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Classic Arms

Volume XXI Issue 6 Dec 2014/Jan 2015

UK £3.95 Published every two months

&Militaria For the military historian, private

collector and the classic shooter

An unusual Austrian Sword

Irish Constabulary socket bayonets
Two Breech- loading Pistols





01 Cover.indd 1 11/11/2014 16:02
Accepting Exceptional Consignments
Historic Firearms and Early Militaria
Live Salesroom Auction
April 29-30, 2015

Bid Consignment Deadline Cased Pair of Percussion Target

Pistols by Devisme, Paris
In person, by phone, absentee January 30, 2015
Sold for $16,100
or live online at bidsquare.com

Live Online Bidding for All Auctions Contact

Jack Lewis
513.871.1670 x227
6270 Este Ave.

cowans.com Cincinnati, Ohio 45232

p02_caamDecJan15.indd 1 11/11/2014 11:30

s we prepare to welcome in 2015, we hope you
have enjoyed reading Classic Arms over the past
year; to find out we would like to invite you to
take part in our Reader Survey. It will only take
ten minutes of your time and you can have your
say in what content you would like to see in Classic Arms in the
future. By completing the survey you could also be in with a
chance of winning a bundle of books worth £120! Please turn
to page 23 for further details.
Back to the present, and in this issue Guy and Leonard A-R-West
conclude their feature on the Italian Moschetto Cavalleria Modello
1870/87 Vetterli. Duncan Noble looks at an unexpected variant p8
of the Austro-Hungarian Model 1861 cavalry sabre, both features
are accompanied by great imagery. Roy Stevenson features the
Casemate Museum, Artillery, and the Lincoln Gun at Fort Monroe.
In addition we have all our regular features.
May I take this opportunity to remind you of our
subscription offer available in both paper and digital, turn to
pages 24 and 26 for details of the ideal Christmas gift, go on
treat yourself ! TWO BREECH-LOADING PISTOLS 28
Enjoy your read. Richard Garrett describes two examples of early gunmakers’ attempts to
produce a successful breechloader
Jayne Thorpe, Production Editor
1870/87 VETTERLI PART 2 34
By Guy and Leonard A-R-West FHBSA


and the Lincoln Gun at Fort Monroe, Virginia. By Roy Stevenson
Turkish musicians By Chris Flaherty


By Martin Dougherty

Bill Harriman guides you through a range of the latest historical literature

A selection of results of the past months’ auctions and upcoming events


What’s ahead for the arms and militaria enthusiast in the forthcoming months

Bill Harriman a professional member of the Forensic Science Society and
Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, answers your questions

By Bill Harriman


Duncan Noble looks at an unexpected variant of the Austro-Hungarian
Model 1861 cavalry sabre


by Gerald Prenderghast


By Bill Harriman


Graham Priest continues his series on bayonet history and collecting with 34
Irish Constabulary socket bayonets

www.classic-arms-and-militaria.com 3

03 Welcome contents.indd 3 13/11/2014 12:29


ASK THE EXPERT Bill Harriman is a professional
member of the Forensic Science
Society and a Fellow of the
Society of Antiquaries, thus, a
nationally recognized firearm
expert. He uses his professions
as a writer and broadcaster/
specialist on the BBC Antiques
Roadshow to communicate
his passion for weapons and

their use in history to a larger
I have heard that the police to admit them, a refusal to work, Swords of the British audience. He has a personal
can now come into your home allow an officer in, who calls Army. collection of over 150 military
just when they like to look at a reasonable hour and with The descriptive term ‘Percy rifles and their accessories
dating from the 1830s to the
at your gun security. Surely this is an a reasonable explanation, will blade form’ is unknown to First World War.
invasion of personal liberty? not be well regarded by a judge me and as far as I am aware is Bill is a practicing firearms
Name and Address supplied or a Sheriff in the event of an not used in any mainstream forensic examiner and technical
appeal. publication’s glossary. You would adviser to the Association of

A This is not the case The balance lies somewhere have to ask the compiler of the Chief Police Officers.
If you have any questions you
and there is no new between the KGB’s ‘three catalogue what he meant by it.
would like answering please
statutory power for o’clock knock’ and the ‘Get orf My glass fibre abrasive pencil email caam@warnersgroup.
the police to come into your my land, copper’ responses. In came from EBay, along with co.uk, or write to the address
home. The police always have law what is reasonable must one loaded with fine brass on page 54.
been able to come in if they be reasonable in all of the bristles and another with steel
have a magistrate’s warrant, circumstances, i.e. it must be wire. They are very handy for
or under the common law to tailored to a personal situation cleaning in nooks and crevices. of this late pattern should have a Tower
intervene in a crime which is and not generalised. lock. I believe the crown over the date

happening or to prevent one mark suggests manufacture well on the

from occurring. My Brown Bess musket is the way to the 1840’s.
What has actually happened is I have recently received an finest that I could (nearly) ‘It just should not happen’ seems to
that the Home Office Firearms Arms Catalogue which afford and as a ‘return from sum it up, that and ‘It is unique.’
Guide has been altered to describes swords like ‘dumb- Indian’ is in quite reasonable condition. Suggestions that it has been repaired
recommend specially targeted bell’ blades, and another with a ‘Percy It functions on clays very satisfactorily with an old lock-plate are not correct
unannounced visits where blade form’. Are these additions to a and the locktime is much quicker than since nothing else will fit.
there is specific intelligence growing list of terminology or are they some repros that I have used. I should add that there are no signs of
which causes concern. This well-known terms? As good collectors should, I began to re-engraving on the lockplate.
will normally involve people Secondly, in the last issue; your answer research my gun and revealed a mystery. Have you any suggestions to explain
who have had a warning and to a question mentions an ‘Ultra sonic There is no doubt that the Bess is a this oddity?
who have not heeded it. cleaner’ and a ‘glass fibre abrasive Baker Pattern 1819 EIC weapon, made With many thanks for your help.
This initiative relies on co- pencil’. I would be interested to know and proofed in London with the barrel Keith Wilford
operation from both parties. where I could obtain these. As far as by Holden. But the lockplate is Tower (HBSA member)
The police should call at a the pencil is concerned, Rymans were GR. I consulted with Leeds ‘pattern
reasonable hour and give a
proper explanation as to why
they would like to come in.
unfamiliar with it.
M.J. Howlett
room’ without success, then with the
ever-helpful David Harding. Neither
could understand how or why a Bess A I cannot
properly for

anomaly and if the


There should be no routine

programme of unannounced
visits and glib explanations
like ‘It’s just routine, sir’ will
not do. The officer should give
A The term

bell section’ blade is
to the blades of the Pattern
1892, 1895 and 1897 infantry
a proper explanation. There officers’ swords. As these
may be perfectly reasonable swords were designed for
explanations why the police thrusting, the majority of their
are denied access, e.g. during blades are blunt with only
a mealtime, the lateness of the the last 17 inches or so being
hour or if someone is ill in bed. spear-pointed. The term is used
Whilst there is no compulsion by Brian Robson in his seminal

4 www.classic-arms-and-militaria.com

4 Expert.indd 4 11/11/2014 16:23

learned David Harding can’t
either, I doubt that anyone can.
The lock has a ring-necked
cock, raised ‘water proof’ pan
The Ordnance had a habit of
not wasting anything and it may
be as final tranches of Brown
Bess muskets were being set
Q I have just recently purchased
a beautiful old black-powder
hammer 12 bore double with
34” Damascus barrels in English rose
to 15 bore at the muzzle hence
the ‘15 M’ (.677) mark. The
constriction is therefore 33
thousands of an inch or about
and crowned Royal cipher GR. up, its storerooms were scoured pattern by W.B. Barrett of Burton-on- three-quarter choke. Given that
By applying basic logic we and usable components already Trent. the gun has 34-inch barrels it
know that it dates from c.1809 on hand were used. I would be obliged if you could give is most likely either a wild-
to no later than 1830, as the In over 40 years of collecting me any information on the weapon. fowling or live pigeon gun.
monarch was William IV after I have learnt that there are John Jones, Eaton Bray, Barratt would not have
that. military arms that do not Beds actually made the gun but
On that basis, I can see no precisely conform to the would have sourced it from
reason why the lock should
not be contemporary with
the barrel and that it was
a finished item already in
store that was simply issued
pattern and probably represent
parsimony on the part of the
clerks who ordered them to be
built, especially so as old stores
of parts are used up.
A William Butler Barratt
was at 48 High Street,
Burton-on-Trent from
1849 to 1854. From 1857 to
1870 the business styled itself
the Birmingham trade.
The fact that this gun was
made well after Barratt was
assumed to have closed down
shows that published histories
to a ‘setter up’ along with a Most original Brown Bess ‘and Son’. As your gun has the of gunmakers’ dates have their
finished barrel, stock blank locks that I have tried produce ‘Not for Ball’ marking, it can limitations. Most are compiled
furniture and small work. a shower of sizzling sparks be dated from 1875 to 1887, from trade directories which
Anyone who had contracted if fitted with a good flint. when this type of marking only show that tradesmen
to set up muskets would not We should bear in mind that was no longer used. This set existed if they paid for an
be bothered if the components these are built from properly of proof marks was an early entry in them. Rate books
supplied to him were not hardened forgings rather delineator of choke boring. are a more accurate source
exactly contemporary. His from lost wax castings whose The ‘13 B’ means that the gun but you normally need to go
focus would be on building hardening may not be all it was 13 bore (.710”) in the to the local archive to access
muskets. ought to be. barrel which was constricted them.

MagazinRoyal_PLAF08 10/1/08 14:40 Page 1

Antique Arms &Armour

Military Antiques Magazin Royal s. c. r .l.
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4 Expert.indd 5 11/11/2014 16:23

p06_caamDecJan15.indd 1 11/11/2014 11:34
Bill Harriman’s

ontinuing our theme
of clips and chargers,
I thought it was
appropriate to look
at the clips designed
by Ferdinand Mannlicher which
were used in service rifles of the
Austro-Hungarian Army. To go
back to basics, a clip is distinct
from a charger in that, although
it holds a number of cartridges,
it has to be loaded into the
magazine with them. They are Mannlicher joined the Austrian the ‘short-stroke piston’ became slot in the bottom when the last
also necessary to the functioning Arms Factory company at Steyr the inspiration for the M1 cartridge is chambered. There
of the magazine. The firearm can in Upper Austria which, under Carbine. is no floor plate; rather a thin
only be used as a single loader the name of Steyr Mannlicher, The first Mannlicher clip of ‘finger’ pushes the cartridges
without them. Mannlicher clips soon became one of the largest 1884-85 encased 5 11mm Werdl upwards. One of the system’s
form an important ‘family’ in weapon manufacturers in Europe. cartridges and was a truncated major disadvantages is that the
firearms technology and also In 1887 Mannlicher was awarded wedge shape with a hollow slot allows the ingress of dirt into
make for an interesting thematic the 3rd class of the Order of the centre. The distinctive ‘slant’- the mechanism. The Germans
collection of ammunition Iron Crown (Austria); he also shaped clip was not available until produced pressed steel covers for
accessories. received the Prussian Order of the 1885; this was to accommodate their Model 1888 and 1891 rifles
Ferdinand von Mannlicher Crown and the officier medal of the the rims and slightly tapered and carbines. These covered the
was born in the German city of French Legion of Honour. On 14 bodies of the cartridges. Only the slot and had a spring-loaded stud
Mainz, where his father served as December 1892 Emperor Franz bases were supported; there was which pushed the empty clip out
an official in the Austrian garrison Joseph of Austria vested him with no need to support the necks, of the top. The major advantage is
at the Confederation Fortress. the title of Ritter von (loosely and bullets in the clip held them the speed of loading, especially
He returned to the Josefstadt translated ‘knight of’) due to his sufficiently tightly.The clip used in with cold fingers.
district of Vienna with his parents ennoblement. In 1899 he was the Model1990 and subsequent The material from which
in 1857, and after receiving given a lifelong appointment Model 1895 was no more than the clips are made is always
his Matura high-school exam to the Austrian Upper House a scaled-down version which very thin spring steel. Finishes
attended the Vienna University (Österreichisches Herrenhaus) of the accommodated 8mm cartridges. vary. Some clips, like the French
of Technology. He started his Imperial Council parliament. The Model 1895 system served and Italian, are blued. Some
professional career in 1869 as Mannlicher’s successful designs Austria-Hungary throughout are nickel-plated or galvanised.
an employee of the Austrian during his lifetime were his bolt- World War I. It survived into Some are left bright with a thin
Southern Railway company and action rifles, both military and World War II in the form of the coat of lacquer. Generally they
worked as an engineer at the sporting, in both turn bolt and Gewehr Model 31M. have manufacturers’ marks in the
Emperor Ferdinand Northern straight-pull actions. Mannlicher Many countries used the form of letters on them; those
Railway company until 1887. also developed several innovative Mannlicher magazine system: produced in Nazi Germany have
Mannlicher had early turned his semi-automatic handgun designs Germany – Commission Rifle a tiny eagle on the back.
interest to weapons technology, in the last decade of the 19th M1888 Some ammunition pouches
particularly breech-loading century. A measure of how Italy – Mannlicher Carcano 1891 are also slanted to allow a snug
repeating rifles. His ambitions far ahead of his time he was Romania – Mannlicher Model fit. The clips were designed to
were fuelled by the Austrian defeat can be seen by looking at his 1893 be disposable but experienced
in the 1866 Battle of Königgrätz, experimental designs of semi- The Netherlands – Mannlicher soldiers doubtless carried a few
which he traced back to the automatic rifles, developed at Model 1895 for use if loose cartridges were
inadequate equipment of the a time when ammunition was France - Mannlicher-Berthier available. Given that the rifle
Imperial and Royal Army. In 1876 not suitable to function properly rifles and carbines would not function as a repeater
he travelled to the Centennial in such a weapon. Mannlicher Ulster – Model 1914 (UVF without them, this seems certain
Exposition in Philadelphia to began development in 1883 paramilitary use).(Essentially a to have been the case. Sporting
study numerous construction of an automatic rifle firing the Romanian Model 1895) versions, especially those made
designs, and afterwards drafted 11mm Austrian Werndl, a black Austria-Hungary – Mannlicher by Eley, are known.
several types of repeating rifles powder cartridge. He was one Models 1886, 1888 and 1895 The Mannlicher clip is a very
with tubular magazines. In 1885- of the greatest firearm designers. Mannlicher clips vary greatly important ammunition accessory
86 he patented the Mannlicher The Mannlicher 1885 became in form but are all essentially and any serious collection of
System which forms the core of the inspiration for the M1 Garand the same in principle. They line military rifles or carbines will
this article. and the Mannlicher 1900 with the magazine and fall out of a feature examples of it.

www.classic-arms-and-militaria.com 7

7 Cartridge Box.indd 7 11/11/2014 16:28

An unusual
Duncan Noble looks at an unexpected variant
of the Austro-Hungarian Model 1861 cavalry sabre

t is arguable that One attraction of Austria-Hungary LEFT: The sword same sword. They all had half bowl
one of the great for weapons collectors is that in in its scabbard. guards and heavy curved blades and
tragedies of the it everybody who was anybody there were only minor differences
RIGHT: Front
war that broke had a sword for his dress uniform, view of the hilt of
between each successive model. The
out in 1914 even university professors and the sabre. stirrup hilt of the light cavalry had
was that it resulted in merchant navy officers of the paddle gone.The M. 1861 sword replaced the
the dismemberment of steamers of the Danube Shipping M. 1858 which had been generally
that great compromise, Company which carried passengers criticised by different cavalry
the Austro-Hungarian up and down that mighty river. regiments because the scabbard was
Empire. For that The Heeresgeschtliches Museum too flimsy, the blade too brittle and
bureaucratic, bumbling, in Vienna has a splendid collection for the grip being too thick. The M.
but not beastly of Austro-Hungarian swords and 1858 had itself been a replacement
organisation held daggers yet even it does not include of the M. 1850 which had been
together peoples who every variant. For in Austria-Hungary unfavourably criticised by the ulans
had little love for each an officer could, depending on because the guard worked loose on
other till they fell under the depth of his pocket, order a the blade. Both the M. 1850 and the
the rule of the much variant of the sword that went with M. 1858 were conventional sabres
less amiable Nazis and his position. For collectors it can with half bowl hilts and slightly
then the Russians. In sometimes seem as if the variants
1867 the Austrian outnumbered the standard models.
Empire was patched Also, the cavalry changed its sabre
up, under Hungarian approximately every ten years,
pressure, to become compared with the 30 years of other
the Austro-Hungarian. countries’ armies.
The backbone of A slightly rare variant of the
the Empire was the Austrian troopers’ model of the
army, all three of Modell 1861 cavalry sabre has just
them. There was the come to me by way of the online
Common Army that dealer Antique-Swords, who have
contained members a splendid website. Most Austrian
of all the peoples of officers’ cavalry sabres have guards
the Empire, then the with openwork designs of foliage on
armies of distinctive them while the troopers’ ones have
parts of the Empire, the heavy plain bowl guards pierced with
Austrian Landwehr, and small round holes to allow collected
the Hungarian Honvéd. rainwater to drain out of them.
Enrolment was by Both the officers’ and the troopers’
conscription, while the versions of the M. 1861 are unique
officers and senior NCOs in having highly decorative cut-outs
were regulars. After 40 of triangles and circles on the guards
weary, prestigious, but while the officers’ weapon differs
impoverished years of only in being of finer quality and in
training recruits and having engraved lines round the cut-
garrisoning remote parts outs.
of the Empire they could The cavalry was divided into
look forward to one Dragoons, Ulans (lancers) and
of the jobs in the Post Hussars. The Cuirassiers were
Office and the railways abolished in 1867 after the disastrous
that were reserved for Austro-Hungarian defeat in the 1866
ex-servicemen and for ‘Seven Weeks’ War with Prussia.
the officers, a patent of By 1845 all cavalry regiments
nobility. carried the current model of the

