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Relion® 670/650 series

Communication set-up, 670/650 series


Version 2.2
Application Guide
Document ID: 1MRK 505 382-UEN
Issued: November 2018
Revision: D
Product version: 2.2

© Copyright 2017 ABB. All rights reserved


Copyright
This document and parts thereof must not be reproduced or copied without written
permission from ABB, and the contents thereof must not be imparted to a third party, nor
used for any unauthorized purpose.

The software and hardware described in this document is furnished under a license and may
be used or disclosed only in accordance with the terms of such license.

This product includes software developed by the OpenSSL Project for use in the OpenSSL
Toolkit. (http://www.openssl.org/) This product includes cryptographic software written/
developed by: Eric Young (eay@cryptsoft.com) and Tim Hudson (tjh@cryptsoft.com).

Trademarks
ABB and Relion are registered trademarks of the ABB Group. All other brand or product names
mentioned in this document may be trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective
holders.

Warranty
Please inquire about the terms of warranty from your nearest ABB representative.
Disclaimer
The data, examples and diagrams in this manual are included solely for the concept or product
description and are not to be deemed as a statement of guaranteed properties. All persons
responsible for applying the equipment addressed in this manual must satisfy themselves that
each intended application is suitable and acceptable, including that any applicable safety or
other operational requirements are complied with. In particular, any risks in applications where
a system failure and/or product failure would create a risk for harm to property or persons
(including but not limited to personal injuries or death) shall be the sole responsibility of the
person or entity applying the equipment, and those so responsible are hereby requested to
ensure that all measures are taken to exclude or mitigate such risks.

This document has been carefully checked by ABB but deviations cannot be completely ruled
out. In case any errors are detected, the reader is kindly requested to notify the manufacturer.
Other than under explicit contractual commitments, in no event shall ABB be responsible or
liable for any loss or damage resulting from the use of this manual or the application of the
equipment.
Conformity
This product complies with the directive of the Council of the European Communities on the
approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to electromagnetic compatibility
(EMC Directive 2004/108/EC) and concerning electrical equipment for use within specified
voltage limits (Low-voltage directive 2006/95/EC). This conformity is the result of tests
conducted by ABB in accordance with the product standard EN 60255-26 for the EMC directive,
and with the product standards EN 60255-1 and EN 60255-27 for the low voltage directive. The
product is designed in accordance with the international standards of the IEC 60255 series.
Table of contents

Table of contents

Section 1 Introduction.........................................................................................................5
1.1 This manual......................................................................................................................................... 5
1.2 Intended audience............................................................................................................................. 5
1.3 Product documentation................................................................................................................... 6
1.3.1 Product documentation set........................................................................................................ 6
1.4 Document symbols and conventions............................................................................................. 7
1.4.1 Symbols............................................................................................................................................7
1.4.2 Document conventions................................................................................................................ 8

Section 2 Telecommunication networks and line differential protection................... 9


2.1 Overview.............................................................................................................................................. 9
2.2 Telecommunication network types................................................................................................9
2.3 Telecommunication networks with symmetric or fixed routes............................................. 10
2.3.1 Maximum time deviation between internal clocks................................................................11
2.3.1.1 Setting the maximum time deviation................................................................................... 11
2.3.1.2 Reference clock deviation from the set maximum time deviation.................................12
2.3.2 Longer route switching interruptions .................................................................................... 13
2.3.3 Detecting accumulated time delay changes with echo timing.......................................... 13

Section 3 Common time synchronization....................................................................... 15


3.1 Design of the time system (clock synchronization).................................................................. 15
3.2 Time synchronization using a built-in GPS receiver.................................................................. 16
3.3 Time synchronization using IRIG-B............................................................................................... 17

Section 4 Analog and binary signal transfer for line differential protection.............19
4.1 Communication channels for line differential protection....................................................... 19
4.2 Communication between channels via Line data communication module......................... 20
4.3 Configuration of analog signals................................................................................................... 20
4.3.1 Configuration of analog inputs.................................................................................................21
4.3.2 Configuration of output signals............................................................................................... 22
4.4 Configuration of redundant channels..........................................................................................23
4.5 Link forwarding................................................................................................................................ 25
4.6 Configurations with power transformers in the protected zone.......................................... 26
4.6.1 Line differential protection L3CPDIF, L6CPDIF, LT3CPDIF, LT6CPDIF..............................26
4.6.1.1 Power transformers in the protected zone........................................................................ 26
4.6.2 Line differential protection L4CPDIF.......................................................................................28
4.6.2.1 Possible configurations.......................................................................................................... 28
4.7 Setting examples............................................................................................................................. 29
4.7.1 Line differential protection L3CPDIF, L6CPDIF, LT3CPDIF, LT6CPDIF..............................29
4.7.2 Line differential protection L4CPDIF.......................................................................................38
4.7.2.1 Setting example with a two-end power line ...................................................................... 38
4.8 Configuration of binary signals.................................................................................................... 42

Communication set-up, 670/650 series 1


Application Guide
Table of contents

4.8.1 Operation principle..................................................................................................................... 42


4.8.2 Configuration of binary inputs and outputs..........................................................................43
4.8.2.1 Configuration of binary inputs and outputs via ACT........................................................43
4.8.2.2 Configuration of binary inputs and outputs via SMT....................................................... 44
4.8.3 Binary output signals..................................................................................................................47
4.8.4 Setting guidelines....................................................................................................................... 50
4.8.5 Settings......................................................................................................................................... 54

Section 5 Communication set-up.................................................................................... 59


5.1 Communication alternatives......................................................................................................... 59
5.2 Communication channels...............................................................................................................59
5.3 Fibre-optic communication interfaces with C37.94 protocol................................................. 61
5.4 Galvanic X.21 line data communication (X.21-LDCM)............................................................... 64
5.4.1 Introduction..................................................................................................................................64
5.4.2 Design............................................................................................................................................64
5.4.3 Functionality.................................................................................................................................66
5.4.4 Technical data.............................................................................................................................. 66
5.4.5 Communication via built-in X.21 galvanic interface..............................................................67
5.4.5.1 Service settings for the line differential protection IED with X.21 galvanic
interface..................................................................................................................................... 67
5.4.5.2 PDH telecommunication via C37.94 interface to external transceiver C37.94-X.21....67
5.5 PDH telecommunication via C37.94 interface to transceiver 21-216.....................................68
5.5.1 Communication requirements................................................................................................. 68
5.5.2 Communication structure via C37.94 interface to transceiver 21-216..............................69
5.5.3 Setting up transceiver 21–216................................................................................................... 69
5.5.4 Power-up and LED statuses with transceiver 21–216........................................................... 71
5.5.5 Service settings............................................................................................................................72
5.5.5.1 Service settings for the line differential protection IED...................................................72
5.5.5.2 Service settings for transceiver 21–216................................................................................73
5.5.6 Earthing......................................................................................................................................... 73
5.5.7 Communication structure for laboratory testing.................................................................74
5.6 PDH/SDH telecommunication via C37.94 interface to transceiver 21-219 .......................... 75
5.6.1 Communication requirements..................................................................................................75
5.6.2 Communication structure with transceiver 21-219 port synchronized from SDH
master clock..................................................................................................................................75
5.6.3 Communication structure with PDH/SDH port synchronized from transceiver
21-219..............................................................................................................................................76
5.6.4 Setting up transceiver 21–219................................................................................................... 78
5.6.5 Power-up and LED statuses with transceiver 21–219.......................................................... 80
5.6.6 Service settings............................................................................................................................81
5.6.6.1 Service settings for the line differential protection IED...................................................81
5.6.6.2 Service settings for transceiver 21–219................................................................................81
5.6.7 Earthing......................................................................................................................................... 82
5.6.8 Communication structure for laboratory testing.................................................................82
5.7 Communication status and fault tracing....................................................................................82
5.7.1 Communication status on the line differential protection IED..........................................82
5.7.2 Detecting communication faults on transceiver 21-216......................................................86

2 Communication set-up, 670/650 series


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Table of contents

5.7.3 Detecting communication faults on transceiver 21-219......................................................86


5.7.4 Detecting communication faults through loop-back testing............................................ 87

Section 6 Appendix............................................................................................................89
6.1 Sample specification of communication requirements.......................................................... 89

Communication set-up, 670/650 series 3


Application Guide
4
1MRK 505 382-UEN D Section 1
Introduction

Section 1 Introduction

1.1 This manual GUID-AB423A30-13C2-46AF-B7FE-A73BB425EB5F v19

This manual contains application examples for the set-up of the communication software and
hardware. The manual is covering functionality that may not be available in the customers'
actual product.

1.2 Intended audience GUID-C9B8127F-5748-4BEA-9E4F-CC762FE28A3A v11

This manual addresses the personnel responsible for commissioning, maintenance and taking
the IED in and out of normal service.

The commissioning personnel must have a basic knowledge of handling electronic equipment.
The commissioning and maintenance personnel must be well experienced in using protection
equipment, test equipment, protection functions and the configured functional logics in the
IED.

Communication set-up, 670/650 series 5


Application Guide
Section 1 1MRK 505 382-UEN D
Introduction

1.3 Product documentation

1.3.1 Product documentation set GUID-3AA69EA6-F1D8-47C6-A8E6-562F29C67172 v16

Deinstalling & disposal


Planning & purchase

Decommissioning
Commissioning

Maintenance
Engineering

Operation
Installing
Engineering manual
Installation manual

Commissioning manual
Operation manual

Application manual

Technical manual

Communication
protocol manual
Cyber security
deployment guideline
IEC07000220-4-en.vsd
IEC07000220 V4 EN-US

Figure 1: The intended use of manuals throughout the product lifecycle


The engineering manual contains instructions on how to engineer the IEDs using the various
tools available within the PCM600 software. The manual provides instructions on how to set
up a PCM600 project and insert IEDs to the project structure. The manual also recommends a
sequence for the engineering of protection and control functions, as well as communication
engineering for IEC 61850.

The installation manual contains instructions on how to install the IED. The manual provides
procedures for mechanical and electrical installation. The chapters are organized in the
chronological order in which the IED should be installed.

The commissioning manual contains instructions on how to commission the IED. The manual
can also be used by system engineers and maintenance personnel for assistance during the
testing phase. The manual provides procedures for the checking of external circuitry and
energizing the IED, parameter setting and configuration as well as verifying settings by
secondary injection. The manual describes the process of testing an IED in a substation which
is not in service. The chapters are organized in the chronological order in which the IED should
be commissioned. The relevant procedures may be followed also during the service and
maintenance activities.

The operation manual contains instructions on how to operate the IED once it has been
commissioned. The manual provides instructions for the monitoring, controlling and setting of
the IED. The manual also describes how to identify disturbances and how to view calculated
and measured power grid data to determine the cause of a fault.

6 Communication set-up, 670/650 series


Application Guide
1MRK 505 382-UEN D Section 1
Introduction

The application manual contains application descriptions and setting guidelines sorted per
function. The manual can be used to find out when and for what purpose a typical protection
function can be used. The manual can also provide assistance for calculating settings.

The technical manual contains operation principle descriptions, and lists function blocks, logic
diagrams, input and output signals, setting parameters and technical data, sorted per
function. The manual can be used as a technical reference during the engineering phase,
installation and commissioning phase, and during normal service.

The communication protocol manual describes the communication protocols supported by


the IED. The manual concentrates on the vendor-specific implementations.

The point list manual describes the outlook and properties of the data points specific to the
IED. The manual should be used in conjunction with the corresponding communication
protocol manual.

The cyber security deployment guideline describes the process for handling cyber security
when communicating with the IED. Certification, Authorization with role based access control,
and product engineering for cyber security related events are described and sorted by
function. The guideline can be used as a technical reference during the engineering phase,
installation and commissioning phase, and during normal service.

1.4 Document symbols and conventions

1.4.1 Symbols GUID-2945B229-DAB0-4F15-8A0E-B9CF0C2C7B15 v13

The electrical warning icon indicates the presence of a hazard which could
result in electrical shock.

The warning icon indicates the presence of a hazard which could result in
personal injury.

The caution hot surface icon indicates important information or warning about
the temperature of product surfaces.

The caution icon indicates important information or warning related to the


concept discussed in the text. It might indicate the presence of a hazard which
could result in corruption of software or damage to equipment or property.

The information icon alerts the reader of important facts and conditions.

The tip icon indicates advice on, for example, how to design your project or
how to use a certain function.

Communication set-up, 670/650 series 7


Application Guide
Section 1 1MRK 505 382-UEN D
Introduction

Although warning hazards are related to personal injury, it is necessary to understand that
under certain operational conditions, operation of damaged equipment may result in
degraded process performance leading to personal injury or death. It is important that the
user fully complies with all warning and cautionary notices.

1.4.2 Document conventions GUID-96DFAB1A-98FE-4B26-8E90-F7CEB14B1AB6 v8

• Abbreviations and acronyms in this manual are spelled out in the glossary. The glossary
also contains definitions of important terms.
• Push button navigation in the LHMI menu structure is presented by using the push button
icons.
For example, to navigate between the options, use and .
• HMI menu paths are presented in bold.
For example, select Main menu/Settings.
• LHMI messages are shown in Courier font.
For example, to save the changes in non-volatile memory, select Yes and press .
• Parameter names are shown in italics.
For example, the function can be enabled and disabled with the Operation setting.
• Each function block symbol shows the available input/output signal.
• the character ^ in front of an input/output signal name indicates that the signal
name may be customized using the PCM600 software.
• the character * after an input signal name indicates that the signal must be
connected to another function block in the application configuration to achieve a
valid application configuration.
• Dimensions are provided both in inches and millimeters. If it is not specifically mentioned
then the dimension is in millimeters.

8 Communication set-up, 670/650 series


Application Guide
1MRK 505 382-UEN D Section 2
Telecommunication networks and line differential protection

Section 2 Telecommunication networks and


line differential protection

2.1 Overview
GUID-8EC49FAE-5EFE-4C17-AD2A-F1824B2518B4 v1
Telecommunication networks have two main application areas for multi-terminal line
differential protection IEDs with up to five line ends:

• Networks with symmetric or fixed routes using echo timing (back-to-back systems
included)
• Networks with unspecified route switching using accurate global time derived from the
Global Positioning System (GPS)

Echo timing can be used as a fall-back system in the latter application area if
the GPS reference is lost in one or more IEDs,

.
GUID-0C62EF3A-999C-4EEF-BE48-CC4DF1DCD8D9 v1
With networks using symmetric or fixed routes and echo timing, the internal clock in each local
line differential protection IED operates as a master and the internal clock in each remote line
differential protection IED operates as a slave. Time deviations between the internal clocks are
monitored continuously, and compensated for with echo messages between all ends at 40 ms
intervals over the telecommunication network. After start-up, it takes approximately 15
seconds to reach full synchronization of the internal clocks. Time deviation between the
internal clocks is compensated for to be within 1 μs of relative time.

The internal clock also functions as a real time clock for other protection and
monitoring functions such as event timing, but this is totally separate from the
line differential protection function.

With networks using unspecified route switching, reference for the internal clock comes from
global time provided by, for example, a built-in GPS receiver. The internal clock in each line
differential protection IED is thus set according to the GPS systems' global time. Inaccuracy
depends on the connection time to the GPS system. After start-up (cold start), a software
calibration procedure is carried out. After less than one hour, all internal clocks' real time
deviation from the global time has decreased to 1 μs.

There can be only one master clock in the telecommunication network for the synchronization
of multiplexers, transceivers and differential protection relays' communication modems. This
clock can also be a GPS clock but the telecommunication network synchronization is totally
separate from the line differential protection IED's internal clock synchronization.

2.2 Telecommunication network types GUID-3AA2C8C6-62B7-42E4-AD80-0479BAFF21C6 v1

There are two main types of telecommunication networks used by electric power utilities:
Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH) networks and Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
networks (see Figure 2). These networks are mostly owned by the utilities, but it is also
possible to lease communication links from external companies.

Communication set-up, 670/650 series 9


Application Guide
Section 2 1MRK 505 382-UEN D
Telecommunication networks and line differential protection

PDH networks are used with 64 kbit/s communication. Proper synchronization of PDH
networks must be available so that hey can be used with protection applications. SDH
networks are used with 2 Mbit/s communication.

PDH/SDH networks are most commonly Other networks ≥ X Gbit/s


used for utility communication

ATM/IP networks ≥ 622 Mbit/s

SDH networks ≥ 2 Mbit/s

PDH networks ≤ 2 Mbit/s

PDH = Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy


SDH = Synchronous Digital Hierarchy

IED

IEC07000240-1-en.vsdx

IEC07000240 V1 EN-US

Figure 2: Telecommunication networks for electric power utilities

2.3 Telecommunication networks with symmetric or fixed


routes GUID-36D8D02D-E63A-4DFC-83C0-1C37708390AD v1

It is possible to use networks with fixed routes where symmetric time delay is applied, or
networks with fixed route switching where both directions have a symmetric time delay even
after route switching has been performed. In these types of networks, different channel delay
times are automatically compensated for, and echo timing can be used. If a fixed route has
specified asymmetry, this can be compensated for by using the AsymDelay parameter.

The maximum interruption time for route switching and echo timing (for example when a
communication channel is lost) without affecting the synchronization of internal clocks is 2 s.
The protection function gets blocked for the duration of the interruption. The 2 s time limit is
derived from the stability of the internal clocks. If route switching takes longer than that, the
protection function gets blocked until the internal clocks are re-synchronized. Proper re-
synchronization of the internal clocks takes an additional 15 seconds after the channel is
restored.

From protection point-of-view, route switching interruptions should be < 50 ms (normally


route switching takes < 0.1 ms). The maximum time delay in a telecommunication network can
be set to 40 ms (default delay being 20 ms). In echo timing mode, this time represents round-
trip delay divided by two. If the channel delay is longer than the set value, the protection
function gets blocked.

The recommended value for maximum time delay when using echo timing is 20
ms.

10 Communication set-up, 670/650 series


Application Guide
1MRK 505 382-UEN D Section 2
Telecommunication networks and line differential protection

The protection function also gets blocked if the maximum time deviation (MaxtDiffLevel)
between the line differential protection IEDs' internal clocks is higher than ±200-2000 μs (see
Figure 3). Blocking of the function lasts until the internal clocks' deviation reaches the set value
range. Time required for new synchronization depends on the interruption time.

