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CE 51A

(12:00 -3:00 tth)


REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN 2

(Strictly no taking of photo using your mobile phones!)


Lecture = 3.0 units = 3 hours
Laboratory = 1.0 units = 3.0 hours
Total = 4.0 units = 6.0 hours

Reference Books:
 Reinforced Concrete Design by DIT Gillesania
 Reinforced Concrete Design by McCormac
 Other Related RC books (American/Filipino Books)
 ACI (American Concrete Institute)
 NSCP 2015 ( National Structural Code of the Phils.)

INSTRUCTOR: ENGR. GREG R. BELONGILOT

CLASSROOM POLICIES:
Written Examination Passing rate = 75%
GRADING SYSTEM:
CLASS STANDING = 70%
ATTENDANCE = 5% (ABSENT = 32 HOURS = DR)
QUIZZES = 40%
ORAL EXAM/BW = 10
ASSIGNMENTS/PLATES = 15% (SUBMISSION OF PLATES IS DONE A WEEK AFTER THE PLATE IS
GIVEN ON A SHORT SIZE BOND PAPER W/ A TITLE PAGE USE BLACK PEN)
MAJOR EXAMS = 30%
TOTAL = 100% = 1.0

DESIGN FORMULA IN RCD


WSD = working stress design.
n
1. k = -------------- (design-sizing and detailing) n = Es/Ec
fs/fc + n fs = stress of steel
fc = compressive stress= 0.45 fc’
fc’ = compressive strength of concrete after
curing (28 days)
2. k = (n)2 + 2n - n (investigation – adequacy or safety, span, loads)
3. j = 1 – k/3  = As/bd
4. R = ½ fc k j
5. M = Fc = Rbd2 = T jd
6. T = As fs
7. Fc = 1/2fc b kd
8. M = As fs jd
9. fc = 0.45fc’
SEATWORK
DRAW the FIGURES TO SHOW ALL THE VARIABLES IN THE ABOVE WSD EQUATIONS

vall = 0.09fc’
10. uall = 10.14 fc’/

USD = ultimate strength design.

1
11. min = 1.4/fy

14. max = 0.75b

0.85fc’ 600
15. b = ------------- . ------------
fy 600 + fy

16. a = c

17. = 0.85 – 0.008 (fc’ – 30) if fc’ 30MPa

600d
18. c = ------------
fy + 600

0.5fy
19. Mu = fybd2(1 - -------------)
fc’

0.59fy
20. Ru = fy(1 - -----------)
fc’

21. Mu =  Rubd2

22. a = bdfy/0.85fc’ab

23. fc = 0.85fc’

24. vall = 1/6fc’

25. Pu =Pn ( = 0.70 for tied col. and  = 0.75 for round col.)

26. Pn = Po ( = 0.80 for tied col. and  = 0.85 for round col.)

Exercises

2
1. Derive the value of k in design.

2. Derive the value of Mu in no. 19.

3. Derive the value of b.

4. Derive the value of c.

5. Derive the value of k in investigation.

CE 524
Quiz No. 1
3
Name:________________________Date:_____________Score:________

Write the formula of the ff:

WSD

1. k
2. j
3. Fc
4. fc
5. Vall
6. Uall
7. As
8. Fc
9. T
10. R

USD

11. min
12. max
13. b
14. Ru
15. Mu
16. vall
17. a
18. c
19. fc
20. Fc

4
INVESTIGATION OF BEAMS
SINGLY REINFORCED BEAMS/GIRDERS

WORKING STRESS DESIGN, WSD


Two Methods:

1. Internal Couple Method , ICM


2. Transformed Section Method , TSM

Investigation Steps
ICM
1. Calculate design constants, k, j, and R. Value of k in investigation :
Consider a section:

b ec fc =0.45fc’

M kd Fc
d
t jd
d - kd
As A T
es fs/n
section strain diagram stress diagram
By ratio and proportion:

fc fs/n
------ = ----------
kd d – kd
fc fs
------ = --------------
kd n ( d – kd )
fc kd
------ = --------------
fs nd ( 1 – k )
fc k
------ = -------------- ( 1 )
fs n(1–k)

M = As fs j d

5
Let p = steel ratio = As/ bd

As = p b d

Subst. As to M

M = p b d fs j d

But M = Fc j d = ½ fc b kd j d = ½ fc k j b d2

Equate M = M

p b d fs j d = ½ fc k j b d2

p fs = ½ fc k

fc 2p
---- = ------ ( 2 )
fs k

Equate ( 1 ) and ( 2 )

2p k
----- = -------------
k n(1–k)

k2 = 2 p n - 2 p n k

k2 + 2 p n k = 2 p n

By completing the square

k2 + 2 p n k + ( p n ) 2 = 2 p n + ( p n ) 2

( k + p n ) 2 = ( p n )2 + 2 p n

k+pn= ( p n )2 + 2 p n

k= ( p n )2 + 2 p n - p n

j = 1 – k/3

R = ½ fc k j

2. Check adequacy of the section or solve for the unknown loads or span

length, by

a. Bending

b. Shear

c. Bond

d. deflection, if given

6
TSM:

1. Transform the section


b b

x/2
N.A.
d
As d-x

nAs
nAs
Section Transformed Section

2. Solve nAs

3. Locate the neutral axis, NA

Take moment of areas about the NA : b x ( x/2 ) = n As ( d – x )

4. Solve moment of inertia, INA with respect to the NA.

INA = Iconcrete + Isteel

b x3
INA = ------- + n As ( d – x )2
3

5. Check whether the section is adequate or solve for the unknown loads or

span of the beam by:

a. bending

b. shear

c. bond

d. deflection, if given

7
CE 51A
QUIZ

A 6.0 m rectangular simply supported reinforced concrete beam is reinforced with 3– 28 mm


steel bars arranged in a single row. The beam has an effective depth of 500 mm and a width of
275mm and a steel covering of 50mm (measured from the CGTS to the extreme tension edge).
Using fy = 276MPa, fc’ = 20.7 MPa,

1. Check if the section is safe in bending.


2. Check if the beam is under or over reinforced.

b = 275mm
PLL = 12kN

WLL = 14kN/m
WDL = 16kN/m
4m 2m

3-28mm

b = 275mm
PuLL = 20.4kN
Wu = 46.2 kN/m
WLL = 14kN/m
WDL = 16kN/m
4m 2m
R1 = 145.4 kN R2 =152.2kN

Fv = 0
V 145.4 + 152.2 = 20.4 + 46.2(6)
8
297.6 = 297.6
x = 3.147m

-39.4

-59.8
228.8kN.m
-152.2
212

M
Muact = 228.8 kN.m (30%)

MIN = 1.4/276 = 0.005072463768


 = 3(/4)(28)2/275( 500) = 0.01343459258 (15%)
MAX = 0.75[0.85(0.85)(20.7)/276](600/876) = 0.02783604452
SINCE MIN ≤ ≤ MAX
steel yields first (15%)
Ru = fy ( 1 – 0.59fy/fc’ ) = 3.32MPa Muall = 0.9 (3.32)(275)(500)2 10 -6

Muall = 205.43 kN.m  228.8kN.m (20%)


1.) The beam is not safe in bending. (10%)
2.) The beam is under-reinforced. (10%)
Perfect score = 100%

