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Reinforced concrete

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REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN 2

Lecture = 3.0 units = 3 hours

Laboratory = 1.0 units = 3.0 hours

Total = 4.0 units = 6.0 hours

Reference Books:

Reinforced Concrete Design by DIT Gillesania

Reinforced Concrete Design by McCormac

Other Related RC books (American/Filipino Books)

ACI (American Concrete Institute)

NSCP 2015 ( National Structural Code of the Phils.)

CLASSROOM POLICIES:

Written Examination Passing rate = 75%

GRADING SYSTEM:

CLASS STANDING = 70%

ATTENDANCE = 5% (ABSENT = 32 HOURS = DR)

QUIZZES = 40%

ORAL EXAM/BW = 10

ASSIGNMENTS/PLATES = 15% (SUBMISSION OF PLATES IS DONE A WEEK AFTER THE PLATE IS

GIVEN ON A SHORT SIZE BOND PAPER W/ A TITLE PAGE USE BLACK PEN)

MAJOR EXAMS = 30%

TOTAL = 100% = 1.0

WSD = working stress design.

n

1. k = -------------- (design-sizing and detailing) n = Es/Ec

fs/fc + n fs = stress of steel

fc = compressive stress= 0.45 fc’

fc’ = compressive strength of concrete after

curing (28 days)

2. k = (n)2 + 2n - n (investigation – adequacy or safety, span, loads)

3. j = 1 – k/3 = As/bd

4. R = ½ fc k j

5. M = Fc = Rbd2 = T jd

6. T = As fs

7. Fc = 1/2fc b kd

8. M = As fs jd

9. fc = 0.45fc’

SEATWORK

DRAW the FIGURES TO SHOW ALL THE VARIABLES IN THE ABOVE WSD EQUATIONS

vall = 0.09fc’

10. uall = 10.14 fc’/

1

11. min = 1.4/fy

0.85fc’ 600

15. b = ------------- . ------------

fy 600 + fy

16. a = c

600d

18. c = ------------

fy + 600

0.5fy

19. Mu = fybd2(1 - -------------)

fc’

0.59fy

20. Ru = fy(1 - -----------)

fc’

21. Mu = Rubd2

22. a = bdfy/0.85fc’ab

23. fc = 0.85fc’

25. Pu =Pn ( = 0.70 for tied col. and = 0.75 for round col.)

26. Pn = Po ( = 0.80 for tied col. and = 0.85 for round col.)

Exercises

2

1. Derive the value of k in design.

CE 524

Quiz No. 1

3

Name:________________________Date:_____________Score:________

WSD

1. k

2. j

3. Fc

4. fc

5. Vall

6. Uall

7. As

8. Fc

9. T

10. R

USD

11. min

12. max

13. b

14. Ru

15. Mu

16. vall

17. a

18. c

19. fc

20. Fc

4

INVESTIGATION OF BEAMS

SINGLY REINFORCED BEAMS/GIRDERS

Two Methods:

2. Transformed Section Method , TSM

Investigation Steps

ICM

1. Calculate design constants, k, j, and R. Value of k in investigation :

Consider a section:

b ec fc =0.45fc’

M kd Fc

d

t jd

d - kd

As A T

es fs/n

section strain diagram stress diagram

By ratio and proportion:

fc fs/n

------ = ----------

kd d – kd

fc fs

------ = --------------

kd n ( d – kd )

fc kd

------ = --------------

fs nd ( 1 – k )

fc k

------ = -------------- ( 1 )

fs n(1–k)

M = As fs j d

5

Let p = steel ratio = As/ bd

As = p b d

Subst. As to M

M = p b d fs j d

But M = Fc j d = ½ fc b kd j d = ½ fc k j b d2

Equate M = M

p b d fs j d = ½ fc k j b d2

p fs = ½ fc k

fc 2p

---- = ------ ( 2 )

fs k

Equate ( 1 ) and ( 2 )

2p k

----- = -------------

k n(1–k)

k2 = 2 p n - 2 p n k

k2 + 2 p n k = 2 p n

k2 + 2 p n k + ( p n ) 2 = 2 p n + ( p n ) 2

( k + p n ) 2 = ( p n )2 + 2 p n

k+pn= ( p n )2 + 2 p n

k= ( p n )2 + 2 p n - p n

j = 1 – k/3

R = ½ fc k j

2. Check adequacy of the section or solve for the unknown loads or span

length, by

a. Bending

b. Shear

c. Bond

d. deflection, if given

6

TSM:

b b

x/2

N.A.