Maximum transmission time


Td ≤ 20 ms

< 0.2-2 ms* difference


continuous

A C

B IED
IED
Protection Protection
slave slave
IED
Protection
*Depending on required sensitivity master
IEC07000221-1-en.vsdx

IEC07000221 V1 EN-US

Figure 3: Three-end application (protection master/slave)

2.3.1 Maximum time deviation between internal clocks GUID-20739D2E-572A-4D7B-83F3-3F55B7177681 v1

2.3.1.1 Setting the maximum time deviation GUID-787C8FBC-2B88-4488-AE46-3F58A7C5A4B1 v1

Maximum time deviation between internal clocks is set using the MaxtDiffLevel parameter in
the respective (one to five) line differential protection IEDs. The setting is done on the local
HMI or via PCM600 (see Figure 4). Maximum time deviation depends on:

• Jitter and wander in the telecommunication network: typically ±100-200 μs in PDH


networks and ±50 μs in SDH networks (< ±100 μs according to telecommunication
standards).
• Acceptable small asymmetric delay: typically ±50–100 μs. A constant (fixed) asymmetric
delay in the duplex channels can be adjusted by setting the asymmetric delay on the local
HMI or via the parameter setting tool (PST) which is part of PCM600.
• Buffer memory in the telecommunication network: typically < +100 μs (buffer memories
should be avoided).
• Clock drift during two seconds: < ±100 μs.

Communication set-up, 670/650 series 11


Application Guide
Section 2 1MRK 505 382-UEN D
Telecommunication networks and line differential protection

IEC10000062 V1 EN-US

Figure 4: Setting the MaxtDiffLevel in PCM600

The setting range for MaxtDiffLevel is ±200-2000 μs, and it must be coordinated with
reference to the sensitivity of the protection function. This setting is only relevant for echo
timing.

MaxtDiffLevel is defined and measured at a sudden change in time difference between the line
ends induced by route switching. If the set value for MaxtDiffLevel is exceeded, the protection
function gets blocked. To avoid unwanted trips produced by a number of small changes below
the set value, these small changes are summated and checked to be below MaxtDiffLevel.

The line differential protection IED has no supervising function that could detect the
difference between asymmetric delay, buffer memory delay, telecommunication network jitter
and wander, and internal clock drift. The sum of these factors is supervised by observing the
deviation between the internal clocks in all IEDs.

GPSSyncErr denotes GPS synchronization error, and it is activated when GPS global time and
internal clock time deviate by more than 16 μs. If activated, the differential protection function
can be set to be blocked or the echo mode can be set to be activated.

In an SDH network (≥ 2 Mbit/s) with an acceptably small asymmetric delay, for example G.703
E1, maximum time deviation of 2 x ±300 μs can be used. In a PDH network (n x 64 kbit/s) with a
buffer memory of for example 100 μs, typical maximum time deviation is 2 x ±400 μs. The
actual setting value is to be calculated accordingly.

2.3.1.2 Reference clock deviation from the set maximum time deviation GUID-0FC23ED9-2CDB-48EE-ADDB-81D39E334F56 v1

Reference clock deviation lower than the set maximum time deviation
Route switching that causes the virtual difference between the internal clocks of respective
line differential protection IEDs to be lower than the set maximum time deviation due to
asymmetry in the communication channel delay, jitter and wander, and buffer memory, does
not cause a communication failure alarm or blocking of the protection function. The deviation
is considered to be within the accuracy requirements, and will be compensated for by the
normal synchronization mechanisms of the internal clocks.

If route switching takes longer than 2 s, master and slave IEDs start to re-synchronize after a 4
s delay incorporating the new channel asymmetry. Synchronization adjusts the internal clock
differences of differential protection IEDs at different line ends to be within ±1 μs. Time
synchronization messages are evaluated every 5 ms. If maximum time deviation is set to ±200
μs, it takes approximately 10 seconds to reach new synchronization. Synchronization reaches
the ±1 μs accuracy after an additional 10-15 seconds.

12 Communication set-up, 670/650 series


Application Guide
1MRK 505 382-UEN D Section 2
Telecommunication networks and line differential protection

Reference clock deviation higher than the set maximum time deviation
Route switching that causes the virtual difference between the internal clocks of respective
line differential protection IEDs to be higher that the set maximum time deviation (±200-2000
μs) due to asymmetry in the communication channel delay, jitter and wander, and buffer
memory, causes the blocking of the internal clock synchronization. If this deviation lasts under
2 s, the protection function still remains in operation. The total stability time of 2 seconds
stems from the route switching being supervised during 50 internal clock synchronization
messages that are sent every 5 ms but evaluated every 40 ms.

If deviation between the internal clocks is higher than the set limit after 2 s, a communication
failure alarm is issued and the protection function gets blocked. After communication
channels are restored, a re-synchronization with initial 20 μs clock adjustment steps takes
place for each clock synchronization message. The clock adjustment steps gradually decrease
as the internal clock differences are reduced.

2.3.2 Longer route switching interruptions GUID-3AB55816-1D98-4D07-8526-7201E2EF2E1E v1

When echo timing is used and route switching takes longer than 2 s, internal clocks are
synchronized with asymmetric delay included. Influence from asymmetric delay is 2 s/40 ms x
10 μs (average 20 ms and 1 μs) = 0.5 ms, which can cause an unwanted trip depending on the
sensitivity set for the protection function.

When global time (GPS) is used, communication failure in the range of 10–30 seconds can
cause a synchronization loss of the internal clocks. Communication failure longer than 30
seconds always requires a re-synchronization of the internal clocks. If synchronization is lost,
5–15 seconds of healthy communication is required to get the internal clocks synchronized
again and to get them working with normal tripping times.

2.3.3 Detecting accumulated time delay changes with echo timing GUID-F9ED604A-1E97-4354-BD30-93C010D3313C v1

Echo timing has an additional feature that detects accumulated time delay changes below the
MaxtDiffLevel of ±200-2000 μs. This is done to avoid small changes from creating an
accumulated asymmetry which can cause an unwanted trip. Due to asymmetry in
communication channel delay, jitter and wander, and buffer memory, this feature is restricted
to four time delay changes.

The parameter used for detecting the accumulated time delay changes (sensitivity) is
DeadbandtDiff, and its setting must be coordinated with that of MaxtDiffLevel. The influence
of MaxtDiffLevel on sensitivity is shown in Figure 5.

A
1 ms
1 ms
6000
0.80.8
msms
4500
0.60.6
msms
3000 0.40.4
msms
1500 0.20.2
msms
0%
0 5 10 15 20 kA
Fault current at external faults
IEC07000225-1-en.vsdx

IEC07000225 V1 EN-US

Figure 5: Virtual error in amperes at different asymmetric delay times in a


telecommunication network

Communication set-up, 670/650 series 13


Application Guide
Section 2 1MRK 505 382-UEN D
Telecommunication networks and line differential protection

The DeadbandtDiff setting range is ±200-1000 μs. If the accumulated time delay of up to four
changes is greater then the set value for DeadbandtDiff but below the set value for
MaxtDiffLevel, no action is taken. When the fifth time delay change occurs, the protection
function is blocked even if the maximum deviation is not reached. This restriction is included
because of measuring inaccuracy with too many consecutive, accumulated time delay
changes. After blocking, the communication set-up must be checked before restarting.

IEC10000062 V1 EN-US

Figure 6: Setting DeadbandtDiff in PCM600

Figure 7 shows an oscillogram example of deadband, measured change in time delay and
scattering (deviation in calculation) within the set DeadbandtDiff value.

dt
D

IEC07000226-1-en.vsdx

IEC07000226 V1 EN-US

Figure 7: An oscillogram example showing deadband (D), measured change in time


delay (dt) and scattering

D DeadbandtDiff = ±200 μs
dt Measured time delay change = ±200 μs
Scattering Random fluctuations in time delay due to, for example, varying switching time in
multiplexers that induces jitter and wander.

14 Communication set-up, 670/650 series


Application Guide
1MRK 505 382-UEN D Section 3
Common time synchronization

Section 3 Common time synchronization

3.1 Design of the time system (clock synchronization) GUID-E2B9E81C-5733-4521-B27F-BF33E05CCFB0 v10

The time system is based on software and hardware clocks that run independently from each
other (see Figure 8).

PTP(IEEE 1588)
External Off
synchronization On
sources Time tagging and general synchronization
Slave only
Off
Commu- Protection
LON Events
Time nication and control
SPA regulator functions
Min. pulse
GPS (Setting:
see SW time
SNTP Technical
manual Connected when GPS time is used
DNP
for differential protection or when
IRIG-B PTP is activated or when PMU
PPS report is used

Synchronization for differential protection


(Echo mode or GPS)
Off Time
GPS regulator HW time
(fast or slow)
IRIG-B
PPS Diff.
A/D Merging
converter commu- units*
nication

*IEC 61850-9-2
IEC08000287-4-en.vsdx

IEC08000287 V4 EN-US

Figure 8: Design of the time system (clock synchronization)


All time tagging is performed by the software clock. When, for example, a status signal is
changed in the protection system of a function based on the free running hardware clock, the
event is time tagged by the software clock when it reaches the event recorder. The hardware
clock can thus run independently.

The echo mode of the line differential protection function is based on the hardware clock.
Thus, there is no need to synchronize the hardware clock and the software clock.

Synchronization of the hardware clock to the software clock is necessary when GPS or IRIG B
00X with optical fiber, IEEE 1344 is used for differential protection. The two clock systems are
synchronized by a special clock synchronization unit with two modes, fast and slow. A special
feature, an automatic fast clock time regulator is used. The automatic fast mode makes the
synchronization time as short as possible during start-up or at interruptions/disturbances in
the GPS timing. The fast and slow settings are also available on the local HMI.

The hardware and software clocks are synchronized also if a GPS clock is used or if PTP (IEEE
1588) is in on-mode.

Communication set-up, 670/650 series 15


Application Guide
Section 3 1MRK 505 382-UEN D
Common time synchronization

SyncLostMode is not required to set as Block/BlockonLostUTC when differential protection is


based on ECHO mode.

Fast clock synchronization mode


At start-up and after interruptions in the GPS, PTP or IRIG B time signals, the deviation
between the external time system and the internal differential time system can be substantial.
A new start-up is also required, for example, after maintenance of the auxiliary voltage system.

When the time difference is > 16 μs, the line differential protection function is blocked and the
time regulator for the hardware clock automatically uses a fast mode to synchronize the clock
systems. Time adjustment is made with an exponential function, that is, with big time
adjustment steps in the beginning, and then smaller steps until a time deviation between the
GPS time and the differential time system of < 16 μs has been reached. The protection function
is then enabled and the synchronization remains in fast mode or switches to slow mode
depending on the setting.

Slow clock synchronization mode


During normal service, a setting with slow synchronization mode is used. This prevents the
hardware clock to make too big a time steps (> 16 µs) emanating from the requirement of
correct timing in the line differential protection function.

3.2 Time synchronization using a built-in GPS receiver GUID-1E6A6837-17F8-437E-B1DD-4296DC859351 v1

Telecommunication networks with unspecified route switching require that the line
differential protection IED's built-in GPS receiver is used. This way the protection function can
operate correctly independent of asymmetric delays in communication channels.

The maximum allowed time deviation in a telecommunication network is 40 ms representing


the sum of deviations in both directions. It is also possible to make an asymmetric split, for
example 10 ms in one direction and 30 ms in the other direction, because the deviation can be
accurately measured when GPS timing is available. With longer deviations, the protection
function gets blocked.

Maximum transmission time


Td = 40 ms (forward + reverse)

Unspecified
route switching
GPS GPS
clock clock
A C

B
IED
IED
IED
GPS
clock
IEC07000160-1-en.vsdx

IEC07000160 V1 EN-US

Figure 9: Three-end application using IEDs' built-in GPS receivers


With good GPS antenna visibility, it takes up to 15 minutes for the GPS system to find the
satellites (connection to a minimum of four satellites required), and start synchronizing the
IED's internal clock with global time from the GPS system.

16 Communication set-up, 670/650 series


Application Guide
1MRK 505 382-UEN D Section 3
Common time synchronization

IEC10000203 V1 EN-US

Figure 10: Setting the GPS clock

At synchronization start, the internal clock is adjusted to have the correct global time in
seconds with only integers set. The remaining fractional parts, milliseconds (ms) and
microseconds (μs), to reach global time, are used to slowly synchronize the internal clock to
global time.

Synchronizing the internal clock to global time is done at a rate of 1 ms/s. When the internal
clock is within 16 μs from global time, the protection function is enabled. If time deviation
between the internal clock time and global time is more than 16 μs, GPS timing is deactivated
and the differential protection is either blocked or changed to Echo mode depending on the
setting for LDCM (GPSerr).

After the protection function is enabled, soft calibration is performed to have the internal
clock remain within 1 μs from global time for < 1 hour. This reduces the restart time after a
short GPS interruption. If time deviation after the interruption is less than the set
MaxtDiffLevel, the protection function can be enabled directly.

In the case of GPS interruption, the protection function is disabled or echo timing is enabled as
a back-up synchronization method. Enabling echo timing has a delay which depends on how
long the GPS system has been in service after start. Inaccuracy of the internal clock starts at 16
μs and goes down to ±1μs after some minutes.

In telecommunication networks with unspecified route switching, echo timing can only be
used with unchanged time delay in both directions. As soon as the time delay is outside the set
limits, the protection function gets blocked. Some additional features are available to increase
the performance of echo timing:

• If redundant or alternative routes are available, they are also supervised for changes in
time delay. If no time delay difference is observed in these routes, echo timing continues
to use the reserve channel.
• In telecommunication networks with unspecified route switching, time deviations below
the set limits are accumulated to handle multiple route switching, and these accumulated
deviations can reach the set time deviation limit.

3.3 Time synchronization using IRIG-B GUID-16212191-F952-4155-80C3-3B2245998311 v1

Time synchronization can be provided via IRIG-B 00X with IEEE1344 support. This setting can
be done via PCM600 (see Figures 11 and 12).

Procedure:

Communication set-up, 670/650 series 17


Application Guide
Section 3 1MRK 505 382-UEN D
Common time synchronization

1. Set Fine SyncSource = IRIG-B.


2. Set SynchType = Opto (default).
3. Set Encoding = 1344.
4. Select a value for TimeZoneAs1344, for example, to enable tagging of events using the real
time clock.

IEC10000064 V1 EN-US

Figure 11: Setting IRIG-B as the synchronization source

IEC10000065 V1 EN-US

Figure 12: Setting the encoding protocol

18 Communication set-up, 670/650 series


Application Guide
1MRK 505 382-UEN D Section 4
Analog and binary signal transfer for line differential protection

Section 4 Analog and binary signal transfer for


line differential protection

4.1 Communication channels for line differential


protection M12022-69 v7

The line differential protection function uses 64 kbit/s or 2 Mbit/s communication channels to
exchange telegrams between the line differential protection IEDs. These telegrams contain
current sample values, time information, trip signals, block signals, alarm signals and 8/192
binary signals, which can be used for any purpose. Each IED can have a maximum of four
communication channels.

On a two terminal line there is a need for one communication channel provided that there is
only one CT at each line end (see Figure 13).

Protected zone

IED IED

IEC05000437-2-en.vsdx

IEC05000437 V2 EN-US

Figure 13: Two-terminal line


In case of 1½ breaker arrangements or ring buses, a line end has two CTs (see Figure 14).

Protected zone

IED IED

IEC05000438-2-en.vsdx

IEC05000438 V2 EN-US

Figure 14: Two-terminal line with 1½ breaker

In Figure 14, both local CTs on the left side are treated as separate ends by the
line differential protection function.

Current values from two CTs in double breakers, ring main or 1½ breaker system ends with
dual breaker arrangements need to be sent to the remote end. As a 64 kbit/s LDCM only has
capacity for one three-phase current (duplex), this implies that two communication channels
are needed at both ends, and this is also the normal solution.

Communication set-up, 670/650 series 19


Application Guide
Section 4 1MRK 505 382-UEN D
Analog and binary signal transfer for line differential protection

To reduce the number of communication channels needed, it is also possible to sum up the
two local currents before sending by using a software in the IED. However, this is not
recommended as it reduces information about bias currents. Bias current is considered the
greatest phase current at any line end, and it is common for all three phases. When sending full
information from both local CTs to the remote end, the principle works, but when the two local
currents are summed up before sending, information on real phase currents from the two local
CTs will not be available at the remote line end.

In 64 kbit mode, the decision on using one communication channel instead of two (as show in
Figure 14) must be made case by case. Correct information on bias currents is always available
locally while only distorted information is available at the end that receives limited information
using only one LDCM.

In 2 Mbit mode, it is possible to send up to 9 different analog signals from each LDCM;
therefore only one LDCM can be used.

4.2 Communication between channels via Line data


communication module GUID-1F6C28EF-26C8-4305-832C-B8CC8225DCC1 v1

Communication between two IEDs requires that each IED is equipped with a Line Data
Communication Module (LCDM). The LDCM then acts as an interface to 64 kbit/s and 2Mbit/s
communication channels for duplex communication between the IEDs.

IEC10000229 V1 EN-US

Figure 15: Selection of LDCM for analog or binary signal transfer

4.3 Configuration of analog signals M12022-86 v5

Currents from the local end enter the IED as analog values via the Analog input modules. These
currents are converted to digital values and then forwarded to the line differential protection
function in the local IED. From there, they are transmitted to remote IEDs via a Line differential
communication module (LDCM). Currents coming from a remote IED are received as digital
values via local IED's LDCM, and they are then forwarded to the protection function in the local
IED.

20 Communication set-up, 670/650 series


Application Guide
1MRK 505 382-UEN D Section 4
Analog and binary signal transfer for line differential protection

LDLPSCH acts as the interface to and from the protection function.

Configuration of this data flow is made in the SMT tool as shown in Figure 16.

Currents from
A/D
local CT

Currents from
remote end 1
LDCM 1
Currents to
remote end 1

Currents from
remote end 2
LDCM 2
Currents to
remote end 2

SMAI L3DPDIF

Pre-processing Line Differential


block function

IEC05000533-2-en.vsd

IEC05000533-NEW V2 EN-US

Figure 16: Typical configuration of analog signals for a three-terminal line


Figure 16 shows how one IED in a three-terminal line differential protection can be configured.
There are two LDCMs each supporting a duplex connection with a remote line end. Thus, the
same local current is configured to both LDCMs, while the received currents from the LDCMs
are configured separately to the line differential protection function.

4.3.1 Configuration of analog inputs GUID-3D04D47C-65FA-4C1F-BFC1-499BAAD506DA v1

Analog inputs are configured via PCM600.

Communication set-up, 670/650 series 21


Application Guide
Section 4 1MRK 505 382-UEN D
Analog and binary signal transfer for line differential protection

IEC10000231 V1 EN-US

Figure 17: An example of analog input configuration via PCM600

4.3.2 Configuration of output signals M12022-93 v4

There are a number of signals available from the LDCM that can be connected to the virtual
binary inputs (SMBI) and used internally in the configuration. The signals appear only in the
Signal Matrix Tool (SMT) where they can be mapped to the desired virtual input.

