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BSCrim., MSBA, MACrim., PhDCrim.




The physiological adaptations that made humans more flexible than other
primates allowed for the development of a wide range of abilities and an
unparalleled versatility in behavior. The brain’s great size, complexity, and slow
maturation, with neural connections being added through at least the first
twelve years of life, meant that learned behavior could largely modify
stereotyped, instinctive responses.

Definition of Human Behavior

It is a voluntary or involuntary attitude of a person in order to fit the

society’s idea of right or wrong, partly determined by heredity and environment,
and modified through learning. It is the way also how human beings act. Many
people use the word behavior to mean conduct. But in psychology and other
behavioral science, behavior is regarded as any activity of a person.

Viewpoints in the Study of Human Behavior

Enumerated hereunder are the several viewpoints in the study of human


1. Neurological

Emphasize human actions in relation to events taking place inside the

body, especially the brains and the nervous system.
2. Behavioral

Focus on those external activities of the organism that can be observed

and measured.

3. Cognitive

Concerned with the way the brain processes and transforms information
in various ways.

4. Psychoanalytical
Emphasize unconscious motives stemming from repressed sexual and
aggressive impulse on childhood.

5. Humanistic

Focus on the subject’s experience, freedom of choice and motivation

toward self-actualization.

Factors that Affects Human Behavior

The three common factors affecting human behavior are as follows, i.e.,
heredity, environment and learning, which are enumerated hereunder:

1. Heredity

It is determine by genes. Genes are the segments of the cell structures

called chromosomes by which parents pass on to their offspring.

2. Environment

Consist of the conditions and factors that surround and influence

an organism. The environment can cause certain behavior.

3. Learning

Is the process by which behavior change as a result of experience or practice.

Causes of Conflicts on Human Behavior

There are also factors which causes conflicts on human behavior. They
are as follows:

1. Physical Causes

It is refers to natural causes, like a typhoons, an earthquake, a fire, a

flood, a storm.

2. Social Conflicts
Involve restrictions or rules in the home, in the school, in the
community. Many laws are intended for public welfare, but they interfere with
the adolescent’s desires or interest.

3. Economic Conflicts

Result from one’s ability to have materials things because of poverty or

other financial obligations.

Classifications of Human Behavior

Human behavior is often classified as voluntary or involuntary. Speaking

at a meeting appears to be voluntary and breathing heavily after running
seems to involuntary. But both types of behavior may change with experience.
Deciding to speak at a meeting may in fact be determined by a person’s
previous experience in speaking and keeping quiet at meetings. In addition,
people may not breaths heavily after running if they have learned how to
increase their endurance. Thus, behavior might hard to distinguish as
voluntary or involuntary when examined closely.

Basic Types of Human Behavior

The two basic types of human behavior are as follows. Human behavior
can be simply categorized at inherited and learned behavior:
1. Inherited Behavior

Inherited or innate behavior refers to any behavioral response or reflex

exhibited by the people due to their genetic endowment or the process of natural

2. Learned Behavior

Learned or operant behavior involves cognitive adaptation that enhances

the human being’s ability to cope with the changes in the environment and to
manipulate the environment in ways in which improve the chances for survival.

Personality Dimensions Affecting Human Behavior

The personality dimensions affecting human behavior are
extraversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism, which are all enumerated
discussed hereunder:

1. Extraversion

It is the dimension that dictates conditionability and therefore is

the principal factor in anti-social behavior. Extraverts dimension plays
the greatest role in crime and delinquency. Extraversion factor is
particularly crucial in dealing with young children when socialized
conduct either is or is not acquired through the proper development of
the conditioned conscience.

2. Neuroticism

It reflects an innate biological predisposition to react

physiologically to stressful or upsetting events. Neuroticism or emotional
instability acts like an amplifier of an already existing habit, good or bad.
Neuroticism is most important in understanding some adult criminals,
less important in understanding adolescents and even less young

3. Psychoticism

It is characterized by cold cruelty, social insensitivity, disregard for danger,

troublesome behavior, dislike of others, and an attraction toward the unusual.
Psychoticism dimension is hypothesized to be link with crimes of violence, and
appears to be equally important across all stages of development, from childhood
through adolescence to adulthood.