d

As d-x

nAs

nAs

Section Transformed Section

2. Solve nAs

b x3

INA = ------- + n As ( d – x )2

3

5. Check whether the section is adequate or solve for the unknown loads or

a. bending

b. shear

c. bond

d. deflection, if given

7

CE 51A

QUIZ

steel bars arranged in a single row. The beam has an effective depth of 500 mm and a width of

275mm and a steel covering of 50mm (measured from the CGTS to the extreme tension edge).

Using fy = 276MPa, fc’ = 20.7 MPa,

2. Check if the beam is under or over reinforced.

b = 275mm

PLL = 12kN

WLL = 14kN/m

WDL = 16kN/m

4m 2m

3-28mm

b = 275mm

PuLL = 20.4kN

Wu = 46.2 kN/m

WLL = 14kN/m

WDL = 16kN/m

4m 2m

R1 = 145.4 kN R2 =152.2kN

Fv = 0

V 145.4 + 152.2 = 20.4 + 46.2(6)

8

297.6 = 297.6

x = 3.147m

-39.4

-59.8

228.8kN.m

-152.2

212

M

Muact = 228.8 kN.m (30%)

= 3(/4)(28)2/275( 500) = 0.01343459258 (15%)

MAX = 0.75[0.85(0.85)(20.7)/276](600/876) = 0.02783604452

SINCE MIN ≤ ≤ MAX

steel yields first (15%)

Ru = fy ( 1 – 0.59fy/fc’ ) = 3.32MPa Muall = 0.9 (3.32)(275)(500)2 10 -6

1.) The beam is not safe in bending. (10%)

2.) The beam is under-reinforced. (10%)

Perfect score = 100%

1. Solve for

k = (n)2 + 2n - n

k = 0.3992871612

9

NOTE: DON’T ROUNF-OFF DECIMALS

j = 1 – k/3 = 0.8669042796

R = ½ fc k j = 1.636 MPa

2. Solve for P:

a. Bending:

Mact = Actual bending moment due to the applied loads = (70.335 + 1.5P) kN.m

MALL = Rbd2 = 1.636 (275)(500)2 10-6 = 112.475 kN.m

P = 28.09 kN

b. shear

1. The cross – section of an 8 –m simple beam is shown in the figure below. Neglecting its own

weight, check whether the beam is safe to carry the given moving loads using TSM . Other

additional data are: fc’ = 20 MPa, fs = 124MPa, n = 12, vact = 0.40 MPa, uall = 1.4 MPa.

10

50kN 40kN 10kN

3m 1m

USD(INVESTIGATION PROBLEMS)

Balance Steel Ratio – a beam that has a balance steel ratio is one for which the tensile steel will

theoretically start to yield and the compression concrete reach its ultimate strain at exactly

the same load. Failure is drastic and no warning is given.

max = 0.75 b

Under - Reinforced Beam – (steel yields first: min ≤ ≤ maxc) if a beam has less reinforcement than

required for a balanced ratio. In this condition, the steel will begin to yield even though the

compression concrete is highly stressed resulting in appreciable deflections and large visible cracks in

the tensile concrete. As a result, the users of the structure are given notice that the load must be

reduced or else the result will be considerable damage or even failure. If the load is increased

further, the tension cracks will become even larger and eventually the compression side of the

concrete will become overstressed and fail.

Over – Reinforced Beam – ( ˃ max) the steel will not yield before failure. As the load is increased,

deflections are not noticeable even though the compression concrete is highly stressed, and failure

occurs suddenly without warning to the occupants. Rectangular beams will fail in compression when

strains are about 0.003 to 0.004 for ordinary grades of steel. Over reinforcing is a situation to be

avoided if at all possible, the ACI code, by limiting the percentage of tensile steel that may be used in

a beam, ensures the design of under reinforced beams and thus the ductile type of failures that

provide adequate running time.

11

INVESTIGATION OF BEAMS (USD)

Two conditions:

then fs = fy.

