fabricated;
4) the flat elements are assembled and welded; 5) the flat and volumetric
sections are assembled and welded, and the necessary installation work
Ре

on them is done; 6) the sections are fitted up together on the building


berth, the welds made, and the installation work in the region of the butt
joints is done; 7) the structure is tested for leaks; 8) the ship is launched
or floated out; 9) fitting out is performed afloat (the amount of this work
should be reduced to a minimum); 10) delivery trials are performed.
At modern shipyards, lofting operations and the prefabrication of hull
parts are done with the aid of computers and electronically controlled
55
machines, which means improvement in the quality of the work done at
every stage in the building of a ship, also reduction in work times, labour
and costs.
Special technological offices are organized at shipyards for working
out these technological processes. These specifications, which are also
called the "technological processes", are despatched to the shops, which
must comply with them. These documents must indicate all the opera-
tions in the technological process, the methods by which the work is to

ТУ
be done and the sequence for its performance, the jigs and tools to be
used, the special training required by the workers, the labour required for
operations, the time which they should take, and where they should be

БН
performed, also the basic delivery requirements. The technological pro-
cesses must be agreed in advance with the technical staffs of the shops
and design office, representatives from the purchasing organization, and
the Technical Inspection Department of the shipyard. Once it has been
approved, the technological process cannot even be partly altered by the
й
shops unless this is agreed with the technological office and approved by
the chief engineer.
ри
1) Why are so high demands made to the process of construction a
о

ship?
2) What must be decided at the preparation stage for optimal devel-
ит

oping in production of a ship?


3) Is there any order of performance of a ship?
4) What improved the quality of the work done at every stage in the
з

building of a ship?
по

5) What is meant under the term "technological process"?


6) What is organized at shipyards for working out technological pro-
cess?
7) What do the documents produced by the technological office in-
Ре

clude?
8) Who must the technological processes be agreed with and ap-
proved by?
9) Can the technological process be changed by the shops in working
order?

56
VOCABULARY

28. Practice saying the following words.

rigidity [rɪ'ʤɪdətɪ] superstructure ['s(j)uːpəˌstrʌkʧə]


accomplish [ə'kɔmplɪʃ] longitudinal [ˌlɔnʤɪ'tjuːdɪn(ə)l]
transverse [trænz'vɜːs] arrangement [ə'reɪnʤmənt]
stringer ['strɪŋə] girder ['gɜːdə]

ТУ
bulkhead ['bʌlkhed] guarantee [ˌgær(ə)n'tiː]
secure [sɪ'kjuə] partial ['pɑːʃ(ə)l]

29. Read and memorize the active vocabulary.

БН
Nouns and noun phrases
aft – корма keelson – продольная балка, при-
afterpeak – отсек в кормовой креплённая к килю для обеспече-
части ния прочности и жёсткости

положение, устройство
й
arrangement – размещение, рас- promenade deck – прогулочная
палуба
ри
bow – нос sequence – очерёдность, по-
carling – опорная балка настила следовательность
и вокруг люков shell – кожух, оболочка
о

forecastle – бак, полубак, но- stem – корма


совой кубрик sternpost – ахтерштевень
ит

forepeak – форпик (носовой stringer – особо прочная бал-


отсек на судах, расположен- ка, металлическая конструк-
ный непосредственно у фор- ция, проходящая через весь
з

штевня) корпус корабля для придания


по

hatch – люк устойчивости и прочности


hull – корпус transverse bulkhead – попереч-
keel – основной продольный ная переборка
Ре

структурный элемент судна, к trolley – тележка, устрой-


которому прикрепляется кар- ство для передвижения
кас, уходит в воду для обеспе-
чения боковой стабильности

Verbs and verbal phrases


to accomplish – завершать, со- to cover – покрывать
вершенствовать, выполнять
57
to introduce – представлять, to provide – обеспечить
вводить to secure – обеспечивать, га-
to place in position – устанавли- рантировать
вать в требуемое положение to stiffen – закреплять
to prefabricate – изготовлять to subdivide – подразделять
заводским способом

Adjectives

ТУ
additional – дополнительный permanent – постоянный
entire – целый prefabricated – построенный
external – внешний заводским способом

БН
forward – передний subsequent – следующий, по-
longitudinal – продольный следовательный
lower – нижний transverse – поперечный
middle – средний upper – верхний
partial – частичный

Adverbs
й
ри
amidships – в центре судна transversely – поперёк
downwards – вниз upwards – вверх
previously – предварительно
о
ит

READING

30. Read the text and speak on three kinds of hull construction, their
з

advantages and disadvantages.


по

TEXT C

Hull Works
Ре

In any kind of vessel the principal problem is the hull construction


corresponding to strength and rigidity requirements.
The hull is subdivided into the following main parts: hull, superstruc-
tures, subdivision members (compartments, castings).
Properly the hull consists of the framing and shell. The shell is subdi-
vided into a bottom shell, side shell and deck plating. The framing and
58
the shell are the main structural members of the hull. They include the
following members: bottom framing and shell; side framing and shell;
deck framing and deck plating.
Typical superstructures are: 1) The forecastle in the forward part of
the ship which begins from stem. 2) The bridge is located amidships to
protect the ship from getting water through openings in the machine and
other castings. 3) The poop is a superstructure in the aft to protect the
rudder arrangement and to cover the machine and boiler castings if they

ТУ
are arranged in the stern.

БН
й
ри
Pic. 2. General arrangement of framing:
1 – deck; 2 – transverse bulkhead; 3 – side frame; 4 – stem; 5 – forepeak; 6 – side
о

stringer; 7 – double bottom; 8 – floor; 9 – afterpeak; 10 – sternpost; 11 – hatch;


12 – carling; 13 – deck beam
ит

The space between all these superstructures of the upper deck is usu-
ally protected by with bulwarks.
з

Subdivision members of the ship serve to provide unsinking of the


по

ship, fire- proof safety and the strength of the ship. Subdivision members
are accomplished with the arrangement of decks and partial decks and
with the arrangement of transverse and longitudinal bulkheads. They
Ре

make compartments of the two kinds: decks of the hull and decks of the
superstructures. Decks of the hull are as follows: upper deck, middle
deck, lower deck and platform.
The decks of superstructure are the following: bridge deck, lower
promenade deck, upper promenade deck and boat deck.
Taking into consideration all this the hull construction of a modern
vessel is composed of (1) longitudinal framework, keel, keelsons, string-

59
ers, deck girders, longitudinal bulkheads, hull and deck plating; and (2)
transverse framework, beams, transverse bulkheads, wooden deck, etc.
As for the external shell plating and deck plating they also stiffen the
hull transversely. At interconnections of longitudinals and transversals
additional ties are introduced such as in the form of brackets and straps.
Rigidity stability and permanent depth of hull is guaranteed by floors,
side plating longitudinal and transverse bulkheads as well as by pillars.
Local rigidity at the ends of the hull is also secured by stem and stern.

ТУ
There are different methods of hull shaping.
1) Pyramid method of building up hulls from prefabricated sections.

БН
й
о ри

Pic. 3. Pyramid method:


ит

I–V11 – pyramid Nos.; the sections for pyramids I, III, V and VII are shaded

Building up the hull on the building berth starts with the assembly
з

and welding of the first pyramid, with the sections in the subsequent pyr-
amids butt-assembled to it. The entire hull is assembled and welded suc-
по

cessively forward and astern from the centre of the prefabricated bottom
section of the first pyramid, and to the sides and upwards.
Ре

2) The "island" method of building up the hull froт sections.


When this method is used, sections are simultaneously placed in posi-
tion at two or three zones along the hull (for instance, at the midship,
bow, and stern zones).

60
Pic. 4. The “island” method:

ТУ
А, В and С–the stern, midship and bow islands; the sections for the initial pyramids
in each island arc shown by the criss-cross shading

The difficulty of building a hull by this method lies in joining the is-

БН
lands together. If the islands are assembled on movable trolleys, they can
be joined together by moving the trolleys. If the islands are assembled on
keelblocks, connecting sections should be installed along the entire pe-
rimeter of the hull to join the islands together.
й
3) The block method of hull construction.
о ри
ит

Pic. 5. The block method:


з

I–VI – hull blocks Nos., in the sequence of installing


по

In the block method the "blocks" (completed parts of the hull between
sections parallel to the midship plane) are assembled from previously
fabricated sections in which installation work has already been done. The
Ре

finished blocks are despatched to the building berth, where they are butt-
assembled; the installation work in the regions of the butt joints is then
completed.

61
VOCABULARY

30. Practice saying the following words.

partition[pɑː'tɪʃ(ə)n] insulation [ˌɪnsjə'leɪʃ(ə)n]


commence [kə'men(t)s] rudder ['rʌdə]
piping ['paɪpɪŋ] machinery [mə'ʃiːn(ə)rɪ]
liquid ['lɪkwɪd] temperature ['temp(ə)rəʧə]

ТУ
pressure ['preʃə] awning ['ɔːnɪŋ]
tarpaulin [tɑː'pɔːlɪn] curtain ['kɜːt(ə)n]
purpose ['pɜːpəs] receive [rɪ'siːv]

БН
31. Read and memorize the active vocabulary.

Nouns and noun phrases


accommodation – жилое по- fitting out work – пригонка,
мещение
assembling – сборка
й установка
foundation – основание, фун-
ри
auxiliary machinery – вспомо- дамент
гательное оборудование frame – каркас, ферма
awning – навес, тент grinder or milling machines –
о

boat handling gear – механизм шлифовальное оборудование


(устройство) управления ко- housing – ниша, паз, футляр
ит

раблём insulation – изоляция


boat handling gear – механизм integrating – объединение, ин-
управления судном тегрирование
з

boiler room – бойлерная labour – работа, объём работ


по

boiler shop – бойлерный цех, laying the cables – прокладка


отсек кабеля
bracing – держатель, крепле- life-jacket case – спасатель-
ние, элемент жёсткости ный жилет
Ре

bracing – крепёж light partitions – лёгкие перего-


bracket – скоба, зажим родки
cable boxes – короб для проводов mooring – постановка на
devicе – прибор, устройство якорь, швартовы
evaporator – выпариватель mooring equipment – шварто-
fitting out – подгонка, оснаще- вое оборудование
ние, монтаж, сборка
62
outlets – выпускное или выход- sail-making work – навигаци-
ное отверстие онные работы
partitions – перегородка, пере- spacing pieces – просторные
борка поверхности
piping – система труб stepping the mast – установле-
plant – оборудование, уста- ние мачты
новка, агрегат support – опора
propulsive machinery – дви- tarpaulin – брезент, парусина

ТУ
жущее оборудование to file to a checking templates –
quarter – помещение, отсек регистрация контрольных об-
receiving and transmitting de- разцов

БН
vices – принимающие и пере- working units – рабочие блоки
дающие устройства сalculations – расчёты
rigging – такелаж, снасти

Verbs and verbal phrases


to apply – применять й
to carry out – проводить, за-
to install – устанавливать
to involve – включать (в себя)
ри
вершать to machine – обрабатывать
to commence – начинать to mount – монтировать
to cover – покрывать to receive – получать
о

to fasten – крепить to separate – отделять


to file – отделывать, вклады- to set in position – устанавли-
ит

вать вать на место


to fit up – оснащать, монти- to simplify – упрощать
ровать to speed up – ускорять
з

to fix – фиксировать to tow – тянуть, буксировать


по

to handle – обращаться с ч.-л., to transmit – перемещать


регулировать to treat – обрабатывать
to insert – вставлять, вклады- to weld – приваривать
вать
Ре

Adjectives
portable – портативный, пе- excellent – прекрасный
реносной completed – завершённый
pneumatic – пневматический immense – громадный
standing – статический moving – движущийся
running – подвижный
63
auxiliary – второстепенный, common – общий, обычный
вспомогательный certain – определённый
propulsive – приводящий в дви-
жение

Adverbs
merely – только, просто; единственно

ТУ
READING

БН
32. Translate the text into the Russian language.