Psychological Explanations of Human Behavior

Presented hereunder are the psychological explanations of human

behavior, as follows:

1. The Mind and Its Relationship to Crime

Frequent comments are heard about the criminal mind, and the
literature devoted to explaining it is extensive. Before the development of more
scientific theories on human behavior and mental illness, one of the most
popular explanations was demonology. Individuals were thought to be
possessed by good or evil spirit, which caused good or evil behavior.

2. Psychiatric Approach
The field of medicine that specializes in the understanding, diagnosis,
treatment, and prevention of mental problems is psychiatry. Psychoanalysis is a
branch of psychiatry, which employs a particular personality theory and a
specific treatment method, usually individual case study.

3. Personality Theory

Emotional conflict and personality deviation characterize many criminals,

especially habitual offenders, leading some theorists to conclude that these
deviations cause human behavior to become criminals. But the critical
questions are whether these factors distinguish criminals from law-abiding
persons and, if so, whether the traits cause the illegal behavior.

4. Intelligence and Crime

Closely associated with the mental disorder approach is the linking of

crime and intelligence. It is argued that low intelligence causes crime. This
approach has long historical roots. The relationship between crime and
intelligence is a “clear consistent link between criminality and low intelligence.”
Low intelligence and crime appear together, and low intelligence is the cause of

5. Cognitive Development Theory

Another type of psychological theory that has been used to explain

human behavior is cognitive development. This approach is based on the belief
that the ways in which people organize their thoughts about rules and laws
results in either criminal or non-criminal behavior. Psychologists refer to this
organization of thoughts as moral reasoning.

6. Behavior Theory

Behavior theory is the basis for behavior modification, one approach used
in institutionalized and non-institutionalized settings for changing behavior.
The primary thesis is that all behavior is learned and can be unlearned. The
approach is concerned with observable behavior, underlying personality
problems that must be uncovered and treated.

7. Learning Theory

Learning theory, acknowledges that individuals have physiological

mechanism that permit them to behave aggressively, but whether or not they
will do so, and the nature of their aggressive behavior, are learned. Learning
theory emphasizes that learning may be accomplished by using other people as
models; it is not necessary to engage in all the behavior that people learn.



Mental disorder from sociological viewpoint is the persistent inability to

adapt oneself to the ordinary environment. It is the individual’s loss of power to
regulate his actions and conduct according to the rules of society.

Who are Normal Persons?

From the viewpoint of human adjustment, a normal persons is one

behaves according to the norms and standards of society.

Characteristics of Normal Persons

1. Free expression of personality.

2. Adequate security feelings.

3. Efficient contact with reality.

4. Adaptability to group norms.

5. Emotional maturity.

6. Adequate self-knowledge.

7. Integrated and consistent personality.

Who are Abnormal Persons?

Are individual can be called abnormal when he fails to meet the above
stated characteristics of a normal persons.
Characteristics of Abnormal Persons

1. He may compromise with reality by developing imaginary ailments,

phobias, obsessions, or compulsions.

2. He may withdraw from the real world into a world of fantasy and
male-believe where his hidden or unexpressed desires may be fulfilled.

3. Instead of compromising with reality or withdrawing into as kind of

shell, the person may go to the other extreme, and become very aggressive to

Symptoms of Mental Disorders

Enumerated hereunder are some of the symptoms of mental disorders:

1. Physical

Physical symptoms of mental and emotional disorders include rapid

changes in pulse, temperature, respiration, nausea, vomiting, headaches,
dizziness, loss of appetite, marked changes in weight, excessive fatigue, pain,
cough, lack of motor coordination, and speech disturbance.

2. Mental

Symptoms of mental and emotional disorders include flight of fancy, loss

of understanding, loss of memory, strong irrational fears, compulsion to engage
in some form of behavior, obsessions, and false perceptions.

3. Emotional

Some symptoms of mental and emotional disorders are apathy—

indifference, accompanied by expressions of worry, crying, refusal to eat or
speak, unnatural state of happiness, behavior symptoms—psychomotor
activity, crying, laughing, constant repetition of act, and profane language.
Several Types of Mental Disorders

Hereunder are the several types of mental disorders:

1. Psychosomatic Illness

Psychosomatic illness implies an inter-relationship of mind, body and


2. Psychoneurosis

Is a mild form of mental disorder. Hysteria belongs to this type and

manifests itself because of anxiety.