1. Solve for

k =  (n)2 + 2n - n

 = As/bd = 4(/4)(22)2/(275)(500) = 0.01105840614

k = 0.3992871612
9
NOTE: DON’T ROUNF-OFF DECIMALS
j = 1 – k/3 = 0.8669042796
R = ½ fc k j = 1.636 MPa

2. Solve for P:
a. Bending:
Mact = Actual bending moment due to the applied loads = (70.335 + 1.5P) kN.m
MALL = Rbd2 = 1.636 (275)(500)2 10-6 = 112.475 kN.m

To be safe: Mact ≤ Mall

70.335 + 1.5P = 112.475


P = 28.09 kN
b. shear

1. The cross – section of an 8 –m simple beam is shown in the figure below. Neglecting its own

weight, check whether the beam is safe to carry the given moving loads using TSM . Other

additional data are: fc’ = 20 MPa, fs = 124MPa, n = 12, vact = 0.40 MPa, uall = 1.4 MPa.
10
50kN 40kN 10kN

3m 1m

USD(INVESTIGATION PROBLEMS)

UNDER-REINFORCED AND OVER-REINFORCED BEAMS


Balance Steel Ratio – a beam that has a balance steel ratio is one for which the tensile steel will

theoretically start to yield and the compression concrete reach its ultimate strain at exactly
the same load. Failure is drastic and no warning is given.
max = 0.75 b

Under - Reinforced Beam – (steel yields first: min ≤  ≤ maxc) if a beam has less reinforcement than
required for a balanced ratio. In this condition, the steel will begin to yield even though the
compression concrete is highly stressed resulting in appreciable deflections and large visible cracks in
the tensile concrete. As a result, the users of the structure are given notice that the load must be
reduced or else the result will be considerable damage or even failure. If the load is increased
further, the tension cracks will become even larger and eventually the compression side of the
concrete will become overstressed and fail.

Over – Reinforced Beam – ( ˃ max) the steel will not yield before failure. As the load is increased,
deflections are not noticeable even though the compression concrete is highly stressed, and failure
occurs suddenly without warning to the occupants. Rectangular beams will fail in compression when
strains are about 0.003 to 0.004 for ordinary grades of steel. Over reinforcing is a situation to be
avoided if at all possible, the ACI code, by limiting the percentage of tensile steel that may be used in
a beam, ensures the design of under reinforced beams and thus the ductile type of failures that
provide adequate running time.

11
INVESTIGATION OF BEAMS (USD)
Two conditions:

1. Steel yields: if min ≤  ≤ max

then fs = fy.

2. Steel does not yield : if min < max or min <  and max < 

then fs ≠ fy but fs < fy.

Steps in investigating designed beams using USD:

1. Check if steel is yielding and whether under-reinforced or over-reinforced.

2. Solve for Ru (coefficient of resistance).

Ru =  fy ( 1 – 0.59 fy/fc’ ) or Ru = ⱳfc’ ( 1 – 0.59  ) where: = fy/fc’

3. Check adequacy of the section or calculate the intensity of the additional loads or

the span of the beam by

a. Bending b. shear c. deflection

CE 51A

1. Check if the beam section given in the figure below is under-reinforced. Calculate the
ultimate moment capacity (allowable ultimate moment capacity) using fc’ = 20.7 MPa
and fy = 345 MPa.
b = 250 mm

d = 450 mm

60 mm
3.25 mm

Solution:
a)Check if steel is yielding 1st.
min = 1.4/fy = 1.4/345 = 0.004057971014   = As/bd = 3(/4)
(25) /250(450)=0.01308996939  max = 0.75[(0.85(0.85)(20.7)/345)(600/945) =
2

0.02064285714 (steel yields first)

b) Ru = 3.93 MPa
c) Muall =  Ru b d2 = 0.9 (3.93)(250)(450)2 10-6
12
Muuall = 179.06 kN.m

2. Calculate the safest concentrated live load that the given beam section in problem number 1
can carry in addition to its own uniform dead weight of 700 N/m (including beam’s weight)
and uniform live load of 1000 N/m .

PLL (kN) PLL(kN)

2m 2m 2m
WDL = 700 N/m WLL = 1000 N/m

wuL2 PuLL L
Muact = ------- + ------- ≤ Muall = 179.06 = 2.68 (6)2/8 + 1.7PLL(6) / 3
8 3

PLL = 49.12 kN

Where: wu = 1.4 (0.7) + 1.7 (1) = 2.68 kN/m PuLL = 1.7 PLL

3. fc’ = 25 MPa and fy = 400 MPa

280 mm

500 mm

80 mm
4 –36mm

b. fc’ = 20 MPa and fy = 350 MPa

150mm 200mm 150mm

200 mm

525 mnm

5 – 32 mm

75mm

Design of Stairway
13
t

L = nt

n = number of steps

r = riser

t = tread

wc = unit weight of concrete

s√ r2 + t2
wsl = weight of slab = ----------------- wc
t

r
wst = weight iof step = ------ wc
2

s = total thickness of the slab

The design of a stairway follows the same method as in the design of one-way slab.

CE 51D
Final Exam
NAME:_________________________________________________________DATE:_________SCORE:______
Problems
1.Design a reinforced concrete stairway having 12- 150 mm risers and 12 - 300 mm treads. Live load is 4000 Pa and fc’
= 28 MPa and fy = 275 MPa. Use 12 mm main bars and 10 mm temperature bars.

2.Design a tied and spiral column given the following data:


Deadl Load = 1000 kN; Live Load = 1340 kN; Assume Steel Ratio = 0.015; Compressive Stress of
Concrete = 25 MPa; Yielding Stress of Steel = 250 MPa; Main Bar = 25mm.

3. Determine the steel area required for the given section. Use fc’ = 27.6 MPa and fy = 413.7 MPa. The beam is
subjected to an ultimate moment due to the given loads of 1000 kN.m. Use d’ = 60mm; 25mm main bars.
b = 350 mm

14
d = 600 mm

Design of Columns

Column – is a structural member that is subjected to an axial compressive loads. It is a

compression member.

Column loads can be

2. axially loaded

3. eccentrically loaded

Types of columns:

1. Tied Column – the reinforcement is composed of longitudinal bars and lateral ties.

15
2. Spiral Column – the reinforcement is composed of longitudinal bars enclosed by closely

spaced spirals.

3. Composite Column – the reinforcement is composed of structural steel shape encased in

concrete reinforced with both longiltudinal and spiral reinforcement.

ACI Specs:

1. Tied Columns

a. steel ratio g = 0.01 to 0.08

b. minimum number and size of bar = 4 – 16 mm

c. Use 10 mm lateral ties for main bars smaller or equal to 32 mm and 12 mm for main

bars larger than 32 mm.

d. Spacing of tie bars

d.1. not more than 16 times the bar diameter

d.2. not more than 48 times the tie bar diameter

d.3. least dimension of the column.

e. When there are more than 4 vertical bars, additional ties shall be added so that every

longitudinal bars will be held firmly in its designed position, no bar shall be more than

150 mm from such laterally supported bar.

f. The reinforcement for tied column shall be protected by a concrete cover ing cast

monolithically with the core from which the thickness shall be not less than 40 mm.

g. Radius of gyration, r = 0.30 times the overalll dimension of the member in the direction

under consideration.