TEXT D

Installations
й
1) Hull Installation Work:
ри
The term "installation or fitting out work" means the combination of
very wide range of different operations included in equipping and fitting
out ships, performed after the principle hull structures have been assem-
о

bled and welded. This work includes: the installation of light partitions,
bulkheads and various types of bracing, the painting and insulation of the
ит

ship, the installation of the machinery, systems and devices, the equip-
ment of the accommodation and quarters, etc.
The first stage in the work of installation on a ship is installing fit-
з

tings in the sections. This enables the work to be carried out by parallel
по

method, with the installation work commenced at an early stage in build-


ing the ship.
With modern methods of shipbuilding the installation of fittings (rud-
der, anchor and hoisting equipment, boat handling gear, towing and
Ре

mooring equipment, etc.) begins while sections are being fitted up and
welded, and the most of the work is performed on the building berth.
Installing of the systems on a ship includes piping, machinery and in-
struments for moving liquids, steam or air, and controlling their tempera-
ture, pressure and so on.
The rigging and sailmaking work is done by the rigging shop as fol-
lows: making and installing the standing and running rigging, stepping
64
the masts, assembling the anchor fittings and installing the rigging of the
boat handing gear.
The sail making work consists of producing awnings, tarpaulins and
sails, covers for deck machinery, gear and instruments, flags, life-jacket
cases, stair carpets, curtains, etc., and installing all these on board ship.
When all metal parts have been assembled, welded and fitted they are
specially treated to protect them against corrosion.
2) Electrical Installation:

ТУ
Every year the amount of electrical equipment on all types of ship,
and the amount of electrical installation work performed during their
construction, are increasing. Automatic control and mechanization are

БН
developing rapidly, and there are excellent prospects for using electric
drives on a large scale and for the complete electrification of machinery
and fittings on ships.
Tens of kilometers, and in large ships hundreds of kilometers, of ca-
ble are used for connecting up the great number of different types of
й
plant, apparatus, receiving and transmitting devices and instruments at
different points on board ship. Immense numbers of adapters, bridges,
ри
panels, brackets, packing boxes, cable boxes and pipes, installation
frameworks, and different types of fastening device have to be made and
installed for the purpose of laying the cables. A great numbers of founda-
о

tions, frames, brackets, supports, outlets, etc., also have to be made and
installed to take the different types of plant, apparatus, receiving and
ит

transmitting devices and instruments. Tens of thousands of cable ends


have to be separated, marked, fixed, channeled, insulated and earthed in
order to create the closed electrical circuits. The total amount of work
з

involved in installing the electrical equipment now amounts to about


по

10% of all the work in building a ship.


3) Installation of the Auxiliary Machinery:
According to the method by which it is installed, the auxiliary ma-
chinery can be subdivided into four categories:
Ре

1) machinery supplied to the ship in the form of individual complete


assemblies; these have to be aligned on the ship and fixed to the founda-
tions on wedges (for instance, the steering machinery); 2) machinery in-
cluding power and working units in the same housing (for instance, tur-
bine and electric pumps); 3) machinery mounted on one foundation
frame by means of which it is connected to the ship's foundations (diesel

65
generators and compressors, etc.); 4) machinery with no moving parts
(ejector pumps, filters, evaporators, etc.).
Before the auxiliary machinery is installed a check is carried out to
ensure that the foundation for the machinery is correctly positioned rela-
tive to the base planes and that the dimensions of the supporting surfaces
correspond to those shown on the drawings.
The supporting surfaces of the foundations for machinery in the first
and second categories are machined using portable (pneumatic) grinders

ТУ
or milling machines, and are filed to a checking template in the same
way as the foundations for shaft-line bearings or the main propulsive
machinery.

БН
Machinery of the third and fourth categories is usually mounted on
hardwood spacing pieces (oak, ash or teak), and the supporting surfaces
of the foundations are not machined, merely dressed. The wooden spac-
ing pieces made in the shop, with an allowance for adjustment on the
spot. The spacing pieces are fitted to the dressed supporting surface of
й
the foundation and set in position on studs.
4) Installation of Boilers:
ри
The principle of integrating into combinations greatly reduces the la-
bour and time required for installing boilers. To simplify and speed up
the installation of boilers a considerable amount of work which was pre-
о

viously performed on the building berth or while prefabricating the


blocks is now performed in the boiler shop (or at the boiler making
ит

works); this includes the adjustment and installation of fittings and fire-
boxes; the installation of the piping in the boiler; the installation of base
plates, insulation of the boilers, etc. The boilers are supplied to the ship
з

fully fitted out for installation, i.e., in the form of integrated combina-
по

tions of equipment. Installation of the main boilers can commence as


soon as the basic hull welding is complete and the watertightness tests
have been made in the boiler room region.
New methods of installing water tube boilers as integrated combina-
Ре

tions of equipment have therefore been worked out; with these methods
there is no need for machining the supporting surfaces of the boiler
foundations: the boiler is installed using an intermediate frame or inter-
mediate parts in the foundation. In this case the boiler foundation pedes-
tals are as it were separated into two parts in depth; the upper parts of
these pedestals are connected together by box girders into a separate
frame called the "intermediate frame". When the intermediate frame has
66
been assembled and welded, the supporting surfaces of its pedestals are
machined. The frame is now transported to the assembly stand, and when
it has been checked and fixed in position the boiler is fully assembled on
it. The boiler supports are finally fixed to the frame pedestals, and spac-
ing pieces are inserted into the gaps at the moving supports in order to
fix their position.
At present the principle of integrating into combinations is applied to
auxiliary machinery and the apparatus and devices associated with it,

ТУ
which are mounted on the same foundation frame; the principle is also
applied to integrating machinery and devices in common housings. Cal-
culations have shown that, in certain cases, the integration of auxiliary

БН
machinery on common foundation frames reduces the weight of the
foundations by 20–25 %, reduces the amount of labour required for their
fabrication by 75 %, and reduces the labour required for their installation
on board ship by 60–70 %; the amount of piping used is also reduced.

FOLLOW UP
й
ри
33. Read the texts of Unit III again, make notes under the following
headings. Then use your notes to talk about Shipbuilding.
о

1. Ship structure.
ит

2. Methods of hull shaping.


3. Devices to be installed.
з
по
Ре

67
UNIT IV
MODERN WORLDWIDE SHIPBUILDING INDUSTRY

VOCABULARY

1. Read and memorize the active vocabulary.

ТУ
Nouns and noun phrases
capacity – мощность interaction – взаимодействие
certification – сертификация investment – вложение

БН
commitment – поручение. обя- joint venture – совместное
зательство предприятие
condition – состояние, условие leadership – лидерство, руко-
creation – создание водство
elaboration – усовершенство- patronage – покровительство
вание, детальное уточнение й
enterprise – предприятие, фир-
realization – получение, реали-
зация
ри
ма, компания restriction – ограничение
expansion – расширение satisfaction – соответствие,
facility – средство, устрой- удовлетворение
о

ство treatment – обработка


ит

Verbs and verbal phrases


to affect – влиять, воздейство- to lease – cдавать в аренду
вать to meet the needs – соответ-
з

to conclude – заключать, за- ствовать требованиям


по

вершать to represent – представлять,


to consider – считать, пола- изображать
гать, рассматривать to strive – стараться, прила-
to draw up – выпрямляться, гать усилия
Ре

вытягиваться to tug – тянуть, буксировать


to ensure – обеспечивать, га-
рантировать

Adjectives
advanced – усовершенство- appropriate – соответствую-
ванный щий, подходящий
68
bordering – приграничный navigable – судоходный
dramatic – яркий, впечатляю- neighboring – прилегающий, со-
щий седний
foreign – посторонний, ино- significant – значительный, важ-
странный ный
intergovernmental – межпра- speedy – скоростной
вительственный

ТУ
Geographical names
Rechitsa – Речица
Mozyr – Мозырь

БН
Pripyat – Припять
WestDvina – Западная Двина
the Dnepr-Bug Canal – Днепро-Бугский канал
the "Belarusian Inspection of River Register" – Инспекция речного ре-
естра Беларуси
й
Belarusian River Navigation Inspection – Судоходная речная Инспек-
ция Беларуси
ри
"Sea Belarusian Steam Navigation and Belarusian Navigable Company" –
Судоходная и навигационная морская компания Беларуси
о

2. Read the following international words and guess their meaning.


ит

network design company


product submarine financial
formation realization policy
з

effective passenger optimal


по

service export pontoon


crane portal ministry
excavation profession legal base
commercial transit patronagе
Ре

3. Match the words and their transcriptions.

enterprise [sɪg'nɪfɪkənt]
science [ə'prəuprɪət]
ensure [haɪ'drɔːlɪk]
69
suburb [ˌsɪm(ə)l'teɪnɪəs]
sluice [sluːs]
hydraulic [ɪn'ʃuə]
significant ['saɪən(t)s]
appropriate ['sʌbɜːb]
commercial [kə'mɜːʃ(ə)l]
simultaneous ['entəpraɪz]
issue ['ɪʃuː]

ТУ
4. Look at the following list of nouns. Write down the corresponding
verb in the space provided. The first one has been done for you.

БН
NOUN VERB NOUN VERB
connection connect realization ___________
aim _____________ provision ___________
handling _____________ organization ___________
operation
adoption
й
_____________
_____________
interaction
excavation
___________
___________
ри
creation _____________ installation ___________
consideration _____________ conclusion ___________
о

5. Match the terms with their definitions.


ит

a) maritime c) repair plant e) capacity


b) navigation d) passenger f) fleet
з

1) Availability of technical facilities, qualified workers, proper mate-


по

rials and enough orders to produce ships at a shipbuilding plant.