2. Steel does not yield : if min < max or min < and max <

3. Check adequacy of the section or calculate the intensity of the additional loads or

CE 51A

1. Check if the beam section given in the figure below is under-reinforced. Calculate the

ultimate moment capacity (allowable ultimate moment capacity) using fc’ = 20.7 MPa

and fy = 345 MPa.

b = 250 mm

d = 450 mm

60 mm

3.25 mm

Solution:

a)Check if steel is yielding 1st.

min = 1.4/fy = 1.4/345 = 0.004057971014 = As/bd = 3(/4)

(25) /250(450)=0.01308996939 max = 0.75[(0.85(0.85)(20.7)/345)(600/945) =

2

b) Ru = 3.93 MPa

c) Muall = Ru b d2 = 0.9 (3.93)(250)(450)2 10-6

12

Muuall = 179.06 kN.m

2. Calculate the safest concentrated live load that the given beam section in problem number 1

can carry in addition to its own uniform dead weight of 700 N/m (including beam’s weight)

and uniform live load of 1000 N/m .

2m 2m 2m

WDL = 700 N/m WLL = 1000 N/m

wuL2 PuLL L

Muact = ------- + ------- ≤ Muall = 179.06 = 2.68 (6)2/8 + 1.7PLL(6) / 3

8 3

PLL = 49.12 kN

Where: wu = 1.4 (0.7) + 1.7 (1) = 2.68 kN/m PuLL = 1.7 PLL

280 mm

500 mm

80 mm

4 –36mm

200 mm

525 mnm

5 – 32 mm

75mm

Design of Stairway

13

t

L = nt

n = number of steps

r = riser

t = tread

s√ r2 + t2

wsl = weight of slab = ----------------- wc

t

r

wst = weight iof step = ------ wc

2

The design of a stairway follows the same method as in the design of one-way slab.

CE 51D

Final Exam

NAME:_________________________________________________________DATE:_________SCORE:______

Problems

1.Design a reinforced concrete stairway having 12- 150 mm risers and 12 - 300 mm treads. Live load is 4000 Pa and fc’

= 28 MPa and fy = 275 MPa. Use 12 mm main bars and 10 mm temperature bars.

Deadl Load = 1000 kN; Live Load = 1340 kN; Assume Steel Ratio = 0.015; Compressive Stress of

Concrete = 25 MPa; Yielding Stress of Steel = 250 MPa; Main Bar = 25mm.

3. Determine the steel area required for the given section. Use fc’ = 27.6 MPa and fy = 413.7 MPa. The beam is

subjected to an ultimate moment due to the given loads of 1000 kN.m. Use d’ = 60mm; 25mm main bars.

b = 350 mm

14

d = 600 mm

Design of Columns

compression member.

2. axially loaded

3. eccentrically loaded

Types of columns:

1. Tied Column – the reinforcement is composed of longitudinal bars and lateral ties.

15

2. Spiral Column – the reinforcement is composed of longitudinal bars enclosed by closely

spaced spirals.

ACI Specs:

1. Tied Columns

c. Use 10 mm lateral ties for main bars smaller or equal to 32 mm and 12 mm for main

e. When there are more than 4 vertical bars, additional ties shall be added so that every

longitudinal bars will be held firmly in its designed position, no bar shall be more than

f. The reinforcement for tied column shall be protected by a concrete cover ing cast

monolithically with the core from which the thickness shall be not less than 40 mm.

g. Radius of gyration, r = 0.30 times the overalll dimension of the member in the direction

under consideration.

2. Spiral Coilumn

16

b. Minimum number of bars = 6 – 16 mm

d. Clear spacing between spiral (pitch of spiral,S) should not exceed more than 80 mm

Ag fc’

s = 0.45 [ ------ - 1] ------ (ACI Code)

Ac fy

4As

s = ------- (actual)

Dc S

a. when Lu / r is less than 34 – 12 M1/M2, the effect of slenderness ratio is neglected and

the column is safe in buckling. M1 is the smaller end moment and M2 is the larger end

moment.