8 www.classic-arms-and-militaria.com

08 Duncan Noble.indd 8 11/11/2014 16:04

thinner blade would give a better cut. model, variants of officers’ swords
The top of
The M. 1861 has two slots for the are numerous, often carried by the scabbard,
sword knot on the rear of the guard wealthy senior officers. Troopers’ showing the
instead of one on the top. The first swords, which were supplied by typical Austrian
lug from which
Austro-Hungarian sword to have this the government, do not normally
the sword hung
distinctive feature was the M. 1858, display variant features. This one of vertically by
which had at first one slot. When mine does. the wearer’s
this proved unsuitable a second slot The dimensions of my sword are side. With this
scabbard there
was added. Hybrids will be found close to the standard ones, which
is no lower fixed
that combine the hilt of the M. 1861 I have taken from M. Christian ring which in
sword with the blade of the M. 1858. Ortner’s splendid book, With Drawn this case would
The guard with geometrical cut- Sword. not have served
any useful
curved fullered outs that is featured on M. 1861 The blade is 83cms (33 inches)
purpose in
blades. In spite cavalry sabres does not appear on long as against 79.2cms for the keeping the sabre
of the industry the standard version of later swords, standard sword. The blade is 37mm hanging at an
of the Empire’s although it can be seen on at least one wide and 8mm thick as against angle.
possessing variant of an otherwise conventional 36mm wide for the standard
technical ability later cavalry officers’ sword. sword. It weighs 1kg 30g (3lbs barrel of the
and experience The scabbards of Austrian cavalry 10ozs) without its scabbard and leather sword
in sword-making sabres before the M. 1861 were (1kg 739.3g (3lbs 13ozs) with its knot. This is
not a regulation
and proposed suspended from the hanging straps scabbard, against the 1kg 645g of
Austrian one.
swords being of sword belts by two loose rings. the standard sword with its scabbard.
subjected to This changed with the M.1861. The These dimensions approach closely BELOW LEFT:
competent troop upper ring was replaced by a three- the standard ones. The scabbard of The unusual
trials, the Austrian sided loop soldered on to the back my sword does not have a lower fixed
eagle and the
and Hungarian side of the top of the scabbard. This ring, only the upper loop. However, word OHLIGS
cavalry generals meant that the sword now hung this would probably not hinder stamped on the
do not appear to vertically from the belt and this its being carried in a conventional ricasso of the
have had much typically Austrian feature, which is manner. Many swords have only an
luck in designing sabres that would also found on the scabbard of the upper ring. The scabbard is heavily RIGHT: Close-
stand up to the stresses of use. In its Austro-Hungarian. M. 1861 infantry covered in black lacquer. German up view of
turn the M. 1858 was replaced by officers’ sword, continued with later swords had the scabbards blackened the grip. This
is made of
the M. 1861. Austro-Hungarian swords. No other by order in 1910 to stop them
varnished black
The Model 1861 was a weapon country seems to have adopted shining and giving away the wearer’s wood. That
with many innovatory features that this method of sword suspension position, but there is no record would have
were continued in later Austro- although I have a British special order of Austrian scabbards ever being been cheaper
to manufacture
Hungarian cavalry sabres. The sword, the scabbard of which has it. blackened officially or privately.
than the usual
79.2cms (31 ¼ins) blade was The lower loose ring was replaced by The standard grip of the M. 1861 grip that had fish
fullered only on the left side. The a solid ring to prevent the jingling troopers’ sword is of ribbed wood skin wrapped
right side was flat. This feature giving away the rider’s approach. covered in fish skin. The grip of mine over cord that
was wound
was continued on the 1869 model My sword is definitely a troopers’ is made of what looks like black
spirally round
that succeeded the M. 1861. The Model 1861 Austrian sword, but wood that has been varnished. Some the wooden core
reason for the adoption of this it has variant features. As Austrian swords made in Germany, like this of the grip to
unusual blade, which was otherwise and Hungarian officers purchased one, have horn grips, but the slight make grooves
that would have
conventional, is not known, nor are their own swords and authority was remains of worn varnish suggest that
given the user’s
whatever advantages it might have indulgent in allowing swords that this one is of wood. fingers a more
had. Perhaps it was thought that the did not conform to the standard The grip follows comfortable hold
on the weapon.
That feature
was found only
on the grips of
British officers’

www.classic-arms-and-militaria.com 9

08 Duncan Noble.indd 9 11/11/2014 16:04

the outline of a conventional LEFT: The sword On German as distinct from the mid-16th century to 1814.
with its scabbard
ribbed grip without the ribs. beside it. The Austrian swords they stand for On the ricasso just above the word
It is closely and securely scabbard is coated Guard Fusilier, but that can hardly OHLIGS is a rather finely stamped
fitted to the pommel, the with a shiny black be relevant for Austrian swords. double-headed eagle. It differs
back piece and the ‘ears’ lacquer. German Ortner notes these letters but passes slightly from the conventional
sword scabbards
that fasten it to the tang. were ordered to them by without comment. In the later Hapsburg one of 1850
There is none of the be blackened to centre of the ricasso of my sword and afterwards in that its wings
makeshift fitting that you reduce shine in is the word OHLIGS. There was point upwards instead of being
would expect from a 1910 a firm of swordsmiths in Vienna folded over downwards. It is not
and British ones
repair or installation of a were often painted called Ohligs Haussemann. Ohligs an Ohlig family trademark but
replacement grip. khaki unofficially itself is a town in North Rhine it is not like a late 19th-century
The markings on the in the Anglo-Boer Westphalia near the Austrian government stamp and its
ricasso of the blade of War. But I have famous sword- significance is unknown.
never seen an
my sword are Austrian. Austrian scabbard making town The question remains: what is
They include a round blackened before. of Solingen. this sword of mine? Has it been
stamp with a double- Ohlig is also repaired? Is it a privately purchased
headed eagle on it, RIGHT: Side the name of variant? Or is there another
view of
closely resembling the the hilt of a large family answer? I do not think it is a repair.
conventional Austrian the sabre. of sword- The scabbard rules that out. I do
government stamp. Except for makers in not think it is a variant privately
Also on the ricasso are the grip it Solingen who purchased by some senior NCO.
is the same
the stamped capital as that of the manufactured That is too unlikely. That leaves one
letters GF. These are regulation M. swords from other possibility which I think is
found on an Austrian 1861 cavalry the right one. It is an experimental
1858 sabre illustrated troopers’ sabre trial weapon made by a swordsmith
by Ortner. They do or at the order of a retailer who
not appear in any of hoped to obtain a valuable contract
the published lists of to make this cheaper variant of
Au s t r o - H u n g a r i a n the standard Modell 1861 sabre a
markings on weapons. commercial proposition.

10 www.classic-arms-and-militaria.com

08 Duncan Noble.indd 10 11/11/2014 16:05

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p11_caamDecJan15.indd 1 11/11/2014 11:35


Steam powered machine guns... courtesy of

PERKINS & WINAN by Gerald Prenderghast

Agar’s gun in use

during the Civil long, was welded to the front of
War. this firing chamber, with a direct,
From an original
open connection between the two
components. The firing chamber bore
a hopper into which the ammunition
was placed and a handle appears to
have been used by the operator to open
the bottom of the hopper periodically
and thus fire the weapon. Aiming was
by the adjustment of a swivel joint
fitted between the firing chamber and
the throttle valve, which allowed the
barrel to be orientated in almost any
direction. From an examination of
the drawings and original text of the
trials, firing was probably carried out
in the following manner.
Once the steam engine had achieved
an adequate pressure, the lead or iron
musket balls used as ammunition
were placed in the hoppers. The gun

was then presumably aimed using the
epeating firearms employed by him in his American swivel joint and once satisfactorily
had always been the engraving and manufacturing positioned, the throttle valve was
beau ideal of the 19th business. Soon after his arrival in opened to the desired extent and
century’s military England he became interested in the gun was ready to fire. Firing was
establishment and steam as a power source, eventually achieved by simply turning the handle
many and diverse were the multi- developing a single-cylinder engine attached to the ammunition hopper,
shot weapons offered to the British with a working pressure of 800 psi, which allowed a ball to fall into the
Army during the latter half of the which was an exceptional piece of firing chamber, steam pressure then
19th century. This period saw the engineering for that time. Using an expelling it down the barrel. Although
genesis of innovative designs such engine with similar characteristics, this sounds simple, there must have
as the Gatling gun and Agar’s ‘Coffee on 15 May, 1824, he took out English been some very careful design and
Mill’ gun as well as more obscure Patent 4592/1824 for the weapon precise machining involved in the
weapons, which included designs like which came to be known as Perkin’s manufacture of the firing chamber,
the Treeby ‘Chain’ gun and the frankly Steam Gun. in order to prevent the pressure from
bizarre ‘Revolving Cannon’ which saw simply blowing the musket balls out
limited service with the Confederate The Steam gun of the hopper during the loading
forces during the Civil War. Few The construction of the gun was quite cycle, instead of firing them down
of these weapons, however, could unique, although the principal upon the barrel. Presumably the passage of
match an earlier, radically innovative which it worked was relatively simple steam was prevented as the hopper
design demonstrated to the Duke of and similar to that used in a modern moved over the breech to deposit the
Wellington on 6 December, 1825 by air rifle, although in Perkin’s invention individual musket balls, the pressure
an American, Jacob Perkins. steam replaced the compressed air being reapplied when the breech
of the modern gun. A steam engine was effectively closed as the handle
Jacob Perkins producing, for 1824, the enormous continued the loading cycle.
Born in Massachusetts in 1766, and pressure of 900 psi was connected
after a career spent in a variety of via a throttle valve to the rear of a The London trial and military
engineering and metal-working massively constructed, steam-tight reaction
concerns, Perkins came to England firing chamber. The barrel of the Perkins offered his gun to the military
in 1818, accompanied by a group gun, which was of ‘musket’ bore (.75 in 1825 and somehow managed to
of skilled workers who had been calibre) and about 6 ft (~ 2 metres) attract the attention of the Duke of

12 www.classic-arms-and-militaria.com

12 Geoff.indd 12 11/11/2014 16:05

Gatling gun
Wellington, then Master-General of
mounted on a
the Ordnance, who authorised a trial two-wheeled
of the gun at Perkin’s factory near the carriage, for
present-day Regent’s Park canal. These use by units
of the Royal
tests were subsequently reported in
Artillery or the
the Times on 6 December 1825, the Naval Brigade,
reporter apparently finding the gun’s when they were
performance quite impressive. deployed with
the Army. The
First, Perkins fired his device over
weapon was
a range of about 35m against an iron hand-cranked,
target, using lead musket balls, which usually with six
were completely shattered by their barrels revolving
around a central
impact on the target. His next test
involved firing at a target consisting Courtesy of Mark
of eleven 1-inch thick deal boards Smith
arranged in a line, which the musket
balls passed through completely. To
give some idea of the effect this would
have had on human tissue, a firearm
which could propel a ball through
a plank of deal only a ¼-inch thick
had been shown to be sufficiently
powerful to wound an enemy soldier
fatally. As a final test, the gun was
fired against a ¼-inch iron plate,
which had been especially produced
at the Woolwich Arsenal, and the
first shot from Perkin’s weapon also Later model
Gatling gun,
passed completely through this
showing the
target. The gun was then fitted with characteristic
a circular magazine, before being tube magazine.
used to perforate a 3m plank over its This version has
eight barrels.
entire length, showing its effective
Courtesy of
lateral movement and multiple firing Wikipedia
performance, and this test was then
duplicated on a plank which had
been fixed vertically, with similar
results. Perkins was not unaware of
the financial constraints the military
laboured under in peacetime, either,
and he was quick to explain his gun’s
advantages in that connection:‘ one
pound of coal burned for raising
steam will throw as many balls as
four pounds of gun powder’. He also
claimed to be able to construct a gun
‘big enough to fire a one-ton ball
from Dover to Calais’.
Despite an enthusiastic reception
from the old Duke and his companion,
the Duke of Sussex, who left the trial
crying, ‘Damn’d wonderful – damn’d
wonderful’, the military establishment
proved unreceptive, citing a number
of disadvantages. Amongst their Agar ‘Coffee-
objections were the length of time Mill’ gun,
showing the
it would take to get steam up in the
loading hopper
event of an attack (approximately 2 mounted above
hours) and, with the boiler alone the barrel and
weighing five tons, the weight of the the two boxes for
complete gun was so much that it
From an original
would have been extremely difficult to photograph
move across even the most forgiving

www.classic-arms-and-militaria.com 13

12 Geoff.indd 13 11/11/2014 16:05


terrain. Moreover, the experts felt that Treeby chain gun, showing the circular,
the generator and other components percussion-fired magazine.
Courtesy: Forgotten Weapons.com
would be unreliable in the field as a
consequence of developing major industrialist Ross Winan,but
leaks under the high pressure of developed by the two Ohio inventors,
steam. These objections overrode the William Joslin and Charles Dickinson,
gun’s more obvious advantages and did not work on the same principle
the government refused to consider as Perkin’s weapon. Instead of steam
the weapon. Unfortunately, later pressure, the Joslin-Dickinson gun
developments were to confirm these relied upon a steam engine to rotate
shortcomings in the most unequivocal the breech assembly, thus generating
manner. sufficient centrifugal force to expel
Perkins, however, refused to be the two-ounce steel balls which were
discouraged by the British rejection used as ammunition. In operation,
and when the French government this breech and barrel assembly
became interested in the weapon, he was accelerated to a speed of
built another gun to their order, this approximately 200 rpm, whereupon
time designed to fire four-pound the ammunition was dropped into
balls at a rate of between 200 and Treeby chain gun, showing the magazine prior to loading. a hopper mounted on top of the
300 per minute. With construction Courtesy: Forgotten Weapons.com barrel. Subsequent expulsion of the
complete, he arranged another trial ammunition was controlled by a
at Greenwich, in the presence of the spring-loaded catch which opened as
future Bourbon Prime Minister, Jules the barrel reached its firing position.
de Polignac, and a group of French After completing their initial
military engineers. Unfortunately, design, Joslin and Dickinson had
after the Greenwich trial and further a major disagreement some time
tests at Vincennes, near Paris, the in 1859 and subsequently parted
French concluded that: ‘The steam company. Dickinson patented the gun
gun, after what is considered a fair under his own name and managed
trial, does not possess the power of to secure enough financial backing
throwing a ball more than half the Treeby chain gun, to build a gun to a modified design
showing the lever
distance that a common cannon of the which seals the
during 1860. Although his backers
same calibre did.’ barrel against the seconds, against a target approximately were a group of Boston financiers
The difficulty appears to have arisen chamber, after 70 feet from the gun. Scientific and Dickinson had constructed the
because, unlike gunpowder which the hammer has exhibitions at the Adelaide Gallery gun while living there, for some
been cocked and
produces its propulsive pressure the fresh chamber
came to an end around 1840 and the reason he moved the finished weapon
by a rapid, initial expansion of gas, indexed. Steam Gun was moved again, finally to Baltimore, Maryland, where he
pressure in the steam gun was applied Courtesy: Forgotten becoming an exhibit in the Tower appears to have demonstrated it to
to the ball constantly until it left the Weapons.com. Armouries, although when it was put the City Council in February 1861,
muzzle. With the small, relatively on display there is not absolutely clear. presumably in the hope of attracting
tight-fitting ball such as that used in Perkins himself handed over control more financial backing.
a conventional musket, the 900 psi of his manufacturing business to his Unfortunately for Dickinson, the
of the steam gun was sufficient to son in 1835, when he was 69, and Civil War broke out two months later,
produce performance comparable or lived in semi-retirement with his son on 12 April 1861, and a week after
even exceeding that of a conventional and daughter-in-law until he died on that, in the wake of the Baltimore
arm. Unfortunately, the larger, less 30 July 1849. Riot, the gun was seized by the city
carefully made ammunition used in police. This is the point at which
the French tests seems to have allowed revolving cannon.
Winan’s Steam Gun Ross Winan enters the story, the
large quantities of steam to escape past The design was Perkins was not the only inventor to gun being taken to his works by the
the ball and so reduced the pressure similar to a see the advantages of steam, although police, although it was soon moved
to a point which rendered the weapon contemporary the weapon named after Maryland from there and placed in a public
revolving pistol,
largely ineffective. consisting of a
Perkins’ gun ended its days as cylinder with
an exhibit in the Adelaide Gallery five chambers,
of Practical Science, a museum each containing
a load of powder
and exhibition centre designed to and ball, which
demonstrate new inventions of all revolved on an
kinds, although most of the exhibits arbor, positioning
originated from Perkins’ fertile brain. the chamber
correctly to fire the
A central feature of the exhibition ball through the
was, of course, the Steam Gun, which muzzle.
was fired several times each day, From an original
discharging a load of 70 balls in four photograph

14 www.classic-arms-and-militaria.com

12 Geoff.indd 14 11/11/2014 16:05

Patent drawing for Perkins’ Steam Gun, showing the barrel and firing mechanism
at the top. Most of the mechanism consists of the steam engine which generated the ABOVE RIGHT: Dickinson clearly had an eye for
900psi required to fire the weapon. Original Patent drawing The results of the main chance, however, because
firing Perkins’
Diagrammatic view of the mechanism for when the repaired gun was returned
Perkins’ Steam Gun. Original diagram to him, he promptly made plans to
Original diagram from: The London Mechanics from: The London move it to Harper’s Ferry where, it
Register, 1824 Mechanics was claimed, he intended to sell it to
Register, 1824
the Confederacy. Unfortunately, he and
Balls from the his gun were captured before he could
Steam Gun which contact his prospective buyers and
had been fired at the gun was returned to the Federal
an iron plate.
camp at Relay, Baltimore by the Union
display with other weapons seized by possession a powerful, steam-powered photograph from: troops who had captured it.
the city authorities. Winan, however, weapon, which was to be used against The London Although it apparently worked well
had previously obtained a contract Union troop trains passing through Mechanics enough to impress the Baltimore City
Register, 1824
from the Baltimore Board of Police the town on their way to Washington. Council in February 1861, the gun
to produce a variety of munitions His alleged involvement even led to itself never seems to have seen action
for that force and this, together Winan’s detention by Federal forces, and after being used as an exhibition
with his involvement in Secessionist although he was released after only piece for some years after the war,
Winan’s Steam
politics and the presence of the gun two days, and the steam gun was even it was sold for scrap late in the 19th
Gun, showing the
in his workshop, was sufficient to give eventually returned to his machine barrel and shield to century. The design was resurrected
impetus to the story that he had in his shop for repair at the city’s expense. protect the gunners in 2014 for the US television series,
from enemy fire. Mythbusters and, using the original
Courtesy Wikipedia
specifications, the team certainly
managed to produce a steam machine
gun which would fire around 400
rounds per minute, with an impressive
range of approximately 700 metres.
Unfortunately, its function as a weapon
was less than impressive, because
when fired against a pig’s carcase the
steel ball being used as ammunition
failed to penetrate even the outer skin.
It seems doubtful if the 19th-century
weapon was much more effective.

• Baker Perkins Historical Society.
• 2nd Maryland Infantry.

www.classic-arms-and-militaria.com 15

12 Geoff.indd 15 11/11/2014 16:05

1854 dated, 1851 Patt .702 cal Minnie Rifle. 6th Durham L.I. 3 groove Barrel.....£5450.00 COLLECTION OF MILITARY RIFLES AND BAYONETS JUST IN. SEE SITE.
Winchester Model 1894 32-40 Lever Action Rifle in Excellent Original Cond........£1950.00 LEWIS GUN BSA M1914 Fully Ordnance Marked, Drum Mag, Bi-Pod Superb.......£8950.00
Marlin Model 1892 .32 Long Rimfire Lever Action Rifle, good bore and wood......£1495.00 1916 Fluted Jacket Vickers HMG Erith Works with later Vickers Tripod & belt......£4750.00
1856 British Military issue Greens Cavalry .577 Breech Loading Carbine............£3750.00 1918 M1911 Colt 45 ACP with 1918 dated Holster, all original & excellent cond.. £2450.00
1877 Zulu War MK1 Martini 577x450 Cavalry Carbine with Cleaning Rod.............£975.00 1918 Webley MK VI Revolver. Old spec open barrel & cylinders. VGC......................£975.00
1870 Norwegian Kammerlader .59 bore Underhammer Breech Loading Rifle.....£1095.00 1904 SMLE No1 Rifle, volley sights, mag cut off, horn insert, every early feature........ £1450.00
1861 Tower .577 3 band Enfield Rifle. Officer’s Quality, exc bore & wood............£1250.00 Webley & Scott Model 1909 9mm Semi-Auto Pistol, South Africa Marks. VGC.....£1275.00
1850 English 10 bore Perc Single Barrel Shotgun, Brown Damascus Barrel..........£425.00 Rare 1904 SMLE No 1 Rifle, totally Original, Horn Insert, wood, Volley Sights.......£1200.00
1823 Lowdell, Lewes Sussex, .68 bore Percussion Holster Pistol. Rare Maker.......£795.00 WW2 Japanese Type 94 8mm Pistol, un-modified & original. Cocks & dry fires...£1250.00
C1800 Durs Egg London Light Dragoon Flkintlock Holster Pistol. VGC..................£1250.00 Nazi Browning HI-Power M1935 Occupation Model, Correct Markings & No........£1475.00
Colt Constabulary .36 cal Percussion Revolver, matching nos, Percussion...........£1245.00 Old Spec Colt New Service .455 British Service Revolver & Inert Rounds, VGC.......£975.00
1917 Webley MK VI .455 Service Revolver, new spec, original finish. Dry Fires......£695.00
Mauser 1871 / 84 11mm Rifle in near mint condition. Excellent bore & action....£1200.00
LIAI SLR 7.62 Rifle Wood Furniture Moving Slide, Trigger & Mag. Exc. Cond...........£695.00
ZULU War 1876 577 x 450 Short Lever MKII Martini Henry Rifle & Sling..............£1250.00
WW2 1944 British 2 inch Mortar Equipment. Excellent condition & well marked....£745.00
Dean Adams .54 bore large frame Percussion Revolver, Engraved Action............£1650.00
1941 Luger PO8 Pistol, Mauser made, Matching Numbers including Magazine...£1200.00
1871 11mm Chassepot Rifle and Bayonet, both matching in excellent condition...£795.00 Berthier Model 1916 8mm Lebel issued to French Foreign Legion, all original.......£695.00
1858 Remington New Model .44 Army Percussion Revolver. US Civil War..........£1,750.00 Old Spec Uzi Israeli Industries 9mm SMG. Wood Furniture, detachable stock.........£975.00
Model 1849 Colt .31 Pocket, 5 shot, percussion revolver, matching numbers......£1250.00 1916 Steyr Mod 1911 Austro Hungarian Cavalry Officer’s 9mm Pistol, Excellent...£695.00
C 1850 Whitney .31 calibre 5 shot single action pocket revolver, VGC....................£975.00 Colt 1911A1 .45 ACP; Ithaca, Parkerised, Grip Safety, Cocks, Strips, Dry Fires.....£1250.00
Egg London Pair of Percussion overcoat pistols, round steel frames .45” bore.......£745.00 US BAR M1918A2 30-06 by The Royal Typewriter Co, all original.........................£1850.00
C 1860 .32RF brass framed Tranter Revolver, 6 shot, engraved & fully working.....£875.00 MG 34 1940 by Mauser S/243 coded, waffenamp, ammo tin, belt & inert ammo........ £1795.00
8 Bore Percussion Fowling Piece / Punt Gun, Wilson York. Damascus Massive....£2400.00 1943 US M1 Carbine by Underwood (Typewriter Co) moving slide & trigger...........£595.00
1870-80 Smith’s New Model .32 RF 5 shot revolver, Factory Nickel Plated............£445.00 1871 7mm Mauser Cavalry Carbine by Loewe & Co Berlin Orange Free State.......£675.00
Unwin & Rogers .26 bore Percussion Knife Pistol, Ball Mould, Tweezers VGC.......£1250.00 WW2 Nazi Walther PPK 7.65 Pistol, Zella-Mehlis, all matching including mag........£895.00
1860 .65” Fowling Piece by T. Hassall London, 60 inches overall Excellent............£975.00 Mauser Schnellfeur 1932-38 Model 712 selective fire pistol. Not Chinese Contract.......£895.00