The signal name is found in the Object Properties window by clicking on the input signal
number in SMT. Connect the signals to the virtual inputs as desired (see Figure 18

SMBI

IEC06000638-2-en.vsd

IEC06000638 V2 EN-US

Figure 18: Example of LDCM signals in SMTl

22 Communication set-up, 670/650 series


Application Guide
1MRK 505 382-UEN D Section 4
Analog and binary signal transfer for line differential protection

GUID-13B60A3E-CF41-4322-9576-42B5B9152EA5 v1

Multiplexer Multiplexer
Telecommunication
network

LDCM LDCM

IEC07000228-1-en.vsdx

IEC07000228 V1 EN-US

Figure 19: Typical LDCM application

4.4 Configuration of redundant channels GUID-99F3FF15-FC76-48DC-959F-FAC1BE0CA4A9 v1

LDCM installation should follow a specific sequence: slot 312, slot 313, slot 322, slot 323, slot
305, slot 306. 2-4 LDCMs can be included in the installation depending on the availability of
IRIG-B and RS485 modules.

If available, IRIG-B is installed to slot 313 and RS485 to slot 312.

Main and redundant channels are installed in the same base card in slots 305–306, 312–313, and
322–323.

Positions for the main and redundant channels are predefined in the basic configuration, and
they cannot be changed. Only slots 306, 313 and 323 can be set as redundant line differential
communication channels via PCM600.

Signal matrix for the redundant channel must be empty. It is updated automatically when the
main channel is lost.

IEC10000068 V1 EN-US

Figure 20: Signal matrix for one main channel

Communication set-up, 670/650 series 23


Application Guide
Section 4 1MRK 505 382-UEN D
Analog and binary signal transfer for line differential protection

IEC10000069 V1 EN-US

Figure 21: Signal matrix for one main and one redundant channel

Figure 22 shows a setting example when using a redundant channel.

IEC10000070 V1 EN-US

Figure 22: Setting example with a redundant channel

24 Communication set-up, 670/650 series


Application Guide
1MRK 505 382-UEN D Section 4
Analog and binary signal transfer for line differential protection

Telecommunication
network

Telecommunication
network

Primary channel
Secondary redundant (reserve) channel
IEC07000229-1-en.vsdx

IEC07000229 V1 EN-US

Figure 23: Typical application with redundant channels (for two or three line ends)
Redundant channels must be configured in the same way at both ends of the line differential
communication link or otherwise an unwanted trip may occur when the main channel fails and
the redundant channel is enabled. This means that it is not possible to have an LDCM for a
redundant channel only at one end.

Also, SMT configuration for the redundant channel must be left empty. The redundant channel
takes over the signal matrix configuration from the main channel when enabled. If the
redundant channel has been allocated, for example, current inputs at one end or at both ends
via the SMT tool, an unwanted trip occurs.

4.5 Link forwarding GUID-DD3CF47C-A202-4416-954A-EFC0F8BEBCB7 v1

If it is not possible to have a communication link between each station, the solution has been
to set the protection up in a slave-master-slave configuration. This means that in Figure 24,
only IED-B has access to all currents and, therefore, this is the only place where the differential
current is evaluated. If the evaluation results in a trip, the trip signal will be sent over the two
communication links.

3-end differential protection with two communication links

Ldcm312 Ldcm312
IED-A Ldcm312
IED-B Ldcm313
IED-C

IEC16000077-1-en.vsd
IEC16000077 V1 EN-US

Figure 24: Three-end differential protection with two communication links


If the LDCM is in 2Mbit mode, you can send the three local currents as well as the three remote
currents from the other links by configuring the transmitters in IED-B:

Communication set-up, 670/650 series 25


Application Guide
Section 4 1MRK 505 382-UEN D
Analog and binary signal transfer for line differential protection

1. Ldcm312 transmitter sends the local currents and the three currents received by Ldcm313.
2. Ldcm313 transmitter sends the three local currents and the three currents received from
Ldcm312.

As a result, six currents are received in IED-A and IED-C. These currents can be connected to
the protection function together with the local three currents.

In order to forward the logic signals (for example, inter-trip or inter-block)


between IED-A and IED-C, the setting LinkForwarded should be defined. In IED-
B, it is set to LDCM313 for Ldcm312 and to LDCM312 for ldcm313.

This setup results in a master-master-master configuration, but without the benefit of


reverting to a slave-master-slave configuration in case of a communication link interruption. In
case of a communication link interruption, all three IEDs would be blocked.

4.6 Configurations with power transformers in the


protected zone

4.6.1 Line differential protection L3CPDIF, L6CPDIF, LT3CPDIF,


LT6CPDIF

4.6.1.1 Power transformers in the protected zone M12541-6 v7

One three-winding transformer or two two-winding transformers can be included in the line
protection zone. The alternative with one two-winding transformer in the protected zone is
shown in Figure 25 and Figure 26.

Protected zone

IED IED

IEC05000442-2-en.vsdx

IEC05000442 V2 EN-US

Figure 25: One two–winding transformer in the protected zone

26 Communication set-up, 670/650 series


Application Guide
1MRK 505 382-UEN D Section 4
Analog and binary signal transfer for line differential protection

Protected zone

IED IED

IED

IEC04000209-2-en.vsdx

IEC04000209 V2 EN-US

Figure 26: One two–winding transformer in the protected zone


An alternative with two two-winding transformers in the protected zone is shown in Figure 27.

Protected zone

IED IED

A B
IED IED

IEC04000210-2-en.vsdx

IEC04000210 V2 EN-US

Figure 27: Two two–winding transformers in the protected zone


An alternative with one three-winding transformer in the protected zone is shown in Figure 28.
Observe that in this case, the three-winding power transformer is seen by the differential
protection as two separate power transformers, A and B, which have one common winding on
the HV side.

Protected zone

IED IED

A B

IED

IEC04000211-2-en.vsdx

IEC04000211 V2 EN-US

Figure 28: One three–winding transformer in the protected zone

Communication set-up, 670/650 series 27


Application Guide
Section 4 1MRK 505 382-UEN D
Analog and binary signal transfer for line differential protection

Protected zone

A T
IED B
IED
T

IEC15000451-2-en.vsdx

IEC15000451 V2 EN-US

Figure 29: One three–winding transformer in the protected zone

4.6.2 Line differential protection L4CPDIF

4.6.2.1 Possible configurations GUID-566BF5F0-3E2D-42D8-9D53-BCAFB7F0BEA9 v2

The simplest and most common configuration is the protection of a conventional two-end
power line (see Figure 30). Circuit breakers (CBs) at both ends can be included in the protected
zone depending on their positions relative to the current transformers (CTs).

Protected zone

IED Communication channel IED

IEC05000039-3-en.vsd
IEC05000039 V3 EN-US

Figure 30: Two-end power line with one CB and one CT group at each end

It is also possible to protect a two-end power line that has two CB and CT groups at one end
and one CB and CT group at the other end (see Figure 31). All currents from the three CTs must
be fed separately to L4CPDIF which processes the measured currents independently from each
other. Summing up the CTs’ secondary currents at the end with two CB and CT groups is not
allowed. CBs at both ends can be included in the protected zone depending on their positions
relative to the CTs.

IEC15000459-1-en.vsd
IEC15000459 V1 EN-US

Figure 31: Two-end power line with two CB and CT groups at one end

If there are two CB and CT groups at both ends of a two-end power line, information on
currents must be fed to all four current inputs of both IEDs. Current values at the remote end
are obtained via a communication channel as shown in Figure 32. Summing up the CTs’
secondary currents at the end with two CB and CT groups is not allowed. CBs at both ends can
be included in the protected zone depending on their positions relative to the CTs.

28 Communication set-up, 670/650 series


Application Guide
1MRK 505 382-UEN D Section 4
Analog and binary signal transfer for line differential protection

IEC15000460-1-en.vsd
IEC15000460 V1 EN-US

Figure 32: Two-end power line with two CB and CT groups at each end

Figure 33 shows a three-end power line configuration where one end has two CB and CT
groups. All four current inputs to IEDs are used. Current from each CT is fed to an IED, and
currents from different CTs are processed separately by the protection algorithm. Summing
up the CTs’ secondary currents at the end with two CB and CT groups is not allowed. CBs at all
ends can be included in the protected zone depending on their positions relative to the CTs.

IEC15000461-1-en.vsd

IEC15000461 V1 EN-US

Figure 33: Three-end power line with two CB and CT groups at one end

The locally measured current samples are exchanged between all IEDs at line ends (in master-
master mode) or sent for evaluation to one master IED from all slave IEDs (in master-slave
mode).

In master-master mode, all IEDs at different ends of a protected zone execute exactly the
same program code with exactly the same information so the same response is expected from
all masters. In master-slave mode, only one IED has access to all currents in the protected
zone. It is always recommended to select the master-master mode if allowed by the number of
communication links.

4.7 Setting examples

4.7.1 Line differential protection L3CPDIF, L6CPDIF, LT3CPDIF,


LT6CPDIF
M12941-3 v8

Setting example with a power transformer in the protected zone


Figure 34 shows a line with a power transformer in the protected zone. Circuit impedances are
presented in Figure 35. The protected zone is limited by three current transformers: CT1, CT2
and CT3. IEDs are situated in two separate substations 1 and 2.

The circuit is protected by two terminals 1 and 2. These terminals process the same data
except for minor distortion in data that takes place during communication between them.

Communication set-up, 670/650 series 29


Application Guide
Section 4 1MRK 505 382-UEN D
Analog and binary signal transfer for line differential protection

Both terminals operate as masters. If at least one of them indicates an internal fault, the
protected circuit is disconnected.

Substation 1 Substation 2

terminal 2 terminal 3
CB 3
Yd1
terminal 1

CT 1 Line 50 km CT 3

Y d
CB 1 220 kV, 600 A CT 2
200 MVA,
220 / 70 kV, CB 2
525 / 1650 A

IED 1 Current samples from terminal 1 IED 2


Current samples from terminals 2 and 3

IEC05000534-2-en.vsdx

IEC05000534 V2 EN-US

Figure 34: Line differential protection with a power transformer in the protected zone

Zsource 1 ZL ZT Zsource 2/3

IEC05000444-2-en.vsdx

IEC05000444 V2 EN-US

Figure 35: Circuit impedances

where:
Line data is
Z L » X L = 15.0W
EQUATION1419 V1 EN-US

Transformer data is 10 2202


X % = 10% Þ X T 220 = × = 24.2W
100 200
EQUATION1420 V1 EN-US

Source impedance is
Z Source1 = 7.0W
EQUATION1421 V1 EN-US

2
æ 220 ö
ZSource2 / 3 = 5W Þ (ZSource2 / 3 ) 220 = ç ÷ × 5 = 49.4W
è 70 ø
EQUATION1422 V1 EN-US

30 Communication set-up, 670/650 series


Application Guide
1MRK 505 382-UEN D Section 4
Analog and binary signal transfer for line differential protection

Table 1: General settings


Setting IED 1 IED 2 Description
Operation On On Operation Mode (active)
NoOfTerminals 3 3 Number of current sources/
circuit ends
IBase (Global base) 600 A 600 A Reference current of the
protection in the primary
system (note 1)
IBase is set in the Global
base values function
(GBASVAL).
TransfAonInpCh 2 1 Input currents on the input
channels are referred to the
high voltage side (note 2)
TraAWind1Volt 220 kV 220 kV Transformer A: Y-side
voltage
TraAWind2Volt 70 kV 70 kV Transformer A: d-side
voltage
ClockNumTransA 1 1 LV d-side lags Y-side by 30
degrees
TransfBonInpCh 3 2 Input currents on the input
channels are referred to the
high voltage side (note 2)
TraBWind1Volt 220 kV 220 kV Transformer B: Y-side
voltage
TraBWind2Volt 70 kV 70 kV Transformer B: d-side
voltage
ClockNumTransB 1 1 LV d-side lags Y-side by 30
degrees
ZerSeqCurSubtr On On Zero-sequence currents are
subtracted from
differential and bias
currents (note 3)

Table 2: Setting group N


Setting IED 1 IED 2 Description
ChargCurEnable Off Off Charging current not
eliminated (default)
IdMin 0.35 · IBase 0.35 · IBase Sensitivity in Section 1
of the operate-
restrain characteristic
EndSection1 1.25 · IBase 1.25 · IBase End of section 1 of the
operate-restrain
characteristic
EndSection2 3.00 · IBase 3.00 · IBase End of section 2 of the
operate-restrain
characteristic
SlopeSection2 40% 40% Slope of the operate-
restrain characteristic
in Section 2
SlopeSection3 80% 80% Slope of the operate-
restrain characteristic
in Section 3
Table continues on next page

Communication set-up, 670/650 series 31


Application Guide
Section 4 1MRK 505 382-UEN D
Analog and binary signal transfer for line differential protection

Setting IED 1 IED 2 Description


IdMinHigh 2.00 · IBase 2.00 · IBase Temporarily
decreased sensitivity
used when the
protected circuit is
connected to a power
source (note 4)
IntervIdMinHig 30.000 s 30.000 s Time interval when
IdMinHig is active
(note 5)
Idunre 5.50 · IBase 5.50 · IBase Unrestrained operate
(differential) current
limit (note 6)
CrossBlock 1 1 CrossBlock logic
scheme applied (note
7)
I2/I1Ratio 15% 15% Second to
fundamental
harmonic ratio limit
I5/I1Ratio 25% 25% Fifth to fundamental
harmonic ratio limit
NegSeqDiff On On Internal/external fault
discriminator enabled
(default)
IminNegSeq 0.04 · IBase 0.04 · IBase Minimum value of the
negative-sequence
current
NegSeqROA 60.0 deg 60.0 deg Operate angle (ROA)
for Internal/external
fault discriminator
(default)
AddDelay Off Off Additional delay
disabled (default)
ImaxAddDelay 1.00 · IBase 1.00 · IBase Not applicable in this
case (default)
CurveType 15 15 Not applicable in this
case (default)
DefDelay 0.100 s 0.100 s Not applicable in this
case (default)
IDMTtMin 0.010 s 0.010 s Not applicable in this
case (default)
TD 0.00 0.00 Not applicable in this
case (default)
p 0.02 0.02 Not applicable in this
case (default)
a 0.14 0.14 Not applicable in this
case (default)
b 1.00 1.00 Not applicable in this
case (default)
c 1.00 1.00 Not applicable in this
case (default)

32 Communication set-up, 670/650 series


Application Guide
1MRK 505 382-UEN D Section 4
Analog and binary signal transfer for line differential protection

Notes:
1 IBase (set in GBASVAL) is the reference current of the line differential protection given in
primary Amperes. CT1 in terminal 1 has a ratio of 600/1 and that is why 600 A is chosen
for IBase in this example.
2 Only one physical power transformer is included in the protected circuit. However, to
handle the situation with two CTs on the low-voltage side of the transformer, one more
fictitious power transformer is introduced. Thus, transformer A can be thought of as
being installed at CT2, and transformer B, which is identical to A, can be thought of as
being installed at CT3. Currents measured at CT2 and CT3 are internally separately
referred to the high-voltage side of the transformer by the multi-terminal differential
algorithm using the same transformation rule. This rule is defined by the power
transformer transformation ratio and its type (Yd1 in this example). If an in-line power
transformer is included in the protected zone, the protected power lines are usually on
the high-voltage side of the in-line power transformer. The differential algorithm always
transforms the low-voltage side currents to the high-voltage side.
3 Earth faults on the Y-side of the transformer cause a zero sequence current that flows in
the Y-winding of the power transformer. This current does not appear outside the
transformer on the d-side, and is consequently not measured by CT2 and CT3. Thus, if Y-
side earth fault is external to the protected zone, zero sequence current that passes the
neutral point of the transformer appears as a false differential current. This can cause an
unwanted trip if zero sequence currents are not subtracted from all three fundamental
frequency differential currents.
4 Energizing the circuit means that the power transformer is energized at the same time. It
is assumed that this is always made from the high-voltage side, and the harmonic
restraint detects the inrush current and prevents a trip. Setting IdMinHigh = 2.00 · IBase
is justified in this case since the transformer is large.
5 The interval when IdMinHigh is active is set to 60 s because a power transformer is
included in the protected zone. As both IEDs process the same currents, both must have
the same value set for IdMinHigh.
6 The unrestrained operate (differential) current limit should greater than the highest
through fault current. This current appears at a three-phase short circuit on the 33 kV
side of the transformer and can be calculated as:

220
IThrough = = 2.75kA
3 × (7.0 + 15.0 + 24.2)
EQUATION1423 V1 EN-US (Equation 5)

With a safety margin of 20%:

1.2 × IThrough 1.2 × 2.75kA 3.30kA


Idunre = = = = 5.50
Ibase 0.6 kA 0.6kA
EQUATION1424 V1 EN-US (Equation 6)

7 The cross-block logic should always be active when there is a power transformer in the
protected zone.

Setting example with a small tap transformer in the protected zone


A typical example is shown in Figure 36

Communication set-up, 670/650 series 33


Application Guide
Section 4 1MRK 505 382-UEN D
Analog and binary signal transfer for line differential protection

3Id> 3Id>
A B
SA SA
1700 1280
MVA MVA
10MVA
ek=10%
138/10kV

3Id>

3Id>

IEC12000193-2-en.vsd
IEC12000193 V2 EN-US

Figure 36: Setting example


Input data to calculation:

• Apparent source power at A side: SsA = 1700 MVA


• Line impedance from A to tap: ZlA = 2.8 Ω
• Line impedance from tap to B side: ZlB = 1.2 Ω
• Apparent source power at B side: SsB = 1280 MVA
• Base current of differential current protection: IBase = 42 A
• Apparent power of transformer: Sn = 10 MVA
• Short circuit impedance of transformer: ek = 10%
• Nominal voltage on transformer high voltage winding: Un = 138 kV

Fault current on the high voltage (HV) side of the tap transformer is calculated for a three-
phase fault on the low voltage (LV) side. 138 kV is chosen as calculation voltage.