2) A person travelling by any kind of transport(train, ship).
3) A general number of ships and boats belonging to any country or
nation.
Ре

4) Possibility of transporting any cargoes or passengers on water.


5) Special places where a ship can be technically served, painted, re-
stored and rebuilt.
6) Professions linked with a work on sea (i.e. sail-making work).

70
6. Combine the words with the help of the preposition of.

1) a network a) vessels
2) carrying out the program b) population demands
3) satisfaction c) passengers
4) building and repair d) the rivers for navigation
5) transportation of e) developing sea shipping
6) million tons f) repair plants

ТУ
7) significant efforts in the g) sea and inland transport de-
field velopment
8) the capacity h) river navigable routes

БН
9) the required depth i) products
10) wide range j) cargo

7. Combine the words from the column on the left with the suitable
nouns from the column on the right.

1) paint
й a) mat
ри
2) bordering b) pontoon
3) concrete c) states
4) waterside d) tank
о

5) speedy e) facilities
6) bottom-deepening f) passenger ships
ит

7) hydraulic g) sluices
8) navigation h) installations
9) dead i) professions
з

10) trade j) weight


по

11) maritime k) condition


12) technical l) fleet
13) intergovernmental m) base
14) treaty-legal n) agreement
Ре

15) sea-shipping o) navigation


16) inland p) department
17) Belarusian q) floating and portal cranes
18) high-performance r) patronage

71
8. Match the English and Russian equivalents.

1) a river navigable route a) толкачи и тягачи


2) water transport enterprises b) широкий спектр продукции
3) wide range of products c) речной судоходный путь
4) high-performance cranes d)стадия предварительной об-
5) displacement работки
6) pushed and tugged rolls e) краны с высокой производи-

ТУ
7)pre-treatment process тельностью работы
8) underutilized shipyards f) предприятия водного транс-
порта

БН
g) судоверфи с низким коэффи-
циентом использования, неза-
груженные
h) водоизмещение

й
9. Fill in the words listed below.
ри
a) vessels e) competition i) freight
b) transports f) development j) to
c) shipyard g) according k) cargo
о

d) authorities h) sea l) year


ит

Nowadays Belarus has a quite good 1)_______ base. Experts estimate


that 2)_______ flows from this country with use of sea transport exceed
15 million tonnes a 3)_______. Part of them are directed 4)_______ the
з

Baltic Sea, part to the Black Sea, and today between ports of the coun-
по

tries surrounding Belarus there is a serious 5)_______ for serving the


Belarus export, namely among Kaliningrad (Russia), Ventspils (Lithua-
nia), Klaipeda (Latvia), Nikolayev (Ukraine).
Though Belarus is not a 6)_______ state, its government has accepted
Ре

the program of 7)_______ of sea transport. 8)_______ to this program 10


«river – sea» type 9)_______ are to be built. The vessel "Nadezhda" has
already been constructed at the 10)_______ in Gomel-city. This vessel
11)
_______ potash fertilizers to Nikolaev. Belarus 12)_______ plan to use
their fleet for work on Danube routes.

72
10. Translate the sentences paying attention to the Complex Subject
and the Complex Object.
1) Navigation routes are known to go along the rivers Sozh, Berezina,
Dnepr, Pripyat, Neman, West Dvina and the Dnepr-Bug Canal. 2) Their
main tasks are considered to be (a) elaboration and carrying out the pro-
gram of sea and inland transport development; (b) organization, for-
mation, realization of economic and science and technical policy. 3) Our

ТУ
own sea trade fleet expects at least two vessels of 25 thousand tons dis-
placement to be either leased or bought. 4) As for the Navy develop-
ment, the President stated Belarus to be considering «taking one surface
ship and a submarine under Belarusian patronage.»

БН
11. Complete the sentences with Complex Subject.
1) Navigation routes go along the Navigation routes are known to go
rivers Sozh, Berezina, Dnepr, Pri- along the rivers Sozh, Berezina,
pyat, Neman, West Dvina and the
й Dnepr, Pripyat, Neman, West
Dnepr-Bug Canal. We know it. Dvina and the Dnepr-Bug Canal.
ри
2) The Water Transport enterprises The main tasks of the Water
consider that their main tasks are Transport enterprises ________ to
(a) elaboration and carrying out the ____ (a) elaboration and carrying
program of sea and inland out the program of sea and inland
о

transport development; (b) organi- transport development; (b) organi-


ит

zation, formation, realization of zation, formation, realization of


economic and science and tech- economic and science and tech-
nical policy. nical policy.
з

3) We suppose that design of vessels Design of vessels and floating


and floating means are carried out at means _______ to ___ at Republi-
по

Republican National Unitary Enter- can National Unitary Enterprise


prise "Belsudoproekt" (Gomel). "Belsudoproekt" (Gomel).
4) The Transport ministry reports The Republic of Belarus _______
Ре

that the Republic of Belarus already to ____a sea-shipping department.


has a sea-shipping department.
5) It is expected by planning that at At least two vessels representing our
least two vessels representing our own sea trade fleet of 25 thousand
own sea trade fleet of 25 thousand tons displacement were _____ to
tons displacement would be either ___ either leased or bought.
leased or bought.
73
12. Discuss these questions.
1) What is the reason for the Water Transport enterprises to produce
a wide range of products besides building ships?
2) Is satisfaction of national economy and population demands the
primary aim of the Belarusian Water Transport enterprises?
3) Whether the leading shipbuilding enterprises are involved in crea-
tion jobs for citizens with maritime professions?

ТУ
READING

БН
13. Read the text and translate it into Russian.
TEXT A
Belarusian Water Transport
Belarus has a network of river navigable routes with the length of
about 2,000 km that connects the country with bordering states. Naviga-
й
tion routes are known to go along the rivers Sozh, Berezina, Dnepr, Pri-
pyat, Neman, West Dvina and the Dnepr-Bug Canal.
ри
The Water Transport enterprises provide design, building and repair
of vessels, cargo transportation along the rivers of the Republic of Bela-
rus. Besides, the enterprises of the branch produce wide range of prod-
о

ucts: launches, boats, waterside pontoons, 5-200 liter paint tanks and
flexible concrete mats.
ит

Their main tasks are considered to be (1) elaboration and carrying out
the program of sea and inland transport development; (2) organization,
formation, realization of economic and science and technical policy
з

aimed at creation necessary conditions for effective work of sea and in-
по

land water transport enterprises, for satisfaction of national economy and


population demands in cargo and passenger transportation; (3) ensuring
optimal interaction between different types of transport and increasing
transport export service.
Ре

Enterprises of the river fleet fully meet the needs in transportation of


passengers by the water transport of the Republic. Passenger carriage is
affected in the towns of Gomel, Brest, Pinsk, Mozyr, Grodno, Mogilev
and Loev.
The river fleet of Belarus today includes modern speedy passenger
ships of Polessye type (hydrofoil craft) with the capacity of 53 persons,
suburban passenger ships, tug fleet, tugged cargo ships and special ships.
74
The port facilities are equipped with high-performance floating and por-
tal cranes and mechanized cargo lines designed for fast handling of ships.
Ten river ports of the Republic of Belarus (Mikashevichi, Mogilev,
Pinsk, Rechitsa, Vitebsk, Grodno, etc.) are capable of transporting and
handling about 22 million tons of cargo. River ports of Gomel, Bobru-
ysk, Brest and Mozyr have railway approach lines and can be used for
handling of cargo transported in different directions.
Four waterway enterprises (Gomel, Pinsk, Mozyr, Bobruysk) main-

ТУ
tain the required depth of the rivers for navigation of pushed and tugged
rolls with the capacity up to 2,000 tons. They have the required bottom-
deepening and excavation facilities, modern navigation sluices and hy-

БН
draulic installations as well as navigation equipment.
The Republic of Belarus has 4 shipbuilding and repair plants (Pinsk,
Rechitsa, Gomel, Petrikov) the capacity of which allows building new
ships with the dead weight up to 3,000 tons of any class as well as repair
of ships in operation.
й
Design of vessels and floating means are carried out at Republican
National Unitary Enterprise «Belsudoproekt» (Gomel).
ри
The control over technical conditions of vessels, certification of items
used in shipbuilding is fulfilled by the «Belarusian Inspection of River
Register» Republican Unitary Enterprise (Pinsk).
о

The control over fulfilling shipping rules in water ways, ensuring safe
navigable conditions as well as holding of State Vessel Register are car-
ит

ried out by Belarusian River Navigation Inspection (Gomel).


Transport forwarding companies Republican Unitary Enterprise «Sea
Belarusian Steam Navigation and Belarusian Navigable company»,
з

«Belarusian Transport forwarding and Chartering Company» working in


по

the system of the Water Transport provide sea cargo transportation.


Although Belarus is an inland state, it strives to create its own sea
trade fleet. Our government sees a lot of advantages in creating its na-
tional fleet. One of them is to create jobs for its citizens with maritime
Ре

professions, another – it will be more convenient for Belarus to transport


its production itself.
The year of 2004 saw significant efforts in the field of developing sea
shipping in accordance with the instruction of the Belarusian president.
The efforts are still underway. The appropriate treaty-legal base was
drawn up for the sea shipping activities. In particular, the Inland Water
Transport Code and the Commercial Navigation Code were adopted;
75
intergovernmental agreements with Ukraine, Lithuania and Latvia were
concluded on the development of inland navigation and transit shipping
through ports.
The transport ministry of the Republic of Belarus already has a sea-
shipping department. Simultaneously the Belarusian sea lines company
is being setting up to carry out sea activities under the government's Pro-
gram of Inland and Sea Water Transport Development till 2010, which
was adopted back in 2003. Our own sea trade fleet expects at least two

ТУ
vessels of 25 thousand tons displacement to be either leased or bought.
They enable sea transportation to be carried out under the Belarusian
flag. Now the financial issues are being considered. As for the Navy de-

БН
velopment, the President stated Belarus to be considering "taking one
surface ship and a submarine under Belarusian patronage."

COMPREHENSION CHECK
й
14. Choose the contextual meaning of the words written in bold in
ри
Text A.

1) branch
a) ветвь c) рукав (реки)
о

b) отрасль d) группировать
ит

2) affect
a) осуществлять c) оказывать влияние
з

b) предпочитать d) делать вид


по

3) facility
a) возможность c) средство обслуживания
b) учреждение d) оборудование
Ре

4) capacity
a) объем c) мощность
b) способность d) грузоподъемность

5) means
a) средства c) возможности
b) аппаратура d) значить, означать
76
6) underway
a) дорожный c) начиная движение
b) двигающийся d) в процессе разработки

15. Decide whether the following statements are true or false accord-
ing to the text.

1) A network of river navigable routes of Belarus connects the coun-

ТУ
try with bordering states.
2) Enterprises of the river fleet fully provide transportation of pas-
sengers by the water transport.
3) There are railway approach lines that can be used for handling of

БН
cargo in every river port.
4) The waterway enterprises in Gomel, Pinsk, Brest, Bobruysk have
the bottom-deepening and excavation facilities, modern navigation sluic-
es and hydraulic installations and navigation equipment.
5) “Belsudoproekt” carries out the design of vessels and floating
й
means.
ри
6) Belarus has its own sea trade fleet.
7) In 2004 the Inland Water Transport Code and the Commercial
Navigation Code were adopted; intergovernmental agreements with
Ukraine and Latvia were concluded on the development of see side navi-
о

gation and transit shipping through ports.