3. Psychoses

Are serious mental and emotional disorders that are a manifestation of

withdrawal from reality.

Classifications of Mental Retardation

For clear understanding, discussed hereunder are the different

classifications of mental disorders:

1. Idiot

Usually congenital and it is due to the defective development of the

mental faculties. Mentality never exceeds that of a normal child over 2 years
old. The I.Q. is from 0 to 20.

2. Imbecile

Although the mental defect, is not severe as that of idiots. He cannot

manage his own affairs. The mental age may be compared to a normal child
from 3 to 7 years old. The I.Q. is 21 to 40.
3. Feeble-Minded

A person whose mental defect is so pronounced, such that he needs care,

supervision, and control for his protection and for the protection of others. He
has mentality similar to that of a normal child between 8 to 12 years old. The
I.Q. is 41 to 70.

4. Morally Defective
In addition to the mental defect, there are strong vicious and criminal
propensities, so that the person requires care, supervision and control for the
protection of others.

Classifications of Mental Deficiencies

There are also classifications of mental deficiencies, as follows:

1. Profound

I.Q. is under 20, and capable of most of limited self-help. There is most
likely a need for environment in which care is available throughout his lifetime.

2. Severe

I.Q. is between 20 to 35, and capable o9f habit training as a child. As an

adult he is likely in need of a controlled environment.

3. Moderate

I.Q. is 36 to 51, and can develop academic skills equal to about the
second-grade level. As an adult he will most probably need as sheltered

4. Mild

I.Q. is 56 to 67 and constitutes the largest group of mentally retarded. As

an adult he can develop social and vocational skills.
Conditions Manifesting Mental Retardation

Also enumerated are the conditions manifesting mental retardation:

1. Somnambulism

This is an abnormal mental condition whereby a person performs an act

while sleeping.

2. Semi-Somnolence

A person is in a semi-somnolent state when is half asleep or in condition

between sleep and being awake.

3. Mesmerism
A person is made unconscious by the suggestive influence of hypnotist.

4. Delirium

It is a state of confusion of the mind, and it is characterize by incoherent

speech, hallucinations, illusions, delusions, restlessness, and apparently
purposeless motions.

Categories of Mentally Disturbed Persons

Hereunder are the different categories of mentally disturbed persons:

1. Anti-Social Personality

This is a mentally disturbed person who opposed to the principles upon

which society is based.

Characteristics of Anti-Social Personality

a. A person with anti-social personality is also known as a sociopath

or psychopath.

Definition of Sociopath

It is a person who lacks any sense of social or moral responsibility

because of mental illness.

Definition of Psychopath

It is a person having disorder of personality, characterized by

anti-social behavior, indifference to immorality and abnormal changes in
mood and activity.

b. He is classic “manipulator” or “con artist.”

c. One of the most significant characteristics of this personality is the

absence of any conscience or guilt feelings.

d. This person has not incorporated into his life the moral values of
our society.

e. He is often a glib and convincing speaker and presents himself

extremely well.
f. The anti-social personality is selfish and strives for physical

g. Most of his pursuits revolve around manipulating people to acquire

personal gains for himself.

h. He is very impulsive and demand immediate satisfaction.

i. He is unable to profit from past experiences, and he can be

described as a chronic liar.

2. Paranoid-Schizophrenic

It is mental disease resembling paranoia, but it is also characterized by

an autistic behavior, hallucinations and gradual deterioration of the
Characteristics of Paranoid Schizophrenic

a. The paranoid schizophrenic is disturbed to the degree that he is

out of touch of reality, suffering from a psychosis, mentally de-arranged or

b. There are usually two (2) primary symptoms, i.e., hallucinations

and delusions.

Definition of Hallucinations

Hallucinations are hearing or seeing things that are not really


Definition of Delusions

Delusions are a false system of beliefs that persists despite

evidence to the contrary.

3. Inadequate Personality

A person who is not much needed for a particular purpose.