2. Spiral Coilumn

a. spiral ratio, g = 0.01 to 0.08

16
b. Minimum number of bars = 6 – 16 mm

c. Minimum size of spiral bar = 10 mm

d. Clear spacing between spiral (pitch of spiral,S) should not exceed more than 80 mm

and not less than 25 mm.

e. Ratio of the volume of spiral reinforcement to the volume of concrete core

Ag fc’
s = 0.45 [ ------ - 1] ------ (ACI Code)
Ac fy

4As
s = ------- (actual)
Dc S

f. Radius of gyration, r = 0.25 times the diameter of the column.

3. Slenderness ratio, Lu/r

a. when Lu / r is less than 34 – 12 M1/M2, the effect of slenderness ratio is neglected and

the column is safe in buckling. M1 is the smaller end moment and M2 is the larger end

moment.

b. when Lu / r is greater than 34 – 12 M1/M2 the effect of slenderness ratio is considered.

4. Minimum eccentricity, e

a. Tied column, e = 15 + 0.03h

b. Spiral column, e = 15 + 0.03h

5. Po = service load

Pu = ultimate load

Pn = nominal load

Pu =  Pn ( = 0.70 for tied column and  = 0.75 for spiral column)

Pn = 0.80Po for tied column

Pn = 0.85Po for spiral column

17
Design of axially loaded columns:

1. Calculate the ultimate column loads.

2. Design the size of the column.

3. Determine the number of longitudinal bars and the spacing of the tie bars using ACI specs.

4. Check the capacity of the designed section.

5. Check the slenderenss ratio.

6. Draw the details of the column section.

Derivation of column formula:

Po

Po = service load
Pc
Pc = force of concrete

Ps Ps = force of steel

Exercises

Design a tied column to carry an axial load of DL = 1070 kN, LL = 980 kN. The column has an

unsupported length of 2.2m and carries no moment. Use fc’ = 27.5 MPa and fy = 415 MPa.

Design considering a

a. tied column

b. spiral column

18
CE 524
Quiz No. 1

Name:________________________Date:_____________Score:________

Write the formula of the ff:

WSD

1. k
2. j
3. Fc
4. fc
5. Vall
6. Uall
7. As
8. Fc

19
9. T
10. R

USD

11. min
12. max
13. b
14. Ru
15. Mu
16. vall
17. a
18. c
19. fc
20.

14. max = 0.75b

0.85fc’ 600
15. b = ------------- . ------------
fy 600 + fy

16. a = c

17. = 0.85 – 0.008 (fc’ – 30) if fc’ 30MPa

600d
18. c = ------------
fy + 600

0.5fy
19. Mu = fybd2(1 - -------------)
fc’

20
0.59fy
20. Ru = fy(1 - -----------)
fc’

21. Mu = Rubd2

22. a = bdfy/0.85fc’ab

23. fc = 0.85fc’

24. vall = 1/6fc’

25. Pu =Pn ( = 0.70 for tied col. and  = 0.75 for round col.)

26. Pn = Po ( = 0.80 for tied col. and  = 0.85 for round col.)

Exercises

6. Derive the value of k in design.

7. Derive the value of Mu in no. 19.

8. Derive the value of b.

9. Derive the value of c.

10. Derive the value of k in investigation.

21
INVESTIGATION OF BEAMS
SINGLY REINFORCED BEAMS/GIRDERS

WORKING STRESS DESIGN, WSD

Two Methods:

3. Internal Couple Method , ICM

4. Transformed Section Method , TSM

Investigation Steps
ICM

3. Calculate design constants, k, j, and R. Value of k in investigation :

22
Consider a section:

b fc

M kd

d - kd
As A
fs/n

By ratio and proportion:

fc fs/n
------ = ----------
kd d – kd

fc fs
------ = --------------
kd n ( d – kd )

fc kd
------ = --------------
fs nd ( 1 – k )

fc k
------ = -------------- ( 1 )
fs n(1–k)

M = As fs j d

Let p = steel ratio = As/ bd

As = p b d

Subst. As to M

M = p b d fs j d

But M = Fc j d = ½ fc b kd j d = ½ fc k j b d2

Equate M = M

p b d fs j d = ½ fc k j b d2

p fs = ½ fc k

fc 2p

23
---- = ------ ( 2 )
fs k

Equate ( 1 ) and ( 2 )

2p k
----- = -------------
k n(1–k)

k2 = 2 p n - 2 p n k

k2 + 2 p n k = 2 p n

By completing the square

k2 + 2 p n k + ( p n ) 2 = 2 p n + ( p n ) 2

( k + p n ) 2 = ( p n )2 + 2 p n

k+pn= ( p n )2 + 2 p n

k= ( p n )2 + 2 p n - p n

j = 1 – k/3

R = ½ fc k j

4. Check adequacy of the section or solve for the unknown loads or span

length, by

e. Bending

f. Shear

g. Bond

h. deflection, if given

TSM:

6. Transform the section


b b

x
x/2
N.A.
d
As d-x

nAs
nAs
Section Transformed Section

7. Solve nAs
24
8. Locate the neutral axis, NA

Take moment of areas about the NA : b x ( x/2 ) = n As ( d – x )

9. Solve moment of inertia, INA with respect to the NA.

INA = Iconcrete + Isteel

b x3
INA = ------- + n As ( d – x )2
3

10. Check whether the section is adequate or solve for the unknown loads or

span of the beam by:

d. bending

e. shear

f. bond

d. deflection, if given

Exercises

2. A 6.0 m rectangular simply supported reinforced concrete beam is reinforced with 4 – 25 mm


steel bars arranged in a single row. The beam has an effective depth of 450 mm and a width of
250mm and a steel covering of 50mm. If n =12, fs = 124 MPa, fc’ = 27 MPa, determine the
safest additional uniform live load that the beam could carry in addition to its uniform dead load
of 12 kN/m (excluding beam’s weight ) ICM.
b = 250mm
Wt = 12 + WLL
d = 450
L = 6.0m

Solution:
25
k = √(n)2 + 2 n - n  = As/bd = 4(/4)(25)2/(250)(450)
 = 0.01745329252
k = 0.4708133317
j = 1 – k/3 = 0.8430622228
R = ½ fc k j = ½ (0.45)(27)k j = 2.411 MPa

Allowable Moment Capacity of :


a. Conc, Mc = Fc jd = ½ fc b kd jd = R b d2 = 2.411 (N/mm2)(250)mm(450)2mm2(10 -6)
Mc = 122.057 kN.m
b. Steel, Ms = T jd = As fs jd = 4(/4)(25)2 (j)(124)(450)10-6
Ms = 92.36 kN.m (governs!)
Conditions:
1) If Ms  Mc,then steel yields first! safe!
2) If Ms ˃ Mc, then steel is not yielding not safe!
Since Ms  Mc, then steel yields first.
Use: Mall = 92.36 kN.m

Actual Moment (from the actual moment diagram)


Mact = wt L2/8 where: wt = 12 + (0.25)(0.50)(24) + WLL = 15 kN/m + wLL
Mact = [15 + WLL ] (6)2/8 kN.m Mact ≤ Mall (safe)

(15 + wLL)36 / 8 = 92.36


WLL = 5.52 kN/m
Quiz next meeting!

26
3. The cross – section of an 8 –m simple beam is shown in the figure below. Neglecting its own

weight, check whether the beam is safe to carry the given moving loads using TSM . Other

additional data are: fc’ = 20 MPa, fs = 124MPa, n = 12, vact = 0.40 MPa, uall = 1.4 MPa.