ит

16. Complete the following sentences according to the text.

1) Navigation routes go along the rivers ...


з

2) Their main tasks of the Water Transport enterprises are …


по

3) The port facilities are equipped with …


4) The capacity of each shipbuilding and repair plant allows …
5) The control over technical conditions of vessels, certification of
Ре

items used in shipbuilding is performed by …


6) Belarus has the following advantages in creating its national fleet …

17. Answer the following questions.


1) What does the Water Transport enterprises provide and produce?
2) What does the river fleet of Belarus today include?
3) What are ten river ports of Belarus capable of?
77
4) How many shipbuilding and repair plants are there in Belarus?
And where?
5) What does Belarusian River Navigation Inspection deal with?
6) What companies provide sea cargo transportation?
18. Fill in the correct prepositions, translate the phrases.
1) river navigable routes ___ the length ___ about 2,000 km; 2) trans-

ТУ
portation ___ the rivers; 3) wide range ___ products; 4) to carry___ the
program ___ sea and inland transport development; 5) to be aimed ___
creation necessary conditions; 6) interaction ___different types of
transport; 7) meet the needs ___ transportation ___ passengers; 8) to be

БН
equipped ___ high-performance floating and portal cranes; 9) to be de-
signed ___ fast handling; 10) tugged rolls ___ the capacity ___ 2,000 tons;
11) ships ___ the dead weight ___ 3,000 tons; 12) ships ___ operation;
13) intergovernmental agreements ___ Ukraine, Lithuania and Latvia;
14) to conclude ___ the development ___ inland navigation and transit
й
shipping ___ ports; 15) to carry ___ sea activities ___ the government's
Program of Inland and Sea Water Transport Development; 16) to carry
ри
___ sea transportations ___ the Belarusian flag.
19. What parts of the text can you define? Do they correspond to the
о

paragraphs? Name each part.


ит

1. ________________ 4. ________________
2. ________________ 5. ________________
3. ________________ ... ________________
з

20. Find key words and phrases which best express the general
по

meaning of each part.


21. Make a short summary of Text A. Do it according to the follow-
ing plan.
Ре

1. The title of the text is … .


2. The text is devoted to … .
3. It consists of … (parts / passages).
4. The first passage deals with … .
5. The second (third, forth, etc.) passage deals with … .
6. The main idea of the text is … .

78
VOCABULARY
22. Practice saying the following words.
Asian ['eɪʃ(ə)n] Beijing [ˌbeɪ'ʤɪŋ]
Chinese ['ʧaɪ'ni:z] concert ['kɔnsət]
European [ˌjuərə'piːən] figure ['fɪgə]
inevitably [ɪ'nevɪtəblɪ] merchant ['mɜːʧ(ə)nt]

ТУ
shipyard ['ʃɪpjɑːd] surpass [sə'pɑ:s]
tonnage ['tʌnɪʤ] underutilized [ʌ̱ndə(r) 'ju:tɪlaɪzd]
vexing ['veksɪŋ] Washington ['wɔʃɪŋtən]

БН
23. Read and memorize the active vocabulary.
Noun and noun phrases
a major maritime power – ве- hardware and software – тех-
дущая морская держава ническое оборудование и про-

ший порт с большой загрузкой


й
busiest port next to – ближай- граммное обеспечение
import – импорт
ри
capacity expansion – увеличе- joint ventures – совместное
ние мощностей предприятие
commitment – обязательство, know-how – новые технологии
о

соглашение lack of technical knowledge –


concerted effort – совместные недостаток технической ква-
ит

усилия лификации
container ship traffic – движение leadership – лидерство
грузовых(контейнерных) судов naval architect – судовой ар-
з

corruption – коррупция хитектор


по

dramatic improvements – суще- obstacle – препятствие


ственные улучшения opportunities offered – пред-
engineering skills – инженер- ложенные возможности
ные навыки political mandate – политиче-
Ре

export – экспорт ская поддержка


flag merchant fleet – торговый prerequisite – предпосылка
флот под флагом production methods – методы
foreign knowledge – ино- производства
странные технологии productivity – производитель-
full advantage – полный успех ность
share – доля
79
shipbuilding industry – кораб- upgrading – модернизация, по-
лестроительная промышлен- вышение качества
ность warship – военный корабль
state-owned enterprise – госу- world's largest trading nation –
дарственное предприятие крупнейшая торговая держа-
trading nation – торговая нация ва в мире

Verbs and verbal phrases

ТУ
to aid – помогать to predict – предсказывать,
to catch up – схватить, под- прогнозировать
хватить to represent – представлять
to exist – существовать to surpass – превосходить,

БН
to expand – расширять(ся) превышать
to limit – ограничивать to undermine – подрывать,
to merge – сливать(ся), объ- подкапывать, подмывать
единять(ся)

Adjectives
й
ри
commercial – коммерческий proficient – искусный, опыт-
concerted effort – совместные ный, умелый
усилия significant – значительный
merchant – торговый underutilized – с низким коэф-
о

naval – военный фициентом использования


ит

particular – особый, специфи-


ческий, определённый
з

Adverbs
inevitably – неизбежно, неминуемо
по

Geographical and Proper Names


Asian – азиатский
Ре

Beijing – Пекин
Shanghai – Шанхай
Singapore – Сингапур
the Asia and Pacific Region – Азиатский и Тихоокеанский регион
the European Commission – Европейская комиссия
the United Nation's Economic and Social Commission – Экономическая
и социальная комиссия при ООН

80
READING

24. Read the text and answer the questions below.


TEXT B
The Chinese Shipbuilding Industry
China is making a concerted effort to establish itself as a major mari-
time power. It is now the world's third largest shipbuilder in terms of
gross tonnage, surpassed only by Japan and South Korea. The high vol-

ТУ
ume of these three Asian countries comes from commercial, not naval
(military), construction.
Commercial shipbuilding has, however, always been considered a

БН
strategic industry, and not only because its infrastructure can also sup-
port warship construction. England at the dawn of the industrial revolu-
tion, and Japan as it strove to catch up with the West in the 19th century,
both used shipbuilding as a catalyst for wider economic development.

й
о ри
з ит
по
Ре

Workers in a shipbuilding base in Yichang, Hubei. China became the


world's largest shipbuilder in terms of contracts volume in the first half of
2010.

China is the world's tenth largest trading nation, accounting for 4 per-
cent of world trade and the World Bank estimates that China could be-

81
come the second largest trading state by 2020. The Chinese-flag mer-
chant fleet numbers more than 1,500 ships, over 700 of which have a
displacement over 10,000 deadweight tons. In comparison, U.S.-flagged
merchant ships over 10,000 dwt number less than 470, with a third of
these owned by the U.S. government.
Less than 3 percent of America trade is carried in U.S.-flag ships, and
American ships represent less than 1 percent of world commercial tonnage
(down from 9 percent 20 years ago).These low shipping figures persist de-

ТУ
spite the fact that U.S. imports account for 18.5 percent of total world im-
ports and U.S. exports make up 12.4 percent of the global total. Washington
has not followed a policy to leverage its position as the world's largest trad-

БН
ing nation into leadership in maritime commerce or industry.
A study of the Chinese shipbuilding industry by the European Com-
mission found that Beijing has managed to expand its share of world
shipbuilding to 7 percent. «There has been significant capacity expan-
sion in recent years both through the construction of new facilities and
й
the upgrading of existing shipyards,» reports the EC. The United Na-
tion's Economic and Social Commission of the Asia and Pacific Region
ри
predicts container ship traffic in the region will double over the coming
decade, with Shanghai replacing Singapore as the second busiest port
next to Hong Kong.
о

China's shipbuilding industry still has obstacles to overcome before it


can take full advantage of the opportunities offered. Beijing's goal of sourc-
ит

ing 80 percent of ship components from Chinese industry by 2000 was not
met. The actual use of Chinese-made equipment is very limited due to its
poor quality. This is most vexing in the area of propulsion systems. China
з

has also been importing advanced production methods and capital equip-
по

ment, including complete production lines. Using foreign sourced computer-


aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) hardware and
software, Chinese naval architects are becoming more proficient in design-
ing ship hulls, compartment layouts, and propeller-rudder combinations that
Ре

improve speed, efficiency and structural integrity.


Inefficiency is another pressing problem. Many of China's 800 shipyards
are underutilized. A typical Chinese yard employs 9,000–12,000 workers, but
these workers are not always kept busy. Poor management, corruption, lack of
technical knowledge and political mandates to use particular suppliers under-
mine operations. In recent years, Beijing has been trying to reform the indus-
try's structure by merging yards and making administrative changes.
82
Joint ventures between the developing Chinese shipbuilding industry
and established Japanese and Korean yards will inevitably transfer tech-
nology, engineering skills and production know-how to Beijing. Hun-
dreds of Chinese engineers are being trained by their Japanese and Kore-
an partners. Such transfers are a prerequisite for doing business with any
state-owned enterprise in China. Both Japan and South Korean ship-
builders were able to make dramatic improvements in productivity, run-
ning as high as 15 percent a year, in their earlier periods of development.

ТУ
With a strong commitment to the industry from Beijing and the inflow of
foreign knowledge, it can be expected that Chinese shipyards will also
make great strides over the next 5–10 years.