Many new
items now
added to the

16 www.classic-arms-and-militaria.com

p16_caamDecJan15.indd 16 11/11/2014 11:39

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Open: 10am - 3pm £8
Trade Entry: 9am £15

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Tricorn Fairs is a trading partnership of Chris Berry, Martin Giles & David Collier
Image courtesy of Thomas Del Mar Ltd.

www.classic-arms-and-militaria.com 17

p17_caamDecJan15.indd 17 13/11/2014 11:28



Irish Constabulary socket bayonets by Graham Priest

Fig.1. Early Irish

British Army. A flintlock carbine was
uniforms from provided for each constable, probably
1822 until the with a socket bayonet (Fig.1).
1860s. (Michael The forces soon found themselves
in the thick of unrest when the
Fig.2. Irish Irish administration, in support of
Constabulary full the Church of Ireland, used them
dress, undress and to enforce the payment of tithes.
mounted full dress
uniforms c.1830s.
This 10% tax on the population was
Note the flintlock largely based on the agricultural
carbine and socket produce of farmers and their
bayonet. (Michael tenants, most of whom were Roman
Catholics. Many poorer contributors
paid in kind. When passive non-
payment began in 1829, encouraged
by many senior Roman Catholic
clergy dependent on donations from
their parishioners, the government
took notice. From 1831 onwards
attempts to collect outstanding debts
in Kilkenny, Tipperary and Wexford
began the ‘Tithe War’ (1831-36).
Together with yeomanry units the
constables often came under attack
from disconsolate locals. Shots were
fired at Newtownbarry, Wexford
on 18 June 1831, killing twelve
Fig. 1 residents and injuring many others

hose of us born in the The Peace Preservation Act of 1814 A major reversal took place
1940s, who enjoyed (54th Geo.III, cap.131) allowed the at Carrickshock, Kilkenny six
the exploits of ‘P.C.49’ Lord Lieutenant to establish a chief months later on 14 December
in The Eagle comic, were magistrate, chief constable and (Curtis:1871:30). Thirty-nine Irish
conditioned to accept 50 constables in any Irish city or Constabulary escorted process server
that unarmed policemen would county with a potential for peace Edmund Butler in his attempt to
uphold law and order in Britain infringements (Curtis:1871:3). The gather payments. After two successful
(Morris:1950-69:991 editions). wet summers of 1816-17, poor cereal days of collecting, often harassed
Even today the sight of assault rifle and potato harvests, together with by the inhabitants, the party was
or pistol armed firearms’ officers the discharge of many Irish soldiers ambushed by some 2,000 people in
at airports, diplomatic venues or from the Napoleonic Wars (1803-
Fig. 2
crime scenes remained something 1815) caused unprecedented famine
of a novelty. In fact swords and and civil unrest. The forces of law
firearms have long been part of the and order were soon overwhelmed.
armoury of the early constabulary. A new law, The Irish Constabulary Act
The Home Office authorised the was written (3rd Geo.IV, cap.103)
Metropolitan Police to bear revolvers in 1822 to remedy this situation
on night patrols from 1883 (Curtis:1871:10); 313 chief
onwards (Wilkinson:2002:184). constables and 5,008 constables were
However, it was in Ireland that authorised for distribution between
special circumstances expanded Connaught, Leinster, Munster and
the police force into a paramilitary Ulster. The Irish Constabulary’s
organisation issued with muskets uniform was green with a black
and bayonets. shako, similar to riflemen in the

18 www.classic-arms-and-militaria.com

18 Graham Priest.indd 18 11/11/2014 16:06

Fig. 3
Fig.3. The
of an Irish
the 1850s.
(Courtesy of
Kerry County
Museum and Art

Fig.4. A double-
barrelled Irish
carbine, with
sword bayonet,
made by Tipping
and Lawden of
of the Royal

Fig.5. The
and Lawden
premises in
Fig. 4 (Billing, M.,
The New Illustrated
Directory of Men
and Things of
(Curtis:1871:41).These were Modern England,
prosecuted. Disruption and deaths distributed throughout the country Birmingham,
continued for another five years until in ‘stations’ or ‘barracks’ that were 1858)
tithes were altered to ‘rent-charges’ often domestic buildings in strategic
a high-walled lane near Carrickshock by an Act of Parliament in 1836. locations (Fig.3). A police reserve
Common. When attempts to capture At the same time a revised was also established in August 1839.
Butler failed a general melee ensued. Constabulary (Ireland) Act (6th The 1840s consolidation of the
Under a hail of stones and flail of Wm.IV, cap.13) on 1 October 1836 Irish Constabulary coincided with
scythes, pitchforks and pikes, the created an expanded and improved the newly appointed Inspector of
constables used carbine and bayonet police force (Curtis:1871:35). Small Arms George Lovell’s attempts
to defend themselves. Three attackers The reorganisation introduced new to co-ordinate the Board of Ordnance
were killed (one with the bayonet) senior ranks commanded by an (BO) weapons produced in London,
but Butler, the chief inspector and inspector-general. Initially these Birmingham and the expanded Royal
twelve policemen were also slain, were 2 deputy-inspectors general, Small Arms Manufactory at Enfield
with another 14 injured. Tensions 4 county inspectors, 35 sub- Lock (Blackmore:1961:205). From
were so high in the area that none inspectors, 217 chief-constables, 260 the early 1830s onwards Lovell
of the eleven defendants arrested head-constables, 1,350 constables had tried to guide the BO towards
after the event were successfully and about 8,000 sub-constables percussion ignition for its firearms.
He travelled extensively in Europe
and in late 1835 the ‘Committee on
Percussion Arms’ was particularly
interested in descriptions of the
Hanoverian Army trials undertaken
1833-34 (Blackmore:1961:178).
His first involvement with the
constabulary was in August 1835
when, as storekeeper at Enfield, he
submitted two double-barrelled
carbines, ‘... upon a principle
considered to be applicable to
the service of the Police Force in
Ireland’. These weighty weapons
with back-action locks and sword
bayonets were rejected out of hand.
However, the Inspector General
of Constabulary was prepared to
Fig. 5
www.classic-arms-and-militaria.com 19

18 Graham Priest.indd 19 11/11/2014 16:07


Fig.6. (top) The models but the 13ins.(332mm)

sealed pattern triangular blade was identical. Square
‘Carbine, Irish
shoulders with a scabbard ledge
Pattern 1840’ were adjacent to the rounded shank,
made from some and fullers were only provided on
flintlock parts the outer faces. A unique feature for
and with a socket
bayonet secured
police usage was the installation of
by the Hanoverian a spring clip to hold the scabbard
Fig. 6 catch. (bottom) The in place (Figs.14 and 15). The leaf-
1842 lock version spring with thumb-piece was inlet
with Lovell’s catch.
(Courtesy of the
into the blade face and retained by
Royal Armouries a countersunk bolt. A notch at the
and Michael Curran) rear connected with a recess in the
brass throat of the sheath. This was
Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig.7. (top) The
Hanoverian and
a scaled-down version of the India
(bottom) Lovell’s Pattern scabbard. The side-stitched
bayonet catches. black leather body supported a sheet
(John Oliver and brass locket and conical chape. Small
Michael Curran)
indentations and shellac provided
accept a version retailed by the model’ appeared after the ‘Carbine, Fig.8.The Irish adhesion. An elongated elliptical
Birmingham gunmaker Tipping & Irish Constabulary, Pattern 1840’ Constabulary brass frog hook on a stem pierced
Lawden (Figs.4 and 5). Two hundred was issued. (Skennerton:1986:90) bayonets fitted. the widest face of the body and
(John Oliver and
and fifty of these, together with a (Fig.6). Michael Curran)
was retained internally by a figure-
double-edged brass gripped bayonet, The first model carbine was of-eight washer. Popular opinion
were ordered in July 1839 with provided with a percussion lock Fig.9.Two Irish asserted that the spring device
another 25 from Richard Cutler modified from flintlock parts. It Constabulary prevented potential opponents from
bayonets from 1840
& Son after 15 November 1841 was 42½ins (1.085m) overall with and 1844. (Priest)
snatching a constable’s bayonet from
(Blackmore:1961:206). a calibre of 0.65in (16.6mm). The his scabbard during conflict.
Already by this date proposals for walnut stock carried a brass butt and Fig.10.The reverse The initial 892 bayonets (55 were
a constabulary pistol and standard side-plate, trigger-guard and nose- view showing the rejected) were, ‘issued from store to
plain socket collar
carbine had been suggested. After cap together with three rammer and Lovell’s lug.
be shortened for Irish Constabulary
February 1840 Lovell decided to fittings. Steel swivels and a ramrod (Priest) carbines by John and Robert Mole of
integrate the longarm design with completed the furniture. The pinned Birmingham (BO contractors 1836-
his ongoing ‘Musket, Percussion, barrel projected beyond the cap by Fig.11. Four Irish 38) on 5 February 1839 (Bailey:pers
Sergeants, Pattern 1840’ and just over 3ins to accept the socket of bayonets for
com:29/10/02). Only one possible
‘Carbine, Sappers and Miners’ the bayonet. A ‘C’ shaped Hanoverian Hanoverian (two contender for this contract was known
weapon developments. His overall catch beneath the muzzle helped left) and Lovell’s at the time of writing (Figs.16 and
objective was to standardise calibres, secure the collar once the mortise (two right) catches. 17). Originally produced by George
Note the presence or
simplify component purchases and had negotiated the sight block on the absence of a collar
Salter & Co. of High Street, Spon
improve production techniques. barrel (Figs.7 and 8). notch. (Priest) Lane, West Bromwich (1816-65) the
A sealed pattern with a socket The bayonet was a slightly updated incomplete collar had an early form
bayonet soon appeared, possibly after version of those issued with the Fig.12.The rear view. of ‘lug’ for the Hanoverian catch.
Note Lovell’s lugs.
some attempts to provide a weapon Elliott’s carbine and similar flintlock (Priest)
Such devices were used on Sergeants
with a folding blade had taken place. firearms (Priest:1986:105) (Figs.9- of the Line and Footguards bayonets
(Woodend:1981:3) However the 13). The collared 3ins (76.6mm) Fig.13. A collar view but the blade formation in question
post-1842 lock on the single example long socket had a three stage slot of a Hanoverian could not be modified from either of
(left) and Lovell’s
may indicate that this ‘tool-room set closer to the rear than previous (right) catch
these. The blade spring was inserted
bayonet. (Priest)
Fig. 14
Fig.14. Four
bayonets with
Fig. 9 scabbards clipped
on. (Priest)

Fig.15.The Irish
Constabulary Fig. 15
bayonet scabbard
showing the
Fig. 10
mouthpiece opening
Fig. 12 and spring clip
engaged. (Priest)

Fig. 11

Fig. 13

20 www.classic-arms-and-militaria.com

18 Graham Priest.indd 20 11/11/2014 16:07

Fig. 16 (Blackmore:1961:206). These newly could be performed ‘in theatre’. A Fig.16. A
made items had plain collars without section of bayonet collar was filed collarless Irish
any form of lug. away diametrically opposite the final bayonet over
In 1842 Lovell modified the mortise opening. A small ‘lug’ and a Sergeant’s of
carbine’s lock arrangement when section of collar was then brazed into the Line model.
flintlock parts began to disappear. position and the ‘C’ clip on the nose- This had an
early design
A much neater percussion plate cap replaced with the new catch. A of ‘lug’ for the
Fig. 17
and hammer, retained by side-nails, retrofitted Constabulary bayonet has Hanoverian
became the ‘Pattern 1842’ lock. yet to be recorded. catch. (Jeff
Other details were as before. The So many of these bayonets were Hayes)
same bayonet makers produced a upgraded with the new catch that Fig.17. The
further 4,246: 1,521 and 1,152 versions with the original plain early ‘lugs’ on
Constabulary bayonets up to 1844. collar design are rare. Production of the Sergeants
By this year in the region of 10,182 bayonets from 1844-47 continued of the Line
(left) and Irish
bayonets probably matched around within the same companies but now Constabulary
10,000 carbines. Some were lost with Lovell’s lug on the collar. George (right) bayonets.
in the Tower of London fire of 30 Salter & Co. ceased work in 1844. (Jeff Hayes)
October 1841. Totals were now 2,066: 938 and
Fig.18. (left)
The BO order books also indicated 2,275. The 5,279 total of bayonets A typical Irish
Fig. 18 that by 31 January 1843 John Roe had manufactured was much fewer than Constabulary
made 173 bayonets for the Barbados the 5,325 and 5,582 longarms built blade spring
Police Carbine and similarly by 30 in Birmingham and London from and marking.
Stephen Hill
June 1843 G. Salter & Co. 500 for 1844-53 (Priest:1986:156). The made the
the New South Wales Police Carbine. shortfall may have been filled with bayonet and
Many hundreds of carbines and retrofitted bayonets. viewer ‘8’ in
bayonets reached Australia for issue The last carbine orders were Birmingham
in the penal settlements. Eventually provided with yet another improved it. (right) A
police in Tasmania, Victoria and percussion lock derived from the bayonet from
Western Australia received them too Pattern 1853 rifle-musket. Some the Carbine,
(Skennerton:1975:74). of these were issued in Australia. Land Transport,
lacks the spring.
Although the firearms proved Contemporary bayonets were given (Priest)
satisfactory, the Hanoverian catch, an extra inspection after 1851, in
from its initial adoption on a variety of line with stricter tests for the ‘Rifle- Fig.19. Range
muskets, had caused some concerns. Musket, Pattern 1851’ of the same of markings on
socket, shank,
Many bayonets flew off during a year. In addition to the normal blade and
discharge as the muzzle-blast was crowned viewer’s number and scabbard. Note
stronger than the ‘C’ clip. In addition maker’s inscription on the ricasso the extra ‘crown
the small size of the catch sometimes Fig. 19 /B / 7’ blade
stamp. (Priest)
made removal of the sockets difficult
during drill, action or intemperate Fig.20. Four
weather. If the spring was reinforced socket markings.
the human hand would be of Might the
‘B’ indicate
insufficient strength to operate the ‘Barbados
system. Lovell solved the difficulty by Police’?
adopting a lateral spring similar to (Michael
those used in Austria from 1799 and Curran)
Prussia a decade later. The new catch
connected with a protrusion on the
bayonet collar (Fig.13). Fixing was as
previously but the turning motion of
Fig. 20
the second length of mortise over the
sight block displaced a barbed spring
that then sprang over the extension
through the maker’s inscription. as the final fitting was made. An
From 1839 to 1841 Stephen Hill enlarged thumb-piece on the catch
of Pritchett Street, Birmingham improved handling. ‘Lovell’s Spring
(1830-55), John Roe of Spon Lane, Catch’ was adopted on 23 October
West Bromwich (1836-54) and 1844 (Priest:1986:38). Its other
George Salter made 823: 800 and advantage was cost. Catches and
748 bayonets respectively (Fig.18). bayonets could be retrofitted for an
Together with the previous 892 outlay of 1 shilling (5p). Armourers
the initial 2,000 carbines therefore across the globe received the new
had 3,263 bayonets available components so that the modifications

www.classic-arms-and-militaria.com 21

18 Graham Priest.indd 21 11/11/2014 16:07


Fig. 21

Fig.21. (top) An
when landlords forcibly removed
Irish Revenue tenants from their properties
intended to provide protection to Police Carbine and (Fig.24).
Customs and Excise officials when the very similar One incident took place at Dolly’s
‘Carbine, Land
they searched out illicit stills. Based Transport’ dated
Brae near Castlewellan on 12
these carry ‘crown’ over ‘B’ over at the Customs House, Dublin the 1855. (Courtesy July 1849. As happens to this day
‘7’ (Figs.19 and 20). Viewer ‘7’ in organisation totalled more than1,100 of Peter Mc and Orangemen from Rathfriland wished
Birmingham struck the socket rim officers before it was disbanded in National Army to parade to celebrate the Battle of
Museum acc. no.
to ensure the weld was secure. Some 1857. (Herlihy:1997:44) Other NAM. 1987-10-
the Boyne, but in doing so wished to
collars were provided with a notch in sockets were noted with the prefix 3-1) pass through the Catholic township
line with the last leg of the mortise. ‘B’ or ‘F’ and a number, or just the of Magheramayo. Troops, Irish
This improved the firer’s view of the latter. These may have seen non-Irish Fig.22. The Land Constabulary and magistrates were
Transport bayonet
foresight but would normally require Constabulary service in the regular compared with an
deployed to control a narrow pass at
a back sight on the carbine to match army or colonies. The letters would Irish Constabulary Dolly’s Brae where previous trouble
it. It may be that some carbines saw then be rack or company symbols. model. Only had occurred. Numerous Catholic
service in the Crimean War (1853- It would be interesting if the ‘B’ was the blade spring Ribbonmen gathered to repeat the
differs. (Priest)
56) as they were broadly similar to the ‘Barbados Police’ but this would be performance. The thousand or so
‘Carbine, Land Transport’. The bayonet only a speculation. Fig.23. The Lovell’s Orangemen carried agricultural tools,
for the latter lacked the blade spring Another Act of Parliament (9 and lugs on the above pikes and muskets. Despite an escort
but otherwise was a close match 10 Vic., cap.97) of 28 August 1846 bayonets. (Priest) of dragoons a firearm was discharged
(Figs.21-23) Many blade springs altered the force once again. Funding Fig.24. Irish
from the column and Ribbonmen
were removed, either at this time or was moved from the counties to Constabulary returned fire from a nearby summit.
with later issue in the colonies. central resources, the Lord Lieutenant with fixed As rounds enveloped the soldiers
Irish Constabulary carbines and was empowered to increase the bayonets support and constables they retaliated with
a magistrate and
bayonets were engraved with a ‘C’ and reserve and a new headquarters at bailiffs as they
a charge against the Catholics and
issue number on the butt-plate and Phoenix Park, Dublin was erected eject tenants from used their carbines. When the
socket. The ‘C’ and number was also (Curtis:1871:55). The Constabulary a cottage in 1848. Ribbonmen retreated in haste they
placed on the scabbard locket and/ soon became heavily involved in (‘The Ejectment’, left 6 dead accompanied with 18
London Illustrated Times,
or hook. So far only figures below Daniel O’Connell and William Smith 16 Dec. 1848)
pitchforks, 7 pikes and 10 muskets.
10,000 were noted. The presence of O’Brien’s Irish separatist activities. A single constable was injured by a
‘RP’ and a number indicated issue Civil unrest stretched forces to the ‘friendly fire’ bayonet wound to the
to the Irish ‘Revenue Police’. This limit. One of their most contentious arm! Later it was deduced that 24
unit began work in 1832 and was roles was to supervise ‘ejectments’ more Ribbonmen were in fact slain
(White: 2006). As an outcome the
Fig. 22 Party Processions Act (13 and 14 Vic.,
cap.2) was passed in 1850. Sectarian
parades were proscribed under this
legislation but trouble continued
well into the 1860s, particularly at
Derrymacash (Spectator:3/1861). The
foundation of the Irish Republican
Brotherhood on 17 March 1858
Fig. 24 and eventually the badly planned

