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Interim report #2: Riset KK ITB 2010

16 June 2010

The mathematical model of economizer, based on physical laws is derived. Pseudo
multi-energy bond graph, which regards mass flow-rate and enthalpy flow-rate to be flow
variables, and pressure as well as temperature as effort variables, is used for that purpose.
Overall heat transfer coefficient of economizer is obtained by using logarithmic
temperature mean difference between flue gas and boiler feed water. A modification of
overall heat transfer coefficient in the form of parameterized polynomial also done using
the help of genetic algorithm technique. A step simulation of the model at maximum,
continuous, and minimum boiler operating condition has demonstrated the model’s

Pseudo multi-energy bond-graph model

It has been mentioned elsewhere at Latreche Samia, et.al, pp 824, that pseudo power
variables for thermal and hydraulic systems in process engineering are temperature (K)
plus enthalpy flow (J/s), and pressure (P) plus mass flow (kg/s) respectively. In case of
economizer, there are assumed two systems involved, which are thermal and hydraulic.
The multi-energy bond-graph should represent the coupling behaviors of thermal and
hydraulic systems. This is done by using CETF (coupling element for thermo-fluid) as
stated elsewhere at Medjaher, et.al., pp 7. It takes the following form.

Figure 1. CETF (coupling element for thermo-fluid)

A typical of schematic diagram input-process-output and bond graph model of

economizer using CETF as the coupling element are shown below.


pinlet poutlet
Tinlet waterin Teco waterout Toutlet
(dH/dt)inlet (dH/dt)outlet
(dm/dt)inlet (dm/dt)outlet

Q applied

Figure 2. Schematic diagram of input-process-output of economizer

p1 p2
Sf 1 1
m'1 m'1
m'1 m'1
T1 C
MSf: m'1 hw(T1) MSf: m'1 hw(T2)

T1 T2 T2
Se 0 1 0 0 1
H'1 m' 1 hw(T1) m'1 hw(T2)



Figure 3. Bond graph model of economizer

The governing equations

The flow storage element, C-field, has been identified as a differential equation where
temperature output of economizer, temperature of flue gas, and boiler feed water (BFW)
flow-rate are regarded as state, and inputs respectively. The governing equation is treated
as a lumped parameter model as shown below.

Note :
To =
C ∫0
( m&i ⋅ hw ( Ti ) + H&applied − m&i ⋅ hw ( To ) ) ds dh ∂h dT
= ⋅
1 1 dt ∂T dt
⇒ T&
o = ⋅ H&applied + ⋅ m& ⋅ ( T − T ) dT
ρ w ( To ) ⋅ Ve ⋅ cw ρw ( To ) ⋅ Ve i i o = cp
1 1
o = ⋅ UA ( Tg − To ) + ⋅ m&i ⋅ ( Ti − To )
ρ w ( To ) ⋅ Ve ⋅ cw ρw ( To ) ⋅ Ve (1)

Where :
U = overall heat transfer coefficient ( Wm -2 K −1 )
A = surface area of heat transfer ( m 2 )
Tg = temperature of flue gas ( 0 C )
Ti = temperature of water inlet ( 0 C )
To = temperature of water outlet ( 0 C )
ρ w = specific density of water in economizer ( kg m -3 )
Ve = economizer volume ( m3 )
m&i = mass flow of water inlet ( kg s -1 )
cw = specific heat of water in economizer ( Kj kg -1 0 C )

Finding overall heat transfer coefficient of economizer

The attempt to find overall heat transfer coefficient (U) has been done in two ways, first
using ‘logarithmic temperature mean difference’ (LTMD) and the second is make use of
polynomial that relates BFW flow-rate, fuel flow-rate, and combustion air supply. All
coefficients in the polynomial are estimated by genetic algorithm (GA) technique. This
technique is chosen as it can search global solution of any optimization problem where
analytical methods have failed to do so.

Finding U using LTMD is done through these following stages:

• Determine the enthalpy of water at inlet and outlet of economizer. Data needed for this
purpose are:
o Economizer surface area
o Bfw flow rate
o Bfw inlet and outlet temperature
o Inlet and outlet flue gas temperature
• Compute the logarithmic temperature mean difference between flue gas and water.
Data needed for these computation are:
o Temperature difference of gas entering and water leaving ∆ta
o Temperature difference of gas leaving and water entering ∆tb
To compute LTMD, the relation of ∆tm = ( ∆ta − ∆tb ) /  2.3 × log10 ( ∆ta / ∆tb )  is used.
• Compute the overall heat transfer coefficient (U) by using the following formula:
Q = w ( h2 − h1 ) = U A ∆tm ,
Where: w is BFW flowrate, h1 and h2 are enthalpy of water at inlet and outlet of
economizer respectively, and A as economizer surface area.

The data, which are taken out from performance test worksheet and will be used to
calculate U and simulate the model are presented at table 1 below.

Table 1. Boiler performance test data
Performance data I II III
Steam load, % 110 cont. 50
Fuel consumed, kg/hr 8400 7630 3810
Forced draft fan out, kg/hr 129500 117600 88200
BFW, kg/hr 127368 115789 57895
Gas temperature, C
Economizer in 340 333 301
Economizer out 188 185 172
Superheater in 1030 1000 830
Boiler bank in 820 800 640
Water /steam temperature
Eco. in, 0C 160 160 160
Eco. out, 0C 208 206 201
Economizer data
Surface, m2 547 / 2860 extended
Volume, m3 2.99

The water enthalpy at corresponding temperature are computed using MATLAB function
XSTEAM that provided by Magnus Holmgreen at www.x-eng.com.

The simulation that performed using Simulink-MATLAB S Function give the following

Table 3. Calculation and simulation result of U and To

110 % of MCC Continuous 50% MCC
U = 39.25 W m-1 K-1 U = 36.51 W m-1 K-1 U = 24.54 W m-1 K-1
0 0
To steady = 232.52 C To steady = 230.77 C To steady = 228.12 0C

Step response of water temperature at economizer outlet

The simulation results show that there are discrepancies between steady state and
performance test data. These are probably caused by an error in calculating economizer

surface area. Other possible sources of error are in estimating overall heat transfer
coefficient and economizer volume.

On the other hand, U estimation using AG has been performed through the following
• Determining cost function that will be minimized by AG technique
• Determining constraint function
• Implementing cost function and constraint function into AG
• Running AG to find the desired solution

The following graphs have demonstrated the ability of the proposed model, which
employs AG for U estimation, to imitate dynamic response of economizer’s temperature.

Table 3. Estimation and simulation result of U and To

110 % of MCC Continuous 50% MCC
Ues = 20.28 W m-1 K-1 Ues = 18.43 W m-1 K- 1 Ues = 10.57 W m-1 K-1
0 0
To steady = 207.79 C To steady = 206 C To steady = 201.53 0C

Step response of water temperature at economizer outlet

It should be noted, that Ues is obtained from polynomial as follows.

U es = 0.3798 ⋅ m&BFW + 0.3748 ⋅ m&fuel + 0.166 ⋅ m&fan (2)

Then the heat added from flue gas into working fluid is computed by the following

Q fluegas →water = Uest ⋅ Aeconomizer ⋅ ( Tfluegas − Twater out put ) (3)

In equation (3), the input variable T fluegas is not available explicitly except from Boiler
Performance Test Data. Table 3 has been shown the intended result. Even it shows a
remarkable suitability of To steady state responses, but this is not possible to employs the
proposed model as the T fluegas is not measured when the boiler is operated. The simple

solution is by roughly estimated this value through its correlation with fuel flow data
from boiler performance test table.