БН
1) What is the China’s position in the shipbuilding industry in terms
of gross tonnage?
2) Can the shipbuilding industry support the national economics?
3) Does the U.S. take the leading place in maritime trade?
й
4) Are there in China any obstacles to take full advantage of the op-
portunities offered?
ри
5) What are the prospects of China’s shipbuilding?
6) Is the collaboration with other shipbuilding nations competitive or
helpful for Chinese shipbuilding industry?
о
ит

VOCABULARY

25. Practice saying the following words.


з
по

analysis [ənæ̱ lɪsiːz] announce [ə'naun(t)s]


automation [ˌɔːtə'meɪʃ(ə)n] breakthrough ['breɪkθruː]
employee [ɪm'plɔɪiː] Japan [ʤə'pæn]
objection [əb'ʤekʃ(ə)n] occur [ə'kɜː]
Ре

pursue [pə'sjuː] scrupulous ['skruːpjələs]


simulation [ˌsɪmjə'leɪʃ(ə)n] solicit [sə'lɪsɪt]
succeed [sək'siːd] utilizе ['juːtɪlaɪz]

26. Read and memorize the active vocabulary.


Noun and noun phrases
breakthrough – прорыв
83
competitiveness – конкуренто- interior infrastructure – внут-
способность ренняя инфраструктура
dock floating – плавучий док next-generation – следующие
error – ошибка поколения
fact-finding survey – расследо- objection – препятствие
вание, установление фактов, overseas leakage – утечка за
деталей, обстоятельств рубеж(технологий)
further spur development – даль- participant – участник

ТУ
нейшее отраслевое развитие restriction – ограничение
high value-added – дорогой в safety – безопасность
обработке shipbuilding boom – корабле-

БН
implementation – реализация, строительный бум
внедрение, ввод в эксплуата- the project's first-phase – началь-
цию, разработка ная стадия проекта
inter-company experts – внут-
ренние эксперты

Verbs and verbal phrases


й
ри
to announce – сообщать, изве- to pursue – проводить (напр.
щать, заявлять политику); преследовать (цель)
to confidence – доверять, уве- to relate to – относиться к ч.-л.
о

рять to resolve the problem – ре-


to deal with – иметь дело с шить проблему
ит

кем-л., обсуждать что-л. to schedule – работать по


to face – столкнуться расписанию(по графику)
to occur – происходить, слу- to share ideas – разделять идеи
з

чаться to solicit – просить, упраши-


по

to point out – указывать, об- вать


ращать внимание

Adjectives
Ре

available – доступный, имеющийся в наличии

Adverb
consequently – в результате, вследствие
frequently – часто
Geographical and Proper Names
Community of Practice – технический (экспериментальный) отдел
84
Hyundai Heavy Industries (HHI) – комплекс тяжёлого машиностро-
ения корпорации «Хёндай»
Samsung Heavy Industries (SHI) – комплекс тяжёлого машиностро-
ения корпорации «Самсунг»
the International Shipbuilding Association – Международная ассоциа-
ция судостроения
the Korean Cooperative of Shipbuilding Technology Research – Корей-
ский отдел развития судостроительных технологий

ТУ
READING

БН
27. Read the text and speak on the undertaken measures and new
technologies which allow Korea to be at the top of shipbuilding in-
dustry.

й TEXT C
ри
Shipbuilding Industry of Korea

Since the start of the latest shipbuilding boom in 2000, ship orders
о

have flooded into Samsung Heavy Industries (SHI). Yet, the orders only
provided a moment of pleasure for SHI because docks to build the ships
ит

were in very short supply and expansion of production facilities would


not be easy due to the limited available free space at its shipyard. Faced
with objections from Europe and Japan based on restrictions set by the
з

International Shipbuilding Association, moreover, SHI was not able to


по

construct new docks either. To resolve the problem, SHI solicited man-
agement innovation ideas from all employees in 2001.
The Production & Operation Team submitted a creative idea, suggest-
ing – "build ships on the sea utilizing barges" as well as the then-idle
Ре

3,000-ton marine crane at the company's Goeje Shipyard. Nevertheless,


doing welding or painting work while dealing with the high waves of the
sea was difficult work. Furthermore, ship owners did not have confi-
dence in building ships at a dock floating on the sea. At that time, a CoP
(Community of Practice) composed of inter-company experts began to
pursue breakthroughs.

85
After thorough and scrupulous checks of problem areas pointed out
by ship owners that could potentially occur with such a shipbuilding pro-
cess by field, such as design, research, production and quality control,
the CoP started to suggest answers. The CoP members met frequently
and exchanged and shared ideas and knowledge. SHI’s research institute
also added a theoretical foundation to the ideas to prevent even a small
error in the process of building ships on the sea through analysis of ship
structures, 3D simulations and tests. Consequently, SHI succeeded in

ТУ
building better quality ships on the floating dock than those built in land.
Here, the CoP’s strength in creating knowledge played an important role.
Led by the Korean Cooperative of Shipbuilding Technology Re-

БН
search, Hyundai Heavy Industries (HHI), Daewoo Shipbuilding & Ma-
rine Engineering (DSME), Samsung Heavy Industries (SHI), STX Ship-
building and Korea Marine Equipment Research Institute plan to develop
various technologies for next-generation, high value-added ships. These
technologies are related to interpretation of functions, low vibration/low
й
noise, safety, interior infrastructure, equipment & materials, etc.
The project's first-phase is scheduled for 10 months, running from
ри
September 1, 2007 to June 30, 2008. In May this year, the participants
will announce implementation results and launch a fact-finding survey
on the Korean shipbuilders’ plan to further spur development of technol-
о

ogy, the original source of competitiveness, while pursuing activities to


prevent the overseas leakage of their shipbuilding technologies as well.
з ит
по
Ре

86
Five shipbuilding companies have been involved in technology de-
velopment tasks of a third-phase project (July 1, 2007-June 30, 2008) led
by the Korean Cooperative of Shipbuilding Technology Research, with
DSME responsible for ship block internal pre-treatment & post process
automation; SHI ship block internal painting automation system; HHI for
ship block internal painting drying automation system; and SHI for new
concept painting/methods and pre-treatment process.

ТУ
VOCABULARY
28. Practice saying the following words.

БН
competitive [kəm'petɪtɪv] consumer [kən'sjuːmə]
dredger ['dreʤə] dynamic [daɪ'næmɪk]
environment [ɪn'vaɪər(ə)nmənt] finance ['faɪnæn(t)s]
genuine ['ʤenjuɪn] leadership ['liːdəʃɪp]
purchase ['pɜːʧəs ] recent ['riːs(ə)nt]
turnover ['tɜːnˌəuvə]
й yacht [jɔt]
ри
29. Read and memorize the active vocabulary.
Noun and noun phrases
business – дело, бизнес purchase – покупка
о

cargo handling – управление суд- sea-going commercial vessels –


ит

ном океанское торговое судно


civilian ship – гражданское substantial investments – зна-
судно чительные вложения
з

competitive sector – конкурен- the global market – мировой


тоспособный сектор рынок
по

consumer – потребитель turbulence – болтанка, турбу-


environmental and safety sys- лентность
tems – системы безопасности turnover – товарооборот
Ре

и защиты окружающей среды vessels for the long term – суда


ferry – паром дальнего плавания
global leadership – мировое
господство, превосходство
mega-yacht – мега-яхта
on a global scale – в глобаль-
ном масштабе

87
Verbs and verbal phrases
to have a strong position – занимать прочную позицию
to cancel – отменять to repair and maintenance –
to drop – падать ремонтировать и поддер-
to finance – финансировать живать техническое со-
to focus on – сконцентриро- стояние
вать(ся) to strengthen – укреплять
to have a backlog – иметь to take into consideration –

ТУ
портфель заказов, невы- принимать во внимание
полненные заказы (прове- to triple – утраивать
денные по счетам, но еще to underline – подчёркивать

БН
не выполненные)
Adjectives
innovative – инновационный, передовой
Adverbs
й
equally – одинаково, равным образом, поровну
directly – напрямую, прямо, непосредственно
ри
on average – в среднем
Prepositions
in terms of – показателях, в единицах, в исчислении
о

in response to – в ответ на
ит

Geographical and Proper Names


the European marine equipment industry – Европейская промышлен-
ность судостроительного оборудования
з
по

READING
30. Translate the text into the Russian language.
Ре

TEXT D
The European Shipbuilding Industry
The European shipbuilding industry is a dynamic and competitive
sector both in the EU and on a global scale. It has great importance from
both an economic and a social perspective, and also involves other areas
including transport, security, research and the environment.
88
The European shipbuilding industry is the global leader in the con-
struction of complex vessels such as cruise ships, ferries, mega-yachts
and dredgers. It also has a strong position in the building of submarines
and other naval vessels. Equally, the European marine equipment indus-
try is world leader for a wide range of products from propulsion systems,
large diesel engines, environmental and safety systems to cargo handling
and electronics.
There are around 150 large shipyards in Europe, with around 40 of

ТУ
them active in the global market for large sea-going commercial vessels.
Around 120,000 people are directly employed by shipyards in the Euro-
pean Union. Some shipyards focus on new building of ships, others on

БН
repair and maintenance. Some shipyards focus on specific innovative
ship types, others focus on process innovation, building a variety of ship
types. Some shipyards build for commercial clients, others for consum-
ers or governments. With a market share of around 15 % in volume
terms, Europe is still vying with South Korea for global leadership in
й
terms of the value of civilian ships produced (15 billion Euros in 2007).
In response to the economic turbulence following the 9/11 attacks, the
ри
EU developed the LeaderSHIP 2015 strategy for the shipbuilding sector,
seeking to strengthen its competitiveness in the global market. It takes
into consideration the high-tech nature of this sector and the substantial
о

investments made by yards on research, development and innovation.


In the period from 2003 up until the economic crisis struck the sector
ит

in 2008, the strategy had much success. European yards' orders more
than tripled in value between 2002 and 2005; growing at a faster rate
than those of any other region.
з

Recent years have seen huge increases in the number of ships ordered –
по

particularly of the tanker, bulk cargo and containership types – many by


financial speculators rather than traditional ship-owners. Indeed, many
shipyards across the world still have a backlog of orders to deliver in the
next two to three years. But since the end of 2008, new orders have fall-
Ре

en close to zero across all ship types. The amount of cargo carried
around the world has dropped off dramatically. Many ship-owners are
laying up vessels for the long term because there is no business for them,
so they now have little interest in bringing new ships into their fleets.
Some orders will be cancelled, and some yards will complete vessels and
find their buyers can no longer finance the purchase.

89
Europe’s competitive advantage has been and will continue to be
based upon its ability to construct the most advanced vessels. And they
bear witness to the fact that European shipyards are genuine engineering
power-houses. The high-tech nature of the shipbuilding industry is fur-
ther underlined by the fact that yards, on average, invest more than 10%
of their turnover on research, development and innovation.