50kN 40kN 10kN

3m 1m

27
UNDER-REINFORCED AND OVER-REINFORCED BEAMS

Balance Steel Ratio – a beam that has a balance steel ratio is one for

which the tensile steel will theoretically start to yield and the

compression concrete reach its ultimate strain at exactly the same

load.

Under - Reinforced Beam – if a beam has less reinforcement than required

for a balanced ratio. In this condition, the steel will begin to yield

even though the compression concrete is highly stressed resulting in

appreciable deflections and large visible cracks in the tensile

concrete. As a result, the users of the structure are given notice that

the load must be reduced or else the result will be considerable

28
damage or even failure. If the load is increased further, the tension

cracks will become even larger and eventually the compression side

of the concrete will become overstressed and fail.

Over – Reinforced Beam – the steel will not yield before failure. As the

load is increased, deflections are not noticeable even though the

compression concrete is highly stressed, and failure occurs suddenly

without warning to the occupants. Rectangular beams will fail in

compression when strains are about 0.003 to 0.004 for ordinary

grades of steel. Over reinforcing is a situation to be avoided if at all

possible, the ACI code, by limiting the percentage of tensile steel

that may be used in a beam, ensures the design of under reinforced

beams and thus the ductile type of failures that provide adequate

running time.

29
INVESTIGATION OF BEAMS (USD)

Two conditions:

3. Steel yields: if min ≤  ≤ max

then fs = fy.

4. Steel does not yield : if min < max or min <  and max < 

then fs ≠ fy but fs < fy.

Steps in investigating designed beams using USD:

1. Check if steel is yielding and whether under-reinforced or over-reinforced.

2. Solve for Ru.

Ru =  fy ( 1 – 0.59 fy/fc’ ) or Ru = fc’ ( 1 – 0.59  ) where: = fy/fc’

3. Check adequacy of the section or calculate the intensity of the additional loads or

the span of the beam by

b. bending

c. shear

d. deflection

30
Exercises

1. Calculate the ultimate moment capacity of the given beam section shown

in the figure below using fc’ = 20.7 MPa and fy = 345 MPa.

2. Find the ultimate uniform live load capacity of the beam if it has a simple

span of 6m and uniform dead load of 680 N/m including its own weight.

b = 250 mm

450 mm

60 mm
3-25 mm

31
3. Calculate the safest concentrated live load that the given beam can

carry in addition to its own uniform dead weight of 700 N/m.

PLL PLL
2m 2m 2m

700 N/m

Using the ff. sections:

a. fc’ = 25 MPa and fy = 400 MPa

280 mm

500 mm

80 mm
4 –36mm

32
c. fc’ = 20 MPa and fy = 350 MPa

150mm 200mm 150mm

200 mm

525 mnm

5 – 32 mm

75mm

33
SEISMIC ANALYSIS

ZICW

V = --------

RW

Where : V = Total lateral forces or shear at the base

Z = Numerical coefficient depending upon the zone, where

Building is located

C = Numerical lateral force coefficient

Rw = Reduction factor to bring lateral force tpo working stress

design levels

I = Occupancy importance factor

W = Total seismic dead load.

The seismic dead load W is the total dead load and the applicable portions of

other loads listed below:

1. In storage and warehouse, a minimum of 25% of the floor live load shall

be applicable.

34
2. Where a partition load is used in the floor design, a load of not less than 10

psf shall be included.

3. Where the snow load is greater than 30 psf, the snow load shall be

included. Where considerations of siting, configuration and load duration

warrant,the snow load may be reduced up to 75% when approved by the

building official.

4. Total weight of the permanent equipment shall be included.

VALUES OF OCCUPANCY IMPORTANCE FACTOR I

1. Essential facilities I = 1.5

2. Any building, where the primary occupancy is for assembly use for

more than 300 persons in one room, I = 1.25

3. All others, I = 1.0

Numerical coefficient C

1.25 S

C = ----------------
T2/3

Value of maximum C = 2.75

Value of minimum C = 0.075 Rw

Where:

S = Site coefficient or soil factor

T = Fundamental natural period in seconds = Ct (hn)3/4

Where:

Ct = 0.035 for steel moment resisting frames

Ct = 0.03 for reinforced concrete resisting frames and eccentric braced frames

Ct = 0.02 for all other buildings

hn = refers to the height from the base to the highest point of the main structure

( V – Ft ) Wx hx
Fx = ----------------------
35
 Wx hx
Where :

Fx = Applied lateral force at the height hx


Ft = 0.07TV < 0.25V

Ft = 0 when T < 0.70 sec.

Ft = 0.70TV for T  0.70 sec but  3.57 sec.

Ft = 0.25V for T 3.57 sec.

Ft = additional lateral force at the roof top.

Wx = Deadload at “ x “ floor

hx = height at “ x “ floor

Exercises

1. The figure below shows the plan and elevation of a four storey building ( moment resisting space
frame with shear walls ) . The buildingis located in Mandaue with a zone factor of 0.40 and site
coefficient of 1.0, and importance factor of 1.25 and Rw = 10 and Ct = 0.075. The weight of the
corresponding floors are 2200 kN on the roof deck, 1760 KN on the 4 th floor, 1760 KN on the 3 rd
floor, 1760 kN on the 2nd floor, and 440 KN on the ground or 1 st floor. Determine the lateral loads
and analyze the structure along the z-plane having 3 panels at 6m.

Roof deck

4m
4th flr.
4m

3rd flr
4m

2nd flr
ground 4m

6 @ 9m = 54 m

ELEVATION y

36
x

Floor Wx (kN) hx (m) Wxhx ( V – Ft) (Wxhx)


(kN.m) Fx = --------------------
Wxhx
Deck

4th

3rd

2nd

ground

2. Redo example no. 1 by analyzing the frame along the x-plane

direction. Add (N + FN)4 kN to the weight of the corresponding floors. All

other data remain the same.

37
3. Prepare your own elevation plan of a 5 - storey concrete building

and analyze the lateral loads of the building frame in all directions. Use

data supplied by the instructor.

DESIGN OF WEB REINFORCEMENT

Vmax Vu
V
Vc/2

V – diagram

Region where stirrups are not needed

Av fy
s = -------------
v’ b
38
where: v’ = vact - vall

Vu
vact = ---------
bd

vall = 1/6 fc’

Vu
v’ = -------- - 1/6 fc’
 bd

1 Vu
v’ = --------- [ --- - 1/6fc’ bd ]
bd 
Let :

vc = shear capacity of concrete

vc = 1/6  fc’ bd

1 Vu
v’ = -------- [---- - vc ]
bd 

Substitute v’ to s where:

Av fy
s = ---------------------
Vu s = spacing of stirrups when the
1/bd [ ---- - vc ] b
 shear at Vu.