ZsA ZlA ZlB ZsB


Ztrf

IEC14000046-1-en.vsd
IEC14000046 V1 EN-US

Figure 37: Thevenin equivalent of the tap transformer


Converting the sources into impedances gives:

34 Communication set-up, 670/650 series


Application Guide
1MRK 505 382-UEN D Section 4
Analog and binary signal transfer for line differential protection

1382
ZS A = = 11.2 Ω
1700
EQUATION14000034 V1 EN-US (Equation 7)

1382
ZS B = = 15.9 Ω
1200
EQUATION14000035 V1 EN-US (Equation 8)

Calculating the short circuit impedance of the transformer gives:

ek U n 2 1382
Z trf = × = 0.1 × = 190.4 Ω
100 Sn 10
EQUATION14000036 V1 EN-US (Equation 9)

Based on the Thevenin equivalent, it is possible to calculate the fault current on the HV side of
the transformer:

138
If138 =
3 × Z res
EQUATION14000037 V1 EN-US (Equation 10)

where:

( Zs A+ Zla ) × ( ZsB + ZlB )


Z res = + Z trf = 198Ω
Zs A + Zla + ZsB + ZlB
EQUATION14000039 V1 EN-US (Equation 11)

The numerical value for Zres input in the formula for If138 gives If138 = 403 A

To avoid unwanted operation of the differential protection for a fault on the LV side of the
transformer, IdMin must be set to:

If138
> 1.2 ×
I Base
EQUATION14000038 V1 EN-US (Equation 12)

If138
IdMin = 1.2 × = 11.5
I Base
EQUATION14000040 V1 EN-US (Equation 13)

To allow the differential protection to act as a backup protection for internal faults and faults
on the LV side of the transformer, AddDelay is set to On, and a suitable setting is calculated for
Imax AddDelay. Differential currents below the set value for Imax AddDelay are time delayed.
Value two times the rated current of the transformer on the HV side is chosen. The setting is
calculated as:

Sn
ImaxAddDelay = 2 × = 2.0
3 × U n × I Base
EQUATION14000041 V1 EN-US (Equation 14)

Communication set-up, 670/650 series 35


Application Guide
Section 4 1MRK 505 382-UEN D
Analog and binary signal transfer for line differential protection

Table 3: Backup protection example data


Station Tap transformer 10 MVA
Type of fault Three phase fault
Object 1 = 10 kV Line A 2 = T1 10 kV 50/51 3 = 130 kV 87L
(ImaxAddDelay)
Setting 2 MVA 14 MVA 20 MVA
Characteristic IEC Extr.inverse, k=0.5, IEC Norm.inverse k=0.12, IEC Norm.inverse k=0.18,
A=80, p=2 A=0.14, p=0.02 A=0.14, p=0.02
High set stage 14 MVA ---- ----

It is important to achieve a proper back-up protection. The short circuit protection on the
outgoing bays and on the LV side of the transformer are set according to a prepared
selectivity chart. An example in Figure 38 shows that the setting of the short circuit protection
on the LV side is 14 MVA, and Normal Inverse has k=0.12 to give back-up to outgoing bays'
relays which are extremely inverse and selective to remote fuses.

IEC14000047 -1-en.ai
IEC14000047 V1 EN-US

Figure 38: Selectivity chart

36 Communication set-up, 670/650 series


Application Guide
1MRK 505 382-UEN D Section 4
Analog and binary signal transfer for line differential protection

Setting example with two transformers in the protected zone (master-


slave differential operation)

B
A T
A
IED IED

T C
B
IED

IEC13000295-2-en.vsdx

IEC13000295 V2 EN-US

Figure 39: Master- slave differential operation

Setting Station A Station B Station C


PDIF L3TCPDIF
NoOfUsedCTs 3
TraAOnInpCh 2
TraBOnInpCh 3

Protection functions in stations B and C operate as slaves (differential function switched off)
so currents are sent to protection function in station A, and received on channels 2 and 3. To
inform the differential algorithm that currents are coming from the LV sides of the
transformers, TraAOnInpCh must be set to 2 and TraBOnInpCh to 3 (channel1 is reserved for
local measurement). This is to ensure that proper turn ratio and vector group correction is
done.

Setting example with a three-winding transformer in the protected zone

A T
IED B
IED
T

IEC13000296-1-en.vsdx

IEC13000296 V2 EN-US

Figure 40: Three-winding transformer in the zone

Communication set-up, 670/650 series 37


Application Guide
Section 4 1MRK 505 382-UEN D
Analog and binary signal transfer for line differential protection

Settings Station A Station B


PDIF L3TCPDIF L3TCPDIF
NoOfUsedCTs 3 3
TraAOnInpCh 2 1
TraBOnInpCh 3 2

Currents from the secondary and tertiary windings of the power transformer are connected to
one line differential protection IED. Currents for each CT group are sent to the IED at station A
by the LDCM. To inform the differential algorithm that currents are coming from the LV sides
of the transformers, TraAOnInpCh must be set to 2 and TraBOnInpCh to 3 (channel1 is reserved
for local measurement). This is to ensure that proper turn ratio and vector group correction is
done.

4.7.2 Line differential protection L4CPDIF

4.7.2.1 Setting example with a two-end power line GUID-4C105C98-F9FE-41B3-A7E0-FC5430EC141A v2

In this example, a two-end 220 kV and 200 km power line is protected using L4CPDIF.

The protected zone is determined by CT positions. One three-phase CT group is placed at one
end of the power line, and another three-phase CT group is placed at the other end. Everything
that is placed between these two CT groups (including CBs) are included in the protected
zone.

To apply the exact (voltage-based) method of charging current compensation, the power line's
positive and zero-sequence capacitances must be known. If not known, the approximate
method can be applied instead.

Table 4 shows the power system parameters in this example.

Table 4: Power system parameters


Power line data Value Remark
Number of three-phase CT 2 A two-end power line with one three-phase CT group installed at
groups each end.
(each group represents an
independent source of Setting NoOfUsedCTs is used to indicate to L4CPDIF how many
information about the current) current input channels (2, 3 or 4) with current samples are to be
read and processed.
Source impedance at both ends 4.84 Ω -
Power line length 200 km -
Rated voltage 220 kV -
Line impedance ZL ≈ XL 58.64 Ω -
Total zero sequence line 7.751e-9 x 200 7.751e-9 F per 1 km of line
capacitance, C0
Total positive sequence line 12.74e-9 x 200 12.74e-9 F per 1 km of line
capacitance, C1
Charging current 92 A Measured at rated voltage as the differential current under normal
(measured without charging load.
current compensation)
Rated current 1000 A

Table 5 shows the relevant settings in this example.

38 Communication set-up, 670/650 series


Application Guide
1MRK 505 382-UEN D Section 4
Analog and binary signal transfer for line differential protection

Table 5: Relevant settings


Setting Value Remark
IdMin 0.20 20 % of IBase = 1000 A

Must be set above the maximum possible charging current (in this
example set to approximately 2 x of that value).
EndSection1 1.00 100 % of IBase = 1000 A
EndSection2 3.00 300 % of IBase = 1000 A
SlopeSection2 0.50 Slope = 50 %
SlopeSection3 1.00 Slope = 100 %
IdMinHigh 1.00 100 % of IBase = 1000 A
tIdMinHigh 1000 Interval of initial decreased sensitivity in ms.
IdUnre 3.00 300 % of IBase = 1000 A

Maximum through fault current calculated based on:

220
IThrough   2.45kA
3  (4.84  58.64)

IECEQUATION15178 V1 EN-US

1.2  IThrough 1.2  2.45kA


IdUnre    2.94kA
IBase 1kA

IECEQUATION15179 V1 EN-US

I2/I1Ratio 0.10 Ratio = 10 %

The value can be set this low because the 2nd harmonic block is
ignored if an internal fault is detected.
I5/I1Ratio 0.10 Ratio = 10 %

The value can be set this low because the 5th harmonic block is
ignored if an internal fault is detected and no tap transformer
exists in the protected zone.
CCCOpMode 1 The exact method with currents and voltages is used. Line
capacitances must be specified.
VTOnLineGrp1 0 VT is placed on the bus.
VTOnLineGrp2 0 VT is placed on the bus.
C0 7.751e-9 x 200 Total zero sequence capacitance of 220kV on a 200 km power line.
C1 12.74e-9 x 200 Total positive sequence capacitance of 220kV on a 200 km power
line.
NoOfLineEnds 2 Number of physical line ends in the protected zone (setting used
by charging current compensation).
NoOfCTSetsGrp1 1 Number of three-phase CT groups at first line end, the currents of
which are connected to input group 1 (setting used by charging
current compensation).
NoOfCTSetsGrp2 1 Number of three-phase CT groups at second line end, the currents
of which are connected to input group 2 (setting used by charging
current compensation).
IBase 1000 Nominal current of the protected power line.
NoOfUsedCTs 2 Total number of CT groups in the protected zone.
TapTransformer 0 Tap transformer not included in the protected zone (and its current
therefore not directly measured).
DiffMode Master Differential function activated.

Communication set-up, 670/650 series 39


Application Guide
Section 4 1MRK 505 382-UEN D
Analog and binary signal transfer for line differential protection

Figure 41 shows the sequence of events after an internal fault. In this example, the fault
occurred at t = 400 ms in the middle of the power line. The operate time in the example below
is obtained from the software algorithm only without considering the delays due to the
hardware and communication.

INSTANTANEOUS DIFFERENTIAL CURRENT IN PHASE L1 (AMPERES)

Pre-fault instantaneous current


is equal to the charging current

Internal fault

DIFFERENTIAL CURRENT AND VALUE REQUIRED FOR START (AMPERES)

Fundamental frequency differential current


Value required for trip

BIAS CURRENT IN PHASE L1 (AMPERES)

Internal fault

ANGLE BETWEEN INCREMENTAL CURRENTS IN PHASE L1 (RADIANS) AND INTERNAL FAULT SIGNAL

Angle between incremental currents = 90°

Internal fault declared in 5 ms


Angle under internal fault = approx. 0°

TRIP COMMAND IN PHASE L1

Trip command in 6 ms

Time in seconds
IEC15000477-2-en.vsd

IEC15000477 V2 EN-US

Figure 41: Sequence of events after an internal fault at t = 400 ms

Before the internal fault occurs, instantaneous differential current is composed only of the
power line capacitive charging current (approximately 92 A). This current is not visible in the
fundamental frequency differential current because it is removed by the exact method of
charging current compensation.

The fundamental frequency differential current becomes greater than the value required to
trip. This happens 4 ms after fault occurrence (a start signal is issued but the respective
Boolean output is not shown here). The value required to trip (dependent variable) is a
function of the chosen operate-restrain characteristic and magnitude, and of the bias current
(independent variable).

The relative angle between incremental currents at both ends of the protected line falls from
the initial 90 degrees to close to 0 degrees (1.145 degrees) 4 ms after the fault occurrence.
This angle is not available as an output signal.

Internal fault is declared in 5 ms, and the harmonic block that could delay the trip is
deactivated. L4CPDIF initiates an internal trip decision in 6 ms by which time the start signal
has been confirmed 3 times in succession as a special security measure. The trip command will

40 Communication set-up, 670/650 series


Application Guide
1MRK 505 382-UEN D Section 4
Analog and binary signal transfer for line differential protection

be issued by the IED after the trip decision is made with the added delay time form the
hardware and communication.

Figure 42 shows charging current compensation when the exact method is used (CCCOpMode
= U based). The charging current is subtracted from all three phases.

TOTAL COMPENSATED CURRENT IN PHASE L1


CCC starts 92 A subtracted from the fundamental
after 100 ms frequency differential current fault
37 A subtracted under
fault conditions

TOTAL COMPENSATED CURRENT IN PHASE L2

92 A subtracted fault
37 A subtracted

TOTAL COMPENSATED CURRENT IN PHASE L3

92 A subtracted fault
37 A subtracted

Time in seconds
IEC15000466-1-en.vsd
IEC15000466 V1 EN-US

Figure 42: Charging current compensation using the exact method

Charging current compensation starts 100 ms after simulation start when the power line was
switched on to normal load. Under normal load conditions, approximately 92 A is subtracted,
which results in all fundamental frequency differential currents being close to zero. Under fault
conditions with very low voltage at the fault and decreased voltages at both ends, the
charging current is smaller, and only 37 A is subtracted from the differential currents.

Figure 43 shows charging current compensation when the approximate method is used
(CCCOpMode = IDiff reduction). The charging current is subtracted from all three phases.

TOTAL COMPENSATED CURRENT IN PHASE L1


CCC compensated 92 A subtracted from the fundamental 92 A subtracted under fault
in app. 100 ms frequency differential current fault conditions

TOTAL COMPENSATED CURRENT IN PHASE L2

92 A subtracted fault 92 A subtracted

TOTAL COMPENSATED CURRENT IN PHASE L3

92 A subtracted fault 92 A subtracted

Time in seconds
IEC15000467-1-en.vsd
IEC15000467 V1 EN-US

Figure 43: Charging current compensation using the approximate method

Charging current compensation is achieved 100 ms after simulation start when the power line
was switched on to normal load. Under normal load conditions, approximately 92 A is
subtracted, which results in all fundamental frequency differential currents being close to zero.
Since voltage profiles are not known, the approximate method continues, even under fault
conditions, to subtract the pre-fault charging current of 92 A.

Communication set-up, 670/650 series 41


Application Guide
Section 4 1MRK 505 382-UEN D
Analog and binary signal transfer for line differential protection

With low resistance faults, the 55 A difference of the approximate method in comparison to
the exact method, is relatively small when considering high fault currents. With high-resistance
faults, the charging current will not change much so it is acceptable to continue subtracting it.

4.8 Configuration of binary signals

4.8.1 Operation principle M12452-14 v5

In 64 kbit mode, communication takes place in standard ITU (CCITT) PCM digital 64 kbit/s
channels. Communication is two-way, and telegrams are sent every 5 ms (same in 50 Hz and
60 Hz) to exchange information between two IEDs. The format used is C37.94, and one
telegram consists of start and stop flags, address, data to be transmitted, Cyclic Redundancy
Check (CRC) and Yellow bit (which is associated with C37.94).

Start Stop
Information CRC
flag flag

8 bits n x 16 bits 16 bits 8 bits


en01000134.vsd
IEC01000134 V1 EN-US

Figure 44: Data message structure


The start and stop flags are composed of 0111 1110 sequence (7E hexadecimal) as defined in
the HDLC standard. CRC is designed according to the standard CRC16 definition. The optional
address field in the HDLC frame is not used but, instead, separate addressing is included in
the data field.

The address field is used for checking that the received message originates from the correct
equipment. There is always a risk that multiplexers occasionally mix up the messages. Each
terminal in the system is given a number. The terminal is then programmed to accept
messages from a specific terminal number. If the CRC function detects a faulty message, the
message is thrown away and not used in the evaluation.

If communication is used for line differential purposes, transmitted data consists of three
currents, clock information, trip, block and alarm signals and eight binary signals which can be
used for any purpose. The three currents are represented as sampled values.

If communication is used exclusively for binary signals, full data capacity of the
communication channel is used for the binary signal purpose which gives the capacity of 192
signals.

In 2 Mbit mode, telegrams are still sent using C37.94 but the HDLC part is not used. Instead, all
12 channels of the C37.94 frame are used, and a telegram is sent whenever a sample is
available. The address field is used in the same way as in 64 kbit mode but the CRC field is 32
bits. It carries 9 analog samples and 192 general purpose binary signals.
GUID-E8E1B062-7E32-4850-A5D1-6EDBC82154D4 v1

IEC10000071 V1 EN-US

Figure 45: Setting example with one communication channel for binary transfer

42 Communication set-up, 670/650 series


Application Guide
1MRK 505 382-UEN D Section 4
Analog and binary signal transfer for line differential protection

4.8.2 Configuration of binary inputs and outputs GUID-89D944D1-DD6C-4666-8AA6-38FE5F366095 v1

GUID-0918C53D-F755-4FA1-BB3C-F672AFC6A7D2 v1

Signals are available in the Signal Matrix Tool (SMT) and as hardware channels
in the Application Configuration Tool (ACT).

4.8.2.1 Configuration of binary inputs and outputs via ACT GUID-7102E264-F540-434C-96BA-47E72DA665B2 v1

LDCM hardware channels can be connected via ACT by right-clicking on the chosen connection
point, and then selecting Connect/Hardware Channel (see Figure 46).

IEC10000241 V1 EN-US

Figure 46: Configuration of binary inputs and outputs via ACT

If an installed LDCM is not used, it should be removed or set to binary mode


without any connections, or the ChannelMode parameter should be set to
Blocked. Otherwise parallel LDCMs may get blocked.

The following can be done in the Hardware Channel Allocation dialog:

• Hardware Module selection


• Hardware Channel selection
• User Defined Name for the channel

IEC10000242-1-en.vsdx

IEC10000242 V1 EN-US

Figure 47: Hardware Channel Allocation dialog

Communication set-up, 670/650 series 43


Application Guide
Section 4 1MRK 505 382-UEN D
Analog and binary signal transfer for line differential protection

IEC10000243-1-en.vsdx

IEC10000243 V1 EN-US

Figure 48: An example of selected hardware channels

When a User Defined Name is given for the selected Hardware Channel, it will also become
visible in SMT (see Figure 49).

IEC10000244-1-en.vsdx

IEC10000244 V1 EN-US

Figure 49: User Defined Name in SMT

4.8.2.2 Configuration of binary inputs and outputs via SMT GUID-34EC440E-6D10-4FB5-A860-383D18220017 v1

Configuration of binary input signals (SMBI) and binary output signals (SMBO) is done via SMT
by selecting the respective tab.

44 Communication set-up, 670/650 series


Application Guide
1MRK 505 382-UEN D Section 4
Analog and binary signal transfer for line differential protection

IEC10000247-1-en.vsdx

IEC10000247 V1 EN-US

Figure 50: Tab selection in SMT for binary input and output configuration

Figure 51 shows a configuration of LDCM Hardware Channel and SMBI in the Binary Inputs tab
in SMT Connection between hardware (LDCM) and software (SMBI) is indicated by an X.