ТУ
FOLLOW UP

31. Read the texts of Unit IV again, make notes under the following

БН
headings. Then use your notes to talk about Modern Worldwide
Shipbuilding Industry.
1. Belarusian Water Transport
2. The Chinese Shipbuilding Industry
3. Shipbuilding Industry of Korea
й
4. The European Shipbuilding Industry
о ри
з ит
по
Ре

90
SUPPLEMENTARY READING MATERIAL

TEXTS TO UNIT I

Text 1

Belarus has recently made active efforts for the development of in-
land waterways and cargo transportation by water. Since 2000 part of the

ТУ
Belarus export by waterways is carried out via Ukraine. One of the main
directions is the transportation of potash fertilizers by inland waterways
to Nikolayev Merchant Sea Port where they are overloaded on the sea-

БН
going vessels.
Nowadays Belarus has a quite good cargo base. Experts estimate that
freight flows from this country with use of sea transport exceed 15 mil-
lion tonnes a year. Part of them are directed to the Baltic Sea, part to the
Black Sea, and today between ports of the countries surrounding Belarus
й
there is a serious competition for serving the Belarus export, namely
among Kaliningrad (Russia), Ventspils (Lithuania), Klaipeda (Latvia),
ри
Nikolayev (Ukraine).
Though Belarus is not a sea state, its government has accepted the
program of development of sea transport. According to this program 10
о

«river – sea» type vessels are to be built. The vessel "Nadezhda" has al-
ready been constructed at the shipyard in Gomel-city. This vessel trans-
ит

ports potash fertilizers to Nikolaev. Belarus authorities plan to use their


fleet for work on Danube routes.
In Belarus there is an extensive system of inland waterways: about 2000
з

km in length and 10 river ports in operation. The big role is played by the
по

Dnepro-Bugsky channel. During former Soviet times there passed up to 30


vessels a day. Now the waterway which may participate in connecting the
East and the West is almost abandoned. Nevertheless, if some ideas related
to the linkage the Black Sea – the Baltic Sea will be realized, one can expect
Ре

a rise of interest to this waterway too. First of all consider the route the
Black Sea – Dnepr – Dnepro-Bugsky channel – Vistula – Oder – the Baltic
Sea which is in discussion since end of 90’s of the last century. This water-
way is the shortest route from the Black Sea up to the Baltic Sea but its ar-
rangement needs serious investments to construct or renew several locks in
Brest (Belarus) and on the river Bug (Poland). Meanwhile in Belarus some

91
the reconstruction of locks on the Dnepro-Bugsky channel according to Eu-
ropean standard has already started.
Transportation of cargoes from Belarus via Pripyat, Dnepr and Southern
Bug initially was carried out by some Ukrainian shipping companies. Be-
sides, there is an opportunity to renew river transportation of the Belarus
wood, peat, and with return loading – the Ukrainian rolled steel.
In Ukraine there are all conditions to increase cargo volumes through
Dnepr ports. For this purpose there is no need to build new expensive

ТУ
construction. Constructed during the Soviet time about 80 quay walls in
all river industrial cities, six locks and more than thousand kilometers of
equipped waterway have a sufficient reserve of throughput.

БН
Text 2

The engineering discipline is concerned with the machinery and sys-


tems of ships and other marine vehicles and structures. Marine engineers
й
are responsible for the design and selection of equipment and systems,
for installation and commissioning, for operation, and for maintenance
ри
and repair. They must interface with naval architects, especially during
design and construction.
Marine engineers are likely to have to deal with a wide range of sys-
о

tems, including diesel engines, gas turbines, boilers, steam turbines, heat
exchangers, and pumps and compressors; electrical machinery; hydraulic
ит

machinery; refrigeration machinery; steam, water, fuel oil, lubricating


oil, compressed gas, and electrical systems; equipment for automation
and control; equipment for fire fighting and other forms of damage con-
з

trol; and systems for cargo handling. Many marine engineers become
по

involved with structural issues, including inspection and surveying, cor-


rosion protection, and repair.
Marine engineers are generally mechanical engineers or systems en-
gineers who have acquired their marine orientation through professional
Ре

experience, but programs leading to degrees in marine engineering are


offered by colleges and universities in many countries.

Text 3

On the last day of her visit to Copenhagen, the world’s most envi-
ronmentally friendly ship, the Viking Lady, impressed mayors of the
92
world with her significant reductions of harmful carbon and NOx emis-
sions. Richard Branson, the founder of Virgin Group was equally im-
pressed by the Viking Lady when he toured the vessel yesterday, and
encouraged politicians to set targets for the transportation industries. The
consortium behind the Viking Lady confirms that technology to signifi-
cantly reduce emissions from shipping is already available, and say they
welcome tighter regulation of the industry.
Copenhagen, 17 December 2009 – The world’s most environmentally

ТУ
friendly ship, the Viking Lady, continued to impress international deci-
sion makers on the last day of her visit to Copenhagen. Earlier today, the
Norwegian supply ship, ordinarily in operation in the North Sea, set out

БН
on a Copenhagen cruise to showcase cutting edge environmental tech-
nology to a group of mayors from major international cities. The mayors
are currently visiting the Copenhagen Climate Summit for Mayors. The
mayors’ cruise, hosted by Copenhagen’s Lord Mayor Ritt Bjerregaard,
took place less than 24 hours after Virgin Group founder Richard Bran-
й
son encouraged politicians to decide on targets for the transportation in-
dustries. The consortium behind the ship welcomes the idea of tighter
ри
regulation.
"We don’t need a new moon landing to be able to cut emissions from
shipping considerably. What the industry needs are regulatory incentives
о

to implement new, environmentally friendly technology. Actually the con-


siderable growth that is expected in shipping over the next 40 years can be
ит

achieved without additional CO2 emissions – by using technology already


available. Add to that the likelihood that new technologies will be invented
during that time, and shipping can actually continue its expected growth
з

and still cut emissions to half its current level," said Per Wiggo Richardsen
по

from FellowSHIP, the consortium behind the Viking Lady.


Shipping is by far the most cost and environmentally effective means
of transportation of goods, and currently transports 85 % of the world’s
trade. The CO2 emissions from shipping total 3 % of the world’s total
Ре

CO2 emissions. The Viking Lady’s advanced technology cuts CO2


emissions by 20 % and reduces harmful NOx emissions by amounts
equal to the emissions from 22,000 cars in a year. Environmentally
friendlier ships also consume less fuel and hence contribute to cut opera-
tional costs.
"Seeing that it is indeed possible for the shipping industry to reduce
air pollution so significantly, is good news for major ports and coastal
93
cities like Copenhagen. Air pollution is a major concern in cities all over
the world, and eliminating emissions from ships will impact significantly
on air quality and public health. Add to that the benefits to our global
climate, and there is no doubt that we should place stricter requirements
on which ships we allow near our cities and what they are allowed to
emit," said Ritt Bjerregaard, Lord Mayor of Copenhagen.
After her visit to Copenhagen, the Viking Lady will return to active
duty in the North Sea.

ТУ
Text 4

БН
Eco-Friendly Ship To Cross Ocean Powered By Waves
by Steve Levenstein

Mermaid II shows off its unusual wave-propulsion system while be-


ing lowered into Honolulu harbor
й
First there was the air-powered car, now here comes a wave-powered
boat! The three-ton catamaran Suntory Mermaid II may not set any
ри
speed records on its May 2008 voyage from Hawaii to Japan but as the
Tortoise once said, "slow and steady wins the race".
This particular race is all about making alternative energy work eco-
о

nomically and practically. So, how does wave power work? A pair of
side-by-side fins in the ship's bow absorb wave energy and express it in a
ит

dolphin-like "kick".
An added benefit is that since the fins react to the waves, the ship as a
whole remains remarkably steady. Sort of like driving over a bumpy
з

road – your car's tires jounce and bounce yet the passenger cabin does
по

not. Hmm, why isn't anyone working on recovering energy from shock
absorber action?
The Suntory Mermaid II is the latest of a number of Japanese eco-
powered, recycled aluminum construction watercraft sponsored by Asahi
Ре

News, supported by Suntory Co. and built by the Tsuneishi Shipbuilding


Company.
Kenichi Horie's 1993 ocean-crossing, pedal-powered craft.
Kenichi Horie, veteran of a number of eco-voyages over the past dec-
ade and a half will captain – and crew – the vessel. On its May 2008 in-
augural voyage, Horie will sail the 4,350 miles from Honolulu, Hawaii

94
to Kii Suido, Japan on wave power alone. Literally, as it's to be a solo
voyage.
Horie has long been associated with these eco-power initiatives, most
notably in 1993 when he set a world record for the longest distance
(4,660 miles) ever traveled by a pedal-powered boat. Gee, I bet his legs
were really tired by the time he reached Japan!
This time Horie will be resting his legs while captaining a much larg-
er craft. Unlike pedal-power, the Mermaid II's innovative wave propul-

ТУ
sion system shows the way for large cargo shops to go green. And, go
slow – but that's not a huge problem for bulk cargo carriers. The Mer-
maid II has a maximum speed of just five knots and will take two to

БН
three months to make the trip from Hawaii to Japan. A diesel-powered
craft can cover that distance in just a single month.
The recycled-aluminum hulled catamaran is equipped with 8 solar
panels producing 560 watts (under optimal conditions) with which to run
electrical lighting and Horie's computer & phone. The ship does have an
й
outboard motor engine and a sail, but they're only there for use in case of
emergency or perhaps when the sailing gets a little too smooth.
ри
"Oil is a limited power source, but there is no limit to waves," says
Kenichi Horie. You don't have to be a surfer dude to agree!
о

TEXTS TO UNIT II
ит

Text 5
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Passenger Liners
по

The great age of the ocean liner came in the early 1900s. It reached its
height in the 1930’s with the launching of three of the most luxurious ships
ever built. They were the Normandie of France and the Queen Mary and
Ре

Queen Elizabeth of Britain. These giants, each almost 1,000 feet (300 me-
ters) long, crossed the Atlantic Ocean in just over four days. In 1942, a
fire destroyed the Normandie as it lay in New York Harbor.
In designing the hull of the ocean liners the dimensions of fashion
and luxury sometimes dominated over sea worthiness. Huge surface vol-
ume in bow part of the liner hull caused navigation with free yaw on a
course, which did not admit by bulb. The wide aft deck essentially lim-
95
ited opportunities of a storm rate choice. As a whole the storm safety
depended mainly on reliability of engines and experience of helm’s
watch.
Today, the only luxury liner to make transatlantic crossings is Brit-
ain’s Queen Elizabeth 2, which was launched in 1967. It crosses the At-
lantic from April until December and it carries passengers on a cruise
around the world during the winter months. Most liners today are used as
cruise ships to the Mediterranean, the Caribbean, and other vacation are-

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as. Norway’s Sovereign of the Seas, a cruise ship that began service in
the Caribbean in 1988 can carry more passengers than any other ship.
The Sovereign can carry almost 2,700 passengers and 750 crewmembers.