Characteristics of Inadequate Personality

a. Throughout his life, the person with inadequate personality has

shown ineffective and inept responses to the social, emotional and physical
b. He is quite often a high school dropout and may have a succession
of jobs having been fired from each because of poor performance.

c. He sees himself as looser, as someone who always failed.

d. Taking hostages may be his last attempt to prove to someone that

he can succeed in doing something.

e. He is usually having a clear thinking although immaturely, and

can understand the consequence of his actions and can be negotiated with

f. The hostage taking may involve attention from authority figures

and the media, and it may be the high point of his life, and this kind of a
person will try to show that they can really do something.

4. Manic-Depressive

It is person having or characterized by alternating account of mania and

depression. Mania is a kind of insanity characterized by great excitement,
while depression is a mental disorder characterized by prolonged feelings of
despair and rejection, often accompanied by fatigue, and other physical

Characteristics of Manic-Depressive

a. The person who is a manic-depressive is usually so depressed, and

he is out of touch of reality, suffering from psychosis, mentally de-arranged or

b. He may consider himself unworthy to live, feel guilty for “past sins”
he has committed, and often has a belief that is delusional.

c. He may believe that he is responsible for all the suffering in the

world and his current depression is his punishment for living a sinful life.

d. The potential for suicide is extremely high as the potential for

killing any hostages, and he speaks about his unworthiness, his sinfulness or
his delusional feelings of guilt.
e. They take hostages who are members of the family or person
known to him, and the person’s speech and movements may be extremely slow.
He may take 15 to 30 seconds or longer to answer a question.



Crisis management in the face of a current and real crisis includes

identifying the real nature of a current crisis, intervening to minimize damage
and recovering from the crisis.

Definition of Crisis Management

It is the expert handling of crisis or emergency so as to reduce or

eliminate danger or damage, or the likes, especially on the part of the

Objectives of Crisis Management

Hereunder are the objectives of crisis management:

1. Resolve without further incident.

2. Safety of all the participants.

3. Apprehension of all the perpetrators.

4. Accomplished the task within the framework of current community


Definition of Hostage Situation

A hostage situation is a set of circumstances wherein a suspected law

violator is holding a person captive with the use of force, or threat of violence
and the police are in close confrontation with the suspect and his captive.
Differences Between Hostage Taking & Kidnapping
The differences between hostage taking and kidnapping are the facts that
in kidnapping:

1. The police are not aware of the captive location.

2. The police are not in close confrontation with the perpetrators.

3. The police cannot exert any pressure on the suspects.

Motives of Hostage Taking

Hostage taking is a by-product of the varied motives, as follows:

1. In political terrors, the reasons include showing the public that the
government is not able to protect its own citizenry.

2. Hostage taking guarantees immediate media coverage, and after

repeated hostage incidents, it is the hope of the terrorist that the government
might overreact and become excessively restrictive with its own citizens, thus
causing civil discontent and a grassroots movement to overthrow the

3. Warring nations seeking peace after exchange of hostages as a

guarantee of a reciprocal good faith.

4. In urban guerilla warfare hostages are taken with little regard to

law and order, but not all hostage takers will be urban guerilla. Hold-ups
sometimes involve hostages and certain guidelines of behavior must be laid
down to effectively deal with a hostage confrontation situation.

5. Law enforcement officers will most likely to encounter hostage

incidents that involve either criminal acts or the mentally disturbed.
6. A husband or wife may take a child hostage in custody out of a
domestic dispute or a mentally disturbed person may take hostages in order to
right what he believes to be wrong.

7. Whatever the initial reason for hostage taking, it is clear that the
motive for holding the hostage may change.

Distinct Categories of Hostage Takers

For a clearer discussion, enumerated are the five distinct categories of

hostage takers:
1. Persons in Crisis

These are people who take hostages during a period of prolonged

frustrations, despair and problems that affect their emotion and behavior to act
in accordance with norms and conducts in a society.
2. Psychotics

These are mentally ill people who take hostages during a period of
psychiatric disturbance.

3. Common-Criminals

These are people who take hostages for personal reasons rather than
ideological gain.

4. Prisoners

These are people who take hostages because of dissatisfaction and

discontentment as regard their living conditions while in prisons.