IEC10000245-1-en.vsdx

IEC10000245 V1 EN-US

Figure 51: Connection (indicated by X) established between LDCM and SMBI

To rename a chosen Hardware Channel in SMT:

1. Select the channel you want to rename.


2. Open Object Properties.
3. Rename the channel in the User Defined Name field and save.

IEC10000246-1-en.vsdx

IEC10000246 V1 EN-US

Figure 52: Renaming a channel in SMT

Communication set-up, 670/650 series 45


Application Guide
Section 4 1MRK 505 382-UEN D
Analog and binary signal transfer for line differential protection

IEC10000237-1-en.vsdx

IEC10000237 V1 EN-US

Figure 53: Configuration of received signals

IEC10000238-1-en.vsdx

IEC10000238 V1 EN-US

Figure 54: Configuration of communication alarms

IEC10000239-1-en.vsdx

IEC10000239 V1 EN-US

Figure 55: Disconnection of analog signals for binary signal transfer set-up

46 Communication set-up, 670/650 series


Application Guide
1MRK 505 382-UEN D Section 4
Analog and binary signal transfer for line differential protection

4.8.3 Binary output signals GUID-CCD9CE1E-57CA-412D-ADD2-3B19EA52512D v1

PID-6471-OUTPUTSIGNALS v2

Table 6: LDCMRecBinStat1 Output signals


Name Type Description
COMFAIL BOOLEAN Detected error in the differential communication
ADDRERR BOOLEAN Incoming message from non-valid address
CRCERROR BOOLEAN Identified error by CRC check in incoming message
REMBLKDF BOOLEAN Remote terminal indicates diff protection is blocked
NOCARR BOOLEAN No carrier is detected in the incoming message
NOMESS BOOLEAN No start and stop flags identified for the incoming message
LNGTHERR BOOLEAN Wrong length of the incoming message
YBIT BOOLEAN Detected error in remote end with incoming message
LOWLEVEL BOOLEAN Low signal level on the receive link

PID-6472-OUTPUTSIGNALS v2

Table 7: LDCMRecBinStat2 Output signals


Name Type Description
CH1 STRING Remote communication channel 1
CH2 STRING Remote communication channel 2
CH3 STRING Remote communication channel 3
CH4 STRING Remote communication channel 4
COMFAIL BOOLEAN Detected error in the differential communication
COMALM BOOLEAN Delayed alarm signal for communication failure
BLKDIFF BOOLEAN Link error, values are substituted, diff protection is blocked
ADDRERR BOOLEAN Incoming message from non-valid address
RED_ACT BOOLEAN Redundant channel active
CRCERROR BOOLEAN Identified error by CRC check in incoming message
TRDELERR BOOLEAN Transmission time is longer than permitted
SYNCERR BOOLEAN Error in echo synchronization
REMBLKDF BOOLEAN Remote terminal indicates diff protection is blocked
GPSERROR BOOLEAN Problem with GPS synchronization in remote or local end
NOCARR BOOLEAN No carrier is detected in the incoming message
NOMESS BOOLEAN No start and stop flags identified for the incoming message
LNGTHERR BOOLEAN Wrong length of the incoming message
YBIT BOOLEAN Detected error in remote end with incoming message
LOWLEVEL BOOLEAN Low signal level on the receive link

Communication set-up, 670/650 series 47


Application Guide
Section 4 1MRK 505 382-UEN D
Analog and binary signal transfer for line differential protection

PID-6473-OUTPUTSIGNALS v2

Table 8: LDCMRecBinStat3 Output signals


Name Type Description
CH1 STRING Remote communication channel 1
CH2 STRING Remote communication channel 2
CH3 STRING Remote communication channel 3
CH4 STRING Remote communication channel 4
COMFAIL BOOLEAN Detected error in the differential communication
COMALM BOOLEAN Delayed alarm signal for communication failure
BLKDIFF BOOLEAN Link error, values are substituted, diff protection is blocked
ADDRERR BOOLEAN Incoming message from non-valid address
RED_ACT BOOLEAN Redundant channel active
CRCERROR BOOLEAN Identified error by CRC check in incoming message
TRDELERR BOOLEAN Transmission time is longer than permitted
SYNCERR BOOLEAN Error in echo synchronization
REMBLKDF BOOLEAN Remote terminal indicates diff protection is blocked
GPSERROR BOOLEAN Problem with GPS synchronization in remote or local end
NOCARR BOOLEAN No carrier is detected in the incoming message
NOMESS BOOLEAN No start and stop flags identified for the incoming message
LNGTHERR BOOLEAN Wrong length of the incoming message
YBIT BOOLEAN Detected error in remote end with incoming message
LOWLEVEL BOOLEAN Low signal level on the receive link

PID-6474-OUTPUTSIGNALS v2

Table 9: LDCMRecBinS2_2M Output signals


Name Type Description
COMFAIL BOOLEAN Detected error in the differential communication
COMALM BOOLEAN Delayed alarm signal for communication failure
BLKDIFF BOOLEAN Link error, values are substituted, diff protection is blocked
ADDRERR BOOLEAN Incoming message from non-valid address
RED_ACT BOOLEAN Redundant channel active
CRCERROR BOOLEAN Identified error by CRC check in incoming message
TRDELERR BOOLEAN Transmission time is longer than permitted
SYNCERR BOOLEAN Error in echo synchronization
REMBLKDF BOOLEAN Remote terminal indicates diff protection is blocked
GPSERROR BOOLEAN Problem with GPS synchronization in remote or local end
NOCARR BOOLEAN No carrier is detected in the incoming message
NOMESS BOOLEAN No start and stop flags identified for the incoming message
LNGTHERR BOOLEAN Wrong length of the incoming message
YBIT BOOLEAN Detected error in remote end with incoming message
LOWLEVEL BOOLEAN Low signal level on the receive link
ADINV1 BOOLEAN Analog data invalid in remote end
ADINV2 BOOLEAN Analog data invalid in remote end
Table continues on next page

48 Communication set-up, 670/650 series


Application Guide
1MRK 505 382-UEN D Section 4
Analog and binary signal transfer for line differential protection

Name Type Description


ADINV3 BOOLEAN Analog data invalid in remote end
ADINV4 BOOLEAN Analog data invalid in remote end
ADINV5 BOOLEAN Analog data invalid in remote end
ADINV6 BOOLEAN Analog data invalid in remote end
ADINV7 BOOLEAN Analog data invalid in remote end
ADINV8 BOOLEAN Analog data invalid in remote end
ADINV9 BOOLEAN Analog data invalid in remote end
CH1 STRING Remote communication channel 1, 2M
CH2 STRING Remote communication channel 2, 2M
CH3 STRING Remote communication channel 3, 2M
CH4 STRING Remote communication channel 4, 2M
CH5 STRING Remote communication channel 5, 2M
CH6 STRING Remote communication channel 6, 2M
CH7 STRING Remote communication channel 7, 2M
CH8 STRING Remote communication channel 8, 2M
CH9 STRING Remote communication channel 9, 2M

PID-6475-OUTPUTSIGNALS v2

Table 10: LDCMRecBinS3_2M Output signals


Name Type Description
COMFAIL BOOLEAN Detected error in the differential communication
COMALM BOOLEAN Delayed alarm signal for communication failure
BLKDIFF BOOLEAN Link error, values are substituted, diff protection is blocked
ADDRERR BOOLEAN Incoming message from non-valid address
RED_ACT BOOLEAN Redundant channel active
CRCERROR BOOLEAN Identified error by CRC check in incoming message
TRDELERR BOOLEAN Transmission time is longer than permitted
SYNCERR BOOLEAN Error in echo synchronization
REMBLKDF BOOLEAN Remote terminal indicates diff protection is blocked
GPSERROR BOOLEAN Problem with GPS synchronization in remote or local end
NOCARR BOOLEAN No carrier is detected in the incoming message
NOMESS BOOLEAN No start and stop flags identified for the incoming message
LNGTHERR BOOLEAN Wrong length of the incoming message
YBIT BOOLEAN Detected error in remote end with incoming message
LOWLEVEL BOOLEAN Low signal level on the receive link
ADINV1 BOOLEAN Analog data invalid in remote end
ADINV2 BOOLEAN Analog data invalid in remote end
ADINV3 BOOLEAN Analog data invalid in remote end
ADINV4 BOOLEAN Analog data invalid in remote end
ADINV5 BOOLEAN Analog data invalid in remote end
ADINV6 BOOLEAN Analog data invalid in remote end
ADINV7 BOOLEAN Analog data invalid in remote end
Table continues on next page

Communication set-up, 670/650 series 49


Application Guide
Section 4 1MRK 505 382-UEN D
Analog and binary signal transfer for line differential protection

Name Type Description


ADINV8 BOOLEAN Analog data invalid in remote end
ADINV9 BOOLEAN Analog data invalid in remote end
CH1 STRING Remote communication channel 1, 2M
CH2 STRING Remote communication channel 2, 2M
CH3 STRING Remote communication channel 3, 2M
CH4 STRING Remote communication channel 4, 2M
CH5 STRING Remote communication channel 5, 2M
CH6 STRING Remote communication channel 6, 2M
CH7 STRING Remote communication channel 7, 2M
CH8 STRING Remote communication channel 8, 2M
CH9 STRING Remote communication channel 9, 2M

4.8.4 Setting guidelines M12454-3 v7

64 kbit and 2 Mbit mode common settings

ChannelMode defines how an IED discards the LDCM information when one of the IEDs in the
system is out of service: it can either be done on the IED out of service by setting all local
LDCMs to channel mode OutOfService or at the remote end by setting the corresponding
LDCM to channel mode Blocked. If OutOfService is selected, the IED should have active
communication to the remote end during the whole maintenance process, that is, no restart or
removal of the fiber can be done.

This setting does not apply to two-end communication.

Blocked IED does not use data from the LDCM


OutOfService IED informs the remote end that it is out of service

TerminalNo is used to assign a unique address to each LDCM in all current differential IEDs. Up
to 256 LDCMs can be assigned a unique number. For example, in a local IED with two LDCMs:

• LDCM for slot 305: set TerminalNo to 1 and RemoteTermNo to 2


• LDCM for slot 306: set TerminalNo to 3 and RemoteTermNo to 4

In multiterminal current differential applications,with 4 LDCMs in each IED, up to 20 unique


addresses must be set.

A unique address is necessary to give high security against incorrect


addressing in the communication system. If the same number is used for
TerminalNo in some of the LDCMs, a loop-back test in the communication
system can give an incorrect trip.

RemoteTermNo is used to assign a number to each related LDCM in the remote IED. For each
LDCM, RemoteTermNo is set to a different value than TerminalNo, but equal to the TerminalNo
of the remote end LDCM. In the remote IED, TerminalNo and RemoteTermNo are reversed as
follows:

50 Communication set-up, 670/650 series


Application Guide
1MRK 505 382-UEN D Section 4
Analog and binary signal transfer for line differential protection

• LDCM for slot 305: set TerminalNo to 2 and RemoteTermNo to 1


• LDCM for slot 306: set TerminalNo to 4 and RemoteTermNo to 3

The redundant channel is always configured to the lower position, for example:

• Slot 305: main channel


• Slot 306: redundant channel

The same is applicable for slot 312-313 and slot 322-323.

DiffSync defines the method of time synchronization for the line differential function: Echo or
GPS.

Using Echo in this case is safe only if there is no risk of varying transmission
asymmetry.

GPSSyncErr: when GPS synchronization is lost, synchronization of the line differential function
continues for 16 s based on the stability in the local IED clocks. After that, setting Block blocks
the line differential function or setting Echo keeps it on by using the Echo synchronization
method.

Using Echo in this case is safe only if there is no risk of varying transmission
asymmetry.

CommSync defines the Master and Slave relation in the communication system, and should
not be mistaken for the synchronization of line differential current samples. When direct fiber
is used, one LDCM is set as Master and the other as Slave. When a modem and multiplexer is
used, the IED is always set as Slave because the telecommunication system provides the clock
master.

OptoPower has two settings: LowPower and HighPower.

Short-range LDCM: Use LowPower for fibres 0 – 1 km and HighPower for fibers greater than 1
km.

Medium-range LDCM: Typical distance 80 km for both LowPower and HighPower.

Long-range LDCM: Typical distance 120 km for both LowPower and HighPower.

An optical budget calculation should be made for the actual case. For medium range LDCM and
long range LDCM the recommendation is to use the LowPower setting to minimize the power
consumption and keep the heat dissipation at minimum.

The HighPower setting adds 3 dBm extra optical power and can be used to increase the
margin at distances close to maximum.

Table 11: Optical budgets with C37.94 protocol


Type of LDCM Short range (SR) Short range (SR) Medium range (MR) Long range (LR)
Type of fibre Multi-mode fiber Multi-mode fiber Single-mode fiber Single-mode fiber
glass 50/125 μm glass 62.5/125 μm glass 9/125 μm glass 9/125 μm
Modem type 1MRK0002122-AB 1MRK0002122-AB 1MRK002311-AA 1MRK002311-BA
Contact type ST ST FC/PC FC/PC
Table continues on next page

Communication set-up, 670/650 series 51


Application Guide
Section 4 1MRK 505 382-UEN D
Analog and binary signal transfer for line differential protection

Type of LDCM Short range (SR) Short range (SR) Medium range (MR) Long range (LR)
Minimum output –21 dBm –13.7 dBm –3.2 dBm –1.3 dBm
power1)
Minimum receiver –32.5 dBm –32.5 dBm –30 dBm –30 dBm
sensitivity
Optical link 11.5 dB 18.8 dB 26.8 dB 28.7 dB
budget2)

1) Minimum output power is measured with 1 m of the selected fiber and the high power mode.
2) The optical budget includes a satisfactory margin for aging in transmitter and receiver during 20–30 years.

Table 12: Example of input data for calculating the optical budget (maximum distance)
Type of LDCM Short range (SR) Short range (SR) Medium range (MR) Long range (LR)
Type of fibre Multi-mode fiber Multi-mode fiber Single-mode fiber Single-mode fiber
glass 50/125 μm glass 62.5/125 μm glass 9/125 μm glass 9/125 μm
Modem type 1MRK0002122-AB 1MRK0002122-AB 1MRK002311-AA 1MRK002311-BA
Typical attenuation 3 dB/km 3 dB/km 0.32 dB/km 0.21 dB/km
in fibre-optic
cables
Attenuation/ 1.5 dB/ST 1.5 dB/ST 0.3 dB/FC/PC 0.3 dB/FC/PC
Contact
Factory splice 0.5 dB/splice 0.5 dB/splice 0.08 dB/splice 0.08 dB/splice
attenuation 0.3 splices/km 0.1 splices/km 0.1 splices/km 0.1 splices/km
Repair splices 0.25 dB/splice 0.25 dB/splice 0.1 dB/splice 0.1 dB/splice
0.1 splices/km 0.1 splices/km 0.05 splices/km 0.05 splices/km
Fiber margin for 0.1 dB/km 0.1 dB/km 0.01 dB/km 0.01 dB/km
aging

Table 13: Example of calculating the optical budget (maximum distance)


Type of LDCM Short range (SR) Short range (SR) Medium range (MR) Long range (LR)
Type of fibre Multi-mode fiber Multi-mode fiber Single-mode fiber Single-mode fiber
glass 50/125 μm glass 62.5/125 μm glass 9/125 μm glass 9/125 μm
Modem type 1MRK0002122-AB 1MRK0002122-AB 1MRK002311-AA 1MRK002311-BA
Maximum distance 2 km 3 km 80 km 120 km
Attenuation in 6 dB 9 dB 25.6 dB 25.2 dB
fibre-optic cables
2 contacts 2 dB 3 dB 0.6 dB 0.6 dB
Factory splice 0.3 dB 0.45 dB 0.64 dB 0.96 dB
attenuation
Repair splices 0.1 dB 0.3 dB 0.8 dB 1.2 dB
Fiber margin for 0.2 dB 0.3 dB 0.8 dB 1.2 dB
aging
Total attenuation 8.6 dB 12.05 dB 26.04 dB 28.56 dB
Optical link budget 9 dB 13 dB 26.8 dB 28.7 dB
Link margin 0.4 dB 0.95 dB 0.76 dB 0.14 dB

52 Communication set-up, 670/650 series


Application Guide
1MRK 505 382-UEN D Section 4
Analog and binary signal transfer for line differential protection

ComAlarmDel defines the time delay for communication failure alarm. In communication
systems, route switching can sometimes cause interruptions with a duration of up to 50 ms.
Too short a time delay can thus cause nuisance alarms.

ComAlrmResDel defines the time delay for communication failure alarm reset.

RedChSwTime defines the time delay before switching over to a redundant channel in case of
primary channel failure.

RedChRturnTime defines the time delay before switching back to the primary channel after
channel failure.

AsymDelay denotes asymmetry which is defined as transmission delay minus receive delay. If
fixed asymmetry is known, Echo synchronization method can be used, provided that
AsymDelay is properly set. From the definition follows that asymmetry is always positive at
one end and negative at the other end.

MaxTransmDelay indicates maximum transmission delay. Data for maximum 40 ms


transmission delay can be buffered up. Delay times in the range of some ms are common. If
data arrive in wrong order, the oldest data is disregarded.

MaxtDiffLevel indicates the maximum time difference allowed between internal clocks in
respective line ends.

64 kbit mode specific settings

TransmCurr is used to select among the following:


• one of the two possible local currents is transmitted
• sum of the two local currents is transmitted
• channel is used as a redundant backup channel

1½ breaker arrangement has two local currents, and the Current Transformer (CT) earthing for
those can differ. CT-SUM transmits the sum of the two CT groups. CT-DIFF1 transmits CT
group 1 minus CT group 2 and CT-DIFF2 transmits CT group 2 minus CT group 1.

CT-GRP1 and CT-GRP2 transmit the respective CT groups, and setting RedundantChannel
determines that the channel is used as a redundant backup channel. The redundant channel
takes the CT group setting of the main channel.

RemAinLatency corresponds to LocAinLatency set in the remote IED.

AnalogLatency specifies the time delay (number of samples) between actual sampling and the
time the sample reaches LDCM. The value is set to 2 when transmitting analog data. When a
merging unit according to IEC 61850-9-2 is used instead of the TRM, this parameter shall be
set to 5.

CompRange value indicates the current peak value over which truncation is made. To set this
value, knowledge of fault current levels is required. It is recommended to set the minimum
range that will cover the expected fault current value. For example, if a 40kA fault level is
expected on the network, the 0-50kA settings range should be chosen.

2 Mbit mode specific settings

RedundantCh is used to set the channel as a redundant backup channel. The redundant
channel takes the CT group setting of the main channel, and ignores the CT group configured
in its own transmit block.

Communication set-up, 670/650 series 53


Application Guide
Section 4 1MRK 505 382-UEN D
Analog and binary signal transfer for line differential protection

LinkForwarded is used to configure the LDCM to merge the inter-trip and block signals from
another LDCM-receiver. This is used when the analog signals for the LDCM-transmitter is
connected to the receiver of another LDCM.
GUID-4CBDD9D5-E3B1-4FD8-A510-9BD5363BACD1 v1

AsymDelay at end A is set to 3 ms - 2 ms = 1 ms


AsymDelay at end B is set to 2 ms - 3 ms = -1 ms

C*

2 ms delay 1 ms delay

A B
Tx Rx
Rx 2 ms delay Tx
IED IED

*The 3 ms delay in route A-C-B includes the delay in the multiplexer at end C.