Fig. 23

22 www.classic-arms-and-militaria.com

18 Graham Priest.indd 22 11/11/2014 16:07

Fenian Rising of February 1867, original title on 6 September 1867 Fig.25. Irish
during which numerous police (Curtis:1871:191). Depending on Further Reading Constabulary
Blackmore, H.L., British Military Firearms in Belfast
facilities were attacked, not only your point of view the Royal Irish 1650-1850, Herbert Jenkins, London, c.1858. Note the
tested the resources of the Irish Constabulary continued to serve the 1961. piled carbines.
Constabulary but instigated a new United Kingdom loyally/infamously Curtis, R., The History of the Royal Irish (Michael Curran)
Constabulary, MacGlashan and Gill, Dublin,
carbine and sword bayonet outside until Eire separated from it on 1 June
Ireland, 1871.
the scope of this article. The new 1922 (Fig.25). Herlihy, J., The Royal Irish Constabulary, Four
weapon replaced the old on 16 The bayonets were reasonably easy Courts Press, Dublin, Eire, 1997.
July 1867. Queen Victoria was so to find, and, unusually for a 19th- Priest, G., The Brown Bess Bayonet 1720-1860,
Tharston Press, England, 1986.
impressed with the way her Irish century socket bayonet, often had
Skennerton, I.D., Australian Service Longarms,
Constabulary had performed that she scabbards. Even so prices remained Margate, Australia, 1974.
added the description ‘Royal’ to the modest at the time of writing. Skennerton, I.D. and Richardson, R.,
British and Commonwealth Bayonets, Margate,
Australia, 1986.
The Carlow Nationalist, White,W., ‘Death and
Destruction on the Famous 12th’, 28
July 2006.
The Spectator, ‘The Orangemen who used
fire-arms in affray at Derrymacash’, 16
March 1861.
Wilkinson, F., Those Entrusted with Arms,
Greenhill Books, London, 2002.
Woodend, H., British Rifles, HMSO, London,

I am particularly grateful to
De Witt Bailey, Michael Curran and
Jeff Hayes for outstanding help. Thanks
too for support from Colin Baxter,
Derek Complin, John Humphries
and members of ‘Bayonet Notebook’.
Appreciation to other contributors
mentioned in the captions.
Fig. 25


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p24_caamDecJan15.indd 32 11/11/2014 15:31

LOADING TOOL By Bill Harriman

hese days, it is simply One of these entrepreneurial
not cost effective fellows was Joseph Charles
to reload shotgun Cocker of 348 Aston Road,
cartridges unless Birmingham. In March 1884,
they are specialist he was granted British Patent
loads such as big bore cartridges No.5535 for ‘Improvements in
for wildfowling. We are spoilt for portable apparatus for recapping
choice with a mind-boggling and reloading Cartridges’. I
selection of shotgun cartridges think the Patent was registered
that perform consistently, are to Cocker’s home address; his
inexpensive and ballistically business premises were in Little
effective. One hundred and thirty Shadwell Street in the gun
years ago, this was not the case. quarter. It would be logical for
Most cartridges were loaded him to be located there as he
in gun shops and many people would try to sell his wares to
made their own with simple gunmakers. The trade directories
gadgets that could be used on refer to the firm as Cocker Bros
the kitchen table. People were and show that it was at this
much thriftier then and were not address between c.1897 and
inclined to throw away anything 1913. Prior to this firm was
that could be reused; recycling known as Cocker & Taylor and it
was the order of the day. Today traded from 23 Loveday Street in of the tube and the front inserted it must have
we agonise about where to 1894. into the turnover chuck. The appealed to
dispose of our empty cartridge Cocker’s object was to head was gripped by the teeth in anyone on a
cases. In my grandmother’s day ‘provide a convenient and the cartridge holder and forced shooting holiday
this would not have been an portable apparatus for recapping against the chuck whilst being who wanted to travel light.
issue. They would be reloaded as and reloading cartridges of such turned. After about five turns, It’s easy to picture a pre-World
many times as they would stand. a construction that the said the rolled turnover was properly War I ‘fowler in The Harbour
Most ironmongers sold loose apparatus can be used in the formed and the cartridge was Tavern sitting in the bar parlour
gunpowder, shot, wadding and hand, without being fixed to a ready for use. with his Cocker reloader turning
primers so raw materials were bench.’ The Cocker reloading machine out a few cartridges ready for
freely available. Gun implement The Cocker reloading machine was advertised in Webley’s 1888 morning flight. It would have
makers produced any number of is everything that its Patent catalogue as the ‘Patent Simplex taken up little room in his bag
patent cartridge reloading devices. describes. It is small (about 8 Cartridge Machine’ – available in or gun cases. Equally it would
We are all familiar with the little inches long) and lightweight, brass and nickel-plated versions. be attractive to the occasional
roll-turnover machines that weighing a few ounces. To use it, It also appeared in the catalogue shooter who just wanted a few
routinely turn up in gun auctions the fired case was pushed on to of W.J. George Dover. c.1898, cartridges at a time with which
and which are now becoming the pillar with the decapping pin. priced at 8/6d (42.5p). Trade to feed his gun.
very collectable. They are often The lever was pressed downwards buyers with access to Scholefield, Cocker reloading machines
associated with the twin pillar and the fired cap expelled. The Goodman & Sons’ 1896 are rare; those with the cartridge
tools which were used to expel case was inserted into the main catalogue could buy a dozen head gripper and rammer
a spent primer and seat a new body, a new cap was fitted into Cocker machines in brass for £1 especially so. Anyone who owns a
one. Whilst these two machines the primer pocket and rammed 18s (£1.90), or nickel plated at complete set is doubly fortunate.
could be used to produce very home with the lever. The case was £2 4s (£2.20p). There was also a They not only have an example
good reloads, they were bulky, then charged with powder using version advertised with a measure of a seldom-encountered
and being made of brass and an adjustable measure. Two felt incorporated in the rammer but I accessory for a shotgun but one
cast-iron they were also heavy. wads were started in the tube and have never seen one. which has a practical application
Some gun implement makers rammed home by the boxwood The Cocker machine appears too, as it can be used to turn out
saw an opening in the market for rammer – the object that looks to have had a short lifespan. This a few blackpowder cartridges if
a hand-held, combined reloading like a small ship’s belaying pin. was probably due to the fact required. In historical terms, it
instrument that would discharge The correct weight of shot was that gun shops started to stock is very interesting because it is
all of the separate function of poured in from the measure and ammunition. (The plethora of the direct ancestor of the multi-
the caper/decapper and rolled a top card wad rammed on top. proprietary cartridge names bears function reloading presses of
turnover tools. The charged case was taken out testimony to that.) However, today.

www.classic-arms-and-militaria.com 25

25 BILL NEW.indd 25 11/11/2014 16:46


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p27_caamDecJan15.indd 1 11/11/2014 11:51


Two Breech-
Richard Garrett describes two examples of early gunmakers’ attempts to
produce a successful breechloader

one had a number of the tubes LEFT: The right-

hand side of the
handy would have allowed for Dolep pistol.
fairly rapid loading. The system was
in use in Henry VIII’s time, and apart RIGHT: The left- These problems could
from at least one rifle that he owned hand side of the be overcome by breech-loading
Dolep pistol.
it was also used in the famous pistol if only the gas escape could be
shields; many of which are preserved BELOW: Close up controlled. There seems to have

at the Tower of London. of the lockplate. been a number of attempts made
hen I started The main problem with these in the decades around 1700. The
collecting ideas for breech-loading was that idea of using the removable tube
pistols back it was difficult if not impossible breech was combined with a barrel
in the 1960s to make the breech gas tight. The that hinged either up or down for
I discovered escaping hot gases would have made its insertion. With close fitting this
the Arms Gallery at the Victoria life uncomfortable for the firer, would have been a fairly tight fit and
and Albert Museum (V&A); part of particularly when using a rifle with the, hopefully small, amount of gas
their Metalwork Department – it the face held close to the breech escaping would be ejected at right
is no longer there and only a few during aiming. Not surprisingly angles to the bore and not directly at
of the arms are now on display in hand-held firearms using the system the firer. The Dolep pistol described
other galleries. Amongst their many did not become common. However, below uses this idea combined with
treasures was included a pistol that the idea would not go away. Loading a barrel that hinges down to allow
had been loaned to them from the at the muzzle meant that to facilitate the insertion of the chamber. A rifle
City Museum, Bristol. It was by the insertion of a ball down the by Robert Rowland with a barrel
Andrew Dolep and dated from about barrel, it was usually made a little that swings up to allow the breech
1690. It was very unusual as it was a smaller in diameter than the bore. tube to be inserted is in the Royal
breech-loader. The pistol is still with This windage meant that the accuracy Collection and is described in Royal
the V&A although not currently on suffered. It was known that rifling Sporting Guns at Windsor by H.L.
show. A few years ago the pair to improved accuracy but loading was Blackmore (Her Majesty’s Stationery
it came up for sale and I was lucky even more of a problem as the ball Office: 1968).
enough to acquire it. Although the should fit into the grooves so that The Rowland rifle was made for
pistol had been illustrated in Claude spin could be imparted to it as it John Tournay, whose name appears on
Blair’s Pistols of the World, the details travelled out of the barrel. In either the trigger guard. He was a London
given are minimal and researching my case what you wanted was a firm fit merchant who lived in a mansion
one brought to light their interesting and that was difficult to achieve with at Esher, Surrey and it is suggested
history. It also led me to another muzzle loading. that this is depicted as part of the
gunmaker who experimented with rifle’s decoration. The rifle is dated
breech-loaders – Robert Rowland. 1718, a little later than the Dolep
The concept of breech-loading is pistol. However, the proof marks on
a very old one. Many early cannon it are those of a ‘foreigner’ which is
used a removable breech, often a mystery, as Rowland was admitted
looking like a tankard as it usually to the Gunmakers Company in 1715
incorporated a handle. A similar and one would have expected to see
idea was the removable breech tube the normal members’ proof marks.
that slotted into the breech proper. Was the pistol made earlier and the
This was loaded with powder and date added only when acquired by
ball before insertion and provided Tournay?

28 www.classic-arms-and-militaria.com

28 Richard Garrett.indd 28 11/11/2014 16:08

The pistol is a flintlock of holster LEFT: The
scrolling side
pistol size decorated in the plate.
style of the late 17th century. It is
51.7cm overall with a barrel 33cm at the breech, engraved with scrolls motto around the top RIGHT: The
long and a bore of 15.5mm. The and is signed DOLEP. The transition PRÆMIUM VIRTUTIS HONI. Dolep pistol
with the barrel
main feature of its appearance is that to circular includes flame-like Below the arms it is inscribed hinged down.
there is a hinge just below the breech designs and there are moulded rings BROWN OF BLACKBURN. In the
in front of the trigger guard. Pushing at the various stages. There is a silver 17th century Blackburn was a small
up on the trigger guard releases a foresight but no rearsight. The tang market town. Flemish weavers
catch and the barrel drops down to behind the breech is engraved with had settled there in the 1400s and
reveal a removable steel chamber. scrolls. The portion of the walnut weaving was a significant industry
Both the lock and the side plate are full-stock below the barrel does not known in the late 1600s for its blue
split as they span the hinge. The have provision for a ramrod as one and black ‘Blackburn checks’ as well
lockplate is of the rounded banana is not needed for breech-loading. It as ‘Blackburn greys’. It is not known
shape with a swan-necked cock. It is is attached to the barrel by screws what position BROWN held and it
signed ANDREW DOLEP. from below. The silver side plate is has not been possible to trace his
The front part of the lock, which of the scrolling form coat of arms. However, clearly he was
includes the frizzen and pan, illustrated in the pattern a man of means who visited London
is attached to the barrel. This books of the time. (A to buy his pistols.
portion includes an ingenious
priming magazine. This is filled ANDREW DOLEP
by lifting a thin, sprung trap Andrew (Andreas Rheinhold)
that can be seen below the Dolep was born in about 1648.
frizzen pivot. To charge the similar design He is described as a Dutchman but
pan a curved lever in front by Simonin is he became gunmaker to Prince
of the frizzen is depressed illustrated in Master French George of Denmark, who
and a measure of powder Gunsmiths’ Designs by Steven V. married Princess Anne
is shaken into the pan. Grancsay page 81.) The iron trigger of England, daughter
The frizzen spring is guard is engraved with scrolls. The of James II. Perhaps it
sited within the magazine. The rear butt has an iron cap with engraved was through this connection that he
portion of the lock with the cock spurs running up the sides of the came to England with the court of
and sear is attached to the stock in grip and there is a lanyard ring. At the Prince George. He had as his patron
the normal way. rear of the grip is an iron plate inset Sir Philip Howard at Charing Cross
The multi-stage barrel is octagonal to receive a shoulder stock; it is likely in London who was the commander
that this is a later addition. of the Queen’s Troop of Horseguards.
The removable chamber In 1681, armed with a letter from
is a plain cylinder with a his patron, he applied to become a
profiled end plate designed member of the London Gunmakers
to ensure it does not catch Company. They rejected him and to
against the rear breech plate a degree harassed him, fining him
when the barrel is closed. for having unproved gun barrels
It also has a protruding and seizing some arms. Dolep
lug to ensure that it is eventually gained the patronage
properly aligned so that of Lord Dartmouth who was the
the touchhole connects Master General of the Ordnance and
to the pan. Given that the on 8 July 1686 on his Lordship’s
priming magazine allows recommendation he was admitted to
rapid reloading it is the Gunmakers Company. He went
probable that originally on to develop a successful business
there were multiple which, apart from the subject CENTRE: The
chambers, although breech-loader, included a number breech and the
only the one survives. of innovative multi-shot weapons. reloadable tube.
There is a silver For more details of these see Great
escutcheon which British Gunmakers 1540-1740 by W. escutcheon
is engraved with a Keith Neal & D.H.L. Back. He had his marked Brown
coat of arms and a business in St Martin’s Lane near St of Blackburn.

www.classic-arms-and-militaria.com 29

28 Richard Garrett.indd 29 11/11/2014 16:09


all doubt as that belonging to the

Assistant Keeper museum, and the police recovered
Martin-in-the-Fields, of Metalwork and returned it.
London. He retired in at the Victoria & In 1970 the pistol was loaned
1711 and died in 1713. His Albert Museum, telephoned to the Victoria & Albert Museum;
son George Edward continued the Bristol Museum. He stated possibly as a result of Claude Blair’s
the business but he died in 1717 and ABOVE: The that he had been offered for sale position there and his involvement
James Paul Freeman continued the priming magazine through the trade an early 18th- in its retrieval. It was at one time on
business in his own name. with the loading century pistol by Andrew Dolep. He display in the newer British Galleries
trap open.
thought that the pistol resembled but during a recent visit I tried
PROVENANCE – A MYSTERIOUS one which he had seen in store on unsuccessfully to find it, and it was
HISTORY a visit to Bristol when compiling not listed in the museum’s visitor
As mentioned above we know material for his publication Pistols computers. It seems that once again
nothing much about the original of the World. An immediate check it is in store. When my pistol came
owner and it is only in the 19th was made of the firearms store and on the market questions were asked
century that they re-emerge. The it was discovered that this pistol was but it was clear that no legal claim to
Donations Book to the Bristol missing. Bristol CID and Scotland it could be pursued. The V&A was not
Institution 1822-39 lists for 16 Sept Yard enquiries showed that the pistol interested in acquiring it but it has at
1830 ‘No. 802 G N Daubeny Esq A had passed through the hands of a Mr least found a home where it is fully
pair of curiously formed ancient X. The pistol was identified beyond appreciated.
pistols’. The Bristol Institution
was the forerunner of the Bristol
Museum and Art Gallery, established
by the Bristol Philosophical &
Literary Society in 1822, with a
museum in the building shared by
the Society and the Institution from
1823. It is likely that the entry relates
to this pair of pistols, which would
link them to the Daubeny family
(grocers, sugar bakers, moving into
local politics and gentry).
As can be seen, both pistols of the
pair were together in Bristol. How
did they become separated? They FROM LEFT TO
were noted as a pair in 1921 in the RIGHT: . Top view
N Register but one disappeared, of the Dolep pistol.
presumed stolen or accidentally
The right-hand
disposed of, before 1945. No side of the
serving member of the museum staff Rowland pistol.
remembers more than one pistol;
The left-hand side
nor does the previous Director of the
of the Rowland
Museum (1945-60). That missing pistol.
pistol is the one in my collection.
The other half of the pair remained Close up of the
in Bristol but in 1968 Mr Claude Blair,

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28 Richard Garrett.indd 30 11/11/2014 16:09

to extend the idea to a plug that
went right through the barrel and
he patented his ideas in England
in 1721. Bidet improved on the
design by adopting a quick
thread that allowed the plug
to be withdrawn by a single
turn of the trigger guard.
Captain Patrick Ferguson
patented a number of minor
improvements in 1776. These
made the action practical for
military use, although its success
was limited due to the normal
conservatism of the military
authorities. Nevertheless he is
remembered for the screw-plug
THE ROWLAND PISTOL action and his name will forever be
As can be seen the pistol is in associated with it. Rowland’s pistol
the standard Queen Anne style, reminds us that Ferguson did not
although the barrel does not invent the idea.
unscrew. It is 27.1cm overall with LEFT: SClose up of
the signature.
a barrel 16cm long and a bore of ROBERT ROWLAND
14.5mm. The side plate follows the The first mention of Rowland in RIGHT: The
same design form, albeit smaller, as the records is of the Gunmakers grotesque mask
the Dolep pistol, with scrolls and Company seizing unproved barrels butt cap.
an animal head. The butt cap is of from his shop in 1704. He is The underside
the usual grotesque mask pattern. recorded at St James, Westminster with the screw-
There is no ramrod and that is the when in 1712 he took Simon plug removed.
first sign that loading is not from Holmes as an apprentice. From
Makers mark
the muzzle. Close inspection reveals this it would seem that he must and Gunmakers
that the trigger guard is attached to have been born around 1680. As Company proof
a screw-plug and turning it removes mentioned above he was admitted marks.
it to leave the loading hole exposed to the Gunmakers Company by
Top view of the
under the breach. About three turns redemption in 1715. He did not Rowland pistol.
are required to remove it. To load the survive for long and he died in
trigger guard it is turned to remove 1721. His widow Mary continued
the screw-plug. Powder and ball are the business until about 1724 as
inserted and the plug is screwed she was recorded as proving guns the efficiency of firearms. The idea
back in. I can testify that reinserting by the Gunmakers Company up to of the removable tube was tried by
the plug requires a steady hand. It that date. others as well. The Royal Collection
would not be something to try in The breech-loading rifle in includes another rifle, by Gandon,
the heat of an engagement! the Royal Collection shows that and a fowling piece, by Willmore,
The proof marks are on the Rowland was producing work of on the same principles. There must
underside and are usually hidden the finest quality. He had wealthy still have been some escape of gas so
by the trigger guard. The marks clients and one can only wonder that even with the best workmanship
include Rowland’s mark of an R what he might have achieved if he they did not become common. The
in a crowned shield and standard had lived longer. use of the screw-plug as on the
London Gunmakers Company Rowland pistol is much rarer, and
proof marks. The breech is signed PROVENANCE given the awkwardness of loading it
R ROLAND LONDINI below the In this case there is no exciting story. is surprising that anyone could have
upturned frizzen spring. There is The only clue to the original owner thought it superior to the turn-off
a swan-necked, faceted cock with is on the escutcheon. This is of silver, barrel. In any event only the turn-off
border engraving. Overall the nicely decorated with grotesque barrel type of breech-loader became
workmanship is good. Obviously masks and engraved with a crest of common and that idea lasted right
it must date after 1715 and before a swan with wings extended. It has through the percussion era.
1721 when Rowland died. not been possible to trace to whom Richard Garrett is a long-time
The screw-plug was invented by this might have belonged. collector of antique pistols and has
Isaac de la Chaumette around 1700; written many articles on them. He
as with this pistol his original idea CONCLUSIONS is the author of Irish Gunmakers, a
was for a plug that only penetrated Both pistols are rarities which listing of Irish makers. Copies can be
to the bore and was turned by the remind us that gunmakers have obtained from him by emailing to
trigger guard. He later went on always sought out ideas to improve rjgarrett20@yahoo.com.

