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PRINCIPLES OF WORKFORCE ENGAGEMENT AND MOTIVATION

Joseph Juran credited Japanese managers’ full use of the knowledge and creativity of the entire
workforce as one of the reasons for Japan’s rapid quality achievements. When managers give
employees the tools to make good decisions and the freedom and encouragement to make
contributions, they virtually guarantee that better quality products and production processes will
result. High performance workforce management practices are built on understanding the
principles of work engagement and motivation.

WORKFORCE ENGAGEMENT
One way to create more satisfied employees is to engage them in their work and make them
a part of the fabric of the organization. Workforce engagement refers to the extent of work
commitment, both emotional and intellectual, to accomplishing the work, mission and vision of
the organization. Engagement means that workers find personal meaning and motivation in their
work, have a strong emotional bond to their organization, are actively involved in and committed
to their work, feel that their jobs are important, know that their opinions and ideas have value, and
often go beyond their immediate job responsibilities for the good of the organization.

Studies have shown that engagement leads to greater levels of satisfaction among the
workforce and improves organizational performance. Organization with high-levels of workforce
engagement are often characterized by high-performing work environments in which people are
motivated to do their utmost for the benefit of their customers and for the success of the
organization.

Employees are motivated through exciting work, responsibility, and recognition. Employee
engagement offers many advantages over traditional management practices as it:

 Replaces the adversarial mentality with trust and cooperation.


 Develops the skills and leadership capability of individuals, creating a sense of mission
and fostering trust.
 Increases employee morale and commitment to the organization
 Fosters creativity and innovation, the source of competitive advantage
 Helps people understand quality principles and instils these principles into the corporate
culture
 Allows employees to solve problems at the source immediately
 Improves quality and productivity.

EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT
Engagement begins with involvement. Employee involvement refers to any activity by
which employees participate in work-related decisions and improvement activities, with the
objectives of tapping the creative energies of all employees and improving their motivation.
One of the easiest ways to involve employees on an individual basis is the suggestion system.
 Employee Suggestion System- is a management tool for the submission, evaluation, and
implementation of an employee’s idea to save cost, increase quality or improve other
elements of work such as safety. Company typically reward employees for implemented
suggestions.

Simple suggestion systems can have many benefits. Thinking about solutions to
problems at work makes even routine work enjoyable; writing down the suggestions
improves workers’ reasoning ability and writing skills. Satisfaction is the by-product of an
implemented idea and a job made easier, safer or better. Recognition for suggestions leads
to higher level of motivation, peer recognition and possible monetary rewards. Workers
gain an increased understanding of their work, which may lead to promotions and better
interpersonal relationships in the workplace.

WORK AND JOB DESIGN


Work design refers to how employees are organized in formal and informal units such as
departments and teams. Job design refers to responsibilities and tasks assigned to individuals.
Both work design and job design are vital to the organizational effectiveness and personal job
satisfaction.

An integrating theory that help us understand how job design impacts motivation, satisfaction, and
organizational effectiveness was proposed by Hackman and Oldham. Their model has been
validated in numerous organizational settings.

 These core job design characteristics are:


1. Task significance: the degree to which the job gives the participants the feeling that
they have a substantial impact on the organization or the world.
2. Task identity: the degree to which the worker can perceive the task as a whole,
identifiable piece of work from start to finish. For example, building an entire
component rather than performing a small repetitive task.
3. Skill variety: the degree to which the job requires the worker to use a variety of skills
and talents.
4. Autonomy: the degree to which the task permits freedom, independence, and personal
control to be exercised over the work. For example, being able to stop a production line
to solve a problem.
5. Feedback from the job: the degree to which clear, timely information about the
effectiveness of performance of the individual is available not only from supervisors,
but also from measurements that the worker might take directly.

The model suggests that if managers want to improve employee motivation, satisfaction
and work effectiveness, they should strive the meaningfulness of work, responsibility and
knowledge of results by improving the five core job characteristics.
Work Job Design
Several common approaches to work design—job enlargement, job rotation and job enrichment—
are supported by this model.

 Job enlargement- which worker’s jobs were expanded to include several tasks rather than
one single, low level task. This approach reduced fragmentation of jobs and generally
resulted in lower production costs, greater work satisfaction, and higher quality, but it
required higher wage rates and the purchase of more inspection equipment.
 Job rotation- is a technique by which individual workers learn several tasks by rotating
from one to another. The purpose of it is to renew interest or motivation of the individual

MOTIVATION
Motivated teams lead to the success of organization. However, the concept of employee
motivation difficult to understand because human nature is quite complex. However, some
behavioural patterns has emerged for the years. For instance, in every organization there are three
categories of people as given below.

Behaviour of employees

Top-Notch – Self Actualized (10%)


Fence sitters (80%)
Difficult to improve (10%)

It is believed that about 5 to 10% of the employees are self-motivated and whatever be the
circumstances in the organization, they continue to do their best. They never get demotivated, even
in there are demotivating factors in the organization. The bottom 5 to 10% are difficult people who
do not want to get motivated.