IEC07000235-1-en.vsdx

IEC07000235 V1 EN-US

Figure 56: Setting example for AsymDelay

4.8.5 Settings IP14245-1 v2

PID-6471-SETTINGS v2

Table 14: LDCMRecBinStat1 Non group settings (basic)


Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
ChannelMode Blocked - - Normal Channel mode of LDCM
Normal
OutOfService
TerminalNo 0 - 255 - 1 0 Terminal number used for line
differential communication
RemoteTermNo 0 - 255 - 1 0 Terminal number on remote terminal
CommSync Slave - - Slave Com Synchronization mode of LDCM
Master
OptoPower LowPower - - LowPower Transmission power for LDCM
HighPower
ComAlarmDel 5 - 10000 ms 5 100 Time delay before communication
alarm signal is activated
ComAlrmResDel 5 - 10000 ms 5 100 Reset delay before communication
alarm signal is reset

54 Communication set-up, 670/650 series


Application Guide
1MRK 505 382-UEN D Section 4
Analog and binary signal transfer for line differential protection

PID-6472-SETTINGS v2

Table 15: LDCMRecBinStat2 Non group settings (basic)


Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
ChannelMode Blocked - - Normal Channel mode of LDCM
Normal
OutOfService
TerminalNo 0 - 255 - 1 0 Terminal number used for line
differential communication
RemoteTermNo 0 - 255 - 1 0 Terminal number on remote terminal
DiffSync Echo - - Echo Diff Synchronization mode of LDCM
GPS
GPSSyncErr Block - - Block Operation mode when GPS
Echo synchroniation signal is lost
CommSync Slave - - Slave Com Synchronization mode of LDCM
Master
OptoPower LowPower - - LowPower Transmission power for LDCM
HighPower
TransmCurr CT-GRP1 - - CT-GRP1 Summation mode for transmitted
CT-GRP2 current values
CT-SUM
CT-DIFF1
CT-DIFF2
ComAlarmDel 5 - 10000 ms 5 100 Time delay before communication
alarm signal is activated
ComAlrmResDel 5 - 10000 ms 5 100 Reset delay before communication
alarm signal is reset
RedChSwTime 0 - 500 ms 5 0 Time delay before switching in
redundant channel
RedChRturnTime 5 - 500 ms 5 100 Time delay before switching back
from redundant channel
AsymDelay -20.00 - 20.00 ms 0.01 0.00 Asymmetric delay when
communication use echo synch.
AnalogLatency 2 - 20 - 1 2 Latency between local analogue data
and transmitted
remAinLatency 2 - 20 - 1 2 Analog latency of remote terminal
MaxTransmDelay 0 - 40 ms 1 20 Max allowed transmission delay
CompRange 0-10kA - - 0-25kA Compression range
0-25kA
0-50kA
0-150kA
MaxtDiffLevel 200 - 2000 us 1 600 Maximum time diff for ECHO back-up
DeadbandtDiff 200 - 1000 us 1 300 Deadband for t Diff

PID-6473-SETTINGS v2

Table 16: LDCMRecBinStat3 Non group settings (basic)


Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
ChannelMode Blocked - - Normal Channel mode of LDCM
Normal
OutOfService
TerminalNo 0 - 255 - 1 0 Terminal number used for line
differential communication
RemoteTermNo 0 - 255 - 1 0 Terminal number on remote terminal
Table continues on next page

Communication set-up, 670/650 series 55


Application Guide
Section 4 1MRK 505 382-UEN D
Analog and binary signal transfer for line differential protection

Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description


DiffSync Echo - - Echo Diff Synchronization mode of LDCM
GPS
GPSSyncErr Block - - Block Operation mode when GPS
Echo synchroniation signal is lost
CommSync Slave - - Slave Com Synchronization mode of LDCM
Master
OptoPower LowPower - - LowPower Transmission power for LDCM
HighPower
TransmCurr CT-GRP1 - - CT-GRP1 Summation mode for transmitted
CT-GRP2 current values
CT-SUM
CT-DIFF1
CT-DIFF2
RedundantChann
el
ComAlarmDel 5 - 10000 ms 5 100 Time delay before communication
alarm signal is activated
ComAlrmResDel 5 - 10000 ms 5 100 Reset delay before communication
alarm signal is reset
RedChSwTime 0 - 500 ms 5 0 Time delay before switching in
redundant channel
RedChRturnTime 5 - 500 ms 5 100 Time delay before switching back
from redundant channel
AsymDelay -20.00 - 20.00 ms 0.01 0.00 Asymmetric delay when
communication use echo synch.
AnalogLatency 2 - 20 - 1 2 Latency between local analogue data
and transmitted
remAinLatency 2 - 20 - 1 2 Analog latency of remote terminal
MaxTransmDelay 0 - 40 ms 1 20 Max allowed transmission delay
CompRange 0-10kA - - 0-25kA Compression range
0-25kA
0-50kA
0-150kA
MaxtDiffLevel 200 - 2000 us 1 600 Maximum time diff for ECHO back-up
DeadbandtDiff 200 - 1000 us 1 300 Deadband for t Diff

PID-6474-SETTINGS v2

Table 17: LDCMRecBinS2_2M Non group settings (basic)


Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
ChannelMode Blocked - - Normal Channel mode of LDCM
Normal
OutOfService
TerminalNo 0 - 255 - 1 0 Terminal number used for line
differential communication
RemoteTermNo 0 - 255 - 1 0 Terminal number on remote terminal
DiffSync Echo - - Echo Diff Synchronization mode of LDCM
GPS
GPSSyncErr Block - - Block Operation mode when GPS
Echo synchroniation signal is lost
CommSync Slave - - Slave Com Synchronization mode of LDCM
Master
Table continues on next page

56 Communication set-up, 670/650 series


Application Guide
1MRK 505 382-UEN D Section 4
Analog and binary signal transfer for line differential protection

Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description


OptoPower LowPower - - LowPower Transmission power for LDCM
HighPower
ComAlarmDel 5 - 10000 ms 5 100 Time delay before communication
alarm signal is activated
ComAlrmResDel 5 - 10000 ms 5 100 Reset delay before communication
alarm signal is reset
RedChSwTime 0 - 500 ms 5 0 Time delay before switching in
redundant channel
RedChRturnTime 5 - 500 ms 5 100 Time delay before switching back
from redundant channel
AsymDelay -20.00 - 20.00 ms 0.01 0.00 Asymmetric delay when
communication use echo synch.
MaxTransmDelay 0 - 40 ms 1 20 Max allowed transmission delay
MaxtDiffLevel 200 - 2000 us 1 600 Maximum time diff for ECHO back-up
DeadbandtDiff 200 - 1000 us 1 300 Deadband for t Diff
LinkForwarded Off - - Off Link forwarded from other LDCM
LDCM305
LDCM306
LDCM312
LDCM313
LDCM322
LDCM323

PID-6475-SETTINGS v2

Table 18: LDCMRecBinS3_2M Non group settings (basic)


Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description
ChannelMode Blocked - - Normal Channel mode of LDCM
Normal
OutOfService
TerminalNo 0 - 255 - 1 0 Terminal number used for line
differential communication
RemoteTermNo 0 - 255 - 1 0 Terminal number on remote terminal
DiffSync Echo - - Echo Diff Synchronization mode of LDCM
GPS
GPSSyncErr Block - - Block Operation mode when GPS
Echo synchroniation signal is lost
CommSync Slave - - Slave Com Synchronization mode of LDCM
Master
OptoPower LowPower - - LowPower Transmission power for LDCM
HighPower
ComAlarmDel 5 - 10000 ms 5 100 Time delay before communication
alarm signal is activated
ComAlrmResDel 5 - 10000 ms 5 100 Reset delay before communication
alarm signal is reset
RedChSwTime 0 - 500 ms 5 0 Time delay before switching in
redundant channel
RedChRturnTime 5 - 500 ms 5 100 Time delay before switching back
from redundant channel
AsymDelay -20.00 - 20.00 ms 0.01 0.00 Asymmetric delay when
communication use echo synch.
MaxTransmDelay 0 - 40 ms 1 20 Max allowed transmission delay
Table continues on next page

Communication set-up, 670/650 series 57


Application Guide
Section 4 1MRK 505 382-UEN D
Analog and binary signal transfer for line differential protection

Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description


MaxtDiffLevel 200 - 2000 us 1 600 Maximum time diff for ECHO back-up
DeadbandtDiff 200 - 1000 us 1 300 Deadband for t Diff
LinkForwarded Off - - Off Link forwarded from other LDCM
LDCM305
LDCM306
LDCM312
LDCM313
LDCM322
LDCM323
RedundantCh Off - - Off Redundant channel enabled
On

GUID-9EAC68A3-1186-42B0-860C-119B414F615A v1

ComAlarmDel should be set to ≥ 100 ms in normal service. Route switching in


telecommunication networks takes usually < 50 ms. ComAlrmResDel should be
set to 10 ms. It may be advantageous to set ComAlrmResDel to 5 - 10 ms for
fault tracing.

58 Communication set-up, 670/650 series


Application Guide
1MRK 505 382-UEN D Section 5
Communication set-up

Section 5 Communication set-up

5.1 Communication alternatives GUID-B9F54D92-2D9A-4EA6-A88B-BDA333C0B0C0 v1

Fibre-optics C37.94 communication module


 Possibility for redundant channels
 Fibre-optic module for dedicated single mode fibers
 C37.94 direct to PCM/MUX
 External G.703 converter
 Galvanic X.21 interface
IED
 Two local analogue inputs for line differential protection

 Additional local inputs for complementary protection

CB1

CB2

CB3

No external summation
IEC07000236-2-en.vsdx

IEC07000236 V2 EN-US

Figure 57: Communication alternatives

5.2 Communication channels GUID-411F61DD-AB7D-439C-8124-09D7C3800DCE v1

Each line differential protection IED can be configured with up to four remote communication
channels. Communication configuration is set individually for each channel.

Application examples

Id> Id>

IEC07000146-1-en.vsdx

IEC07000146 V1 EN-US

Figure 58: Two-ended line with 1½ breaker

Communication set-up, 670/650 series 59


Application Guide
Section 5 1MRK 505 382-UEN D
Communication set-up

Id > Id>

Main

Redundant

IEC07000147-1-en.vsdx

IEC07000147 V1 EN-US

Figure 59: Two-ended line with 1½ breaker and redundant channels

Id > Id>

Id > Id> Id>

IEC07000148-1-en.vsdx

IEC07000148 V1 EN-US

Figure 60: Multiterminal line with five line ends (master-master)

60 Communication set-up, 670/650 series


Application Guide
1MRK 505 382-UEN D Section 5
Communication set-up

Id > Id >

Id > Id> Id >

IEC07000183-1-en.vsdx

IEC07000183 V1 EN-US

Figure 61: Multiterminal line with five line ends (master-slave)

5.3 Fibre-optic communication interfaces with C37.94


protocol GUID-93D69EE3-2ECA-4229-83D9-23182B4517AC v1

GUID-5A4E9F96-C38E-486D-A77B-F292FD31B1F9 v1
The line differential protection IED can be configured with fibre-optic interfaces according to
C37.94 protocol.

Three different types of LDCM modules are available:

• Short range (SR): multi-mode fibre-optic 50/125 μm or 62.5/125 μm with 2-3 km to


telecommunication equipment (820 nm). Can also be used for back-to-back applications.
• Medium-range (MR): single-mode fibre-optic 9/125 μm for back-to-back applications with
< 80 km distances (1310 nm).
• .Long range (LR): single-mode fibre-optic 9/125 μm for back-to-back applications with <
110 km distances (1550 nm)

1
ST
IO-connector

2
ST

IEC07000087-3-en.vsdx
IEC07000087 V3 EN-US

Figure 62: SR-LDCM layout with two PCI connectors and one I/O ST type connector

Communication set-up, 670/650 series 61


Application Guide
Section 5 1MRK 505 382-UEN D
Communication set-up

C
IEC06000393-3-en.vsdx

IEC06000393 V3 EN-US

Figure 63: MR-LDCM and LR-LDCM layout with two PCI connectors and one I/O FC/PC
type connector
M12756-1 v11

Table 19: Line data communication module


Characteristic Range or value
Type of LDCM Short range (SR) Medium range (MR) Long range (LR)
Type of fiber Multi-mode fiber Single-mode fiber Single-mode fiber
glass 62.5/125 µm glass 9/125 µm glass 9/125 µm

Multi-mode fiber
glass 50/125 µm
Peak Emission Wave length
Nominal 820 nm 1310 nm 1550 nm
Maximum 865 nm 1330 nm 1580 nm
Minimum 792 nm 1290 nm 1520 nm
Optical budget 18.8 dB (typical 26.8 dB (typical 28.7 dB (typical
Multi-mode fiber glass 62.5/125 mm distance about 3 distance 80 km/50 distance 120 km/68
km/2 mile *) mile *) mile *)
Multi-mode fiber glass 50/125 mm 11.5 dB (typical
distance about 2
km/1 mile *)
Optical connector Type ST Type FC/PC Type FC/PC
Protocol C37.94 C37.94 C37.94
implementation **) implementation **)
Data transmission Synchronous Synchronous Synchronous
Transmission rate / Data rate 2 Mbit/s / 64 2 Mbit/s / 64 2 Mbit/s / 64
kbit/s kbit/s kbit/s
Clock source Internal or derived Internal or derived Internal or derived
from received from received from received
signal signal signal
*) depending on optical budget calculation
**) C37.94 originally defined just for multi-mode; using same header, configuration and data format as C37.94

62 Communication set-up, 670/650 series


Application Guide
1MRK 505 382-UEN D Section 5
Communication set-up

GUID-E246395C-EA13-4A85-9568-E78FFF92FCCA v2

Table 20: Optical budgets with C37.94 protocol


Type of LDCM Short range (SR) Short range (SR) Medium range (MR) Long range (LR)
Type of fibre Multi-mode fiber Multi-mode fiber Single-mode fiber Single-mode fiber
glass 50/125 μm glass 62.5/125 μm glass 9/125 μm glass 9/125 μm
Modem type 1MRK0002122-AB 1MRK0002122-AB 1MRK002311-AA 1MRK002311-BA
Contact type ST ST FC/PC FC/PC
Minimum output –21 dBm –13.7 dBm –3.2 dBm –1.3 dBm
power1)
Minimum receiver –32.5 dBm –32.5 dBm –30 dBm –30 dBm
sensitivity
Optical link 11.5 dB 18.8 dB 26.8 dB 28.7 dB
budget2)

1) Minimum output power is measured with 1 m of the selected fiber and the high power mode.
2) The optical budget includes a satisfactory margin for aging in transmitter and receiver during 20–30 years.

GUID-B028E97A-88BE-4AFB-B06E-D05FACA14A8C v2

Table 21: Example of input data for calculating the optical budget (maximum distance)
Type of LDCM Short range (SR) Short range (SR) Medium range (MR) Long range (LR)
Type of fibre Multi-mode fiber Multi-mode fiber Single-mode fiber Single-mode fiber
glass 50/125 μm glass 62.5/125 μm glass 9/125 μm glass 9/125 μm
Modem type 1MRK0002122-AB 1MRK0002122-AB 1MRK002311-AA 1MRK002311-BA
Typical attenuation 3 dB/km 3 dB/km 0.32 dB/km 0.21 dB/km
in fibre-optic
cables
Attenuation/ 1.5 dB/ST 1.5 dB/ST 0.3 dB/FC/PC 0.3 dB/FC/PC
Contact
Factory splice 0.5 dB/splice 0.5 dB/splice 0.08 dB/splice 0.08 dB/splice
attenuation 0.3 splices/km 0.1 splices/km 0.1 splices/km 0.1 splices/km
Repair splices 0.25 dB/splice 0.25 dB/splice 0.1 dB/splice 0.1 dB/splice
0.1 splices/km 0.1 splices/km 0.05 splices/km 0.05 splices/km
Fiber margin for 0.1 dB/km 0.1 dB/km 0.01 dB/km 0.01 dB/km
aging

Table 22: Example of calculating the optical budget (maximum distance)


Type of LDCM Short range (SR) Short range (SR) Medium range (MR) Long range (LR)
Type of fibre Multi-mode fiber Multi-mode fiber Single-mode fiber Single-mode fiber
glass 50/125 μm glass 62.5/125 μm glass 9/125 μm glass 9/125 μm
Modem type 1MRK0002122-AB 1MRK0002122-AB 1MRK002311-AA 1MRK002311-BA
Maximum distance 2 km 3 km 80 km 120 km
Attenuation in 6 dB 9 dB 25.6 dB 25.2 dB
fibre-optic cables
2 contacts 2 dB 3 dB 0.6 dB 0.6 dB
Factory splice 0.3 dB 0.45 dB 0.64 dB 0.96 dB
attenuation
Repair splices 0.1 dB 0.3 dB 0.8 dB 1.2 dB
Fiber margin for 0.2 dB 0.3 dB 0.8 dB 1.2 dB
aging
Table continues on next page

Communication set-up, 670/650 series 63


Application Guide
Section 5 1MRK 505 382-UEN D
Communication set-up

Type of LDCM Short range (SR) Short range (SR) Medium range (MR) Long range (LR)
Total attenuation 8.6 dB 12.05 dB 26.04 dB 28.56 dB
Optical link budget 9 dB 13 dB 26.8 dB 28.7 dB
Link margin 0.4 dB 0.95 dB 0.76 dB 0.14 dB

5.4 Galvanic X.21 line data communication (X.21-LDCM) GUID-75B89AAC-1A2D-4774-B357-88F7AB7F392A v1

5.4.1 Introduction GUID-D02150FC-54F5-4CE4-8D3D-9F8796B6A527 v3

The galvanic X.21 line data communication module is used for connection to
telecommunication equipment, for example leased telephone lines. The module supports 64
kbit/s data communication between IEDs.

Examples of applications:

• Line differential protection


• Binary signal transfer

5.4.2 Design
GUID-0570749A-516C-47D6-A818-83416759BA90 v5
The galvanic X.21 line data communication module uses a ABB specific PC*MIP Type II format.

IEC07000196-2-en.vsdx

IEC07000196 V2 EN-US

Figure 64: Overview of the X.21 LDCM module

64 Communication set-up, 670/650 series


Application Guide
1MRK 505 382-UEN D Section 5
Communication set-up

1 4

1 8

9 15

3 2 IEC07000239-2-en.vsdx

IEC07000239 V2 EN-US

Figure 65: The X.21 LDCM module external connectors

1. Earth selection connector for IO, screw terminals, 2-pole


2. Earth pin
3. Soft earth pin, see figure 66
4. X.21 Micro D-sub 15 pole male connector according to the V11 (X:27) balanced version

I/O

100k 100nF

Soft ground
IEC07000242-2-en.vsdx

IEC07000242 V2 EN-US

Figure 66: Schematic view of soft earth

Earthing

Three different kinds of earthing principles can be set (used for fault tracing):

1. Direct earth - The normal earthing is direct earth, connect terminal 2 directly to the
chassis.
2. No earth - Leave the connector without any connection.
3. Soft earth - Connect soft earth pin (3), see figure 65

X.21 connector

Communication set-up, 670/650 series 65


Application Guide
Section 5 1MRK 505 382-UEN D
Communication set-up

Table 23: Pinout for the X.21 communication connector

Pin number Signal


1 Shield (earth)
2 TXD A
3 Control A
4 RXD A
6 Signal timing A
8 Earth
9 TXD B
10 Control B
11 RXD B
13 Signal timing B
5,7,12,14,15 Not used

5.4.3 Functionality GUID-4512904E-08D1-47EC-B005-E66170CEB130 v2

The data format is HDLC. The speed for the transmission of the messages used is 64 kbit/s.