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28 Richard Garrett.indd 31 11/11/2014 16:09


The English Light

By Martin Dougherty

nfantry officers of the 18th The solution found by many off. He needs a weapon that The 1803 pattern sabre was
and 19th centuries often infantry officers was to buy a will remain under good control created as a combat weapon, but
carried dress swords of the cavalry sabre. The 1796 pattern through a series of cuts, thrusts fashion being what it is, it was
small-sword family, which light cavalry sabre was a popular and parries – losing control of the soon adopted by many users who
were ill-suited to battlefield choice once it became available, weapon is potentially fatal with might never go anywhere near
use. Most of the time this was and in many ways it was an an opponent in close proximity. A the enemy. This was probably for
not a major problem; an infantry excellent weapon. However, it lighter blade is easier to recover its panache and the image that
officer’s weapon was his company was ‘light’ only in the sense that after a cut than a heavy one, so went with it. A sabreur was a man
of fusiliers. His task was to direct it was issued to the light cavalry; an effective infantry sabre would who fought his enemies hand to
his formation, not to battle the this was a heavy cutting sword trade some chopping power for hand, a brave and fearsome man,
enemy personally. A sword was designed to be used on horseback. greater controllability. whereas those who never engaged
a badge of office and was used Its blade widened towards the By 1803, officers of light tended to carry dress swords. This
mainly to make dramatic gestures tip, increasing the power behind infantry and rifle troops, and thinking was probably the reason
if it was drawn at all. a cut. This offered advantages in also those commanding the behind some of the variants that
However, there was a mounted combat, but was not ‘flank’ companies of line appeared.
movement towards an effective without its drawbacks. infantry regiments, were arming Thus very senior officers might
battlefield sword for officers in The cavalry sabre is optimised themselves with a variety of sabres be seen sporting this weapon, or
the form of the 1796 Pattern for a particular kind of combat, and finding them preferable to officers whose duties kept them
Infantry Sword. This weapon had in which the engagement time the straight infantry officer’s in England. Beautifully engraved
a straight spadroon-type blade between any two opponents tends sword. The sabre would cut better and decorated variants emerged,
and could deliver a reasonably to be very short. When charging and offered a better defence than along with variations on the
effective cut as well as a thrust. infantry or other cavalry, combat the 1796 pattern infantry officer’s blade type. These included blades
However, its small guard and tends to be a matter of one cut, sword. Its thrusting performance with an extremely steep curve,
flimsy blade were less than ideal thrust or parry after which the might or might not be inferior, which would be difficult to use
for the rigours of the battlefield. horseman is past his target. Even but this was a lesser consideration in combat. This was not their
In a ‘line’ regiment, officers in a cavalry mêlée, engagements for an officer defending himself purpose of course; these were
were protected by the formation tend to be brief. The general in a battlefield mêlée. weapons intended to impress,
around them and thus unlikely chaos and mayhem of mounted Rather than try to curb this not to fight with. More practical
to be directly engaged. For the combat will tend to push any two tendency towards sabre adoption, variants may have been adopted
officers of light infantry, who horsemen apart quite quickly; the British Army instead by elements of the Royal Marines,
often fought dispersed, the horses shy and take their riders attempted to rationalise the whose personnel found their
situation was rather different. out of reach, and new opponents wide array of swords in use. The sabres useful for exactly the same
The British army initially present themselves from all sides. result was the 1803 pattern light reasons as light infantry officers.
obtained its light infantry Thus the cavalry sabre, be it infantry sabre. This weapon had The 1803 sabre was a great
capabilities externally, but from straight or curved, is optimised a relatively light blade (as sabres success, and probably remained
1801 onwards began training to get as much as possible out go) but this was still sufficient to in service well after its official
regiments as light infantry. Of of the few strokes that can be be effective in combat. Although replacement date. An officer’s
these, some were equipped with made in the time available. It less likely to shear a limb right off sword was an expensive item, so
rifles but many were simply tends to have a heavy blade well (as many cavalry sabres could do), purchase of a new one might well
trained to shoot as well as possible suited to powerful cuts. This the 1803 model could deliver a be put off until it was absolutely
with their muskets. can make it difficult to control highly effective slashing cut that necessary. In those regiments
The officers of these light during a protracted engagement, would debilitate most opponents. that permitted some choice of
infantry formations found but it is an acceptable tradeoff On the battlefield, what officers’ weapons it might stay
themselves in a rather exposed – cavalrymen do not engage in mattered was ‘stopping’ the in use for financial reasons or
position, where they might lengthy fencing matches, they enemy, not necessarily killing because the replacement 1822
be engaged by enemy cavalry deliver a blow or defend against him, and the 1803 sabre did this pattern sabre was simply not very
or infantry. The small-sword one, then recover their blade well enough whilst providing good.
and spadroon were not well under good control after moving good defence. It was light enough The 1822 model used a brass
suited to stopping a downward away from the opponent. to ‘fence’ rather than ‘fight’ with, half-basket hilt that would
stroke delivered by a horseman A man on foot, on the other enabling a skilled swordsman in theory offer more hand
or parrying a bayonet thrust; hand, may become involved in to make use of his technique in protection than the simple
something a little more a protracted engagement from a manner that a heavier sword stirrup hilt of the 1803 model.
substantial seemed desirable. which he cannot easily break might not permit. However, it was somewhat flimsy

32 www.classic-arms-and-militaria.com

32 Martin.indd 32 11/11/2014 16:09

and might collapse under a heavy to damage. Like its predecessors driven point would punch to as ‘swords’ rather than ‘sabres’,
blow. The blade was only slightly the 1845 model did not instantly through without undue difficulty. but they are all clearly sabre-type
curved, which (again, in theory!) displace the previous weapon, so Weapons of this design saw weapons. The spadroon and the
suited the weapon to both cutting many sabres of both designs saw action in the later colonial wars, dress small-sword went out of
and thrusting. In practice, it did service during the Crimean War and proved satisfactory. Perhaps fashion long ago, but the sabre (or
not thrust appreciably better than and various colonial conflicts of as a result, this model remains the ‘sabre-type sword’) has remained
its predecessor, whilst cutting the 19th century. standard British Army sword for in service and is likely to continue
performance was inferior. In 1897, the 1822/1845 style occasions that require an officer to do so. This is almost entirely
A sabre’s curve is designed to sabre was finally replaced by to carry one. due to the influence of the 1803
concentrate the force of a cut at a much better design. The cut It is possible to argue endlessly pattern infantry sabre, which
the ‘point of percussion’, causing had been the preferred mode about what is, and what is not, ushered in a quiet revolution and
the blade to bite deeply into the of combat for battlefield use for a sabre. The 1822-onwards cast its shadow over two centuries
target, and then to slide, which many years, but towards the end weapons are generally referred of British military swords.
draws the sharp blade through of the 19th century preferences
the wound and enlarges it. The moved towards a thrusting Martin J. Dougherty is Chief Assessor
1822 pattern sabre cut less well weapon, balanced towards the hilt with the British Federation for Historical
than its predecessor; since this for quick and precise alignment Swordplay. Specialising in Smallsword
was the primary mode of use of the point. This model could and Military Sabre, he has recently taught
for most wielders it was thus an also cut, but this was intended as workshops at Smallsword Symposium and
inferior weapon. a secondary option – the thrust SWASH as well as appearing as a weapons
The 1845 model was a broadly was held to be quicker and was expert in the US TV show Triggers:
similar design, though with a almost certainly more lethal. Weapons that Changed the World. His
better blade. The main change A thrust was also more likely interest in fencing began in 1987, leading to a 20-year coaching career
was the move to a fully fixed to penetrate a heavy greatcoat. at the University of Sunderland. After this he moved fully into historical
guard rather than the hinged Cuts made with the – admittedly fencing as a member of the Society for the Study of Swordsmanship.
version used on the earlier poor – swords that saw action Martin has published numerous books on personal combat, weaponry
weapon. A hinged guard could in the Crimean War were often and military history. He is currently developing a modern system of
fold flat, reducing chafing on an defeated by even this fairly basic smallsword fencing based on the work of Domenico Angelo and the
officer’s uniform, but was prone protection, whereas a firmly Franco-Scottish school of fencing.


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32 Martin.indd 33 13/11/2014 11:29

1870/87 VETTERLI

Italian Moschetto Cavalleria Modello

1870/87 VETTERLI Part 2 By Guy and Leonard A-R-West FHBSA

ith the
trend in the
1880s to adopt
small calibre
repeaters by other prominent military
nations, during 1887, Giuseppe Vitali
(after experimenting with tubular and
box magazines), successfully converted
the single-shot Vetterli into an efficient
repeater, pending development of
an entirely new arm. Like most bolt-
action systems, the Vetterli system
readily lends itself to the adoption of BELOW LEFT:
The simple
a box magazine. Vitali’s asymmetrical four-round Vitali
magazine design was a rugged four- charger inserted.
round capacity box; subsequently fitted Chargers came
to the Fucile da Fanteria, Moshetto da packed empty in
galvanised metal
Infanteria Fanteria – Truppe Speciali containers of six
and Moschetto da Carabiniere, and secured with a manipulation of an unsupported by a rotating sleeve to function as a
a limited quantity of Moschetto da white cloth tape. bolt resulted in binding. In addition, magazine cut-off, as well as for bolt
Cavalleria for colonial cavalry, possibly effective primary extraction was removal. The cut-off is a simple device
Right side of
for use in Eritrea in 1888, the system Moschetto added by machining an angle on the with a prominent chequered button,
designated Modello 1870/87 Vetterli- butt, showing bolt-stop on the handle assembly so being essentially a tube or casing that
Vitali. The new system proved to be manufacturer, date that it engages a raised cam on the rotates around the rear of the receiver.
excellent, adding only approximately and serial number. rear left side of the receiver bridge on Turned anti-clockwise, it allows
b) Right side of
0∙2kg to the weight. The bolt the larger butt of raising the bolt handle, providing a magazine feed and clockwise it isolates
required modification, the extractor the Fucile Modello ‘mechanical case unseating advantage’ magazine supply. The addition of the
bolt stop was reduced by 4∙5mm to 1870/87 repeater, of 3 mm. The now defunct rotating magazine necessitated the bayonet
accommodate the repositioning of stamped ‘Riparez bolt cover was discontinued, replaced blade be reduced by 90mm.
Torino 1889’.
the ejector pin (replaced by a screw) ‘Riparez’ denoting The Italian colonial cavalry was
due to the receiver being opened for repair. issued with repeating Moschetto da
the magazine. Also the bolt’s ejector Cavalleria with a Vitali magazine. The
groove was widened to 7∙7mm and officers were armed with Winchester
a case support lug grafted to the bolt carbines, and part of the native troops
head. The cartridge port was widened with Remington rifles.
vertically for the Vitali charger. The
addition of the Vitali magazine
reduced much of the receiver’s rigidity
and bedding surface, and required
strengthening of the stock’s centre:
whereby a 1mm thick by 43∙5mm
wide by 220mm long reinforcing
plate was externally fitted below and
in front of the trigger guard. The
magazine is single-column, non-
detachable and has a drain hole in
its base, and its front is contoured to
accommodate the heel of the hand.The
carbine could carry five rounds, one
chambered and four in the magazine.
On converting to a repeater, a raised
receiver extension tang was necessary
for smooth bolt operation, as rapid

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34 Guy RWest.indd 34 11/11/2014 16:10

1 a) Top-view
Fig. 1 of Modello
charger, showing
black painted
arrow to indicate
direction of
insertion into
the magazine.

Fig. 2 Accessories
issued for the
Vetterli system.
a) Oil bottle.
b) Brass jag.
c) Stuck-case
d) Screwdriver
e) Double-ended
Fig. 2 screwdriver

Fig. 3 a) The
extractor was
pushed into the
Fig. 3 chamber by the
bolt and forced
out using a rod.
b) Extracted
broken case.
On conversion to a box magazine,
a reusable four-round charger was Fig. 4 a) Modello
introduced and could be used for all 1870, Fucili
cartucce, balloon
models converted to the Vitali system.
head, drawn
Although unrefined in appearance, tombak case
this ingenious charger system can be with Boxer
considered the precursor of the Mauser primer.
b) Modello
and Schmidt-Rubin charger systems.
1870, Moschetto
Technically speaking, in function cartucce, with
it is superior to its contemporary reduced powder
the Mannlicher, inasmuch as it did Chargers (Caricatore) were crudely into any magazine is slow and can be charge with
12mm diameter
not become an integral part of the constructed, with a wood spine and cumbersome; the four-round charger
x 8mm high felt
magazine, thereby preventing the spring steel arms riveted through infinitely simplifies this and speeds wad.
magazine from being replenished until the spine. The top surface had a up magazine replenishment of which c) Modello 1870,
all the cartridges were expended; the black arrow painted on a light grey only charger systems are capable. With esercitazone
inherent weakness of the Mannlicher background to indicate direction of the bolt retracted and the magazine
d) Modello 1870,
system, which ironically the Vetterli insertion into the magazine. Behind cut-off turned to the left, the loaded salve cartucce.
finally inherited when a quantity, as the arrow there is a short cord knotted charger is pushed fully down until it e) Modello 1877,
an expediency, were converted to a at the end to provide a secure grip for is stopped by the cartridge retaining Fucili cartucce.
f) Modello
smaller calibre. extraction. Inserting cartridges singly springs situated on either side of the
1877, Moschetto
g) Modello 1877,
salve cartucce
with reduced
charge and
longer felt wad.
Note: Proof
cartridge –
‘Pallottola per
prova forzata’
(not shown), was
48∙2mm long,
weighed 40∙5g
over a 4g powder

Fig. 4

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34 Guy RWest.indd 35 11/11/2014 16:11

1870/87 VETTERLI

receiver. The empty charger is then

withdrawn by its cord, and if required,
the magazine cut-off applied. Chargers
came packed empty in galvanised
metal containers of six (87mm long x
72mm wide x 53mm high), secured
with a white cloth tape.

To conform with the improved
Modello 1877 cartridge, a bullet of
matching dimension was utilised and
a case of similar dimensions altered to
suit. For accuracy testing and velocity
evaluation, the carbine was rested
on a purpose-made portable bench-
rest and a chronograph placed at 7∙6
m from the muzzle. Shooting was
undertaken both at 100 and 200 m.
Testing encompassed shooting in the
standing, kneeling and prone positions.
As the bayonet is part of the issue and
regulated for the folded position, we
were interested to discover its effect on
accuracy when fixed, furthermore how
it altered the carbine’s handling.

It was found that a very fine sight and
six o’clock hold worked sufficiently
to keep the shots in the black at 100
yards, at 200 yards, shot to point of
aim, shooting at a HBSA R200R target.
The sight picture is clearly defined,
but can become obstructed if the
bayonet’s locking ring works loose.
When fixed, the light bayonet did not
drastically alter the point of impact; it
just moved the group slightly to the
left. The rearsight leaf is so short, that
the right side is extended to allow
for the spring catch mechanism, and
ABOVE: Bench
when raised above 400m, gives the resting - a priority with the bayonet fixed. Removing
sight a one-sided appearance. Due to for ammunition the bayonet from its location for
limited primary extraction of the fired evaluation. fixing can be hazardous unless care
case, unseating cases was difficult and is exercised as the sharp rear of
BELOW: Shooting
on occasion, after lifting the bolt knob, the Moschetto the sight blade can cut the palm or
it had to be struck hard with the palm Cavalleria Modello fingers! The single-stage trigger pull, unslung, the Moschetto balances very
of the hand to force the bolt back. 1870 with fixed although slightly on the heavy side, well ‘at the trail’; the rearsight does not
The cock-on-opening system avoids bayonet offhand. displayed no perceptible creep, and get in the way of the hand.
Note the muzzle
the tendency to push the carbine off flash and recoil! releases the firing-pin in a sharp and One can but only imagine how
the shoulder when closing the bolt, crisp manner, and can be described as distressing the muzzle blast and flash
an advantage when converted to a INSET: A ‘bench- excellent. Ejected cases landed on the from a short barrel (34mm shorter than
repeater. After shooting sessions, the rested’ 88∙9mm right side, conveniently close to hand, the Swiss carbine), had on the cavalry
group at 100m.
chamber and bore were found clean, The Moschetto without dents or scratches, a bonus for horse! After repetitive shooting, due to
requiring minimum maintenance. printed 1∙6m high hand loaders! most of the barrel being exposed to the
Despite the 129 intervening years, the on the target, due Recoil is not as severe as the Martini- air, in addition to the bayonet acting
mainspring maintained adequate strike to the minimum Henry carbine or 11mm Mauser as a heat sink, it remained markedly
200m rearsight
force and no misfires were experienced setting Karabiner M/71, however, with its cooler than both the M/71 and Swiss
throughout testing. narrow butt, it is perceptibly sharper Vetterli. Furthermore, the foresight was
Despite its shorter stock, shouldered than the 10∙4mm Swiss Vetterli not as severely distorted by barrel heat
without too much cramping, the target Repetierkarabiner M.69/71 which mirage and the left hand not made too
acquired with ease; balance improved also is (0∙9kg) heavier. For carrying uncomfortable by heat.