Av fy d
s = ---------------
Vu
--- - vc

Let : vn = nominal shear capacity

vn = Vu/

Vs = shear capacity of stirrups

VS = Vn - vc

Therefore :

Av fy d
s = -------------
Vs

Example:

39
1. If the spacing of stirrups of a 10 mm diameter stirrups for a beam 250 mm x 500 mm is
300 mm oc, what is the shear strength provided by the shear reinforcement? Use fc’ =
20MPa and fy = 250 MPa. Use d’ = 65 mm.
ANS:56.2 kN

2. A rectangular beam has a width of 300mm and an effective depth of 500mm. The beam
has a span of 6m. If the nominal shear strength of stirrups is 64000N, what would be the
maximum shear at the support of the beam? Us efc’ = 25 MPa and fy = 400 MPa.
ANS: 192780 N

ExAMPLE

= MODIFICATION FACTOR; 0.75 FOR ALL LIGHTWEIGHT CONC.,


0.85 SAND-LIGHTWEIGHT CONC.,1.0 FOR NORMAL WEIGHT CONC.
IF NOT SPECIFIED  = 1.0

1. Data : b = 260mm; overall depth,t = 470mm; d’ = 60mm (from


CGTS to the extreme tension fiber); fc’ = 21 MPa, fy = 415
MPa; d=410mm.
Required:
a. Vc (if the beam is subjected to shear and flexure only, use
2010 NSCP specs.)
Vc = 0.17 fc’ b d = 83.045 kN

40
b. Vc if the member is subjected to compressive force of 80kN
and using 2010 NSCP.
Vc = 86.9 kN

2. SW
Data: b = 270mm
t = 460mm
d = 410mm
Vu = 136 kN
Factored Axial Tensile Force = 140 kN
fc’ = 25 MPa
fy = 275 MPa
Req’d: Using NSCP 2010, compute Vc and Vs.

1. For the given shear diagram, design proper spacing of the web reinforcement using

fc’ = 20 MPa, fy = 276 MPa, b = 300 mm, and d = 550 mm. The beam has a simple

span of 8.2m.

250 kN

-250 kN

2. A beam has a width of 350 mm and effective depth of 600 mm. Using fy = 414 MPa
41
and fc’ = 20.7 MPa, determine the theoretical spacing of #3 stirrups for each of the

following shears:

a. Vu = 14,000 lbs

b. Vu = 55,000 lbs

c. Vu = 70,000 lbs

d. Vu = 160, 000 lbs

DESIGN OF BEAMS REINFORCED FOR COMPRESSION

DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS

ec = 0.003
d’
As’ c a C1 C2 es’
d d – d’
d – a/2 NA
As T1 T2 es
Reasons: 1. If the sizes of the beam are limited.
2.If the beam is over-renforced.

C1 = Compressive Force of Concrete


C2 = Compressive Force of Compression Steel
T1 = Tensile Force of Steel to Resist C1
T2 = Tensile Force of Steel to Resist C2
As’ = Area of Compression Steel
As = Area of Tension Steel

42
Assume all steel yields: Ductility requirement;

s  y ; fs = fy max = 0.75b + ’

s’  y ; fs’ = fy ’ = As’/bd

Derivation of the formula:

C1 + C2 = T1 + T2 = T
where: C1 = 0.85 fc’ a b
C2 = As’ fy
T = T1 + T2 = As fy
0.85 fc’ a b + As’ fy = As fy

(As – As’ ) fy
a = -----------------------
0.85 fc’ b

C2 = T2 As = As1 + As2 As1 = As – As2

As’ fy = As2 fy
As’ = As2

Mn = nominal moment
Mn = Mn1 + Mn2
Mn1 = C1(d – a/2)
Mn2 = C2(d – d’)
Mn = C1( d – a/2) + C2 (d – d’)
Mn = (As – As’) fy (d – a/2) + As’ fy (d – d’)

Mu = Ultimate Moment
Mu = Mn
 = 0.90
Mu = [(As – As’) fy (d – a/2) + As’ fy (d – d’)]

Steps in designing beams reinforced for compression:


1. Design the width and depth of the beam considering singly reinforced. Follow the
procedure in designing singly reinforced beam.

2. Maximize the steel area of the singly reinforced beam.


3. Calculate the ultimate moment capacity of the designed singly reinforced beam. If
the ultimate moment capacity of the srb beam is lesser than the actual ultimate
moment (due to the applied loads), then design a doubly reinforced beam.
4. Design the reinforcement for tension and compression.
For Compression:
Mu2
As’ = ---------------
fy(d – d’)
Mu2 = Ultimate Moment due to applied loads – Ultimate Moment Capacity of SRB
For Tension:
As = Asmax + As’
5. Check if comp steel yields: fs’ = 600 [(1/c) c – d’]
If fs’ < fy csdny fs’  fy As’ = As2(fy/fs’)
If fs’ ≥ fy csty fs’ = fy As’ = As2
(Conceal – to hide)

Example:
1. Determine the steel area required for the given section. Use fc’ = 27.6 MPa and
43
fy = 413.7 MPa. The beam is subjected to an ultimate moment due to the given
loads of 1000 kN.m. Use d’ = 60mm; 25mm main bars.
b = 350 mm

d = 600 mm

Solution:
1. b and d are given.
2. Asmax = max b d = 4493.49 mm2
max = 0.75 b = 0.02139757119
3. Mu1 = Mumax =  T1 ( d – a/2) Asmax fy
Where: T1 = As1 fy = Asmax fy a = ----------- = 226.4 mm
0.85fc’ b
Mu1 = Mumax = 814.45 kN.m  1150 kN.m ( not safe!)
4. a.compression

(1150 – 814.45)106
As = ------------------------- = 1668.92 mm2

N’ = 4 bars
0.9(413.7)(600 – 60)
b.tension

As = As1 + As2 = Asmax + As’ = 6162.41mm2 N = 13 bars


Seatwork:
300 mm

500 mm

Seatwork

Compute the maximum permissible capacities of the given beam sections using

fc’ = 20.7 MPa and fy = 344.8 MPa:

a.

70 mm
3 –25mm

700 mm

4 –32 mm

Steps:

44
1. Assume all steel yields.

a. Solve for a considering a balance condition.

b. Solve for s, y, and s’.

c. If compression steel does not yield, solve for c and f s’.

2. Calculate the ultimate moment capacity of the doubly reinforced beam.

b. 450 mm

70 mm

3#9
583 mm

4 # 11

3. Calculate the additional uniform load that can be carried by the 8.0m simply

supported beam in prob. 3a in addition to its own dead weight.

4. What additional concentrated live load can be applied at the mid span of the

beam in prob. 3b if it has a simple span of 6.0m?

DESIGN OF WEB REINFORCEMENT

45
Vmax Vu
V
Vc/2

V – diagram

Region where stirrups are not needed

Av fy
s = -------------
v’ b

where: v’ = vact - vall

Vu
vact = ---------
bd

vall = 1/6 fc’

Vu
v’ = -------- - 1/6 fc’
 bd

1 Vu
v’ = --------- [ --- - 1/6fc’ bd ]
bd 
Let :

vc = shear capacity of concrete

vc = 1/6  fc’ bd

1 Vu
v’ = -------- [---- - vc ]
bd 

46
Substitute v’ to s where:

Av fy
s = ---------------------
Vu s = spacing of stirrups when the
1/bd [ ---- - vc ] b
 shear at Vu.

Av fy d
s = ---------------
Vu
--- - vc

Let : vn = nominal shear capacity

vn = Vu/

Vs = shear capacity of stirrups

VS = Vn - vc

Therefore :

Av fy d
s = -------------
Vs

Exercises

47
3. For the given shear diagram, design proper spacing of the web reinforcement using

fc’ = 20 MPa, fy = 276 MPa, b = 300 mm, and d = 550 mm. The beam has a simple

span of 8.2m.