A maximum of 10 meter of cable is allowed to ensure the quality of the data (deviation from X.
21 standard cable length).

Synchronization

The X.21 LDCM works like a DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) and is normally expecting
synchronization from the DCE (Data Circuit Equipment). The transmission is normally
synchronized to the Signal Element Timing signal when a device is a DTE. When the signal is
high it will read the data at the receiver and when the signal is low it will write data to the
transmitter. This behaviour can be inverted in the control register.

Normally an external multiplexer is used and it should act like the master.

When two X.21 LDCM is directly communicating with each other one must be set as a master
generating the synchronization for the other (the slave). The DTE Signal Element Timing is
created from the internal 64 kHz clock.

The Byte Timing signal is not used in ABB devices.

5.4.4 Technical data


GUID-83EC40D0-ABCF-4292-B3DF-155C3A556B76 v4

Table 24: Galvanic X.21 line data communication module (X.21-LDCM)


Quantity Range or value
Connector, X.21 Micro D-sub, 15-pole male, 1.27 mm (0.050") pitch
Connector, ground selection 2 pole screw terminal
Standard CCITT X21
Communication speed 64 kbit/s
Insulation 1 kV
Maximum cable length 10 m

66 Communication set-up, 670/650 series


Application Guide
1MRK 505 382-UEN D Section 5
Communication set-up

5.4.5 Communication via built-in X.21 galvanic interface GUID-C0B90D43-0B15-4B17-835D-64114CF968E9 v1

LOCAL < 10 m < 10 m REMOTE

IED PCM PCM IED

Built-in X.21
Built-in X.21
galvanic
galvanic
interface
interface

IEC07000259-2-en.vsdx

IEC07000259 V2 EN-US

Figure 67: Communication structure via built-in X.21 galvanic interface

IED Terminal used for binary signal transfer


X.21 Built-in galvanic iterface
PCM Pulse code multiplexer

5.4.5.1 Service settings for the line differential protection IED with X.21 galvanic
interface GUID-66F9DFE3-3D64-4CDB-97D8-19D13F56EA55 v2

X.21 Micro D-sub 15–pole male connector according to V11 (X:27) balanced version is used for X.
21 communication.

5.4.5.2 PDH telecommunication via C37.94 interface to external transceiver


C37.94-X.21 GUID-65BB5DA1-51AC-45CA-A482-FE0EB48CB622 v1

When the distance between IED and PCM equipment is more than 10 meters and an X.21
interface on the PCM needs to be used, it can be accomplished by using an external converter
from C37.94 to X.21.

Communication set-up, 670/650 series 67


Application Guide
Section 5 1MRK 505 382-UEN D
Communication set-up

LOCAL < 10 m < 10 m REMOTE

IED C37.94/X.21 PCM PCM C37.94/X.21 IED


C37.94 converter converter C37.94

Multi-mode Multi-mode
fibre-optic fibre-optic
< 3 km Galvanic Galvanic < 3 km
connection connection
interface interface
G.703 G.703

External clock Internal clock External clock


(slave) (master) (slave)
IEC18000099-1-en.vsdx

IEC18000099 V1 EN-US

Figure 68: PDH Communication structure using PCM with X.21

Contact your local ABB representative for more details about C37.94 to X.21
converters.

5.5 PDH telecommunication via C37.94 interface to


transceiver 21-216

5.5.1 Communication requirements GUID-1BF17CA3-93F5-4661-9695-368FE7F359E2 v1

A PDH telecommunication network set-up can be done via 64 kbit/s C37.94 interface to
transceiver type 21-216.

There is a short delay in alarm time, typically 100 ms, for a communication fail in the relay, and
it is derived from the dependability of the line differential protection function. This requires a
high quality communication system as defined in Appendix Sample specification of
communication requirements. If the telecommunication network is disturbed for more than
100 ms, an alarm will be issued.

68 Communication set-up, 670/650 series


Application Guide
1MRK 505 382-UEN D Section 5
Communication set-up

5.5.2 Communication structure via C37.94 interface to transceiver


21-216 GUID-0072DAE4-B2D8-4866-B820-4E7B3F8B1CDA v1

LOCAL < 10 m < 10 m REMOTE

IED Transceiver PCM PCM Transceiver IED


C37.94 21-216xx 21-216xx C37.94

Multi-mode Multi-mode
fibre-optic fibre-optic
< 3 km Galvanic Galvanic < 3 km
connection connection
interface interface
G.703 G.703

External clock Internal clock External clock


(slave) (master) (slave)
IEC07000260-1-en.vsdx

IEC07000260 V1 EN-US

Figure 69: Communication structure via C37.94 interface to transceiver 21–216

IED Terminal used for binary signal transfer


Transceiver 21–216 Optical-to-electrical interface converter
PCM Pulse code multiplexer

5.5.3 Setting up transceiver 21–216 GUID-0206E4D5-50DA-49E2-80E3-4F89A2540A7B v1

Confirm that the attenuation of the fibre-optic cable, including splices and patch cables, does
not exceed the system budget. Remember to add a safety margin (minimum 3dB).

Make sure that the local fibre-optic transmitter (marked Tx) is connected to the remote unit's
fiber-optic receiver (marked Rx). Local Rx is to be connected to remote Tx.

Communication set-up, 670/650 series 69


Application Guide
Section 5 1MRK 505 382-UEN D
Communication set-up

IEC07000247 V1 EN-US

Figure 70: Fibre-optic ports with ST type connectors

IEC07000248 V1 EN-US

Figure 71: G.703 codirectional port (RJ–45)

RJ–45 pin Name Direction


1 Tx+ (TIP-out) From 21-216 transceiver to multiplexer
2 Tx- (RING-out) From 21-216 transceiver to multiplexer
4 Rx+ (TIP-in) From multiplexer to 21-216 transceiver
5 Rx- (RING-in) From multiplexer to 21-216 transceiver
Metal house Shield Cable shield must be connected

Use a cable with twisted pairs and a high quality shield. Foil shielding alone is not enough. Rx+
and Rx- should form one twisted pair, and Tx+ and Tx- should form another. A Cat5 S/FTP
cable (shielded/foil-twisted pair) used, for example, in ethernet communication is a good

70 Communication set-up, 670/650 series


Application Guide
1MRK 505 382-UEN D Section 5
Communication set-up

cable. The outer shield around the cable consists of a braided mesh. In addition, every twisted
pair has a foil shielding.

If you use an S7FTP patch cable for ethernet, be aware that a cross-connected cable has only
pairs on pin 1-2 and 3-6 cross-connected. The two remaining pairs are not cross-connected.

Clock configuration switch


As of transceiver 21-216 revision 2, a rotary switch is added to the front panel to ease
installation and testing (see Figure 72).

When two transceivers 21-216 are used in a PDH system, they are set as slaves when an
external clock is used.

Clock synchronization configuration


The rotary switch on the front panel has 16 positions (HEX switch). At position 0 the switch’s
arrow, visible through the adjusting hole, points straight down (see Figure 72). In this position,
external clock is selected (default).

IEC07000249-1-en.vsdx

IEC07000249 V1 EN-US

Figure 72: Rotary switch for clock synchronization configuration

Position Function
0 External clock is selected (slave)
1 External clock is selected and inverted (slave)
2 Internal clock is selected (master)
3 Internal clock is selected and inverted (master)
4–7 Reserved for future use
8–15 Reserved for factory testing

Back-to-back testing
When performing back-to-back testing with G.703 ports directly connected, one transceiver
21-216 is set as a master (internal clock).

5.5.4 Power-up and LED statuses with transceiver 21–216 GUID-13DA5C8C-39C3-4643-87BF-31B9428DF496 v1

To power up transceiver 21–216, connect the power cord to the transceiver, and then connect
the other end of the cord to mains. If the link does not work, try to cross-connect the fibre at
one end.

Communication set-up, 670/650 series 71


Application Guide
Section 5 1MRK 505 382-UEN D
Communication set-up

There are 12 LED indicators on the front panel.

IEC07000254-1-en.vsdx

IEC07000254 V1 EN-US

Figure 73: Front panel LEDs

LED name LED function


Power Green LED is lit when power is connected to the unit.
CHANNEL Yellow LEDs represent the channel chosen by jumpers at installation. The channel is
calculated by summing up lit CHANNEL LEDs. For example, if CHANNEL 1 and CHANNEL 2
are lit (1+2 = 3), channel 3 is chosen. This means that data to/from the G.703 co-
directional port is sent and received via C37.94 protocol on the fiber.
RA Remote Alarm. Red LED indicates that the remote unit has detected a fault condition, and
has set the Yellow Alarm bit in the C37.94 protocol.
LA Local Alarm. Red LED indicates that transceiver 21-216 has detected a fault condition in
the C37.94 protocol (LOS = Loss Of Signal). The Yellow Alarm bit is set in the outgoing
C37.94 protocol.
ERR Error. Red LED indicates that transceiver 21-216 has detected an internal error or that a
non-allowed setting of jumpers exists. The ERR led also lits when a non-used channel is
selected or if both codirectional and fiber clocks are selected.
LF Link Fibre. Green LED indicates that transceiver 21-216 is receiving the correct C37.94
frames (no LOS).
LT Link Twisted pair. Green LED indicates that transceiver 21-216 is receiving the G.703 codir
protocol.
RxF Receive data on Fibre. Green LED indicates that transceiver 21-216 is receiving data in
C37.94 format.
RxT Receive data on Twister pair. Green LED indicates that transceiver 21-216 is receiving data
G.703 codir protocol.

5.5.5 Service settings GUID-4945ED6C-5CE7-4C32-8911-0D7057C11B0E v1

5.5.5.1 Service settings for the line differential protection IED GUID-5C96797C-B5CF-4E81-9DDB-02FF91492A90 v1

Line differential protection IEDs used in the communication set-up are set to operate as slaves
(CommSync = Slave).

72 Communication set-up, 670/650 series


Application Guide
1MRK 505 382-UEN D Section 5
Communication set-up

IEC10000062 V1 EN-US

Figure 74: IED set as a slave

5.5.5.2 Service settings for transceiver 21–216 GUID-4B6CB0C7-8F0E-4FE8-BD12-A3E03FE4FF72 v1

IEC07000256 V1 EN-US

Figure 75: Transceiver 21–216

Only one setting is required for transceiver 21–216. It has to be set to external clock. Rotary
switch on the front panel pointing to position 0 indicates that external clock is selected. If
back-to-back testing is to be performed, one transceiver 21-216 has to be set as master by
setting the rotary switch to position 2 (overrides settings of jumpers 8 and 9). Clock
synchronization configuration using the rotary switch can be done on the fly.

5.5.6 Earthing GUID-F03C51FF-418F-4761-BF4C-73833D10804D v1

The recommended earthing method is direct earthing. With earth loop problems, soft earth
method can be beneficial (see Figures 76 and 77).

Communication set-up, 670/650 series 73


Application Guide
Section 5 1MRK 505 382-UEN D
Communication set-up

< 10 m between earth points

Outer shielding connected to


earth at both ends

Internal
Internal Transc. electronics
PCM
electronics 21-216 directly earthed

Direct Protective earth


earth screw (or any
(default) Make sure the boxes are
screw with a good
properly earthed with shortest
For ”soft earth” earth connection)
possible connections to, for
remove jumper P4 example, an earthed frame
R = 100 kohm
C = 100 nF
Transceiver 21-216 and PCM should preferably use
the same auxiliary voltage supply (a 48 V battery)
IEC08000073-1-en.vsdx

IEC08000073 V1 EN-US

Figure 76: Earthing principles

P4

IEC10000207-1-en.vsdx

IEC10000207 V1 EN-US

Figure 77: Earth selector jumper

The strapping area/jumper P4 selects how internal signal earth and chassis earth are
referenced together. With a jumper between P4's terminals, signal earth and chassis earth are
directly connected. Without a jumper between P4's terminals, signal earth and chassis earth
are connected with a 100 kΩ resistor in parallel with a 100nF capacitor.

After jumper selection, reassembling is done in the reverse order to above. Do not forget to
reconnect protective earth cables.

5.5.7 Communication structure for laboratory testing GUID-A1B07E54-B7A3-40E1-85A0-61AA17D03398 v1

During laboratory testing, one transceiver 21-216 has to provide the timing. This is done by
removing the jumper on its S14 EXT CLK. Remember to restore the jumper after testing.

74 Communication set-up, 670/650 series


Application Guide
1MRK 505 382-UEN D Section 5
Communication set-up

IED 21-216 21-216 IED


(local) (local) G.703 (remote) (remote)
cable
< 10 m
TX RX RX TX
RJ RJ
RX TX TX RX

Multi-mode Multi-mode
optical fiber optical fiber

E E
IEC07000155-1-en.vsdx

IEC07000155 V1 EN-US

Figure 78: Communication structure for laboratory testing

5.6 PDH/SDH telecommunication via C37.94 interface to


transceiver 21-219 GUID-42A1D332-A59D-49F9-9821-719F3A993774 v1

5.6.1 Communication requirements GUID-DCDF94BA-73EE-4970-86AB-676F1E53634D v1

PDH/SDH telecommunication network set-up can be done via 64 kbit/s or 2 Mbit/s C37.94
interface to transceiver type 21-219.

Communication quality in PDH telecommunication networks is usually lower than in SDH


telecommunication networks due to less stable master clocks. The bit error rate is typically
BER10-6.

An SDH telecommunication network with an accurate master clock usually enables high quality
communication with very low bit error rate (BER10-9).

Communication system requirements are defined in Appendix Sample specification of


communication requirements.

5.6.2 Communication structure with transceiver 21-219 port


synchronized from SDH master clock GUID-0146A8BA-6425-43DE-8945-D1E18A1B82F3 v1

Setting up an SDH telecommunication network requires that transceiver 21-219 port is


synchronized from the SDH network master clock (see Figure 79). The SDH multiplexer (SDH
MUX) must be configured to fulfil this requirement. The settings are vendor dependent, but
usually SDH MUX is to be set for re-timing, and the format is to be set according to G.704
standard (framed, structured, unstructured, and so on). The transparent format cannot be
used in SDH telecommunication networks because there is no synchronization available in the
transceiver 21–219 SDH port.

Communication set-up, 670/650 series 75


Application Guide
Section 5 1MRK 505 382-UEN D
Communication set-up

LOCAL < 10 m < 10 m REMOTE

IED Transceiver SDH SDH Transceiver IED


21-219 MUX MUX 21-219
Multi-mode Multi-mode
fibre-optic fibre-optic
< 3.5 km Galvanic < 3.5 km
Galvanic
connection connection
interface interface
G.703 E1 G.703 E1
(2Mbit) (2Mbit)
Slaves SDH G.704 (framed etc.) Slaves (external clock)
master
IEC07000156-1-en.vsdx

IEC07000156 V1 EN-US

Figure 79: Communication structure with transceiver 21-219 port synchronized from SDH
master clock

IED Terminal used for binary signal transfer


Transceiver 21–219 Optical-to-electrical interface converter
SDH MUX SDH multiplexer

5.6.3 Communication structure with PDH/SDH port synchronized


from transceiver 21-219 GUID-59042A8F-D4CA-41AA-A4B6-17B6A99E199A v1

Setting up a PDH telecommunication network requires that synchronization is provided from


an external source, for example, from one transceiver 21-219 (see Figure 80). The SDH
multiplexer (SDH MUX) is thus set not to interfere with synchronization. This requirement is
usually fulfilled by setting the SDH MUX to transparent mode.

76 Communication set-up, 670/650 series


Application Guide
1MRK 505 382-UEN D Section 5
Communication set-up

LOCAL < 10 m < 10 m REMOTE

IED Transceiver SDH SDH Transceiver IED


21-219 MUX MUX 21-219
Multi-mode Multi-mode
fibre-optic fibre-optic
< 3.5 km Galvanic < 3.5 km
Galvanic
connection connection
interface interface
G.703 E1 G.703 E1
(2Mbit) (2Mbit)
Slave 21-219 Transparent Slaves (external clock)
master
IEC07000157-1-en.vsdx

IEC07000157 V1 EN-US

Figure 80: Communication structure with PDH/SDH port synchronized from transceiver
21-219

IED Terminal used for binary signal transfer


Transceiver 21–219 Optical-to-electrical interface converter
SDH MUX SDH multiplexer

Both line differential protection IEDs are set as slaves.

Communication set-up, 670/650 series 77


Application Guide
Section 5 1MRK 505 382-UEN D
Communication set-up

5.6.4 Setting up transceiver 21–219 GUID-8020026C-EFF7-48BD-973C-7AC7573F1A22 v1

IEC07000245-1-en.vsdx

IEC07000245 V1 EN-US

Figure 81: Transceiver 21–219 parts

1 Functional earth
2 Power supply IEC 320 connector
3 G.703 port
4 Fibre-optic ports for Channel 0
5 Fibre-optic ports for Channel 1
6 Status LEDs for Channel 1
7 Status LEDs for Channel 0
8 Reset button
9 Clock configuration switch
10 Status LED for G.703 and configuration

Transceiver 21-219 has two channels that can be used for redundant communication (see
Figure 82).

78 Communication set-up, 670/650 series


Application Guide
1MRK 505 382-UEN D Section 5
Communication set-up

Telecommunication network: Telecommunication network:


path 1 path 2

Transceiver 21-219 Transceiver 21-219

Differential:
analogue + 8 binary

Distance:
192 binary

Main1 Main1
IED with IED with
distance reserve distance reserve

IEC07000241-1-en.vsdx

IEC07000241 V1 EN-US

Figure 82: Protection system with redundant communication channels

Configuration in normal use


No configuration is needed in normal use. When two transceivers are connected back-to-back
(E1 ports connected to each other), one of the transceiver should be set to act as master.

Clock configuration switch


A rotary switch is included in the front panel to ease installation and testing (see Figure 83)

Clock synchronization configuration


The rotary switch on the front panel has 16 positions (HEX switch). At position 0 the switch’s
arrow, visible through the adjusting hole, points straight down.

IEC07000249-1-en.vsdx

IEC07000249 V1 EN-US

Figure 83: Rotary switch for clock synchronization configuration

Communication set-up, 670/650 series 79


Application Guide
Section 5 1MRK 505 382-UEN D
Communication set-up

Every switch position for clock selection is represented by the four LEDs (1, 2, 4 and 8) on the
front panel as shown in Table 25 (X indicates a lit LED). The LEDs form a corresponding binary-
value for each switch position.

Table 25: LEDs indicating clock synchronization configuration by the rotary switch
LED 1 LED 2 LED 3 LED 4 Function
(0H) External clock selected (slave mode)
X (1H) Internal clock selected (master mode)

5.6.5 Power-up and LED statuses with transceiver 21–219 GUID-52777300-7C19-47E4-BF9B-ED974E050D47 v1

To power up transceiver 21–219, connect the power cord to the transceiver, and then connect
the other end of the cord to mains.

