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Arduino UNO



The Arduino Uno can be powered via the USB connection or with an external power supply (either from
an AC-to-DC adapter (wall-wart) or battery). The power source is selected automatically. The board can
operate on an external supply of 6 to 12 volts.
If supplied with less than 7V, however, the 5V pin may supply less than five volts and the board may be
unstable. If using more than 12V, the voltage regulator may overheat and damage the board.

The power pins are as follows:

1) VIN : You can supply voltage through this pin, or, if supplying voltage via the power jack, access
it through this pin. It is unregulated and should not be used to power external components.
2) 3.3V : A 3.3 volt supply generated by the on-board regulator. Maximum current draw is 50 mA.
It is used to power external components.
3) 5V : This pin outputs a regulated 5V from the regulator on the board. The board can be supplied
with power either from the DC power jack (7 - 12V), the USB connector (5V), or the VIN pin of
the board (7-12V).
4) GND : Ground pins.
5) RESET: Bring this line LOW to reset the microcontroller. Typically used to add a reset button to
shields which block the one on the board.


The ATmega328 has 32 KB (with 0.5 KB used for the bootloader).

It also has 2 KB of SRAM and 1 KB of EEPROM (which can be read and written with the EEPROM library).


Digital Section:

Each of the 14 digital pins on the Uno can be used as an input or output.

Functions used are pinMode(), digitalWrite(), and digitalRead() .

PIN 0 (RX): Used to receive serial data.

PIN 1(TX): Used to transmit serial data.

PIN 2-13 : Digital input output pins.

PIN 13: There is a built-in LED connected to digital pin 13. When the pin is HIGH value, the LED is on,
when the pin is LOW, it's off.

PIN 14(GND) : Digital ground

PIN 15(AREF): Reference voltage for the analog inputs. Used with analogReference().

Additionally PIN 3,5,6,9,10,11 can function as PWM pin which provide 8-bit PWM output with the
analogWrite() function.

Additionally PIN 2,3 can serve as external interrupts. These pins can be configured to trigger an interrupt
upon call of attachInterrupt(digitalPinToInterrupt(pin), ISR, mode);


ISR - Interrupt Service Routinue

mode - defines when the interrupt should be triggered. Four constants are predefined as valid values:

 LOW to trigger the interrupt whenever the pin is low,

 CHANGE to trigger the interrupt whenever the pin changes value

 RISING to trigger when the pin goes from low to high,

 FALLING for when the pin goes from high to low.

The Due, Zero and MKR1000 boards allows also:

 HIGH to trigger the interrupt whenever the pin is high.

Analog Section:

The Uno has 6 analog inputs, labeled A0 through A5, each of which provide 10 bits of resolution (i.e.
1024 different values). By default they measure from ground to 5 volts, though is it possible to change
the upper end of their range using the AREF pin and the analogReference() function.

I2C COMMUNICATION PINS:These pins allow you to communicate with I2C Devices.

A4 (SDA) :Data Line

A5 (SCL) :Clock Line

ICSP Section:

These pins allow you to communicate with SPI devices, with the Arduino as the master device. Serial
Peripheral Interface (SPI) is a synchronous serial data protocol used by microcontrollers for
communicating with one or more peripheral devices quickly over short distances. Typically there are
three lines common to all the devices:

 MISO (Master In Slave Out) - The Slave line for sending data to the master (PIN 12)

 MOSI (Master Out Slave In) - The Master line for sending data to the peripherals (PIN 11)

 SCK (Serial Clock) - The clock pulses which synchronize data transmission generated by the
master (PIN 13)

and one line specific for every device:

SS (Slave Select) - the pin on each device that the master can use to enable and disable specific devices
(PIN 10)

When a device's Slave Select pin is low, it communicates with the master. When it's high, it ignores the
master. This allows you to have multiple SPI devices sharing the same MISO, MOSI, and CLK lines.


The Arduino Uno has a number of facilities for communicating with a computer, another Arduino, or
other microcontrollers.

1) It provides UART TTL (5V) serial communication, which is available on digital pins 0 (RX) and 1
2) The Arduino software includes a serial monitor which allows simple textual data to be sent to
and from the Arduino board. The RX and TX LEDs on the board will flash when data is being
transmitted via the USB-to serial chip and USB connection to the computer (but not for serial
communication on pins 0 and 1).
3) A SoftwareSerial library allows for serial communication on any of the Uno's digital pins.
4) It also support I2C (includes a Wire library to simplify use of the I2C bus) and SPI communication.


The Arduino Uno can be programmed with the Arduino software. It comes pre burned with a bootloader
that allows you to upload new code to it without the use of an external hardware programmer.
Why Arduino?

Arduino is a cross-platform program. You’ll have to follow different instructions for your personal OS. It
is open source and highly popular technology. Arduino can sense the environment by receiving input
from a variety of sensors and can affect its surroundings by controlling lights, motors, and other
actuators. Arduino projects can be stand-alone or they can communicate with software on running on a
computer. This is exactly what is expected of our project. It serves our purpose highly efficiently.