250 kN

-250 kN

48
4. A beam has a width of 350 mm and effective depth of 600 mm. Using fy = 414 MPa

and fc’ = 20.7 MPa, determine the theoretical spacing of #3 stirrups for each of the

following shears:

e. Vu = 14,000 lbs

f. Vu = 55,000 lbs

g. Vu = 70,000 lbs

h. Vu = 160, 000 lbs

49
5. Select stirrups spacing using fc’ = 20.7 MPa and fy = 275.8 MPa. The given dead load

includes beam’s weight. The beam is reinforced for tension only with

a. 4 - #11 main bars, width is 400 mm and effective depth is 750mm and protective

covering is 70 mm.

LL = 24 kN/m DL = 30 kN/m

8m

50
b. 6 - # 9 bars, b = 450 mm, d = 730 mm, d’ = 70 mm. The cantilever beam is 4m long

and carries a total LL = 36 kN/m and DL = 20 kN/m.

51
DESIGN OF BEAMS REINFORCED FOR COMPRESSION

DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS

ec = 0.003
d’
A s’ c a C1 C2 e s’
d
NA
As T1 T2 es
C1 = Compressive Force of Concrete

C2 = Compressive Force of Compression Steel

T1 = Tensile Force of Steel to Resist C1

T2 = Tensile Force of Steel to Resist C2

As’ = Area of Compression Steel

As = Area of Tension Steel

Assume all steel yields: Ductility requirement;

 s   y ; fs = fy  max = 0.75 b + ’

 s ’   y ; f s ’ = fy ’ = As’/bd

Derivation of the formula:

C1 + C 2 = T

where:C1 = 0.85 fc’ ab

C2 = As’ fy

T = T1 + T2 = As fy

0.85 fc’ ab + As’ fy = As fy

(As – As’) fy
a = -----------------------
0.85 fc’ b

52
C 2 = T2 As1 = As – As2

As’ fy = As2 fy

As’ = As2

Mn = nominal moment

Mn = Mn1 + Mn2

Mn1 = C1(d – a/2)

Mn2 = C2(d – d’)

Mn = (As – As’) fy (d – a/2) + As’ fy (d – d’)

Mu = Ultimate Moment

Mu = Mn

 = 0.90

Mu = [(As – As’) fy (d – a/2) + As’ fy (d – d’)]

Steps in designing beams reinforced for compression:

6. Design the width and depth of the beam considering singly reinforced. Follow the

procedure in designing singly reinforced beam.

7. Maximize the steel area of the singly reinforced beam.

8. Calculate the ultimate moment capacity of the designed singly reinforced beam. If

the ultimate moment capacity of the srb beam is lesser than the actual ultimate

moment (due to the applied loads), then design a doubly reinforced beam.

9. Design the reinforcement for tension and compression.

For Compression:

Mu2
As’ = ---------------
fy(d – d’)

53
Mu2 = Ultimate Moment due to applied loads – Ultimate Moment Capacity of SRB

For Tension:

As = Asmax + As’

Example:

2. Determine the steel area required for the given section. Use fc’ = 27.6 MPa and

fy = 413.7 MPa. The beam is subjected to an ultimate moment due to the given

loads of 1150 kN.m.

350 mm

600 mm

54
2.
300 mm

500 mm

Compute the maximum permissible capacities of the given beam sections using

fc’ = 20.7 MPa and fy = 344.8 MPa:

b = 300mm
70 mm
3 –25mm

55
700 mm

4 –32 mm

Steps:

Assume all steel yields.

a.Solve for a considering a balance condition.

b. Solve for  s = ,  y, and  s’.

c. If compression steel does not yield, solve for c and f s’.

Calculate the ultimate moment capacity of the doubly reinforced beam.

b. 450 mm

70 mm

3#9
583 mm

56
4 # 11

5. Calculate the additional uniform load that can be carried by the 8.0m simply

supported beam in prob. 3a in addition to its own dead weight.

57
6. What additional concentrated live load can be applied at the mid span of the

58
beam in prob. 3b if it has a simple span of 6.0m?

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF T-BEAM


SLAB
FLANGE

WEB
L
S1 s2 s3
bw’

Case I: When N.A. lies on the flange, a  t analyze as singly reinforced beam.
bf
t
N.A.
d

bw

59
bf = width of the flange t =thickness of the slab d = effective depth bw = width of the beam a = depth of the

rectangular stress block


Case II: When N.A. lies on the web, a t analyze as real T-beam.
bf

d
N.A.

bw

Case III: When tension bar lies on top of the beam, analyze as singly reinforced

beam using bw as the width of the beam.

bf

bw

ACI /NSCP SPECIFICATIONS:

1. Effective width bf shall not exceed:

bf bf’

S1 s2 s3
bw’

60
1 a. bf ≤ ¼ of the span of the beam.
b. bf ≤ 16t + bw
2 c. bf ≤ center to center distance (s) between supports. (s = s 1 = s2 = s3)

SEATWORK USING ¼:
A symmetrical T-beam with a simple span of 6m has t = 100mm, bw = 300mm
and clear spacing of the beams = 2m. Find the safest bf.

Solution: a. bf = ¼(6000) = 1500mm


b. bf =16(100)+300 = 1900mm
c. bf =2300 mm
Use bf = 1500mm

2. For beams having an slab on one side only, the effective overhanging slab width
shall not exceed one twelfth of the span length, six times the slab thickness, or
one-half of the clear distance to the next beam.
bf’

a. bf’ ≤ 1/12(span) + bw’


b. bf’ ≤ 6t + bw’
c. bf’ ≤ ½ s3 + bw’

3. For isolated beams in which the flange is used only for the purpose of providing
additional compressive area, the flange thickness shall be less than one-half the
width of the web, and the total flange width shall not exceed four times the web
width.

a. bf ≥ 4 bw

b. t ≤ ½ bw
4. If area of the compression concrete is lesser than the area of the flange, the T-
beam is analyzed as SRB.

61
5. If the area of the compression concrete is greater than the area of the flange,
analyzed as real T- beam.

Steps in designing T-beam:

1. Determine the effective width bf using ACI specs.


2. Calculate the loads.
3. Calculate the designing moment.
4. Solve “a” considering that N.A. lies on the flange and determine whether the
given is a real T-beam.
5. Solve steel requirements.
6. Check if steel yield.
7. Check for shear.
8. Draw details.

Exercises

1. Determine the area of reinforcing bars, As=? required for the given T-beam. Use fc’ =
20.7 MPa and fy = 344.8 MPa.
1600 mm

100mm

500 mm

As = ?

300 mm

Solution:

1. Effective width bf = 1600 mm (given).


2. Calculate the loads.
3. Designing ultimate moment = 475 kN.m (given).
4. Solve for “a” assuming N.A is on the flange,
Mu =  Fc ( d – a/2)
475 (106) = 0.9 (0.85)(20.7)a (1600)(600 – a/2)
a = 32.1mm  t = 100 mm ( analyze as SRB)
5. Mu =  T ( d – a/2) = 0.9 As fy (d – a/2)
As = 2621.25 mm2
Using 25 mm main bars
N = 6 bars

62
2.Calculate the required steel area for a RC T-beam with bf = 1200mm; t = 100mm. Mu = 1300 kN.m due to the applied
loads; bw = 300mm; d = 550mm, fc’ = 28 MPa; fy = 400 MPa.