IEC07000246-1-en.vsdx

IEC07000246 V1 EN-US

Figure 84: Channel LED indicators

1 Status LEDs for Channel 0


2 Status LEDs for Channel 1

LED name LED function


LA Local Alarm. Red LED indicates that transceiver 21-219 has detected a fault condition in
the C37.94 protocol (LOS = Loss Of Signal). The Yellow Alarm bit is set in the outgoing
C37.94 protocol.

The red LED is lit when transceiver 21-219 has detected an error. The indication has a
memory function. When the local error is no longer present, the LED blinks until the Reset
button is pressed.
RA Remote Alarm. Red LED indicates that the remote unit has detected a fault condition, and
has set the Yellow Alarm bit in the C37.94 protocol.

The red LED is lit when the fibre-optic link has detected an error. The indication has a
memory function. When the remote error is no longer present, the LED blinks until the
Reset button is pressed.
ST Status. The red LED is lit when transceiver 21–219 has set outgoing data on fibre-to-AIS
condition.

80 Communication set-up, 670/650 series


Application Guide
1MRK 505 382-UEN D Section 5
Communication set-up

LI Link Fibre. Green LED indicates that transceiver 21-219 is receiving the correct C37.94
frames (no LOS).

The LED blinks when the fibre-optic receiver indicates low signal amplitude (received
optical signal power between –35 dBm and –40 dbM). The C37.94 standard specifies that
the receiver should operate error-free (BER <1E-9) when the mean optical power is
between -32 dBM and -11 dBm.
TxD Received data from E1 sent to C37.94. Yellow LED indicates that transceiver 21-219 is
sending data in C37.94 format.
RxD Receive data on fibre. Yellow LED indicates that transceiver 21-219 is receiving data in
C37.94 format.

5.6.6 Service settings GUID-4945ED6C-5CE7-4C32-8911-0D7057C11B0E v1

5.6.6.1 Service settings for the line differential protection IED GUID-5C96797C-B5CF-4E81-9DDB-02FF91492A90 v1

Line differential protection IEDs used in the communication set-up are set to operate as slaves
(CommSync = Slave).

IEC10000062 V1 EN-US

Figure 85: IED set as a slave

5.6.6.2 Service settings for transceiver 21–219 GUID-F8C098BE-407F-4281-951C-BE4AB476C2AA v1

Only one setting is required for transceiver 21–219. It has to be set to internal or external clock
depending on the configuration of the telecommunication network. Clock synchronization
configuration using the rotary switch can be done on the fly.

When transceiver 21-219 port is synchronized from the SDH master clock (transceiver acting as
slave), transceivers at both ends of the line are configured to use an external clock. To achieve
this, the rotary switch on the transceiver's front panel is set to point to position 0 (LEDs 1, 2, 4
and 8 are not lit).

When the PDH/SDH is port synchronized from transceiver 21-219 (transceiver acting as
master), the local end transceiver is configured to use the internal clock. To achieve this, the
rotary switch on the transceiver's front panel is set to point to position 1 (LED 1 is lit and LEDs
2, 4 and 8 are not lit).

Communication set-up, 670/650 series 81


Application Guide
Section 5 1MRK 505 382-UEN D
Communication set-up

5.6.7 Earthing GUID-3321FABA-BC02-4367-BE8F-92C2D37796E5 v1

The interface protection circuitry in transceiver 21-219 requires that the SDH multiplexer (SDH
MUX) interface is either directly or via low resistance connected to the same earth as the
earthing screw on the transceiver's front panel. There is no overturned protection in
transceiver 21-219. If there is potential difference between transceiver 21-219 earth and SDH
MUX earth, current can flow in the outer shield of the connecting cable. This may damage the
cable and degrade the system functionality resulting in bit errors.

The outer shields of the coaxial cables must be earthed to the chassis via the BNC contacts at
both ends as shown in Figure 86.

< 10 m
BNC contacts with the
screen connected directly to
chassis (earth)
Transceiver TX RX SDH
21-219 RX TX MUX

Coaxial cables
Make sure the boxes are
Earthing properly earthed with shortest
screw on possible connections to, for
front example, an earthed frame

Important: power supply


from the same battery
IEC07000158-1-en.vsdx

IEC07000158 V1 EN-US

Figure 86: Earthing principles

5.6.8 Communication structure for laboratory testing GUID-EEB88BED-45BA-4C38-BAEE-0DECCB003314 v1

During back-to-back laboratory testing, one transceiver 21-219 must be set as master. This is
done by turning the rotary switch on the transceiver's front panel to position 1 (EXT CLK) (LED
1 is lit and LEDs 2, 4 and 8 are not lit).

5.7 Communication status and fault tracing

5.7.1 Communication status on the line differential protection IED GUID-36DB09A7-DFD0-4E5A-9475-6FBF9D1BACB2 v1

Communication status can be monitored on the line differential protection IED's local HMI
under Main menu/Test/Function status/Communication/Remote communication. The
information is also useful for fault tracing purposes.

82 Communication set-up, 670/650 series


Application Guide
1MRK 505 382-UEN D Section 5
Communication set-up

Example of transmission delay and asymmetry information on the local


HMI

IED A IED B

0.4 ms transmission delay and 3.5 ms asymmetric delay in test set-up

IEC08000440-1-en.vsdx

IEC08000440 V1 EN-US

Figure 87: Example test set-up with specified transmission and asymmetric delays

Table 26: Asymmetric delay settings in echo mode


Echo mode
Setting in IED A Setting in IED B
AsymDelay –3.1 ms AsymDelay 3.1 ms

Table 27: Transmission and asymmetric delay values in echo mode


Echo mode
Service values in IED A Service values in IED B
TransmDelay 0.4 ms TransmDelay 3.5 ms
AsymDelay –3.1 ms (same as set AsymDelay 3.1 ms (same as set
value) value)

Table 28: Actual transmission and asymmetric delay values in GPS mode
GPS mode
Service values in IED A Service values in IED B
TransmDelay 0.4 ms TransmDelay 3.5 ms
AsymDelay –3.1 ms AsymDelay 3.1 ms

Table 29: Information available on the local HMI (2Mb LDCM)


LHMI info Description
Setting/signal Normal Faulty Specification
(example) (example)
NoOfShInterr 50 - Counter No of short interruptions, 20-50 ms
NoOfMedInterr 10 - Counter No of medium interruptions, 50-200 ms
NoOfLongInterr 5 - Counter Number of long interruptions, > 200 ms
CommStatus OK NoRXD Status Communication status/no of received
messages
COMFAIL 0 1 Status Communication failure, differential
protection blocked. Analog values are
substituted with zero, ref. disturbance
recorder
Table continues on next page

Communication set-up, 670/650 series 83


Application Guide
Section 5 1MRK 505 382-UEN D
Communication set-up

LHMI info Description


Setting/signal Normal Faulty Specification
(example) (example)
COMALM 0 1 Status Communication alarm (COMFAIL>set
delay 100 ms in service, 5-10 ms for
fault tracing)
NoOfTXD 100.00 > 100 Status % No of sent messages
NoOfRXD 100.00 > 751) Status % No of received messages

TransmDelay in 2 ms - Time Round trip delay/2 + set asymmetric


Echo mode 1) delay
Transmission delay 2 ms - Time Actual transmission delay + measured
in GPS mode 1) asymmetric delay (+or -)
AsymDelay 1) 0.5 ms - Setting / GPS Asymmetric delay (Setting in echo
ms mode or measured with GPS timing)
OPTPOWER –14.895 dBm Value Measured received optical power
BLKDIFF 0 1 Status Differential protection blocked by
communication
ADDRERR 0 1 Status Incoming message from a non-valid
address
RxAddress 2 ≠2 Received address from remote end
ConfAddress 2 - Configured remote address
RED_ACT 0/1 - Status Redundant channel 0=inactive 1=active
CRCERROR 0 1 Status CRC error in incoming message
TRDELERR 0 1 Status Transmission delay error, > 40 ms
SYNCERR 0 1 Status Error in echo timing synchronization
REMBLKDF 0 1 Status Error in received message at remote
end
GPSERROR 0 1 Status Error in GPS synchronization at local or
remote end
NOCARR 0 1 Status No carrier is detected in the incoming
message. Group signal - Logical OR for:

• LINK_LOST (no input data stream


at the optical receiver)
• SYNC_LOST (clock
synchronization is lost)
• C37 ERROR (error at the C37.94
fiberoptic receiver: faulty format)

NOMESS 0 1 Status No start and stop flags in the incoming


message
LNGTHERR 0 1 Status Incorrect length for the incoming
message
YBIT 0 1 Status Detected error in an incoming message
at the remote end
LOWLEVEL 0 1 Status Low signal level in the receive link
ADINV1 – ADINV9 0 1 Status Analog channel activated (configured)

1) Approximately 75% RXD is typical if, for example, two master clocks are present in the telecommunication
network.

84 Communication set-up, 670/650 series


Application Guide
1MRK 505 382-UEN D Section 5
Communication set-up

Table 30: Information available on the local HMI (64kb LDCM)


LHMI info Description
Setting/signal Normal Faulty Specification
(example) (example)
NoOfShInterr 50 - Counter No of short interruptions, 20-50 ms
NoOfMedInterr 10 - Counter No of medium interruptions, 50-200 ms
NoOfLongInterr 5 - Counter Number of long interruptions, > 200 ms
CommStatus OK NoRXD Status Communication status/no of received
messages
COMFAIL 0 1 Status Communication failure, differential
protection blocked. Analog values are
substituted with zero, ref. disturbance
recorder
COMALM 0 1 Status Communication alarm (COMFAIL>set
delay 100 ms in service, 5-10 ms for
fault tracing)
NoOfTXD 100.00 > 100 Status % No of sent messages
NoOfRXD 100.00 > 751) Status % No of received messages

TransmDelay in 2 ms - Time Round trip delay/2 + set asymmetric


Echo mode 1) delay
Transmission delay 2 ms - Time Actual transmission delay + measured
in GPS mode 1) asymmetric delay (+or -)
AsymDelay 1) 0.5 ms - Setting / GPS Asymmetric delay (Setting in echo
ms mode or measured with GPS timing)
OPTPOWER –14.895 dBm Value Measured received optical power
BLKDIFF 0 1 Status Differential protection blocked by
communication
ADDRERR 0 1 Status Incoming message from a non-valid
address
RxAddress 2 ≠2 Received address from remote end
ConfAddress 2 - Configured remote address
RED_ACT 0/1 - Status Redundant channel 0=inactive 1=active
CRCERROR 0 1 Status CRC error in incoming message
TRDELERR 0 1 Status Transmission delay error, > 40 ms
SYNCERR 0 1 Status Error in echo timing synchronization
REMBLKDF 0 1 Status Error in received message at remote
end
GPSERROR 0 1 Status Error in GPS synchronization at local or
remote end
NOCARR 0 1 Status No carrier is detected in the incoming
message. Group signal - Logical OR for:

• LINK_LOST (no input data stream


at the optical receiver)
• SYNC_LOST (clock
synchronization is lost)
• C37 ERROR (error at the C37.94
fiberoptic receiver: faulty format)

NOMESS 0 1 Status No start and stop flags in the incoming


message
Table continues on next page

Communication set-up, 670/650 series 85


Application Guide
Section 5 1MRK 505 382-UEN D
Communication set-up

LHMI info Description


Setting/signal Normal Faulty Specification
(example) (example)
LNGTHERR 0 1 Status Incorrect length for the incoming
message
YBIT 0 1 Status Detected error in an incoming message
at the remote end
LOWLEVEL 0 1 Status Low signal level in the receive link

1) Approximately 75% RXD is typical if, for example, two master clocks are present in the telecommunication
network.

5.7.2 Detecting communication faults on transceiver 21-216 GUID-A0B9019C-F470-49AA-AD36-56B1FCCB5E01 v1

Some LED indicators on the transceiver 21–216 front panel can be used for communication
fault tracing as shown in Table 31.

Table 31: LED indicators used for detecting communication faults


LED name Fault indication
RA Remote Alarm. Red LED indicates that the remote unit has detected a fault condition, and
has set the Yellow Alarm bit in the C37.94 protocol.
LA Local Alarm. Red LED indicates that transceiver 21-206 has detected a fault condition in
the C37.94 protocol (LOS = Loss Of Signal). The Yellow Alarm bit is set in the outgoing
C37.94 protocol.

If the line differential protection IED shows a communication fail alarm but RA or LA LED is not
lit on transceiver 21-216, communication interruption stems from the telecommunication
network.

5.7.3 Detecting communication faults on transceiver 21-219 GUID-4652FF2A-E9C1-4EEF-A764-8A9B413E9FC3 v1

Some LED indicators on the transceiver 21–219 front panel can be used for communication
fault tracing as shown in Table

Table 32: LED indicators used for detecting communication faults


LED name Fault indication
LA Local Alarm. Red LED indicates that transceiver 21-219 has detected a fault condition in the
C37.94 protocol (LOS = Loss Of Signal). The Yellow Alarm bit is set in the outgoing C37.94
protocol.

The red LED is lit when transceiver 21-219 has detected an error. The indication has a
memory function. When the local error is no longer present, the LED blinks until the Reset
button is pressed.
RA Remote Alarm. Red LED indicates that the remote unit has detected a fault condition, and
has set the Yellow Alarm bit in the C37.94 protocol.

The red LED is lit when the fibre-optic link has detected an error. The indication has a
memory function. When the remote error is no longer present, the LED blinks until the
Reset button is pressed.

If the line differential protection IED shows a communication fail alarm but LA or RA LED is not
lit on transceiver 21-219, communication interruption stems from the telecommunication
network.

86 Communication set-up, 670/650 series


Application Guide
1MRK 505 382-UEN D Section 5
Communication set-up

5.7.4 Detecting communication faults through loop-back testing GUID-990AA1AD-3BB4-4A80-AECF-A0E64A4AA996 v1

Loop-back tests are an efficient way to trace the origin of communication faults. Loop-back
testing means that loop-backs are created to the local line differential protection IEDs at
different points in the communication network. Testing encompasses both fibre-optic and
galvanic cable loop-backs depending on their actual positions in the communication network
(see Figure 88).

Loop-back testing with X.21 galvanic interface requires special procedures and
equipment. Contact your local ABB representative for more details.

Procedure:

1. Block the trip circuits.


2. Set the local and remote terminals to have the same address (TerminalNo and
RemoteTermNo) on the local HMI under Main menu/Configuration/Communication/
LDCM communication.
3. Select the synchronization method (GPS or echo).

In most cases, the synchronization method used in loop-back testing


should be the same as is used in actual service. However, in some test
cases, for example with only a single terminal, the external clock should be
set as a master even though it is set as a slave in actual service.

4. Perform the loop-back tests at consecutive points of the communication network.


Number of tests to be performed depends on the actual communication network and the
number of channels.

Figure 88 shows an example of a loop-back testing set-up.

Transceiver 21-216 is connected to a 64 kbit/s PDH multiplexer (PDH MUX). Transceiver 21-219
is typically connected directly to a 2 Mbit/s SDH multiplexer (SDH MUX), which reduces the
number of interface points for loop-back testing.

LOCAL REMOTE

IED Trans. PDH SDH SDH PDH Trans. IED


21-216 MUX MUX MUX MUX 21-216
Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Test 5 Test 6 Test 7

Fibre-optic or galvanic loop-back


IEC08000278-1-en.vsdx

IEC08000278 V1 EN-US

Figure 88: An example of loop-back testing set-up


Test 1: connect RX and TX directly to the actual LDCM with a fibre-optic loop. Check that the
communication status is OK on the local HMI.

If there is more than one LDCM in the local line differential protection IED, the
test must be repeated for each channel.

Communication set-up, 670/650 series 87


Application Guide
Section 5 1MRK 505 382-UEN D
Communication set-up

Test 2 to Test n: loop back RX+ to TX+ and RX- to TX-. Loop back, one-by-one, in respective
interface in the communication network. Check that the communication status is OK for each
interface point on the local HMI. If no fault is found, Test 1 and Test 2 should be repeated in
reverse order from the remote end.

When loop-back testing is finished, remember to restore the original terminal


numbers. Having the same terminal number at both ends can cause an
unwanted trip. If the terminal was set to Test mode, check that the local trip is
reset before leaving the Test mode

88 Communication set-up, 670/650 series


Application Guide
1MRK 505 382-UEN D Section 6
Appendix

Section 6 Appendix

6.1 Sample specification of communication requirements GUID-5F3AF242-270C-4FA2-8DA3-7A3532609D7B v1

This chapter provides a sample specification of communication requirements for line


differential protection IEDs in telecommunication networks. The requirements are based on
echo timing.

Bit error rate (BER) according to ITU-T G.821, G.826 and G.828
• < 10-6 according to the standard for data and voice transfer

Bit error rate (BER) with high availability of the line differential
protection IED
• < 10-8 to 10-9 during normal operation
• < 10-6 during disturbed operation

During disturbed operation, the trip security function in the line differential
protection IED can cope with high bit error rates up to 10-5 or even up to 10-4.
Trip security can be configured to be independent from COMFAIL of the line
differential protection communication supervision, or it can be blocked when
COMFAIL is issued after receive error > 100 ms (default).

Synchronization in SDH systems with G.703 E1 or IEEE C37.94


G.703 E1 (2 Mbit/s) is set according to ITU-T G.803, G.810-13.

• One master clock for the actual network


• Actual port synchronized from the SDH system clock at 2048 kbit
• Synchronization: bit synchronized, synchronized mapping
• Maximum clock deviation: < ±50 ppm nominal, < ±100 ppm operational
• Jitter and wander according to ITU-T G.823 and G.825
• Buffer memory: < 250 μs, < 100 μs asymmetric difference
• G.704 frame format: structured, unstructured, and so on
• No CRC check

Synchronization in PDH systems connected to SDH systems


• Independent synchronization, asynchronous mapping
• Actual SDH port set to allow transmission of the master clock from the PDH network (SDH
network in transparent mode)
• Maximum clock deviation: < ±50 ppm nominal, < ±100 ppm operational
• Jitter and wander according to ITU-T G.823 and G.825
• Buffer memory: <1 00 μs
• Format: transparent
• Maximum channel delay
• Loop time: < 40 ms continuous (2 x 20 ms)

Communication set-up, 670/650 series 89


Application Guide
Section 6 1MRK 505 382-UEN D
Appendix

Line differential protection IED with echo synchronization (no GPS clock)
• Both channels to have the same route with maximum asymmetry of 0.2–0.5 ms depending
on the set sensitivity of the line differential protection function
• Fixed asymmetry can be compensated for by setting the AsymDelay on the local HMI or via
PST

Line differential protection IED with GPS synchronization (GPS clock)


• Independent of asymmetry

90 Communication set-up, 670/650 series


Application Guide
91
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