5. Political Terrorists

These are ideologically inspired individuals or groups of people-the

political terrorists that take hostages because of political and ideological

Generic Categories of Hostage Takers

In addition to the five district categories of hostage takers, there are also
three generic categories, as follows:

1. Common Criminal

Characteristics of Common Criminal

a. The common criminal will generally concede to police negotiations

if there is no way out, hostages will generally be unharmed.

b. This type is classed as a rational creative thinker, able to reason

consequences and discriminate how much force is against them, and acts

2. The Psycho

Characteristics of Psycho
a. The enforcement officer should try to regain as much information
as possible concerning motives, past life history, medical and arrest records,
etc.; and skilled psychological police negotiators should be trained to talk and
record all the things at his level of understanding if this is all possible.

b. This type of person is generally described as full of inner conflict

and frustrations by which are transferred to his immediate reality, distorted to
suit own illusions; and this person is much more unpredictable and may resort
to violence depending upon his mood.

c. Some of this type will derive vicarious pleasure at being the focus
of attention; he will want to “dictate terms” and will also want to be in a “very
important persons” category; and in other cases he will be motivated by a
strong death wish and offers to allow his escape will diminish the importance of
the situation in which he finds himself.

d. Bringing a priest, wife, sweethearts may plunge the psycho right

back into the environment from which he is desperately seeking refuge and the
reaction may be negative to the point of killing the hostage and himself.

3. The Fanatics

Characteristics of the Fanatics

a. This category includes the one who falls on the extreme side of the
violence; and he is the most dangerous as the law in his mind has no basis of
legality; and the group he belongs is to judge by its peers through acts of
manliness and honor, thinly veiled violence constituting those acts.

b. He can be a true revolutionary and a total anarchist reflecting the

attitude: “The government to be torn down and overthrown. I do not recognize
the laws of an illegally elected body, therefore none of the actions I perform will
be illegal action.”

c. This mental orientation has the foundations in seeing after a

misdirected social justice for all against the prevailing order of things; and this
type will rationalize deviance in terms of revolutionary zeal often parlayed by
feeling of inadequacy.

d. The law enforcement officer may have to resort to ego flattering if

he can approach close enough, and if the fanatics condescend to talk to him
from his Ivory Tower of illusory superiority.

Mind Barriers in Dealing with Hostage Takers

1. Law enforcers will have to discover the hostage takers intentions
and objectives; the demands and needs of the hostage takers must be
determined; and negotiations mean to talk, stalling and talking is actually of
good help.

2. In most cases involving hostages, time has been found to be an

asset and ally because of the following reasons, i.e., the more time that elapses,
the more time the hostage taker will have to think about his predicament; and
with little persuasion the hostage taker may feels downright uncomfortable;
time reduces anxiety as long as overt aggressive acts are committed, and the
hostage taker can be starved out and sleep for him to eventually catch up; and
the hostages might even take advantageous of such lapses to escape of their

Reasons Why Common Criminals Take Hostages

Criminals have three (3) common demands, i.e., means of escape,

additional money, and transportation to be used in fleeing the crime scene.

Reasons Why Prisoners Take Hostages

1. Taking hostages give the prisoners more bargaining power and a

significant amount of media coverage.

2. Prison riots generally centers around complaints concerning

prisoner conditions and demand for improvement.

Reasons Why Political Terrorists Take Hostages

1. Politically motivated terrorists take hostages with intent of getting

as much publicity as possible for their cause.

2. The demands will normally go beyond the authority of the local

police and may require involvement of the National Government.

3. The likelihood of hostages being killed is very high since the

terrorists may be prepared to die as martyrs.



Major Activities of Managing Hostage Situation

Hereunder the four major activities in managing hostage situation, to


1. Planning

Planning consist of work performed in order to pre-determine a course of


2. Organizing

Organizing consist of work performed in order to arrange and relate work

so that it can be accomplished effectively by the workers.

3. Leading

Leading consists of work performed in order to stimulate people to take

effective action.

4. Controlling

Controlling consists of work performed in order to access and regulate

work which is in progress and which has been finished.

Basic Plan Acceptable in Most Hostage Situation

1. Identify the Physical Objective

The physical objective is the exact location of the event; it may be a

structure, a vehicle or a position with no structure or vehicle involved.
2. Establish an Inner Perimeter

The purpose of an inner perimeter is to control ingress and egress into or

from the physical objective.