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34 Guy RWest.indd 36 11/11/2014 16:11

Moschetto Cavalleria Vetterli Modello 1870
Groove diameter: ......................... 10∙94mm.
Bore diameter:.............................. 10∙37-10∙55mm.
Rate of twist: ................................ 1 turn in 660mm.
Barrel length:................................ 453mm.
Rear sight: .................................... Quadrant.
Sight setting minimum:............... 200 m.
Sight setting maximum:............... 1000m.
Sight radius: ................................. 324mm.
Weight:......................................... 3295kg.
Length: ......................................... 928mm.
Width: .......................................... 67mm.
Trigger pull: ................................. 4kg. Baionetta
Bolt travel:..................................... 78mm. CONCLUSION Modello 1870,
Balance taken from butt plate: ..... 445mm. The test is not exhaustive, undertaken to provide a modern, after shooting.
Balance with bayonet fixed: ......... 463mm. The entire
albeit basic insight into the first indigenous metallic issue
arm for the Italian cavalry. By definition, the Moshetto is a length of the
Bullet Modello 1870
blade exposed to
Bullet: ........................................... Swiss style with 4 cannelures, true carbine and not just a shortened rifle. Ease of pointing muzzle blast has
two exposed.
OAL: ............................................. 65∙5mm.
and a light-weight made it popular and it’s a well -esigned been coated with
Bullet length:................................ 26mm. single-shot system that easily evolved to a repeater without fouling.
Bullet heel diameter: .................... 10∙5mm. major modification. Unlike many of its contemporaries,
Ogive length:................................ 9mm.
Bullet diameter:............................ 10∙5mm.
has the accessories of an infantry rifle, which is a cleaning
Bullet weight: ............................... 20∙5gm. rod and bayonet. The narrow wrist behind the breech is
Cavity diameter: ........................... 5mm, concave. easy to grasp, which is completely necessary in shooting
Service velocity - Moschetto:........ 410m/s @ 25m from muzzle.
mounted, where the cavalry man has only one hand free
Case Modello 1870 to hold the carbine. Furthermore, the compact and robust
Case: ............................................. balloon-head, made from rearsight arrangement is virtually snag-free and the simple
Primer: ......................................... Boxer.
and effective safety (Modello Vitali) a necessity for a
Primer diameter: .......................... 4∙75mm. mounted man.
Powder weight, Moschetto: ......... 3∙5gm. We regarded the Moschetto Cavalleria Vetterli Modello
Felt wad height: ........................... 8mm.
Felt wad diameter:........................ 12mm.
1870 as one of our top favourite 19th-century carbines. It is
Case length: .................................. 47∙5mm. a pleasure to shoot as recoil is not severe, it is light, accurate,
Case thickness at mouth:.............. 0∙2mm. easy to clean and a fascinating piece of Italian history to own.
Case thickness at head:................. 13∙6mm.
Case mouth diameter:.................. 11∙1mm after seating bullet.
Rim diameter: .............................. 15∙8mm. ACCURACY
Rim width: ................................... 1∙8mm. Although the cartridge is duplicated as close as practicably
Bullet Modello 1877
possible, and with the weighing of each bullet, groups
Bullet: ........................................... Swiss style with 4 cannelures, can be improved upon for competition. The Moschetto
two exposed. has been used with success in ‘Classic Competitions’ held
OAL: ............................................. 65∙6mm.
Bullet length:................................ 25∙6mm.
at Bisley, producing respectable scores in the ‘medium
Bullet diameter-heel:.................... 10∙55mm. bore’ class. Acceptable groups of 88∙9mm at 100m are
Ogive length:................................ 6∙5mm. achievable, using German FO Triangle black powder, but
Bullet diameter at forcing-band:.. 10∙85mm.
Bullet weight: ............................... 20gm.
print 1∙6m high, due to the minimum 200 m rearsight
Cavity diameter: ........................... 5∙15mm, bell-shaped cavity. setting. A very fine sight with a 6 o’clock hold keeps rounds
Service velocity, Moschetto:.......... 410m/s @ 25m from muzzle. in the black. Regarding accurate effective range to strike a
Case Modello 1877
target, 500m is deemed the maximum.
Case: ............................................. balloon-head, made from
brass. Footnote
Primer: ......................................... Boxer.
Primer diameter: .......................... 4∙1 mm.
As mentioned earlier, the Modello 1870/87 life
Powder weight, Moschetto: ......... 3∙5 gm. was further extended by converting it to the Modello
Felt wad height: ........................... 8 mm. 1870/87/90 for the Modello 1890 smokeless cartridge,
Felt wad diameter:........................ 12 mm.
Case length: .................................. 48∙1 mm. and finally the 6∙5mm Carcano cartridge. During World
Case thickness at mouth:.............. 0∙2 mm. War I, a shortage of Modello 91 rifles forced every
Case thickness at head:................. 13∙7 mm. serviceable weapon into service and Modello 1870/87
Case mouth diameter:.................. 11∙2 mm after seating bullet. rifles were brought out of storage. Basically, the existing
Rim diameter: .............................. 16∙1 mm.
Rim width: ................................... 1∙8 mm. rifling was bored out to accept a tube sweated into
the barrel, a new six-round Mannlicher magazine was
Baionetta Modello 1870 added, the bolt was modified and firing pin hole bushed
Overall length:.............................. 531mm. to a smaller diameter, the magazine cut-off was omitted
Length of blade: ........................... 465mm. (tolerance of 2mm).
Blade width at base: ..................... 13mm. and the sights were revised to conform to the ballistics
Socket length:............................... 66mm. of the new cartridge. The system was designated as the
Socket inside diameter: ................ 17∙7mm. Armi Modello 70/87/15, and the end result was a
Socket outside diameter: .............. 21∙2mm. serviceable stop-gap arm. The choice made back in 1870
Elbow length: ............................... 27∙5mm.
Weight of bayonet:....................... 270gm. was undeniably the correct one, for the system adapted
Total length with bayonet fixed: .. 1,393mm. well to all the improvements.

www.classic-arms-and-militaria.com 37

34 Guy RWest.indd 37 11/11/2014 16:11


The Casemate Museum, Artillery, and

By Roy Stevenson

tour of Fort Monroe, With the Casemate Museum, General ABOVE: You can field gun has a 3-inch bore and is
Virginia, gives visitors Lee’s Headquarters, the Jefferson Davis tour General 73.3 inches long. Weighing in at 816
Lee’s quarters at
from the U.K. a great Memorial Park, the truly impressive Fort Monroe. It’s pounds, this piece could fire a 9-pound
insight into Union Lincoln Gun (more about that soon), a gorgeous brick shell 3972 yards.
machinations during and three battery sites, the fort offers house standing in As the museum’s name indicates, it’s
the American Civil War. With a history enough to keep military history the shade of a huge built into one of the casemate walls. It’s
spanning from 1607 to 2011, when it buffs interested for several hours. a hot, sunny, humid Virginia day and
was deactivated, the fort is considered And antique weapon and artillery the museum’s underground red brick
one of the U.S. military’s most storied aficionados strolling around its sizeable walls and curved ceiling provide a
bases and remains the largest stone fort grounds and ramparts will find the cooling shade, and the air conditioning
ever built in the United States. Casemate Museum and the behemoth is especially welcome.
Fort Monroe remained the only pre- Lincoln Gun of great interest. The early galleries are dedicated
war fort in the Upper South that stayed I start my tour in the Casemate to showing why and how the fort
under Union control for the entirety of Museum—a great place to get a crash was constructed. It’s located on the
the Civil War. And, in fact, it was such course in the fort’s history. Outside, waterway where the James River and
a major focal point and Union base for I see a grey 3-inch ordnance rifle Atlantic Ocean converge at the entrance
army and navy operations throughout Model 1861 standing on a recreated to Chesapeake Bay. This strategic
the Civil War that it would prove to be gun carriage. Made in 1863 for position controlled the harbor, which
a thorn in the side of the confederate Union forces by the Phoenix Iron in turn provided safe anchorage for
Army. Co, in Phoenixville, Pennsylvania, this warships and merchant ships.

38 www.classic-arms-and-militaria.com

38 Roy Stevenson.indd 38 11/11/2014 16:12

Discovered by colonists of the used Fort Monroe as his base for the
London Company in 1607, the point, Peninsula Campaign. And it served
located on the southern tip of the as the base from whence army-navy
James Peninsula, was originally named operations against Fort Fisher in North
“Point Comfort”. The Fort would Carolina were launched.
eventually be named in honor of Lincoln visited the fort in 1862 and
President James Monroe. 1865 and the former Confederate
I see an 8-inch British Siege Mortar President, Jefferson Davis, was
on display, one of the oldest guns at imprisoned here after the war.
the fort. This piece was manufactured Next I come to a series of what
at the Woolwich Arsenal for the British I presume to be 10-pounder guns,
Army. During the War of 1812 the black painted, and mounted on olive
Americans at Fort George, Canada,
RIGHT: With a
captured this piece in May 1813. It history spanning
was fired in anger by American forces from 1607 to
against the British at Plattsburg, New 2011, when it
York, in September 1814. was deactivated,
Fort Monroe
After American naval forces defeated is considered
the British naval forces on September one of the U.S.
11, the British land forces retreated to military’s most
Canada. Having a captured Woolwich storied bases.
This view shows
piece at Fort Monroe is ironic, as Fort the 8 foot
Monroe was to become the training deep moat that
school for U.S. artillerymen. surrounds the
I learn that construction of the fort.
stone fort began in 1819, to be LEFT: Black gun.
completed 15 years later. The fort has Finally we come
seven fronts, with ten feet thick walls to the Lincoln
and a surrounding 8-foot deep moat. Gun. You can’t
miss it. It’s
Originally it could accommodate 380 green gun carriages. Mannequins of relented and after five days, the enormous and
guns, but later expanded to a 412-gun artillerymen stand by the guns, neatly shackles were removed. lies across two
capacity. dressed in uniform. There’s not much Other rooms in the casemate are large concrete
In its time, the fort has had 14 information about these guns so I decorated as they were back in the stanchions on
the edge of the
batteries, with primarily 12-inch move on. day, as officer’s quarters and soldiers park-like central
mortars, 10-inch disappearing guns, Then I find the cell where Jefferson barracks. green.
8-inch Barbette guns, 6-inch pedestal Davis was imprisoned in 1865. Davis Further along the museum, I read
guns, and 3-inch masking parapet did not, apparently, take too well to that this fort was the official Artillery
rifles. the idea of being shackled. Various School of Practice, from 1824 to 1834.
In peacetime it was manned by accounts tell of him violently resisting Eventually renamed the Artillery School
600 men and in wartime, 2,625 men. the shackling, and sobbing, “Oh of the United States Army (1868 to
Fort Monroe has been continuously the shame, the shame!” His captors 1898) the cream of the United State’s
occupied since 1823. Interestingly, artilleryman crop was educated here
Second Lt. Robert E. Lee, who was on the fine art of blowing things to
to prove the South’s most capable smithereens.
general in the Civil War, was an
engineer here from 1831 to
1834. Lee worked on the
moat, the counterscarp, and
the water battery.
The fort was also used
as an arsenal in 1832, and
by 1841 it was one of
the four manufacturing
arsenals in the country.
Fort Monroe was used
as a Union base for the
North Atlantic Blockading
Squadron, and from where
amphibious expeditions to
capture Confederate ports This field gun was made in 1863 by the Phoenix
were launched. It was on the Iron Company of Phoenixville, Pennsylvania, for
the Union Forces. With a 3-inch bore and 73.3
Confederate route to Richmond. inches in length, and weighing 816 pounds, this
Major General George McClellan field gun could fire a 9-pound shell 3972 yards.

www.classic-arms-and-militaria.com 39

38 Roy Stevenson.indd 39 11/11/2014 16:12


An 8-inch British Siege Mortar, one of

the oldest guns at the fort. This piece was
manufactured at the Woolwich Arsenal for
the British Army. In May 1813, Americans
captured this piece at Fort George, Canada,
from the British.

Fort Monroe was the official Artillery School of Practice from 1824 to 1834. Eventually renamed the Artillery School
of the United States Army (1868 to 1898) the cream of the United State’s artilleryman crop was educated here.
I come to a battery of ten-pounders,
A variety of field, siege, and seacoast These mortars were designed to painted black and mounted on olive green
guns, mortars and howitzers were used drop on the deck of attacking ships, to gun carriages. Neatly dressed artillerymen
mannequins stand by their guns.
in training. The reader board tells me penetrate the engine room, magazine,
that instruction included loading and or other critical interior areas. Needless
firing procedures, the development to say, they inflicted catastrophic
of fuses, weights of charges, and damage when they found their target.
calculation of velocities and ranges of Another model depicts the fort’s
weapons. three 8-inch Breech-Loading Rifles
Officers were trained in mathematics, (model 1888). With a total length of
military history and law. The class of 278.5 inches, and the tube weighing
1869 consisted of 35 enlisted men and 4th photo down. 14.5 tons, these beasts could fire a
17 lieutenants. Notable artillerymen The cell where 316 pound high-explosive shell, for This room, in the Casemate Museum, is
who taught here included William F. Jefferson Davis was 11,019 yards. At 5,000 yards, it could an officer’s quarters, and decorated as it
held in 1865. He would have been back in the day.
Barry, an 1861 West Point Cadet who did not take well to penetrate 6.8 inches of steel armour
co-authored the 1860 Instruction for being imprisoned plate.
Field Artillery. He was chief of artillery and shackled, In 1907 the U.S. Army’s Artillery
under Major Generals McClellan and sobbing, ‘Oh the Corps was officially separated into
shame, the shame”.
Sherman during the Civil War. two branches: Coast Artillery and Field
George W. Getty, also a West Point 5th photo. Artillery. The field artillery moved to
Cadet, served gallantly as an artillery Front view of the Fort Sill, Oklahoma, and the Artillery
officer and was wounded during Lincoln Gun. This School at Fort Monroe became the
giant black barrel
the Battle of the Wilderness. He of destruction, Coast Artillery School.
commanded the school from 1877- cast in 1860, By 1945, the Coast Artillery School’s
83. John C. Tidball graduated from was originally function had changed to that of
West Point in 1848, and commanded named the Floyd antiaircraft defense, and the artillery
Gun. Renamed
artillery batteries at Antietam, after President school moved to Fort Winfield Scott,
Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Lincoln in 1862, California in this new role.
Gettysburg, and Spotsylvania. He wrote this was the first Having completed our museum
the Manual of Heavy Artillery Service. 15-inch Rodman visit, we walk through the tree-lined
Columbiad Gun,
He served as post commander from made by Thomas J. grounds and across the Jefferson Davis
1883-88. Rudman. Memorial Park. This small park’s only
Another gallery shows scale models remnant of war is the gunnery track
of 12-inch Seacoast Mortars built in The Lincoln Gun for a 15-inch Rodman gun. We visit
saw action against
1895 for coastal defence. The mortars, confederate General Lee’s quarters, a two-story
weighing 13 tons and with a length of batteries on sewell’s brick house in the shade of a huge tree.
141.1 inches, could fire two different Point near Norfolk, Other batteries available to visit are
high explosive projectiles. One Virginia. This brute the Seacoast Batteries, the Water Battery,
could fire a 300-lb
weighed 1,046 pounds and the second projectile (as seen and the Battery Gatewood.
weighed 824 pounds. The maximum here, embedded in Finally we come to the
range at 45 degrees elevation was concrete to prevent 49,199-pound Lincoln Gun. You can’t
12,019 yards. theft!), more than miss it. It’s enormous and lies across
4 miles
40 www.classic-arms-and-militaria.com

38 Roy Stevenson.indd 40 11/11/2014 16:13

two large concrete stanchions on the
edge of the central green.
This giant black barrel of destruction
was cast in 1860. Originally named
the Floyd Gun, it was renamed after
President Lincoln in 1862. This was the
first 15-inch Rodman Columbiad gun,
made by Thomas J. Rodman.
Proofing this gun took considerable
fires, about 500, according to records,
including firing 318-pound shells with
40-lb charges. It took a team of seven
men to run the gun into the battery,
and four to traverse it. Three men were
necessary to load the gun, but five were
preferred. It took a team of seven men to run the Lincoln
The gun’s recoil was 68 to 77 inches, Gun into the battery and four to traverse it. For
and the crew could fire one round off scale, my friend Ryan, from the Hampton Visitor’s
Bureau, stands beside it. He is about 6 feet tall.
every 4-5 minutes, remarkably efficient
handling for a gun of this magnitude!
A gallery in the
This piece eventually saw action CASEMATE MUSEUM:
Casemate Museum
against the Confederate batteries on Fort Monroe, Casemate 20, Bernard shows scale models
Sewells Point near Norfolk, Virginia. Road. of 12-inch mortars
This brute could fire a 300-lb projectile Ph.757-788-3391 built in 1895 for
coastal defence. The
more than four miles. Open Tuesday-Friday year round,
mortars, weigWhing
Fort Monroe is now a National 10:30 a.m.- 4:30 p.m. 13 tons and with
Monument, and deservedly so. It’s seen Closed Thanksgiving, December 25, a length of 141.1
a lot of history and served well. It’s a January 1 and Easter inches, could fire
high explosive
splendid place to visit for Civil War and Free Admission.
artillery fans.

C.S. Arms, Inc.

Cliff Sophia

Collector’s Arms 1700-1945 Militaria

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www.classic-arms-and-militaria.com 41

38 Roy Stevenson.indd 41 11/11/2014 16:13


British regimental bands’

Turkish Music
The illustration, of the British foot
guards parading at St James’s Palace,
c.1792, is a hand-coloured engraving
showing among the band’s ranks
three Black players, dressed as
Turkish musicians (Anne S.K. Brown
Military Collection https://repository.
bdr:228707/). They are depicted
playing Turkish music. There are two
key characteristics to indicate this:
• They are playing one of three
particular instruments (which they
specialised in): the cymbal, bass drum
and the tambourine/hand drum,
which is commonly a large timbrel/
hand drum.
• They are wearing specific clothing
(commonly understood to be
A final aspect was that they also
danced as they played. In period
accounts, these are described as
twirling, tossing and catching their
Fig 1
instruments, as well as dancing as
Dr Chris Flaherty they played alongside the rest of the
10 May 2014 marching band (described as ‘capering
rather than marching’, Fryer, p. 86).

ne of the rarest means to tighten the drum skin. He ABOVE: Fig 1 Introduction into the British Army
uniform costumes is a drummer from the newly formed In the Ottoman Janissary, the Mehter
to be worn in the 1826 Ottoman modern army. Up-to- or Band was a significant military
British Army was date images of traditional and modern development, which became
that of the ‘Turkish Ottoman costumes were available in legendary throughout Europe, and
Musician’, who were commonly Black Britain throughout the late 18th and the post-1700s saw a significant
musicians and favoured figures in the early 19th centuries; for instance, inThe emulation of this tradition with
late 18th and early 19th centuries. Military Costume of Turkey (Thomas the establishment of the European
Notwithstanding that, in ‘Britain ... McLean, London 1818). However, standing armies, largely patterned on
Turkish musicians were never used’ when we compare this figure with the the Ottoman example.
(Peter Fryer, Staying Power:The History three Turkish musicians from various The presence of Black musicians
of Black People in Britain, Pluto Press, British regiments, including Fig.1:G, in the 18th-century British Army is
1984, p. 83). These musicians were based on a colour print from an E. well known; however, their transition
part of the bands of several British Hull engraving of the 1829 Grenadier into Turkish musicians appears closely
regiments between 1785 and 1837, Guard’s Black musician time-beater, he related to the use of typically Ottoman
and were particularly associated with is dressed in flamboyant costume. This percussion instruments, such as the
the Foot Guards. Fig.1:A illustrates an is partly based on a Guards’ regiment cymbals, which the band of the 24th
actual Ottoman musician, taken from uniform, which has been significantly Foot was playing in 1777, while in
examples in the Vinkhuizjen and Anne altered into the ‘Oriental style’, even 1782 the Royal Artillery band was
S.K. Brown Military Collections. This including a turban headdress, and playing the bass drum and tambourine.
is a musician for the ‘Green’ regiment surmounted with a Turkish crescent, The Coldstream Guards had a ‘Jingling
from around 1826, and he is playing see: (http://www.britishempire.co.uk/ Johnnie’ (a specifically Janissary
a Janissary period snare-drum. The forces/armyunits/britishinfantry/ musical instrument consisting of a bell
large side triangles may be part of a 1stfootband1829.htm) tree) and two tambourines in their