4. Minimum eccentricity, e

5. Po = service load

Pu = ultimate load

Pn = nominal load

17

Design of axially loaded columns:

3. Determine the number of longitudinal bars and the spacing of the tie bars using ACI specs.

Po

Po = service load

Pc

Pc = force of concrete

Ps Ps = force of steel

Exercises

Design a tied column to carry an axial load of DL = 1070 kN, LL = 980 kN. The column has an

unsupported length of 2.2m and carries no moment. Use fc’ = 27.5 MPa and fy = 415 MPa.

Design considering a

a. tied column

b. spiral column

18

CE 524

Quiz No. 1

Name:________________________Date:_____________Score:________

WSD

1. k

2. j

3. Fc

4. fc

5. Vall

6. Uall

7. As

8. Fc

19

9. T

10. R

USD

11. min

12. max

13. b

14. Ru

15. Mu

16. vall

17. a

18. c

19. fc

20.

0.85fc’ 600

15. b = ------------- . ------------

fy 600 + fy

16. a = c

600d

18. c = ------------

fy + 600

0.5fy

19. Mu = fybd2(1 - -------------)

fc’

20

0.59fy

20. Ru = fy(1 - -----------)

fc’

21. Mu = Rubd2

22. a = bdfy/0.85fc’ab

23. fc = 0.85fc’

25. Pu =Pn ( = 0.70 for tied col. and = 0.75 for round col.)

26. Pn = Po ( = 0.80 for tied col. and = 0.85 for round col.)

Exercises

21

INVESTIGATION OF BEAMS

SINGLY REINFORCED BEAMS/GIRDERS

Two Methods:

Investigation Steps

ICM

22

Consider a section:

b fc

M kd

d - kd

As A

fs/n

fc fs/n

------ = ----------

kd d – kd

fc fs

------ = --------------

kd n ( d – kd )

fc kd

------ = --------------

fs nd ( 1 – k )

fc k

------ = -------------- ( 1 )

fs n(1–k)

M = As fs j d

As = p b d

Subst. As to M

M = p b d fs j d

But M = Fc j d = ½ fc b kd j d = ½ fc k j b d2

Equate M = M

p b d fs j d = ½ fc k j b d2

p fs = ½ fc k

fc 2p

23

---- = ------ ( 2 )

fs k

Equate ( 1 ) and ( 2 )

2p k

----- = -------------

k n(1–k)

k2 = 2 p n - 2 p n k

k2 + 2 p n k = 2 p n

k2 + 2 p n k + ( p n ) 2 = 2 p n + ( p n ) 2

( k + p n ) 2 = ( p n )2 + 2 p n

k+pn= ( p n )2 + 2 p n

k= ( p n )2 + 2 p n - p n

j = 1 – k/3

R = ½ fc k j

4. Check adequacy of the section or solve for the unknown loads or span

length, by

e. Bending

f. Shear

g. Bond

h. deflection, if given

TSM:

b b

x

x/2

N.A.

d

As d-x

nAs

nAs

Section Transformed Section

7. Solve nAs

24

8. Locate the neutral axis, NA

b x3

INA = ------- + n As ( d – x )2

3

10. Check whether the section is adequate or solve for the unknown loads or

d. bending

e. shear

f. bond

d. deflection, if given

Exercises

steel bars arranged in a single row. The beam has an effective depth of 450 mm and a width of

250mm and a steel covering of 50mm. If n =12, fs = 124 MPa, fc’ = 27 MPa, determine the

safest additional uniform live load that the beam could carry in addition to its uniform dead load

of 12 kN/m (excluding beam’s weight ) ICM.

b = 250mm

Wt = 12 + WLL

d = 450

L = 6.0m

Solution:

25

k = √(n)2 + 2 n - n = As/bd = 4(/4)(25)2/(250)(450)

= 0.01745329252

k = 0.4708133317

j = 1 – k/3 = 0.8430622228

R = ½ fc k j = ½ (0.45)(27)k j = 2.411 MPa

a. Conc, Mc = Fc jd = ½ fc b kd jd = R b d2 = 2.411 (N/mm2)(250)mm(450)2mm2(10 -6)

Mc = 122.057 kN.m

b. Steel, Ms = T jd = As fs jd = 4(/4)(25)2 (j)(124)(450)10-6

Ms = 92.36 kN.m (governs!)

Conditions:

1) If Ms Mc,then steel yields first! safe!