However, 80-90% of the people are fence sitters. Their motivation level depends on
management strategies. They join the top 10%, if the management is effective, otherwise they join
the bottom 10%. Essentially, they look at the treatment received both by the top 10% and bottom
10%. If the top 10% are recognized, rewarded and treated well, then the middle 80% are drawn to
join them. If the management does not differentiate and treats everyone alike, then there is a
likelihood that the middle rung may join the bottom 10% causing organizational problems.

Motivation Theory of Individual Employees


Theory X
Sigmund Freud is the author of Theory X. Theory X characterizes employees as given below:
 Avoid work
 No ambition
 No initiative
 Do not take responsibility
 Needs security
To make them work, the management has to do the following:
 Reward
 Coerce
 Intimidate
 Punish
If this theory is applicable to any employee, then the organization cannot function with such
employees. This theory assumes that the employees cannot be trusted and the employees have to
be supervised all the time.

Theory Y
Douglas McGregor is the author of Theory Y. McGregor’s theory of people are given below:

 Want to learn
 Work is a natural activity
 Have self-discipline
 Develop themselves

These employees do not get motivated as much by any reward, but they seek freedom to do difficult
and challenging jobs, all by themselves. If the manager can guide the employees in identifying
challenging jobs, the potentials of the employees will be realized. Some employees who can be
characterized to have the characteristics of the top 10 per cent as per Fig. 6.1 belong to type Y. If
employees are of this type, then there is no need for supervision.

Theory Z
Abraham Maslow believes that good qualities are inherent in people, at least at birth; although
later on they are gradually lost. He believes that five basic human needs, Human Motivational
Needs, motivate the employees. And these are:

Self-actualizing needs- they are the greatest motivators for human beings. He believes that human
beings are always dissatisfied and they would like to achieve more and more. That is the reason
for achievements.

Psychological needs (lowest) - this is the basic need for any human being. Every human being
wants to earn a living for himself and his family. When the physiological needs are satisfied, the
safety need takes over. At this stage, the human beings look for job security. After this, the need
for love or belonging arises. Thus, an employee’s need rises to the higher level when he attains
satisfaction at current level.

Herzberg’s Theory
Frederick Herzberg has divided the motivational aspects of human beings into the following:

 Hygiene Theory
 Motivation
The hygiene theory is the minimum that every employee requires for not being dissatisfied.
Without stated above, the employee will get dissatisfied. These are the basic needs. Further efforts
are needed to motivate the employees.
Hygiene Theory The hygiene factors include:

 The company
 Its policies and its administration
 The kind of supervision which people receive while on the job
 Working conditions
 Interpersonal relations
 Salary
 Status
 Security

Motivation
The Motivation Factors include:

 Achievement
 Recognition for achievement
 Interest in the task
 Responsibility for enlarged task
 Growth and advancement to higher level tasks

Team Building
Team building is a systematic process designed to improve working relationships and team
functioning such as problem solving, decision making and conflict resolution that enables the
group to overcome any goal blocking barrier. For many this result orientated mission is the real
purpose for team building. A team building goal therefore could be simply to identify and develop
effective communication.

Why is team building important? - Team Building formalizes the power of collaboration among
what otherwise might be excluded or often alienated individuals. With collaboration at its heart,
team building improves cooperation, time and resource management for their benefit of
an organization or team.

Some reasons why team building is so important are:


1. Most organisations are so complex and with de-layering there has to be team building for
them to succeed.
2. Everyone needs to be working towards common goals (that team building will generate and
nurture) which need to be attainable and clearly communicated.
3. Team building environments will outperform none team based environments.

Team building will make favourable impact in six key areas:


1. Task Achievement – teams are not designed for dealing with simple, repetitive tasks, as
individuals will generally be quicker. However, team building comes into its own when
faced with complex tasks, and associated problems, where probably there is no single,
correct answer.
2. Quality of Decisions – team building can generate more ideas than any one individual
therefore, it has the choice of many possibilities before it and the ultimate quality of the
decision is likely to be better than an individual’s decision.
3. Accuracy of Decisions – judgments are far better through team building than through
individual assessment of tasks that involve random error because team deliberation tends to
purge ill-conceived notions and weak individual thinking.
4. Risk taking – it has been shown that team building creates confidence to take greater, but
measured, risks (and seize opportunities) than individuals would.
5. Motivation – team building enhances morale and spurs individuals on to perform effectively
at a higher level.
6. Speed of learning – team building creates a progressive, but nurturing, environment
enabling team members to learn faster than individuals working alone.

Team building goals


For many organisations team building has become an integral part of their organisational strategy.
Their specific team building goals are to provide team members with:
1. Clarification of mission and vision
2. Establishment of team members roles and responsibilities
3. Faster start up for new teams or teams with new leaders
4. Mechanisms for resolving conflict and elimination of dysfunctional behaviour
5. An appreciation of differences in work styles and preferences

References:

1. http://www.ventureteambuilding.co.uk/intro-to-team-building/
2. Top quality management by James Evans/
Members:
Bachao, Ann Marie
Baldevia, Miggi Mae N.
Cinco, Regina Mirasol T.
Enero, Julie
Gocela, Mark Gilbert Q.
Matsuo, Subaru
Monares, Blenda T.
Montes, Danica Lynette I.
Montilla, Joseph Ceasar P.
Rosales, Shainna Belle A.
Tiu, Maria Alondra Faye B.