42 www.classic-arms-and-militaria.com

42 Chris.indd 42 11/11/2014 16:14

band in 1785. In 1794 the band comprised edged with silver, representing oversized Iron triangle
one flute, six clarinets, three bassoons, three bridles, and these are attached to blue Fig.1:B illustrates a large triangle being
horns, one trumpet, two serpents and ‘Turkish shoulder straps, edged in the same lace as the held by the Turkish musician from 1811
Music’, specifically played by the Black rest of the jacket. (Fig.1:C). This instrument is much heavier,
musicians playing the bass drum, cymbals and A blue and silver-edged sash completes his and shown in the original image as much
tambourine. costume. This is worn over his left shoulder larger than its modern counterpart. It is
Peter Fryer, in his book Staying Power: and across his body. said that these were further modified by
The History of Black People in Britain (Pluto A huge white silk sheet is wrapped and tied threading metal jingles through the lower
Press, 1984) recounts how around 1784, at the back in a large bow. This forms a turban bar. Interestingly, this figure from a colour
the Duke of York, Colonel-in-Chief of the with feathers. It is further decorated with print showing the various uniforms of the
Coldstream Guards, imported from Germany a bead necklace, as well as a silver crescent 1811 Duke of Gloucester’s Band, is not
three Black musicians, two of whom, played badge. depicted as a Black player (even though
tambourines and one who played the A colour engraving of the British Footguards he is a Turkish musician), which seems to
‘Jingling Johnny’. Public performances by parading at St James’s Palace (discussed indicate an example of the popularity of
this band in St. James’s Park become popular, above), shows a particular feature still being Turkish music, imparted originally by the
attracting crowds. The Black players were used in the E. Hull engraving of the 1829 Guards’ band players in St. James’s Park
immediately popular, encouraging people Grenadier Guards’ black musician’s time- in public lessons. This seems to indicate
to seek tuition from them, also encouraging beater (see Fig.1:G), namely the contrasting that a specific ‘costume’ became directly
‘cultivated by many of those belles of white sleeves, with gold or red tape set in associated with the playing of these
distinction who were emulous to display vertical lines to the elbow, which is decorated instruments by enthusiasts.
Turkish attitudes and Turkish graces.’ (Fryer, with a gold-edged blue cross band, separating The 1811 Gloucester’s Band Turkish
p. 85) the white lower sleeve with five gold tape ‘uniform’, consists of a tall red peakless
chevrons. shako, wrapped with a turban, and a short
Turkish musicians’ uniform costume By 1829, a complete fantasy ‘Turkish’ tall hat jacket, with elaborate gold embroidery,
Fig.1:C-F-G, show three examples from with pointed top and high gilt crescent, was including button tape down the front of
1792, 1811 and 1829, illustrating the various invented, with a white turban held in place the jacket. It is completed with a gold waist
Turkish musicians’ uniform costumes. These with a type of cross-band in gold tape (secured sash. Much of this costume is pure fantasy;
uniforms are extravagant and subject to with a gilt oval badge). This outlandish however its essential elements – tall conical
variation and individual whims. However, headgear was completed with a large glass red hat, turban and gold embroidered shell
certain features can still be related to various red ruby set on a brass front plate. However, jacket and waist wrap – are all essentially
actual Ottoman dress in the period and there most illustrations of Turkish musicians tend correct elements, seen in contemporary
is a strong Mughal influence in the various to show the players with white turbans, illustrations of Ottoman cavalry, available
designs. including coloured bead-necklace decorations at this time in various picture books, for
Organising and dressing the Turkish and large coloured feathers. Many of the instance, Thomas Walsh’s Journal of the Late
musicians represented a large financial musicians also wear dangling bead and large Campaign in Egypt, Cadell & Davies, Strand,
investment by the regiments, as they tried drop earrings. These items tend not to be seen London (1803), colour Plate 33: ‘A Turkish
to out-do each other. It is recorded that the as specifically Ottoman in origin, but reflect horseman and a Turkish foot soldier’.
Coldstream Guards spent (Fryer, p. 85): Mughal influences – this is very clear from
• £3 9s. 2d. on ‘boots for the Black a illustration of a Cymbalist of Bucks Militia, Silver collars
musicians’ in 1792, with similar 1793 (Anne S.K. Brown Military Collection: Fig.1:E illustrates a silver collar, based on
disbursements in 1803 and 1804. http://library.brown.edu/cds/catalog/ what can be seen in the small portrait of
• In 1807, boots were again provided. catalog.php?verb=render&colid=13&id= John Fraser of the Coldstream guards,
• In 1808, ‘Turbans for the Band’, at a cost 1319749100390626). c.1790. Fryer records that, in the 1800s,
of £55. the band from the Coldstream Guards spent
Fig.1: F is based on the portrait of John The timbrel £24 15s. 2d. on ‘silver collars for the Black
Fraser of the Coldstream Guards, c.1790. He Fig.1:D, the tambourine, or timbrel, as they musicians’ (Fryer, p. 85). This particular
wears a modified British infantry red wool have many small bells as well as jingling silver collar (including a matching silver
jacket, which may be long tailed; both short/ plates in the rim, was the main instrument cuff) is clearly visible in the John Fraser
shell and tailed jackets are depicted worn associated with the Turkish musician. This portrait. This was originally from the Hon.
by the Turkish musicians among the British large instrument is illustrated, from the Christopher Lennox-Boyd collection of
Footguards parading at St James’s Palace, portrait of the tambourinist John Fraser of British mezzotints, which Christie’s auctioned
c.1792. His collar and buttonholed decorations the Coldstream Guards (whose uniform is in 2009. The actual artist is not known,
are faced in blue, for the Coldstream Regiment represented in Fig.1:F). It appears that this however Christie’s did identify, the portrait as
of Foot Guards. His jacket has no lapels but instrument was anything up to 90cm (2 feet After Mrs Ross (early 19th century) military
uses ‘Brandenburg holes’ with blue bases, 117⁄16 inches) in diameter (Fryer, p. 83). bandsman Fraser of the Coldstream guards.
edged with silver lace and ending with tassels. The tambourine is elaborately decorated (http://www.christies.com/lotfinder/
The short sleeves are a direct copy of Ottoman in blue (on the inside), and painted with a after-mrs-ross-militarybandsman-fraser-of/
caftans; these end above the elbows and are white trophy of trumpets between the brass 5179238/lot/lot_details.aspx?pos=
edged with red and white/silver fringe. He reinforced holes for the individual jingling 1&intObjectID=5179238&sid=&page=10).
wears a tight-fitting white cloth shirt which plates. On the outside, it is painted red (red/ Significantly, Christie’s black-and-white
ends with a closed blue shirt cuff – another blue are the colours of a royal regiment), and picture (in high resolution), shows the exact
distinctly Ottoman garment. Finally, his coat under one of the brass tightening screws the details of this collar. It was worn over Fraser’s
is fitted with shoulder covers in blue cloth Garter Star Badge has been painted. jacket collar and cravat (and neck stock), and

www.classic-arms-and-militaria.com 43

42 Chris.indd 43 11/11/2014 16:14


just visible is the jacket’s standing collar. The In 1831, the Black ‘time-beaters’ of the wearing a ‘badge of slavery in the form
silver collar itself displays elaborate engraving Worcestershire regiment wore a costume of a silver collar’ (Phyllis Cunnington and
work, with three etched lines at the top and that included a ‘silver-plated stock for Catherine Lucas. Occupational Costume in
base rows, and between this the central round the neck which opened with clasps and England, A & C Black, 1967: 177).
St. George’s Cross from the Garter Star Badge, fastened behind’ (p. 86). This peculiar item
with a trophy of flags and arms. – the silver collar or stock – has been noted 1920 representation
The three Black players, dressed as Turkish elsewhere; for instance William Hogarth’s By 1840, the Turkish Musician had
musicians, in the coloured engraving of the engraving ‘A Harlot’s Progress’ (plate II: disappeared from regimental bands. In the
British Footguards parading at St James’s 1732), distinctly shows this item. Even 1920 film, Caterham Surrey Military Tattoo
Palace, are depicted with a grey band around though this illustration is from an earlier Wembley soldiers’ period costumes (http://
their necks, whereas the other band players are period, there are some strong similarities. www.britishpathe.com/video/as-in-days-of-
all shown with plain coat collars, neck stocks The Hogarth image includes the figure of old/query/TATTOO) Title: ‘AS IN DAYS of
and cravats. The cymbalist also clearly has the a Black child servant, wearing a feathered OLD. Guards in hundred-year-old uniforms
same grey bands around his wrists as well. turban. On close inspection, this has an rehearse for great Military Tattoo to be held
A silver collar from 1784 is still retained identical double string of beads decorating in Wembley Stadium’. This film contains a
by the Queen’s Royal Hussars (which uses it, to that on Fig.1:F. The Victoria and representation of the Turkish musicians, played
the kettle drums of the former 3rd Hussars). Albert Museum commentary states: ‘It by soldiers/actors, complete with black face
This is said to date from 1772, when the wife has been suggested that the figure of the paint. The official period description, says:
of Lord Southampton, who commanded servant reflects Hogarth’s beliefs about the ‘Some of the musicians have been ‘blacked
the regiment, gave it to be worn by the “destabilising’ influence of transatlantic up’, they are followed by a battalion of
kettle drummer (http://www.army.mod. trade”, and in particular draws attention soldiers in Regency style period costumes.’
uk/armoured/regiments/32494.aspx). to the “dehumanising silver slave collar” The costumes depicted in this film, are
However, there is a discrepancy in the that the servant wears’ (http://www.vam. reasonably accurate interpretations of the type
date when this item was given, as Fryer ac.uk/content/articles/s/silver-service- of uniforms worn in the period; however,
relates that the collar can be related to the slavery-the-black-presence-in-the-white- this display, which was attempting to recreate
regiment’s own Black kettle drummer, for home/). This link to domestic slavery is events from a century earlier, illustrates the
the 3rd Hussars in 1776, ‘and the regiment strongly made in Thomas L. Blair’s Black crazy flamboyant uniform costumes of the
is said still to possess the solid silver collar he Britannia: Roots In 18th Century London Turkish musician that became popular and a
wore, presented in 1775’ (p. 84). (2013), specifically noting the practice of hallmark of the Regency period.

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Miniature cannon. Re-loading tools. Sights & spares.
Rifle, pistol &&clay
Miniature Cannon.
steve@barbicanarmoury.co.uk • 0191 3782880
Re-loading tools
Powders & Ammunition.


Sights & Spares.
Rifle,Pistol & Clay club.
Visit our web site:
“Providing Antique Restoration Supplies www.barbicanarmoury.co.uk
to professionals & collectors alike” 0191 3782880
Specialist suppliers of repair and restoration
materials for antiques, coins, medals, books,
ephemera & all types of collectables
Fast reliable worldwide mail order service

Email: martin@tapesandpolishes.com Tel: 01782 822986
www.classic-arms-and-militaria.com 45

p45_caamDecJan15.indd 45 11/11/2014 15:42


Bill Harriman guides you through a range of the latest historical literature

Victorian 0-45 and 0.303 Calibre Maxim

Guns 1887-1902 By Ian James Cross
This is a detailed study of the late 19th century’s most successful gun in that war cannot really be
machine gun. The author uses reworked contemporary War Office understood without knowledge of
material to describe the guns’ construction and use with great clarity their antecedents. As Hilaire Belloc put
for the lay reader. Variants used by the Royal Navy and the regular it, ‘Whatever happens we have got the
Army are described in detail. Maxim Gun and they have not.’
It has to be borne in mind that these guns were not used primarily As would be expected from D P &
as close infantry support weapons, but as light artillery, often mounted G, the book’s production quality is
on wheeled carriages drawn by horses. However, few commanders superb. It is bound in green buckram
were left in doubt as to their powerful capabilities; they simply had no with gold letters to the spine and the Royal Arms on the front board.
real idea of how to deploy them effectively. This book is both handsome and informative, and will delight both
The book deals with wheeled carriage mounts, cones for the Navy the bibliophile and the technical historian. Highly recommended.
and tripods borne on mules. There is also a chapter on tactics and
details of the guns’ mechanism and function. In this the centenary Hardbound, 102 pages, 76 A4 plates, 19 contemporary black-and-
of the outbreak of World War I, when the machine gun came to white photos
dominate battlefields, its publication is especially significant. The D P & G Publishing, £45.00 plus p & p
construction and deployment of the Maxim gun and Vickers machine www.Military-naval-history.co.uk

British Cartridge Reloading Tools, 2nd Edition

By David Baker
It is always a pleasure to review one of David Baker’s titles. He is one artisan-bound in an attractive dark
of our leading historians on the British shotgun and its equipment. green with gold tooled letters on the
He is the author of many learned books, notably the trilogy The spine and a gold reloading tool image
British Shotgun.This is the welcome second edition of David’s earlier on the front board. It will grace
book on the gadgets used to reload shotgun cartridges. The first anyone’s bookcases and is remarkable
edition is long out of print and sought after. The expanded second value for money.
edition has some 43 extra entries and several new appendices.
This book is self-explanatory in content; collectors, curators and 245 pages, numerous drawings,
auctioneers should not be without it. mainly from patents or original
The first edition was produced with card covers only. The second illustrations
edition is printed on high-quality paper, sewn and glued and £38, plus £5 p&p david.baker14@btinternet.com

The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War I
By Chris Bishop

This book describes itself as a comprehensive Guide to Weapons Casebound, 272 pages with 600 colour
Systems, including Tanks, Small Arms, Warplanes, Artillery, Ships plates and photos. Amber Books, £24.99
and Submarines. No further remarks are needed. www.amberbooks.co.uk
This is an informative general reference work that will answer
a simple question or encourage further detailed reading. The FOR YOUR CHANCE TO WIN A COPY
diagrams are clear and the photographs complement the text. It is Visit www.warners.gr/competitions14 to answer the simple
a very useful book which will have wide appeal. question and enter. Closing date 30th January 2015. Good Luck!

46 www.classic-arms-and-militaria.com

46 Books.indd 46 12/11/2014 14:18

Osprey Publishing
Osprey Publishing has established itself as a publishing
house with a wide base of military titles ranging in time-
scale from the earliest times to the present day. It offers
books on weapons, campaigns, battles and uniforms, each
within its own series. Here are three of the many new
titles on offer. They are all very readable, good sources
of information, illustrated in colour and inexpensive,
making them widely accessible to historians, re-enactors
and collectors.

From the ‘Weapon’ series: The M14 Battle Rifle by Leroy the Lobsters, in split-screen artwork. Comparisons can be made at
Thompson. A detailed study of the modernised version of the a glance. PRP £11.99
Garand which was first deployed in Vietnam before being developed
as a sniping rifle. PRP £12.99 From the ‘Men-at-Arms’ series: The Spanish Civil War 1936 39 (1)
Nationalist Forces by Aejandro de Quesada. Thirty-four year after
From the ‘Combat’ series: American Revolutionary War – Osprey produced their first title on this conflict, this book looks in
Continental versus Redcoat by David Bonk. Yankee Doodle fights detail at the forces of Generalissimo Franco. PRP £9.99

Legions in Crisis – The Transformation of the

Roman Soldier AD 192-284 By Paul Elliott
The Roman Empire stumbled and almost fell in the third Key events that shape our
century AD, weighed down by civil war, usurpers, invasion, understanding are explained,
plague and inflation. Rome teetered on the brink of disaster. including the rise of Septimius
Legions in Crisis looks at the crippling body blows inflicted on the Severus, the fall of Dura Europus
Roman Empire during this trauma. In particular it charts the and the tough stance of the eastern
changes that the legions underwent, sometimes by Imperial queen, Zenobia. A discussion of
decree, at other times through necessity. The idea of the legions artefacts, equipment, clothing
as an unchangeable, undefeatable elite is challenged here as and weaponry is enhanced
we see the army transformed, along with its equipment and through the experiments and
weaponry. reconstructions of the author
The book begins by explaining how the changes in the period who has specialised in the third-
200-300 AD first came about, moves on to look in detail at century Roman period.
the legions and how they started to differ in organisation and
weaponry to those of the past, then moves back to chart the Casebound, 160 pages, 16 Pages of 39 colour illustrations
bloody military history of the end of the third century. Fonthill, £18.99 www.fonthillmedia.com

Roman Shields
By Hilary and John Travis,

The authors are both academics who are also re-enactors and the shields by reconstructing them
reconstructive archaeologists. This gives them a unique perspective and subjecting them to regular
on their subject, lending great authority and credibility to their use and combat conditions.
work. This an excellent companion
The Roman military is an iconic, ancient institution; everybody is volume to the authors’ book
familiar with the image of fearsome Roman centurions marching in Roman Body Armour. Both titles
their famous columns. In this book, the authors turn their attention increase our knowledge of the
to the shields used the Romans drawing on their expertise, a wealth Roman war machine.
of illustrated material and the world of re-enactments.
The book differs from others in that it has drawn together Casebound, 208 pages, 117
sculptural imagery and archaeological ‘hard’ evidence, while also illustrations including 21 in
looking at the shields’ component parts and how they are put colour
together. The authors have attempted to show the physical aspects of Amberley Publishing, £25.00 www.amberley-books.com

www.classic-arms-and-militaria.com 47

46 Books.indd 47 11/11/2014 16:15


John Dickson and Son - The Round Action Gunmaker

by Donald Dallas

The author is one of our greatest and prolific The company was also fortunate in
historians of British sporting firearms and having a wealthy patron in the shape of
the domestic gun trade in general. This is the eccentric Charles Gordon. As well
his ninth book. Having covered all the great as purchasing a large percentage of
houses in the London trade, he turns his the company’s output, he allowed it to
historian’s skills to the land of his birth and showcase the excellence of its products,
its most iconic gunmaker, John Dickson of which were built to the highest quality.
Edinburgh. John Dickson III retired in 1923 and
The book describes Dickson’s production the business was sold. It continues from
of muzzle loaders – both shotgun and premises in Frederick Street where high
rifles, and the international acclaim visited quality round actions continue to be
on Dickson’s two groove percussion rifles. built. The book is produced by Quiller
It is a little known fact that Dickson’s was The book has several very useful Publishing and as usual production quality
the first firm to fit telescopic sights to appendices, including a family tree and is superb. It is printed on heavy glossy paper
rifles. It continues with breech-loaders, glossary of Patents associated with the and the marker ribbon is a nice touch. For
most particularly the famous round action, firm. There is a facsimile catalogue from the bibliophile there are 25 leather bound
developed in the 1880s and still built today. 1930 and full-sized representations of copies priced at £500.
This is better termed a trigger plate action, trade labels. The most important appendix, This is the ideal Christmas present for
and it has come to define many of the which puts this book in a class of its own, every Dickson owner or for anyone who
products of the Scottish gun trade. As well is the complete representation of the loves best-quality British guns.
as the round action, the famous Dickson company’s ledgers from 1838 to date. This Case bound, ribbon bookmark, 447
three-barrelled gun is described together lists every firearm made and will be of photographs and drawings, many never
with the bizarre, side opening over and great interest to historians, collectors and previously published. Limited edition of
under gun of 1888. Dickson owners. 1,000 copies, £60.00 www.donalddallas.com

French Artillery & the Gribeauval System 1786 – 1815

Volume 1 – Foot Artillery by Jean Marie Mongin & Dominic Letrun

Dragoons Volume 1, 1669 – 1749

by Veronique & Dominic Letrun

There are two new books in the French

Series Histoire and Collections (published
in the UK by Casemate UK). This is a series
covering predominantly French uniforms.
They are profusely illustrated by computer-
generated graphics which, although
they may lack the charm of more artistic
paintings, are very effective in conveying
information and show great clarity of detail.
They are inexpensive, full of detail and
highly recommended.
Veronique & Dominic Letrun, Dragoons
Jean Marie Mongin & Dominic Letrun, Volume 1, 1669 – 1749
French Artillery & the Gribeauval System Card covers, 66 colour plates illustrating 60
1786-1815: Volume 1 – Foot Artillery horsemen and 20 flags, with their weapons
Card covers, 71 colour plates, £16.99 £16.99 www.casematepublishing.co.uk
www.casematepublishing.co.uk equipment (artillery, ammunition, front
axle units, forges, etc.). The construction This book describes the uniform of the
This work describes the uniforms of the tables provide a clear representation of field French Dragoons over this 80 year period,
foot artillery between 1786 and 1815. In artillery pieces as well as the basic artillery covering the wars of the late 17th century
addition it gives a detailed description of tactics employed by the Army. through those of Louis XIV to Louis XV.

48 www.classic-arms-and-militaria.com

48 Books.indd 48 13/11/2014 11:48

John J. Hayes
(717) 337-3013

Gettysburg, PA

We are a leading British War Medal dealership
based in the heart of London.

We specialise in British and World Orders, Decorations

and Medals and carry an extensive range of general
militaria from both Great Britain and around the world. PO Box 505, Huntingdon Cambridgeshire, PE29 2XW
www.london-medals.co.uk Send for FREE catalogue containing over 1000
020 7836 8877 BOOKS on weapons, militaria and military history.

Tel: +44 (0) 1480 454292

Fax: +44 (0) 1480 384651

Visit us at www.kentrotman.com
email: enquiries@kentrotman.com

The Treasure Bunker Militaria Shop

21 King Street, Glasgow G1 5QZ, Scotland, UK.
Tel. 0141 552 8164


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If you are thinking of selling any British
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www.classic-arms-and-militaria.com 49

p49_caamDecJan15.indd 49 13/11/2014 11:36




USITANIA R.E.X To this day, experts continue In 1905, RIBA President Aston
weaves fiction around to debate the cause of the second Webb was approached by Cunard
the known facts to explosion that sealed her fate Lines to assist in the selection of
create a plausible after the torpedo struck. Imperial architects for the Lusitania and
explanation of some Germany immediately claimed her sister ship the Mauretania.
of the mysteries surrounding the she was loaded with explosives It was the first time Cunard
sinking of this great ship. Since destined for the front. The story hired professional architects to
being hit by a single torpedo unfolds on both sides of the design their ships. Given the
on May 7th 1915, the passenger Atlantic Ocean in settings that architectural significance of
liner has been wrapped in range from gilded palaces and the Lusitania and the beautiful
mystery and intrigue. This is the Lusitania to the blood-soaked art deco interiors of RIBA, the
a story of the Lusitania replete trenches of Ypres. launch party will evoke the YOUR CHANCE TO WIN
with spies and secret societies, Greg Taylor has been fortunate atmospheric feeling of the great A LIMITED EDITION
superweapons, millionaires and to develop a relationship with liners during the First World COLLECTORS COPY
martyrs. The narrative is centred the descendants of some of the War era. Literally PR have given us
on one of the wealthiest men main characters in the book. 5 limited edition collectors
in the world, Alfred Vanderbilt, Alfred Vanderbilt’s grandson, the UK Publication (Author’s copies of Lusitania R.E.X
who ignored warnings from the Duke of Marlborough and Trubee Limited Edition): November 25 by Greg Taylor to give away,
German Embassy, confident the Davison’s grandson have all shared 2014 - Published by Filament for your chance to win a
fastest ship in the world could original material and anecdotes Publishing and Autharium copy visit www.warners.gr/
outrun enemy submarines about their grandparents that are Historical fiction / Faction competitions14 to answer
during WW1. Alfred lost his life reflected in the story. Sadly, the £22.95 for the Author’s Limited the simple question and
but first saved many children Duke passed away last month, just Edition ahead of international enter. Closing date 30th
and gave his life jacket to a days before his copy of LUSITANIA release of paperback in March January 2015. Good Luck!
female stranger. R.E.X arrived at Blenheim Palace. 2015. Also available as an eBook.