2) If Ms ˃ Mc, then steel is not yielding not safe!

Since Ms Mc, then steel yields first.

Use: Mall = 92.36 kN.m

Mact = wt L2/8 where: wt = 12 + (0.25)(0.50)(24) + WLL = 15 kN/m + wLL

Mact = [15 + WLL ] (6)2/8 kN.m Mact ≤ Mall (safe)

WLL = 5.52 kN/m

Quiz next meeting!

26

3. The cross – section of an 8 –m simple beam is shown in the figure below. Neglecting its own

weight, check whether the beam is safe to carry the given moving loads using TSM . Other

additional data are: fc’ = 20 MPa, fs = 124MPa, n = 12, vact = 0.40 MPa, uall = 1.4 MPa.

3m 1m

27

UNDER-REINFORCED AND OVER-REINFORCED BEAMS

Balance Steel Ratio – a beam that has a balance steel ratio is one for

which the tensile steel will theoretically start to yield and the

load.

for a balanced ratio. In this condition, the steel will begin to yield

concrete. As a result, the users of the structure are given notice that

28

damage or even failure. If the load is increased further, the tension

cracks will become even larger and eventually the compression side

Over – Reinforced Beam – the steel will not yield before failure. As the

beams and thus the ductile type of failures that provide adequate

running time.

29

INVESTIGATION OF BEAMS (USD)

Two conditions:

then fs = fy.

4. Steel does not yield : if min < max or min < and max <

3. Check adequacy of the section or calculate the intensity of the additional loads or

b. bending

c. shear

d. deflection

30

Exercises

1. Calculate the ultimate moment capacity of the given beam section shown

in the figure below using fc’ = 20.7 MPa and fy = 345 MPa.

2. Find the ultimate uniform live load capacity of the beam if it has a simple

span of 6m and uniform dead load of 680 N/m including its own weight.

b = 250 mm

450 mm

60 mm

3-25 mm

31

3. Calculate the safest concentrated live load that the given beam can

PLL PLL

2m 2m 2m

700 N/m

280 mm

500 mm

80 mm

4 –36mm

32

c. fc’ = 20 MPa and fy = 350 MPa

200 mm

525 mnm

5 – 32 mm

75mm

33

SEISMIC ANALYSIS

ZICW

V = --------

RW

Building is located

design levels

The seismic dead load W is the total dead load and the applicable portions of

1. In storage and warehouse, a minimum of 25% of the floor live load shall

be applicable.

34

2. Where a partition load is used in the floor design, a load of not less than 10

3. Where the snow load is greater than 30 psf, the snow load shall be

building official.

2. Any building, where the primary occupancy is for assembly use for

Numerical coefficient C

1.25 S

C = ----------------

T2/3

Where:

Where:

Ct = 0.03 for reinforced concrete resisting frames and eccentric braced frames

hn = refers to the height from the base to the highest point of the main structure

( V – Ft ) Wx hx

Fx = ----------------------

35

Wx hx

Where :

Ft = 0.07TV < 0.25V

Wx = Deadload at “ x “ floor

hx = height at “ x “ floor

Exercises

1. The figure below shows the plan and elevation of a four storey building ( moment resisting space

frame with shear walls ) . The buildingis located in Mandaue with a zone factor of 0.40 and site

coefficient of 1.0, and importance factor of 1.25 and Rw = 10 and Ct = 0.075. The weight of the

corresponding floors are 2200 kN on the roof deck, 1760 KN on the 4 th floor, 1760 KN on the 3 rd

floor, 1760 kN on the 2nd floor, and 440 KN on the ground or 1 st floor. Determine the lateral loads

and analyze the structure along the z-plane having 3 panels at 6m.

Roof deck

4m

4th flr.

4m

3rd flr

4m

2nd flr

ground 4m

6 @ 9m = 54 m

ELEVATION y

36

x

(kN.m) Fx = --------------------

Wxhx

Deck

4th

3rd

2nd

ground

37

3. Prepare your own elevation plan of a 5 - storey concrete building

and analyze the lateral loads of the building frame in all directions. Use

Vmax Vu

V

Vc/2

V – diagram

Av fy

s = -------------

v’ b

38

where: v’ = vact - vall

Vu

vact = ---------

bd

Vu

v’ = -------- - 1/6 fc’

bd

1 Vu

v’ = --------- [ --- - 1/6fc’ bd ]

bd

Let :

vc = 1/6 fc’ bd

1 Vu

v’ = -------- [---- - vc ]

bd

Substitute v’ to s where:

Av fy

s = ---------------------

Vu s = spacing of stirrups when the

1/bd [ ---- - vc ] b

shear at Vu.