3. Establishing an Outer Perimeter

The purpose of the outer perimeter is to restrict vehicular and pedestrian

traffic that could conflict with police activity at or near the physical objective.
4. Organization of Fire and Observation Team

The purpose of fire and observation team is to provide cover to the arrest
and assault team, and to obtain information useful in devising plan of action
and estimates of the situation by direct observation.

5. Activation of the Negotiating Team

The purpose of the negotiating team is to effectively deal with the suspect
for the release of the hostages by getting the demands of the hostage takers.

6. Deploy Arrest and Assault Teams

Arrest and assault teams are SWAT teams assigned the task of taking
the perpetrator into custody.

7. Maintain Reserves.

In barricade and/or hostage situation which are or may be extended in

time, reserves should be standing by to relieve duty teams or individual officers.

Definition of Informational Briefing

Informational Briefings are the roadmaps used to maintain the

operations sense of direction.
Guidelines During Informational Briefing

1. Briefing should be given orally with a written copy given to all

attendees, and to be identified by a numbers or code words.

2. Briefings should be conducted in area that provides the following,

i.e., no interruptions, visual aids capabilities, protection from elements, and
protection from media.

3. Briefings should be given by the same person whenever possible,

and should be scheduled at the time of the operation.

4. Briefing times and location should be distributed to all potential


5. Briefings should be given in their entirety with questions allowed

following presentation.
6. Procedure should be in place to provide committed officers with
appropriate updated information.

Analysis of the Situation

After the basic plan has been implemented, the leader must then make a
detailed analysis of the situation that should include the following:

1. Mission

The mission that is the task to be performed must be carefully examined

and clearly understood. It is the basis for all the actions that are to be followed,
and it must be formulated in clear, concise, and simple terms.

2. Suspects and Hostages

Information concerning the perpetrator and hostages comes from any

sources. The most reliable information is obtained by the traditional methods
of direct observation and the interviewing of witnesses, victims and others with
knowledge of the situation. The types of information needed is, “Where is it
happening, what is taking place, who is the perpetrator, why is it happening,
when did it begin, and what are the motivations, etc?

3. Terrain

Terrain includes both the natural lay of the land or man-made structures
such as buildings, roads, etc.

4. Resources

The police must consider his strengths as compared with the strengths of
his opponents. He must know what resources are available and which are
needed to deal with the situation effectively.

5. Complete Plan of Action

After an analysis of the situation has been completed, the police

executive reviews the basic plan and then completes a plan of action. The
leader should prepare notes to be sued when issuing order.

6. Preparation of Checklist

The preparation of checklist can be helpful in guiding the intelligence

officers in preparing proper analysis.
Operational Order

The operational order is a device used to implement a plan of action.

Parts of Operational Order

Briefly presented hereunder are the parts of the operational order:

1. Title

It is the subject of the operational plan. What is important in this

portion, in that it must be reflective on the mission and execution of the
operational plan? The title must provide gist and idea, on the first place, what
the operational plan all about.

2. Situation

State the situation and identify the perpetrator in terms of: location,
description and identification, weapons, hostages and identification,
intelligence data, physical objective, and caution statements; and identify all
the law enforcement officers’ involve.

3. Mission

The mission is consists of a clear, concise statement of the task that is to

be performed.

4. Execution

It states the general plan of action in terms of specific objectives and the
specific duties assigned to law enforcement units and individuals. It also states
the coordinating instructions in terms of the following, i.e., time schedule,
order of movement, route of movement, and areas to be isolated.

5. Administrative and Logistics

It states instructions as related to, i.e., weapons and ammunitions,

clothing and personnel equipment, specialized equipment, transportation,
handling injured, handling suspects, and handling evidence.

6. Command and Signal

It states instructions relative to, i.e., identity and location of the ground
commander, fire control requirements, radio frequencies, pre-arranged codes
and signals.



The terrorist group is one of the most widely publicized groups, but the
least understood of our time. At the same time, it is true that important changes
have taken place concerning the motives, character, and aims of terrorist acts.

Definition of Terrorist Negotiations

It is complicated crisis intervention process comprises of a system of

inter-related conditions, activities, and behaviors needed to resolved a highly
volatile terrorist incident.