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Text 6

Submarine is a ship which can operate completely submerged in the


water. The term formerly applied to any ship capable of operating com-
й
pletely underwater, but now usually describes a ship built for military
purposes. The term "submersible" usually is applied to small, underwater
ри
vehicles that are built for research, rescue, commercial work, or pleasure.
By the end of World War II, antisubmarine warfare had progressed
significantly by exploiting the limited underwater endurance and speed
о

of the diesel-electric designs of that era. The application of nuclear pow-


er to submarines after World War II reestablished the near-
ит

invulnerability of the submarine to antisubmarine warfare from surface


ships and aircraft. Nuclear power depends on nuclear fission rather than
the oxidation of fossil fuels and thus requires no oxygen source as do
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diesel engines, allowing the submarine to operate submerged for very


по

long periods. However, advances in submarine technology and nonnu-


clear propulsion cause the nonnuclear submarine to remain highly attrac-
tive to the navies of many nations.
Submarines can be classified by their primary military missions. Attack
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submarines are fast, long-range ships equipped with torpedo tubes or cruise
missile launch tubes. They carry sensitive underwater sound receivers and
transmitters (sonar) used to detect enemy submarines. They may be armed
with torpedoes of various kinds, cruise missiles, mines, and equipment for
deployment of small units of clandestine troops.
Ballistic-missile submarines carry long-range missiles fitted with nu-
clear warheads that can be launched while submerged. The submarine
96
can remain submerged and undetected for many days and, on command,
launch missiles on any target within range. The missiles are stowed in
and launched from vertical tubes.
Experimental submarines are occasionally built to test new designs of
hull shape, deeper depth capability, power plants, or controls.
Submersibles are usually small, deep-diving vehicles. Their use is for
exploration and study of the ocean depths, development of equipment,
rescue, or commercial work. Some designs take advantage of the forces

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of gravity and buoyancy for vertical motion. Other designs use vertically
oriented propellers to propel the craft up and down. Movement is re-
stricted to short distances and slow speed because of small size and small

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battery capacity.
Compared with surface ships, the submarine has features that enable
it to submerge and resist great sea pressure. Submarines have a pressure
hull and a nonpressure hull. The pressure hull is the watertight, pressure-
proof envelope in which equipment operates and the officers and crew
й
live. In certain areas of the submarine there is a nonpressure hull of
lighter structure, forming the main ballast tanks. A nonwatertight super-
ри
structure provides a smooth, fair envelope to cover pipes, valves, and
fittings on top of the hull. Above the superstructure the fairwater similar-
ly encloses the bridge, the periscope, and multiple mast supports.
о

The principal means of detecting the presence of a submerged subma-


rine is to listen for sounds which may have been generated on board or
ит

by its movement through the water. Very small amounts of acoustic en-
ergy can be detected by sophisticated sonars. Therefore, modern subma-
rines are designed with multiple features to greatly reduce the amount of
з

noise they generate.


по

Text 7

Developing Environmentally Friendly Ships


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Ships in operation produce a range of different types of waste – solid,


liquid and gas – which used to be discharged into the environment and
which include rubbish, grey water from sinks, washbasins, dishwashers
and washing machines, black water from toilets, bilge water containing
or free from hydrocarbons, water from vessel cleaning, exhaust fumes
and emissions from tank and hold ventilation systems. But times have
97
changed. Environmental concerns have been translated into increasingly
restrictive norms and regulations, supported in particular by the Interna-
tional Maritime Organization. "Clean shipping" has today become a stat-
utory obligation for those working in merchant and naval shipbuilding
and repair. For ship owners, possessing an environmentally friendly fleet
is a question of image and represents a commercial advantage, enabling
them to approach their markets differently and to operate in all maritime
zones.

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Existing ships are currently equipped with various types of waste storage
and treatment systems. Equipment add-ons, which vary depending on the
type of transportation, do not allow a global overview of emissions for each

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ship, and often result in cumbersome and even inappropriate systems being
installed in what are necessarily confined spaces.
NACRE offers a global environmental approach, comprising both di-
agnostic and technological solutions. It involves initial measurement of
the overall environmental footprint of different types of ships in opera-
й
tion, taking account of all their emissions, as well as their specific opera-
tional conditions. NACRE then puts forward economically viable tech-
ри
nical solutions to suit the space available and the operational methods of
different types of vessels: compact format, low energy consumption and
compatibility with platform movements. The equipment will go beyond
о

existing waste norms in anticipation of changes to the regulations. Tested


in real-life situations on merchant and naval ships, this innovative
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equipment will be incorporated into existing ships and, more particular-


ly, into ships under construction.
Between now and 2020, the 45 000 merchant ships which make up
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the commercial shipping fleet worldwide will have to be brought into


по

line with regulations. As with CONVENAV, HYCARE and


PAINTCLEAN, the NACRE project is a response to environmental and
economic challenges shaping the future globally of maritime transport
and ship repair and maintenance. The involvement of major stakeholders
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in this project is evidence of their desire to anticipate changes in evolv-


ing markets and in services and equipment manufacture relating to envi-
ronmentally friendly maritime transport.

98
TEXTS TO UNIT III
Text 8
The construction of large vessels which travel over seas, lakes, or riv-
ers. Many different approaches have been used in the construction of
ships. Sometimes a ship must be custom-built to suit the particular re-
quirements of a low-volume trade route with unique cargo characteris-
tics. On the other hand, there are many instances where a significant

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number of similar ships are constructed, providing an opportunity to em-
ploy procedures which take advantage of repetitive processes.
The building of a ship can be divided into seven phases: design, con-

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struction planning, work prior to keel laying, ship erection, launching,
final outfitting, and sea trials.
The construction planning process establishes the construction tech-
niques to be used and the schedules which all of the shipbuilding activi-
ties must follow. Construction planners generally start with an erection
й
diagram on which the ship is shown broken down into erection zones
and units. To facilitate the fabrication of steel, insofar as possible, the
ри
erection units are designed to be identical. The size (or weight) of the
erection units selected is usually limited by the amount of crane capacity
available. Once the construction planners have established the manner in
о

which the ship is to be erected and the sequence of construction, the


schedules for construction can be developed. Working backward from
ит

the time an erection unit is required in the dock, with allowances made
for the many processes involved, a schedule of working plans and for
procurement of purchased equipment is prepared.
з

Before the keel of a ship is laid (or when the first erection unit is
по

placed in position) a great deal of work must have been accomplished for
work to proceed efficiently. The working drawings prepared by ship de-
signers completely define a ship, but often not in a manner that can be
used by the construction trades people. Structural drawings prescribe the
Ре

geometry of the steel plates used in construction, but they cannot be


used, in the form prepared, to cut steel plates. Instead, the detailed struc-
tural drawings must be translated into cutting sketches, or numerical-
control cutting tapes, which are used to fabricate steel. Several organiza-
tions have developed sophisticated computer programs which readily
translate detailed structural drawings into machine-sensible tapes which
can be used to drive cutting torches.
99
If all of the preceding work has been accomplished properly and on
schedule, the erection of a ship can proceed rapidly; however, problem
areas invariably arise. When erecting a ship one plate at a time, there are
no serious fitting problems; but when 900-metric-ton erection units do
not fit (or align) properly, there are serious problems which tend to offset
some of the advantages for this practice.
A ship is launched as soon as the hull structure is sufficiently com-
plete to withstand the strain. Ships may be launched endwise, sidewise,

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or by in-place flotation (for example, graving docks). The use of a grav-
ing dock requires a greater investment in facilities than either of the oth-
er two methods, but in some cases there may be an overall advantage due

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to the improved access to the ship and the simplified launch procedure.
The final outfitting of a ship is the construction phase during which
checks are made to ensure that all of the previous work has been accom-
plished in a satisfactory manner; and last-minute details, such as deck
coverings and the top coat of paint, are completed. It is considered good
й
practice to subject as much of the ship as possible to an intensive series
of tests while at the dock, where corrections and final adjustments are
ри
more easily made than when at sea. As a part of this test program, the
main propulsion machinery is subjected to a dock trial, during which the
ship is secured to the dock and the main propulsion machinery is operat-
о

ed up to the highest power level permissible.


When a comprehensive program of dockside tests have been com-
ит

pleted, the only capabilities which have not been demonstrated are the
operation of the steering gear during rated-power conditions and the op-
eration of the main propulsion machinery at rated power; these capabili-
з

ties must be demonstrated during trials at sea.


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Text 9

An Introduction to Ship’s Turbine Generator


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Turbine generator is a popular source of clean power generation on


ships as they don’t use any type of fuel i.e. heavy or diesel oil. Steam is
used for power production in case of turbine generators. Steam is an
easy, environmental friendly and cheap form of fuel on ships. For turbine
generators, the steam comes from the ship’s steam boiler plant.

100
In turbine generator, steam is used with high pressure to rotate turbine
wherein the thermal energy of the steam gets converted into rotary mo-
tion. The turbine is connected to the alternator’s rotor; hence the rotary
notion of the turbine is utilized to generate electric power.
Alternate Uses of Steam Turbine
On ships, the steam turbine can also be used as a direct propulsion
plant, in which, the turbine shaft is connected to propeller shaft of the
ship. Since the speed will be in thousand rpm, reduction gears and reduc-

ТУ
tion systems are used to get a drop in propeller rpm.
The propelling plant of the ship can be driven by steam turbine
through a slow speed motor. The turbine generator directly supplies

БН
power to these slow speed motors which are connected to the propeller
shaft of the ship.
Understanding the Construction of Turbine Generator system:
Turbine Prime Mover
A turbine will act as a prime mover in turbo generator and is fitted on
й
the same shaft as of the alternator’s rotor.
Alternator
ри
The alternator is used to convert the rotary motion of the turbine to elec-
trical energy and its output is supplied to the main switch board of the ship.
Steam Control Governor
о

The governor is used to control the speed of the turbine generator


during starting, normal operation and shutting down. It controls the
ит

quantity of the steam inlet to the turbine generator.


Steam Control Valve
Different pressure control valves are fitted in the steam line and are con-
з

trolled using governor for the flow of steam from the ship’s boiler system.
по

Condensate pump
The condensed steam, after the turbine is further cooled down, is
pumped back to the cascade tank by condensate pump.
Vacuum pump for glands
Ре

The steam turbine shaft is provided with glands wherein steam is


sprayed at a pressure of 0.3 ~ 0.5 bar so that the vacuum inside the tur-
bine casing doesn’t drop.
Condenser
The heat exchanger acts as a condenser to cool down and condense
all the steam from the turbine into water so that it can be pumped back to
the hot well.
101
Vacuum pump header tank
A vacuum pump header tank is provided to cool down the vacuum
pump as the later deals with high temperature steam.

Text 10

Coronav: High-Definition Corrosion Control

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How can corrosion be detected on the most inaccessible parts of a
ship, such as the outer painted hull, decks concealed by thick surface
treatments, double hulls and complex piping carrying liquids? How can

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accurate and thorough checks be done avoiding dismantling or damage
and ensuring no speck of rust has escaped detection?
The major company, DCN Brest, along with two small businesses, Ro-
boPlanet and TE2M, are joining forces with the ENSIETA lab to design
and produce the only detection system of its kind on the market. It will be
й
more reliable and easier to deploy than any other inspection sampling sys-
tems currently available. Combining the areas of expertise of the two
ри
smaller companies – ultrasound and electromagnetic technology – the pro-
jected system involves plotting a dense network of inspection points
across the entire surface of any type of naval or merchant vessel.
о

CORONAV will be offering an innovative solution to major prob-


lems encountered by ship repair yards, classification companies and also
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ship owners who, given increasingly stringent regulations governing


maritime safety, will find it more and more in their interests to anticipate
potential corrosion and maintenance problems in their fleets.
з
по

Text 11

Why 2-Stroke Engines Are Used More Commonly


Than 4-Stroke on Ships?
Ре

When a ship is being constructed in a shipyard, the most important


machinery that is to be selected is the main propulsion machinery. Both
2 stroke and 4 stroke engines are widely available in the market but for
large ocean going merchant vessel, a 2 stroke engine is more commonly
used as main engine and has much better market.