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50 Competition.indd 50 13/11/2014 12:18

MARLOW’S 12 February 2015
The next Marlows military WWI British private-
auction will be held on purchase combat knife,
Thursday 12 February 2015. a WWII beaded
Cataloguing has just started and ribbed F-S
for this sale and it has already fighting knife, a WWI T h e sword category
attracted a large variety of escape knife by Rodgers, which will include a rare Russian
collectables new to the market. is similar in construction to the made Gladius short sword
There will be another WWII SOE pocket knife, and with Russian Cyrillic maker’s
selection of the large a rare BC41 field-converted marks, a Spanish Artillery
consignment of combat combat knife with one knuckle short sword, an 1897 Indian
knives which will consist of removed, so that it could still Infantry Officer’s sword with
over 50 items, including an be used when using a rifle or presentation panel to the blade,
extremely rare WWI German sub-machine gun. and Army Medical Officer’s
combat trench knife, with a There will be a large gun sword, a late-18th century
wooden gripped handle and a section in this sale, in excess German Hussar’s sword similar working dress tunic for India
combination of various tools of 50 items, including a to the 1788 pattern, a British service.
hanging from the side panels. small collection of old spec 1821 pattern Light Cavalry The auction commences at
There will also be a small deactivated guns. These will sword, a British 1853 Cavalry 12 noon, with viewing from
selection of WWI variants of consist of an M1 Garand rifle by Trooper’s sword and an 1885 10 a.m. The saleroom manager,
German combat trench knives, Springfield Armoury, a British Cavalry Trooper’s sword. Kevin King, can be contacted
a WWI/WWII Italian combat issue P14 rifle complete with Other categories in this sale on 07789 628030 to help
knife, a WWI/WWII Dutch its long range sights, an M1/A1 will include a small collection with any of your questions. If
combat knife, a post-WWI Thompson SMG, a MKII Sten of North Lancashire Regiment you have any items which you
Spanish Special Operations SMG, a MKIII Sten SMG and a items including a 3rd North wish to be entered into our
knife, a WWII American German MG34 LMG complete Lancashire Senior NCO’s scarlet next available sale then please
Carlson raider’s knife by Collins in its wooden transit chest with tunic, a North Lancashire do not hesitate to contact
& Co., a WWI American 1917 drum magazine, anti-aircraft working dress scarlet tunic and Kevin King and he will be
pattern trench knife, a rare sight and spare barrel case. a Loyal North Lancashire khaki happy to assist you.

In its auction of Antique Arms
& Armour the Fischer Gallery dating from around 1300 B.C. Flintlock rifle, Varnier, French, around 1670/80.
has auctioned once again Sold for CHF 67’200 | EUR Sold for CHF 54’000 | EUR 43’200 (incl. buyer’s
objects of high quality and 56’000 (incl. buyer’s premium) premium)
of historic importance. The
Chepesh-sword, dating from
around 1300 b.c. was sold
for CHF 56 000 (incl. buyer’s
premium). This type of sword
is extremely rare and in good
condition. It can often be seen
in the hands of dignitaries on
Egyptian wall paintings of the
New Kingdom. Here are our
Top5 of the this year’s auction
sale. The Fischer Gallery has
once again underlined its
remarkable position as one
of the leading auctioneers for
Blackened armour, Southern Spatha, Benelux/Northern Half-armour, German or Swiss,
arms and amour in Europe. Visit Germany, around 1580. Sold for: around 1600. Sold for CHF 31’200
Germany, 6/7 century. Sold for
http://www.fischerauktionen. CHF 54’000 | EUR 45’000 (incl. CHF 43’200 | EUR 36’000 (incl. | EUR 26’000 (incl. buyer’s
ch for further information. buyer’s premium) buyer’s premium) to a museum. premium

www.classic-arms-and-militaria.com 51

51 Auctions.indd 51 11/11/2014 16:16


HOLT’S London 11 December

Holt’s Auctioneers is selling a Having made a short stop E.C. Hodges patent action, MAILSCHIP “PRINS FREDERIK”
12-bore Holland & Holland at Southampton, the ship patent no. 251 of 31st January TE FALMOUTH. JUNI EN JULI.
hammergun that forms part headed out towards the Bay 1871, use number 988, carved 1890.’
of a great maritime story of Biscay into increasingly percussion fences, rebounding Estimate: £2,000-3,000
back in 1890. Following the poor weather conditions. back-action locks with dolphin Lot 1800 is for sale on
sinking of the Dutch mailship That night, a catastrophic hammers, finely engraved with Thursday 11th December in
‘Prins Frederik’, the gun was collision occurred between the acanthus scrollwork and floral London.
presented to W. Montgomery fogbound Prins Frederik and a bouquets, retaining traces of
by the Dutch Government to British steamship, the Marpessa, original colour-hardening
commemorate his helpfulness a cargo ship carrying oats and and finish, 14 3/8in. highly
during the ordeal. The barley with a Captain William figured stock (cracked and
location of the ‘Prins Frederik’ Geary at the helm. The Prins with insert repairs at hand), the
remains today one of the Frederik sank within minutes. left side with large oval white
greatest maritime mysteries, The gun has 31in. black metal presentation plaque
confounding generations of powder only bold damascus inscribed with the Netherlands
salvage companies and treasure barrels, rib engraved ‘HOLLAND governmental coat of arms
hunters who have tried to locate & HOLLAND. 98. NEW BOND and ‘HET NEDERLANDSCHE
the wreck and its valuable cargo. STREET. LONDON.’, 2 1/2in. GOUVERNEMENT AAN
The ship was en route from chambers, bored approx. W. MONTGOMERY TER
Amsterdam to Java, with true cyl. and 1/2 choke, HERINNERING AAN ZYNE
400,000 silver rijksdaalders bore dimensions marginal HULPVAARDIGHEID JEGENS
Lot 1800: A Holland & Holland
on board - the equivalent to and left wall thickness below DE SCHIPBREUKELINGEN hammergun linked to an unsolved
one million Dutch guilders. recommended minimum, VAN HET NEDERLANDSCHE maritime mystery in 1890

BONHAMS San Francisco November 10 and 11

At the time of going to press engraved Colt third model Colt’s Hartford factory, is another
Bonhams has 375 lots of fine dragoon .44-caliber percussion major highlight of the sale (est.
antique arms from the estate of revolver, serial number 12405 for $600,000-800,000).
Joseph A. Murphy at their sale 1852 (est. $300,000-500,000). The sale features a number
on November 10, followed by a The gun was sold by the Whitney of fine Colt automatics. One is
455 lot auction of antique arms family in 1971 and had been a gift a factory-engraved Colt Model auction was an exceptional cased
and armor and modern sporting from Samuel Colt to Eli Whitney. 1902 Military semi-automatic pair of silver and gold mounted
guns on November 11 in San There is also a Colt third model .38-ACP caliber pistol, inscribed Philadelphia percussion pistols
Francisco. dragoon .44-caliber percussion ‘General Victoriano Huerta,’ by Henry Deringer, presented
An exceptional group of cased revolver, serial number 19432, engraved by William H. Gough, by Brigadier General Thomas
and engraved Colt revolvers lead that was one of a very limited serial number 35832, and Jefferson Brady to his son Arthur
the November 10 sale. There are number of third model dragoons shipped in 1914 (est. $50,000- Wolfe Brady (est. $40,000-
three Patersons, two of which are produced with 8-inch barrels 80,000). Huerta was a Mexican 60,000). The pair is among a
cased with accessories. A silver- (est. $200,000-300,000). military officer and the president selection of rare Henry Deringer
banded Colt ‘Texas’ Paterson Other cased and engraved of Mexico between February 19, percussion pistols of varying
No. 5 Holster Model percussion examples in exemplary 1913 and July 15, 1914. Also on estimates.
revolver, serial number 985, the condition include a Model 1848 offer the mate and near pair to In addition, a fine selection
only engraved and silver-banded Baby Dragoon (est. $100,000- the Huerta pistol, serial number of Confederate revolvers is on
Paterson with a 6-inch barrel, is 150,000); a Model 1849 35751, made for and inscribed offer, including two Leech &
of particular note (est. $300,000- pocket revolver (est. $125,000- with the name of his Secretary Rigdon .36-caliber revolvers, one
500,000). In the Wadsworth 200,000); three 1851 Navies, of War, Gen. Aureliano Blanquet unserialized and the other serial
Atheneum, serial number 984 including one with shoulder (est. $50,000-80,000). Blanquet number 15 (each estimated
is identified as part of Col. stock (est. $150,000-250,000 led the coup d’etat during the at $50,000-75,000). They
Colt’s personal collection. As the for that); and a deluxe Model Decena Trágica. He is known as are the only known complete
cylinder on number 985 appears 1860 Army revolver (est. one of the major villains of the specimens with the “Leech &
to be numbered 984, there has $100,000-200,000). Mexican Revolution. There is Rigdon Novelty Works and CSA”
been considerable conjecture The famous H.A.G. Pomeroy also a Colt Model 1905 semi- markings.
that the two were once a pair cased presentation set of Colt automatic pistol, serial number 0, For results visit www.bonhams.
owned by Colt himself. percussion revolvers, serial the first .45 automatic produced com/auctions/21653/
There are several deluxe cased numbers 69640 and 4473, given by Colt (est. $40,000-60,000). and www.bonhams.com/
dragoons, including a factory- by Col. Colt to the architect of Of further note in the auctions/22113/.

52 www.classic-arms-and-militaria.com

51 Auctions.indd 52 11/11/2014 16:18

JAMES D. JULIA Fairfield, ME ~ October 7-9
Julia’s once again raised the an extremely rare and desirable personal collection of Brigadier Day 1 also included Session
bar for the highest grossing Vickers Maxim Model 1904 General Theo C. Mataxis.  III of the extraordinary Dr.
firearms auction in history at an formerly used by the Fox Movie General Mataxis was a veteran of Geoffrey Sturgess (of Zurich,
incredible $19.2 million.  They Studios brought $74,750.  The WWII, the Korean War, Vietnam Switzerland) collection of auto-
have said many times that they very next lot, an exceedingly and an advisor in Afghanistan.  loading weapons.  This session
do not sell the greatest number rare lightweight experimental During his lifetime of service to offered an extraordinary Walther
of guns in a given year, but they Maxim Watercool gun made for his country, he also collected war Armee Pistol with long barrel
do sell the greatest number of the 1906 Troop Trials bearing trophies in many key encounters and matching magazine having
high end expensive guns. This SN #1 realized $69,000.  An in which he had been involved, an alloy frame and original stock
was once again affirmed by exceedingly rare and unusual which chronicled the history of bearing SN #10.  In superb
the great success of this recent Villa Perosa 1915 Twin 9mm his service.  Most notable was condition (other than a tight
auction.  Approximately 550 Machine gun originally made the Chinese copy of a Soviet old stress crack in the rear of the
lots realized $10,000 or above as anti-aircraft weapon was RPD belt fed machine gun that slide cover), it carried a presale
(nearly 37% of the sale).  In in outstanding nearly new was captured November 1965 estimate of $75,000-100,000. 
addition, over 60 items realized condition and carried a presale in Vietnam.  It carried a presale It was highly competed for and
$50,000 or more.  estimate of $40,000-60,000.  estimate of $20,000-25,000 finally realized $155,250.  A
The first day began with It saw heavy bidding and went and finished out at $100,625.    Walther Volkspistole all sheet
Class III weapons.  Most out at $57,500.  Almost more A Russian PPSH 41 submachine metal SA prototype 9mm
notable was the Evergreen exciting than the machine gun DeWat Negant Revolver that parabellum bearing SN #6 was
Ventures Collection which had gun itself was the next lot, an was captured at one of the most estimated at $65,000-95,000. 
formerly been on display at the incredibly scarce Villa Perosa famous of Korean engagements It experienced a fierce bidding
Evergreen Aviation Museum. gunner chest (only a couple in April of 1953 fought at Pork battle, which topped out at
The collection formed by Delford are known to exist) with ten Chop Hill realized $13,800.   A $143,750. 
Smith and his son, Michael King magazines.  It carried a presale German MP 44 Assault Rifle More details about this
Smith, represented one of the estimate of $5,000-10,000 and DeWat captured from the 6th historic auction can be had
largest finest offerings of Class realized $34,500.    Evergreen’s SS Mountain Division together by visiting Julia’s website at
III to ever come to auction.  This Class III’s however were not with a Nazi flag carried a jamesdjulia.com. Julia’s next
sale included Session I of this the only Class III’s offered in presale estimate of $12,000- firearms auction is scheduled
notable collection.  The top lot, this sale.  Also included was the 18,000.  It realized $27,600.  for March 2015.


Laidlaw Auctioneers and Flying Corps photographic
Valuers of Carlisle, founded archive assembled by an RFC
early this year by BBC antiques technician involved in the
expert Paul Laidlaw, held their development of aerial machine
most recent specialist sale of gun interrupter mechanisms
Medals, Arms & Militaria on sold for £520. However, it was
6 September. As with all their the important group pertaining
auctions, and unlike many in to RAF fighter ace Squadron
this field, it included only fresh- Leader James MacLachlan DFO,
to-the market material and DFC and bars, comprising
privately consigned collections flying log books and diaries,
of quality material. together with items belonging
The sale commenced with to his RAF fighter pilot brother,
medals and included a rare SOE which stole the show, selling for
gallantry group which sold for £7,700. Later in the auction an in uncommonly fine condition, All Laidlaw Auctioneers &
£10,000. However, the largest RAF Pathfinder uniform group which resulted in a £280 result, Valuers’ specialist auctions
category of the event was that of sold for £680. and a group of World War II take place on Saturdays and
badges and insignia, featuring The edged weapons section Japanese trophy swords which have fully illustrated online
an important and lifetime’s included an 18th-century sold for up to £3,800 each. catalogues featuring a live
collection of Royal Engineers Scottish Highland Regiment Amongst the firearms was a internet bidding facility. They
material which totalled over basket-hilted sword which sold Winchester Model 1873 44-40 offer free pre-sale valuations
£25,000 on for £820, a Victorian Sappers calibre rifle which hammered and can be contacted on 01228
Aviation enthusiasts were & Miners bayonet which at £900, and a restored 1855 904905 or by email using
treated to two rare ephemera reached £340, a World War I Royal Sappers & Miners Carbine enquiries@laidlawauctioneers.
groups. A World War I Royal German DEMAG trench knife closing the sale at £520. co.uk.

www.classic-arms-and-militaria.com 53

51 Auctions.indd 53 11/11/2014 16:19

30 November 14 December
&EVENTS 1 March 2015
12 December 2014 Newark Arms, Medal & Wolverley Militaria Fairs The Bristol Fine Antique
Lacy Scott and Knight Militaria Fair Wolverley Memorial Hall, Arms Fair
Auctioneers Cedric Ford Pavilion, Wolverley, The Holiday Inn Bristol-Filton
10 Risbygate St, Bury St NEWARK Showground Nr. Kidderminster BS16 1QX
Edmunds, Suffolk NG24 2NY DY11 5TN T: 07771 742191 or
T: 01284 748600 T: 01423 780759 or 07889 T: 01562 851489 / 07816 07860 782286
E: fineart@lsk.co.uk 799896 or 853878 W: www.tricornfairs.co.uk
www.lskauctioncentre.co.uk www.northernarmsfairs.co.uk E: info@tricornfairs.co.uk

30 November 14 December EUROPE AND ABROAD

12 December 2014 Mark Carter Militaria & 5-6 December
GHQ Fairs
Marlows Military Medal Fairs The Maltings, Mohawk Arm
Auctions Yate Leisure Centre, off Bridge Sq, Farnham, Inc. PO Box 157,
T: 07789 628030 Kennedy Way, Yate, nr. Surrey GU9 7QR Bouckville,
info@marlowsauctions.co.uk Chipping Sodbury, Bristol T: 01892 730 233 NY 13310, USA
www.marlowsauctions.co.uk BS37 4DQ www.ghq.uk.com T: 315 893 7888
T: 01753 534777 F: 315 893 7707
E: markgcarter@ E: Mohawk@militaryrelics.com
13 December 2014 bulldoghome.com www.militaryrelics.com
Laidlaw Auctioneers & W: www.milweb.net/dealers/ 17 January 2015
Valuers trader/markcarter.htm Stockport Antique Arms,
Escott Business Park, Armour & Militaria Fair
7 December Britannia Hotel, 5 – 7 December
Rome St, Carlisle CA2 5LE Rock Island Auction
T: 01228 904905 Chelmsford Militaria Fair Dialstone Lane,
E: enquiries@ Marconi SocialClub, Beehive Offerton, Company Premiere
laidlawauctioneers.co.uk Lane, Chelmsford,Essex Stockport SK2 6AG Firearms Auction,
www.laidlawauctioneers.co.uk T: James 07595 511981 E: davidowensmcs@ymail. 7819 42nd Street West,
E: james@ com Rock Island, IL 61201.
December 2014 chelmsfordmilitaria.com T: 0161 624 6211 or T: 001 309 797 1500
Southams 07966 276 033 F: 001 -309 797 1655
8 Market Place, Oundle, 7 December www.stockportmilitaria.org E: info@rockislandauction.
Northants PE8 4BQ Bromsgrove Militaria Medal com
T: 01832 273565 & Arms Collectors Fair 22 February
F: 01832 272077 Spadesbourne Suite, The Preston Arms & Militaria
E: guns@southams.com Council House, Burcot Lane Fair 29-30 April 2015
W:www.southams.com Bromsgrove B60 1AA Samlesbury Canberra Historic Firearms and Early
T: 07980 608211 Club, Myerscough Road, Militaria
E: fairs@RZMilitaria.com Balderstone,
Live Salesroom Auction
30 November www.RZMilitaria.com Cowan’s Auctions,
Lancs BB2 7LF 6270 Este Ave, Cincinnati,
Hildenborough Militaria Fair T: 01254 263260
Village Hall, Riding Lane, 14 December Ohio 45232
Chatham Militaria Fair M: 07884 284 390 E: firearms@cowans.com
off B245 Tonbridge Rd, W: prestonarmsfair.co.uk
Hildenborough The Historic Dockyard,
Kent TN11 9HY Chatham, Kent. ME4 4TZ
T: 01322 523531 T: James 07595 511981
E: james@ Highlight your entry for £30 plus VAT call
www. Scott on 01778 395002
bexleymedalsandmilitaria.co.uk chathammilitariafairs.co.uk

Classic Arms
Volume XXI Issue
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54 Events Contacts.indd 54 11/11/2014 16:20

p55_caamDecJan15.indd 1
Pete Holder



Excellent plus Winchester Model 1866 Saddle Ring Carbine serial number
160460- manufactured circa 1883 with twenty in barrel.

Pete Holder P.O. Box 1199, Guildford, Surrey GU1 9JR

Tel: 01483 277788 Mobile: 07778 008008 WEBSITE: www.peteholder.com Email: info@peteholder.com

11/11/2014 12:21
Thursday 12th February 2015 – 12 noon
For further details, contact Kevin King 07789 628030 or info@marlowsauctions.co.uk

p56_caamDecJan15.indd 1 11/11/2014 12:24