Considerations in Negotiating with Terrorists

Hereunder are the considerations in negotiating with the terrorists:

1. Their mission has been well planned.

2. There is one leader of the group and he is probably the


3. Only “mid-level” personnel should negotiate with the terrorists.

4. The terrorists have a great deal of information about their

stronghold; they normally placed a defensive perimeter of personnel or

5. Attempt to convince the terrorists that their point has been taken,
demands heard, and any further injuries will only discredit them in the eyes of
the public.

Difficulties in Dealing with Terrorists

Enumerated are difficulties encountered in dealing with terrorists:

1. Terrorists are usually highly trained combatants, who have been

politically and/or ideologically indoctrinated toward the cause for they have
2. They act as a part of a groups, their individual behavior will be
pressured by the group dynamics.

3. Most of them received training in the techniques that will be

used against them in the country chosen for the attack.

4. Because of the advances made by the security forces around the

world, it is not unusual for one member of the terrorist group to be accountable
for keeping the terrorist communicating with the authorities “on track.”

5. Unless proper interception procedures are used, the terrorist

themselves may be “controlled” by an outside entity through radios, telephone
or media transmission.

Principles in Negotiating with Terrorists

1. It is a cynical to pretend that negotiations with terrorist engaged in

this particularly offensive type of criminal behavior is welcomed for their own

2. On the contrary, bargaining under these odious circumstances

goes against all natural inclination and both public and private sensibilities.
Problems in Negotiating with Terrorists

1. The growing vulnerability of society, coupled with the extra-

ordinary advances in technology have combined to offer an individual a real
prospect of making an effective challenge to the government monopoly on the
use of force.

2. The terrorist hostage-taking drama is capable of producing acute

conflicts of principles that are not easy to resolve.

3. The terrorist are able to place the state in the inconvenient position
of declaring the value they place on human life but are also obliged to declare
its relative importance, for them, to the values deemed worthy of protection.

4. By placing human life in jeopardy the hostage-takers sets-up a

bargaining position.

Considerations in Negotiating with Terrorist

To serve as guide to the negotiators, hereunder are some of the

considerations in negotiations with terrorists:
1. Only a society that holds human life to be of no account can
maintain at all costs, a truly flexible hard line policy of no negotiations.

2. Accepting the importance of negotiation, it is a must to devise

tactics and techniques that will ensure the lives of the hostages, and preserve
the integrity of the state.

Tactics in Dealing with Terrorists

1. Terrorists are not worrying about their personality description, and

by being flexible, modify his behavior through manipulation, if he doesn’t
respond satisfactorily to one proposal, try another.
2. The negotiator is not, and above all should not be bent on
understanding the terrorist psychologically.

Negotiating Requirements with Terrorists

To effectively deal with terrorists, the hereunder negotiating requirements

must be considered:

1. Control

The control component represents a condition whereby there is

management of law enforcement resources and control of all activities,
responses and behaviors of persons at or near the target location.

2. Anxiety

The anxiety component represents a condition wherein there is anxiety

on the part of the terrorists and whereby provisions are made by the
authorities for the management of that anxiety.

3. Time

The time component represents a condition where there is a passage of

time and involves the following activities and behaviors.

4. Communications

The communications component represents a condition whereby there is

a dialogue between the terrorists that enhance the negotiating effort and
enables the attainment of the negotiating goal.
5. Dependency

The dependence component represents a condition wherein the terrorists

develop a reliance on the negotiator.

6. Trust

The trust component represents a condition wherein a redirection of

feelings between the terrorists and the negotiator occurs so that a relationship
of confidence can be developed.

7. Problem Solving

Problem solving component represents a condition whereby the

attainment of acceptable goals is encouraged.

Negotiation Stages with Terrorists

1. Introductory Stage

This stage represents behavior on the part of the negotiating participants

wherein the purpose is to get attention, develop trust and deal with anxiety.

2. Information Gathering Stage

This stage represents behaviors on the part of the negotiating

participants wherein the purpose is to inquire about, to listen, and offer
feedback, information relative to the situation.

3. Problem Solving Stage

This stage represents the behaviors on the part of the negotiating

participants wherein the purpose is to identify and evaluate available choices to
resolve the incident.

4. Decisions and Commitment Stage

This stage represents the behaviors on the part of the negotiating

participants wherein the purpose is to select between identified courses of
action and to implement selected options.