102
Even with wide variety of advantages that 4 stroke engine offers like
compact size of plant, much more RPM or speed etc, a 2 stroke engine
outshines with few but vital advantages.
Some of the important reasons why 2 stroke engines are more popular
than 4 stroke engines as main propulsion engine on ships
Fuel Selection: The fuel prices have gone sky high and better grade
fuel is adding higher costs to vessel operation. A two stroke engine can
burn low grade fuel oil and hence reduce running cost of the ship.

ТУ
Efficiency: The thermal and engine efficiency of 2 stroke engine is
much better than that of a 4 stroke engine.
Power: Most of the 2 stroke engines are now large stroke engines that

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produce more power. Hence they have high power to weight ration as
compare to 4 stroke engine.
More Cargo: Ship can carry more weight and hence more cargo with
2 stroke engines because of high power to weight ratio.
Reliability: Two stroke engines are more reliable in operation as
compare to 4 stroke engine. й
Less Maintenance: The maintenance requirement of two stroke en-
ри
gine is much lesser than 4 stroke engine.
Direction control: Direct starting and reversing is easier with two
stroke engine.
о

No reduction attachments: As two stroke engines are low speed en-


gine, there are no requirement of reduction gear or speed reduction ar-
ит

rangement as required for high speed four stroke engine.


However, the ease-of-manoeuvring a two stroke engine is less than
that of a four stroke engine and the initial cost of installation of a two
з

stroke propulsion plant is also much higher than running and mainte-
по

nance cost of a 4 stroke engine. In 2 stroke engine, the amount saved on


high grade fuel can compensate all other disadvantages and also reduce
the whole operating cost of a ship.
Ре

Text 12

Starting Procedure for Turbine Generator on Ship

Like every other machinery, the turbine generator of the ship also
needs to start under sequential starting procedure to avoid trouble free
operation of the whole system. The correct procedure ensures that no
103
part of the machinery goes through any kind of stress- thermal or me-
chanical. It also helps the ship to operate without wasting any extra time.
The correct starting procedure for steam Turbine Generator onboard
ship is as follows:
1) Check turbo generator lube oil sump level and drain it for water.
Replenish it if level is less than normal.
2) Start the lube oil priming pump from the local station and check the
lube oil pressure. Put the priming pump on auto.

ТУ
3) Check and fill up the Turbine Generator vacuum pump operating
water tank to normal level.
4) Check vacuum condenser condensate level from the condensate

БН
pump. Put the pump on auto so that the level is maintained all the time.
5) Operate the steam drain valve to drain any condensed water from
the steam line to avoid excessive hammering and vibration while starting
turbo generator.
6) Open the main steam inlet valve for turbo generator.
й
7) Adjust the gland steam pressure to normal level.
8) Check and open the sea water valves for vacuum pump cooler, T/G
ри
lube oil cooler and vacuum condenser are opened.
9) Start the vacuum pump and bring up the vacuum in the condenser.
10) Open condensate pump valves and switch on the pump.
о

11) Check whether the condensate vacuum, gland steam pressure,


steam inlet pressure, and lube oil pressure are normal.
ит

12) Start turbo generator from the local station and close the drain in
the steam line.
13) Check first and second stage steam pressure.
з

14) Check condenser vacuum and water level.


по

15) Check lube oil pressure and vibration levels.


16) Check turbo generator speed, voltage, frequency, vacuum, con-
denser level and other parameters.
17) Give control to remote station from the local control and take the
Ре

TG on load.

104
TEXTS TO UNIT IV
Text 13
Community of European Shipyards Associations represents the
shipbuilding industry from 17 Member States (Belgium, Bulgaria, Croa-
tia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, The
Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain and United

ТУ
Kingdom).
CESA has a long tradition as representative organization and could
look back proudly to decades of fruitful cooperation and constructive
dialogue.

БН
Starting in 1937 as "International Shipbuilding Conference", it was
re-established after the war as "West European Shipbuilders Informal
Contacts" and renamed in 1965 to "Association of West European Ship-
builders", AWES. In the 1980ies, AWES established an EC-linking
committee, which later on, mainly for administrative reasons, became a
й
separate sister organization under the name of CESA.
In 2004, AWES and CESA decided to go back to the initial one-
ри
organization structure – the COMMUNITY OF EUROPEAN
SHIPYARDS' ASSOCIATIONS or, CESA, which had become a well-
established trademark in the maritime world as well as in the predomi-
о

nant field of EC related activities.


Industry in numbers:
ит

 More than 300 shipyards producing, converting, maintaining mer-


chant and naval ships and other hardware for maritime applications.
 Approximately € 30 billion turnover each year, close to 75 % of
з

ships build are for export markets.


по

 Provides more than 500.000 jobs in Europe and has secondary ef-
fects over life of 60 million citizens from 36 European regions.
 Invests approximately 10 % of turnover in Research Development
Ре

and Innovation every year.


Text 14
Environmentally Friendly Antifouling Paint
Every year, 20 000 tonnes of marine antifouling paint are used to pro-
tect the hulls of ships and all submerged equipment against the organ-
105
isms which adhere to them, encourage deterioration and corrosion and
lead to increased energy consumption. These products do however pose
a threat to flora and fauna. Moreover, the terms of the European and in-
ternational regulations governing them are shortly to become much more
stringent. Tin, which is an ingredient in 80% of products currently avail-
able, will be banned as from 2008.
The new generation of antifouling paints will be composed of active,
and in some instances marine-sourced, molecules designed not only to

ТУ
effectively limit the adherence and growth of unwanted organisms, but
also to disperse safely and completely along with any dirt when subject
to friction in water.

БН
Text 15

Every ship is installed with fresh water production unit which pro-
duces fresh water from sea water. The efficient water production unit of
й
the ship helps the vessel owner to save on additional fresh water expens-
es that are incurred by purchasing water from port suppliers.
ри
Two popular methods for production of fresh water on ships include:
1) Fresh water generator,
2) Reverse osmosis process.
о

Reverse osmosis is one of the modern methods used by the shipping


industry to produce fresh water from sea water. This method of water
ит

production does not use waste heat source, unlike fresh water generator,
to desalinate the sea water to convert it into fresh water with low salt
ppm. As the name suggest, this methods works on reversing the osmosis
з

principle. When a chemical solution is separated from pure water by a


по

semi permeable membrane (allowing passage of water not salt) then the
pure water flows through the membrane until all the pure water has
passed through or until the hydrostatic pressure head of the salt solution
is sufficiently big enough to arrest or stop the process.
Ре

Reverse osmosis is the use of this phenomenon in reverse direction.


This results in water being forced through the membrane from the con-
centrated solution toward the more dilute one. This is achieved by apply-
ing pressure of the osmotic pressure of the concentrated solution.
The osmotic pressure of sea water is 28 bars but to overcome system
losses and the fact that the sea water concentration increases as it passes

106
through the length of the membrane, much higher pressure around 40–
70 bar, depending upon the plant size, is required.
A triplex plunger pump is popularly used to produce high pressure
across the membrane. The membrane used has a very fine barrier of
dense holes which only allows water and gases to pass through, while
preventing the passage of solutes such as salt and other impurities.
The fresh water produced after this stage is treated with chemicals and
ultraviolet treatment to make it drinkable and useful for other purpose.

ТУ
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107
REFERENCES
1. Dormidontov, V. K. Shipbuilding technology (Translated from Rus-
sian by J. H. Dixon) / V. K. Dormidontov, T. V. Arefyev, N. A. Kiseleva. –
Moscow : MIR Publishers.
2. Doroshkevitch, N.O. Conversation English for Seamen / N. O.
Doroshkevitch, M. L. Pal. – М. : Морскойпорт, 1962.
3. Аваркина, Н. И. Типы и конструкция корпуса морских судов /

ТУ
Н.И. Аваркина, Л. Ф. Серебрянникова. – КнАПИ, 1985.
4. Короткова, Н. А. Классификация судов. Строительство корпу-
са судна / Н. А. Короткова. – КнАПИ, 1982.

БН
Электронные ресурсы
1. ABBYY Lingvo.Pro:http://lingvopro.abbyyonline.com/ru
2. Access Science: http://www.accessscience.com/
3. All About Cruising: http://sandnseacruises.blogspot.com/
й
4. Australia’s Institute for Maritime Education, Training and Re-
search: https://www.amc.edu.au/
ри
5. Belarusian Telegraph Agency: http://news.belta.by/en
6. Business Green Sustainable Thinking: http://www.businessgreen.com/
7. China Shipbuilding, Seabay Marine Corp.:
о

http://www.seabaymarine.com/
8. Community of European Shipyards Associations: http://cesa-
ит

shipbuilding.org/
9. Encyclopedia.com online: http://www.encyclopedia.com
10. European Commission: http://ec.europa.eu/index_en.htm
з

11. Global economic competitiveness cluster: http://www.pole-mer-


по

bretagne.com/
12. International Maritime Organization: http://www.imo.org/
13. Inventor Spot: http://inventorspot.com/
14. Marine in Sight: http://www.marineinsight.com/
Ре

15. Social Media Release: http://oursocialmedia.com/


16. TDS Marine & Dry Docking Services: http://drydocking.eu/
17. The Baltic University: http://www.balticuniv.uu.se/
18. The Conference of Peripheral Maritime Regions (CPMR):
http://crpm.org/
19. Министерство транспорта и коммуникаций Республики Бе-
ларусь: http://mintrans.gov.by/
108
CONTENTS

Предисловие………..…………………………………………… 3
Unit I Water Transport…..……………………………….…....... 4
Unit II Types of Vessels………………………………………… 24
Unit III Shipbuilding……………………………………..……… 43

ТУ
Unit IV Modern Worldwide Shipbuilding Industry……….......... 68
Supplementary Reading Material…………………….............. 91

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References……………………………………………………….. 108

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109
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Учебное издание
о

КОБЯК Ольга Николаевна


ФИНСКАЯ Нелли Алексеевна
ит

SHIPBUILDING

Кораблестроение
з
по

Пособие
по английскому языку для студентов специальности
1-37 03 02 «Кораблестроение и техническая эксплуатация
водного транспорта»
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Редактор О. В. Ткачук
Компьютерная верстка А. Г. Занкевич

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110