1200 mm
C1
t= 100mm
a C2

450 mm

As = ?
T2 T1

Web Flange
300 mm

Solution:
a = 101.3mm ˃ t ( analyze as T- beam )

Consider the flange :


C 1 = T1
As1 fy = 0.85 fc’ b’ t

As1 (400) + 0.85 (28)(900)(100) = 5355 mm2

Mu1 =  T1 (d – t/2) = 963.9 kN.m

Mu2 = Mu –Mu1 = 336.1 kN.m

Consider the web:

Mu2 =  C2 ( d – a /2) = 0.9 fc’ a bw ( d – a/2)

a = 105.15 mm

T2 = C 2

As2 fy = 0.85 fc’ a bw

As2 = 1877 mm2

As = As1 + As2 = 7232 mm2

min = 1.4/fy =

 = As/bwd = 0.0438 ˃min (ok)

63
Solve As max:

C = 600d/600 + fy = 330mm

a = c = 280.5 mm

T=C

Asb fy = 0.85 fc’ [ 1200(100) + 300(280.5 – 100)]

Asb = 10362 mm2


Asmax = 0.75 (10362) = 7771.5mm2 ˃ 7232mm2 mm (0k)
 Use As = 7232mm2

2. A fully continuous T-beams has a span of 4.8 m and are centered 2.5 m. The

thickness of the slab is 100 mm and it is design to carry a LL = 1000 kg/m2.

Design the T-beam using fc’ = 211kg/cm2 and fy = 345 MPa. Use moment at

continuous end = - wuL2/11 and at mid span = wuL2/16.

64
3. Determine the maximum permissible capacity of the given T-beam using fc’ =

27.6 MPa and fy = 413.7 MPa.

750mm

100mm

800 mm

8 #10

350 mm

65
4. Design a T-beam if the thickness of the slab is 75 mm, width of the web is

375mm and effective depth is 600 mm. The T-beam carries a dead load moment

of 270 kN.m and a live load moment of 460 kN.m. The beam has a span of 5.4 m

and the center to center spacing of beams is 1.8 m. Use fc’ = 20.7 MPa and fy =

345 MPa.

66
5. Redo exercise no. 4 if MDL = 285 kN.m and MLL = 570 kN.m and the effective

depth is 675 mm and the thickness of the slab is 80 mm. Other data remain the

same.

67
PRE-STRESSED CONCRETE

Prestress- the application of a pre-determine force or moment to a structural

member in such a manner that the combined internal stresses in the member,

resulting from this applied force or moment will be confined within specific

limits.

The main purpose of applying this principle to concrete structural members

is to eliminate or if not, reducing the tensile stresses in concrete. A

prestressed concrete beam is a member so designed and constructed that all

the stresses in the concrete resulting from bending are compressive and none
68
is tensile.

Pre-Tensioning – is the application of the necessary pre-tensioning force by stressing

the steel wires or strands, called tendons, to a pre-determined amount, and

while the stress is maintained in the tendons, the concrete is placed around

the tendons. After the concrete has hardened, the tendons are released and

the concrete which has become bonded to the tendons is prestressed as a

result of the tendons attempting to regain its length before, when it was being

stressed.

Post-Tensioning – is the application of the necessary pre-stressing force by stressing

the tendons after the concrete has been cast and has attained sufficient

strength to safely withstand the per-stressing force. The wires or tendons are

placed on a mortar tight metal tube or flexible metal base to prevent the

tendon from bonding to the concrete during placing and curing of concrete.

After the tendon has been released, the void between the tendon and the

sheath is filled with grout.

General Principles of Pre-Stressing:

1. Concentric Force, P

P P d

Compression Compression Compression Compression


(+) (+) (+) (+)

+ + =
69
(-) (-) (+) (0)
Tension Tension Compression Stress in Loaded Pre-
Stressed Member
Dead Load Live Load Stress Due to
Stress Stress Pre-Stressing

2. Eccentric Force, P

e
P P

(+) (+) (-) (+)

+ + =

(-) (-) (+) (0)


Dead Load Stress Live Load Stress Stress due to Pre Stress In Loaded
-Stressing Pre-Stressed Member

ACI Specifications:

fc

Fc

D 0.65d
d/2 e
T

Tendons

70
1. T = Fc = Effective Pre-stressing Force

T = F = As fs

fs = Effective Stress of Tendons

M = F (0.65d)

M = Maximum Moment due to the given loads

M
2. As fs = --------
0.65d

Fc
3. c = ------
Ac

c = Ave. Unit Stress of Concrete

c = ½ fc (for preliminary design)

Ac = Area of Concrete Section

4. Approximate thickness of the beam, d = k M

d =thickness in cm

M = Bending Moment in kN.m

k = Coefficient ranges from 3.3 –4.4

6. Loss of pre-stress ranges from 10% to 30% due to the effect of steel relaxation and

shrinkage and creep of concrete. Relaxation is the loss in a material that is placed

under stress and held at a constant strain. Creep is the change in strain for a

member held under constant stress.

Design Steps of a Pre-Stressed Beam:

1. Determine the approximate depth of the section.

2. Calculate the pre-stressing force, F = M/0.65d.

71
3. Determine the required area and number of tendons.

a. Asfs = F

b. N = As/Atendon

4. Determine the width of the beam using Ac = Asfs/0.5fc = bd

5. Try b and d. Add 50 mm to 150 mm to b and d as allowance for the weight of the

beam.

6. Calculate the dead load stress, live load stress, and stress due to pre-stressing alone.

7. Calculate combined stress at the extreme fibers of the section.

Exercises

1. Design a 9.15 m simply supported rectangular pre-stress concrete beam, given the

following data:

LL = 30 kN.m

Loss of Pre-Stress = 15%

Fy = 1655 MPa

72
fs = 0.6Fy

fc’ =20.7 MPa

Allow. fc = 0.45fc’

Allow. ft = 0.54 fc’

d’ = 10 cm

ECCENTRICALLY LOADED COLUMN

Allowable Eccentricity:

Tied Column, e = 15 + 0.03h

Spiral Column, e = 15 + 0.03 D

e Pn

73
C

d’ h – 2d’ d’
h – 2d’ h – 2d’
-------- ---------
2 2

Pn

As As’

b c.g.

74
Section

NA
d

ec
es’
Strain Diag.
es C
d-c c – d’ d’

Stress Diag.

T Fc
Fcs
d – a/2
d – d’

Pn = Nominal Load Fcs = Force on Compressive Concrete

e = eccentricity As’ = Area of Compression Steel

fs’ = Compression Steel Stress Fc = Compressive Force of Concrete = 0.85fc’ab

T = Tension Force of Steel = Asfs fs = Tension Steel Stress

As = Area of Tension Steel Fcs =Compressive Force Of Steel = fs’As’

At balanced condition, compression is equal to tension, e = e b and P = Pb.

Value of c at balanced condition:

From the strain diagram, by ratio and proportion

ec/c = es / d – c

ec = 0.003
75
es = fy/Es = fy/200 000

0.003/c = fy/200 000/d – c

600d
c = ------------ (value of c at balanced condition only)
fy + 600

Let:
Pu = Ultimate Load

Pu = Pn (where: = 0.70 for tied col. and  = 0.75 for spiral col.)

Pn = Nominal Load

Two Cases:

1. If e  eb, then tension controls.

When tension controls:

a. tension steel yields: fs = fy

b. compression steel may or may not yield: fs’ = fy or fs’ fy.

If fs’  fy:

Consider the strain diag:

600 ( c – d’)
fs’ = -----------------
c

2. If e  eb, then compression controls.

When compression controls:

a. tension steel does not yield : fs  fy

b. compression steel yields : fs’ = fy

If fs  fy:

Consider the strain diag:

600 (d – c)
fs = --------------
c

76
Steps in the investigation of eccentrically loaded columns:

1. Calculate eb, by

a. Solving Fc, Fcs, and T.

b. Solving Pn.

c. Summation of moment with respect to the center of gravity of tension steel.

2. Check whether tension or compression controls.

3. Check adequacy or solve for the unknown load, Pu.

Example:

Calculate the ultimate capacity of the given column section when e = 40 cm. Use fc’ = 28

MPa and fy = 300 MPa. Steel covering is 7.5 cm.

h = 40 cm

b = 45 cm 10 –36 mm

Solution:

1. Solve for eb (eccentricity at bal. condition).

a. Fc = 0.85 fc’ ab

a = c

a = 0.85c

a = 0.85(600d/fy + 600)

d = h – d’

d = 40 – 7.5

d = 32.5 cm

d = 325 mm

a = 0.85[600(325)/300 + 600]

a = 18.42 cm

fc’ = 28 MPa
77
fc’ = 2.8 kN/cm2

Fc = 0.85(2.8)(18.42)(45)

Fc = 1972.78 kN

T = As fy
T = 50.89(30)

T = 1526.7 kN

Fcs = As’ fy

Fcs = 50.89(30)

Fcs = 1526.7 kN

b. Fv = 0

Pb + T = Fc + Fcs

Pb = Fc = 1972.78 kN

c. MCGTS = 0

Pb (eb’) = Fc (d – a/2) + Fcs ( d – d’)

1972.78 eb’ = 1972.78 (32.5 – 18.42/2) + 1526.7 (32.5 – 7.5)

eb’ = 42.64 cm

h – 2d’
eb’ = eb + -----------
2
40 - 15
eb = 42.64 - -----------
2
eb = 30.14 cm

2. Check if tension or compression controls.

e = 40 cm eb = 30.14 cm (tension controls)

a. tension steel yields : fs = fy = 30 kN/cm2

b. compression steel may or may not yiled : fs’  fy or fs’ = fy, assume fs’ = 30 kN/cm2.

3. Solve Pu.

a. Fc = 0.85 fc’ab

78
a = c

a = 0.85c ( not c at bal. condition since e is not equal to e b anymore)

Fc = 0.85(2.8)(0.85c)(45)

Fc = 91.035c

T = A sf y

T = 1526.7 kN

Fcs = As’ fs’

Fcs = 50.89(30)

Fcs = 1526.67 kN

b. Fv = 0

Pn + T = Fc + Fcs

Pn = 91.035c (1)

c. MCGTS = 0

Pn(e’) = Fc(d –a/2) + Fcs (d – d’)

e’ = e + (h – 2d/2)

e’ = 52.5 cm

Pn = 56.355c – 0.737c2 + 727 (2)

Equating eqn. (1) and (2):

c = 15.714 cm

Subst c in (1):

Pn = 91.035 (15.714)

Pn = 1430.52 kN

Pu = 0.70 (1430.52)

79
Pu = 1001.36 kN

Exercises

Redo the example if

1. e = 20 cm

2. e = 45 cm

80
3. e = 30 cm

81
82
4. e = 25 cm and h = 45 cm and b = 50 cm.

83
ANALYSIS OF ECCENTRICALLY LOADED COLUMNS

USING INTERACTION DIAGRAMS

1. Using the interaction curves, determine the value of Pn for the short tied column

shown in the figure for e = 18” and e = 8” and fc’ = 4000 psi and fy = 60 000 psi.

2.5”
3#9

24”
19”

3#9 2.5”

14”
a. e = 18”

e 18
--- = ------- = 0.75
h 24

6
 = --------- = 0.0179
14(24)

19
 = ----- = 0.792
24

Referring to the table and by interpolation:

 0.75 0.792 0.90

Pn e
---- ---- 0.50 0.525 0.590
Ag h

 Pn e
-------- = 0.525
Ag h

14(24)(24)(0.525)
Pn = ---------------------
0.70(18)

Pn = 336 k

52

84
b. This is left for your exercise.

2. Determine the value of Pn using the interaction diagram. Use fc’ = 4000 psi and fy =

60 000 psi d’ = 2.5”

e = 6”
8#7

20”

e 6
--- = ---- = 0.30
h 20

 = 4.81/314 = 0.0153

 = 15/20 = 0.75

 Pn e
------- = 0.39
Ag h

314(20)(0.39)
Pn = -----------------
(0.75)(6)

Pn = 544.3 k

3. The 12” x 20” tied column is designed to carry a dead load of 100 k and live load of

110 k, dead load moment of 60 ft-k and live load moment of 80 ft-k. If fc’ = 4000 psi

and fy = 60 000 psi, design its main bars using #7 bars.

Solution:

Pu = 327 k

Pn = Pu/0.70

Pn = 327/0.70

Pn = 467.1 k

Mu = 220 ft – k

53
85
Mn = Mu/0.70

Mn = 220/0.70

Mn = 314.3 ft – k

e = 12(314.3)/467.1

e = 8.07”

e 8.07
---- = -----
h 20

e
--- = 0.404
h

Pn e 0.70(467.1)(8.07)
------- = --------------------- = 0.550
Ag h 240(20)

 = 15/20 = 0.75

 = 0.020

As = Ag

As = 0.020(20)(12) = 4.80 in2

Use 8 # 7 bars

86
54

Exercises

Determine the value of Pn using the interaction curve and fc’ = 4000 psi and fy =60 000

psi.

12. 14” x 16” tied column reinforced with 4#9 above and below the x - axis with steel

covering of 2.5” and e = 12”.

87
55

13. 14” x 18” with 3 # 10 bars to the left and right of the y – axis with e = 8” and d’ =

3” and e = 8”.

88
56

14. 20” spiral column with 8 # 8 bars and d’ =2.5” and e =13”.

89
DESIGN FORMULA IN RCD
WSD

n
1. k = -------------- (design)
fs/fc + n

2. k = (n)2 + 2n - n (investigation)

15. j = 1 – k/3

16. R = ½ fc k j

17. M = Rbd2

18. T = As fs

19. Fc = 1/2fc bkd

20. M = Asfsjd

21. Fc = 0.45fc’

22. vall = 0.09fc’

23. uall = 10.14 fc’/

USD

24. min = 1.4/fy

14. max = 0.75b

0.85fc’ 600
15. b = ------------- . ------------
fy 600 + fy

16. a = c

17. = 0.85 – 0.008 (fc’ – 30) if fc’ 30MPa

600d
18. c = ------------
fy + 600

0.5fy
19. Mu = fybd2(1 - -------------)
fc’

0.59fy
90
20. Ru = fy(1 - -----------)
fc’

21. Mu = Rubd2

22. a = bdfy/0.85fc’ab

23. fc = 0.85fc’

24. vall = 1/6fc’

25. Pu =Pn ( = 0.70 for tied col. and  = 0.75 for round col.)

26. Pn = Po ( = 0.80 for tied col. and  = 0.85 for round col.)

Exercises

91
11. Derive the value of k in design.

12. Derive the value of Mu in no. 19.

13. Derive the value of b.

14. Derive the value of c.

15. Derive the value of k in investigation.

92