Av fy d

s = ---------------

Vu

--- - vc

vn = Vu/

VS = Vn - vc

Therefore :

Av fy d

s = -------------

Vs

Example:

39

1. If the spacing of stirrups of a 10 mm diameter stirrups for a beam 250 mm x 500 mm is

300 mm oc, what is the shear strength provided by the shear reinforcement? Use fc’ =

20MPa and fy = 250 MPa. Use d’ = 65 mm.

ANS:56.2 kN

2. A rectangular beam has a width of 300mm and an effective depth of 500mm. The beam

has a span of 6m. If the nominal shear strength of stirrups is 64000N, what would be the

maximum shear at the support of the beam? Us efc’ = 25 MPa and fy = 400 MPa.

ANS: 192780 N

ExAMPLE

0.85 SAND-LIGHTWEIGHT CONC.,1.0 FOR NORMAL WEIGHT CONC.

IF NOT SPECIFIED = 1.0

CGTS to the extreme tension fiber); fc’ = 21 MPa, fy = 415

MPa; d=410mm.

Required:

a. Vc (if the beam is subjected to shear and flexure only, use

2010 NSCP specs.)

Vc = 0.17 fc’ b d = 83.045 kN

40

b. Vc if the member is subjected to compressive force of 80kN

and using 2010 NSCP.

Vc = 86.9 kN

2. SW

Data: b = 270mm

t = 460mm

d = 410mm

Vu = 136 kN

Factored Axial Tensile Force = 140 kN

fc’ = 25 MPa

fy = 275 MPa

Req’d: Using NSCP 2010, compute Vc and Vs.

1. For the given shear diagram, design proper spacing of the web reinforcement using

fc’ = 20 MPa, fy = 276 MPa, b = 300 mm, and d = 550 mm. The beam has a simple

span of 8.2m.

250 kN

-250 kN

2. A beam has a width of 350 mm and effective depth of 600 mm. Using fy = 414 MPa

41

and fc’ = 20.7 MPa, determine the theoretical spacing of #3 stirrups for each of the

following shears:

a. Vu = 14,000 lbs

b. Vu = 55,000 lbs

c. Vu = 70,000 lbs

ec = 0.003

d’

As’ c a C1 C2 es’

d d – d’

d – a/2 NA

As T1 T2 es

Reasons: 1. If the sizes of the beam are limited.

2.If the beam is over-renforced.

C2 = Compressive Force of Compression Steel

T1 = Tensile Force of Steel to Resist C1

T2 = Tensile Force of Steel to Resist C2

As’ = Area of Compression Steel

As = Area of Tension Steel

42

Assume all steel yields: Ductility requirement;

s y ; fs = fy max = 0.75b + ’

C1 + C2 = T1 + T2 = T

where: C1 = 0.85 fc’ a b

C2 = As’ fy

T = T1 + T2 = As fy

0.85 fc’ a b + As’ fy = As fy

(As – As’ ) fy

a = -----------------------

0.85 fc’ b

As’ fy = As2 fy

As’ = As2

Mn = nominal moment

Mn = Mn1 + Mn2

Mn1 = C1(d – a/2)

Mn2 = C2(d – d’)

Mn = C1( d – a/2) + C2 (d – d’)

Mn = (As – As’) fy (d – a/2) + As’ fy (d – d’)

Mu = Ultimate Moment

Mu = Mn

= 0.90

Mu = [(As – As’) fy (d – a/2) + As’ fy (d – d’)]

1. Design the width and depth of the beam considering singly reinforced. Follow the

procedure in designing singly reinforced beam.

3. Calculate the ultimate moment capacity of the designed singly reinforced beam. If

the ultimate moment capacity of the srb beam is lesser than the actual ultimate

moment (due to the applied loads), then design a doubly reinforced beam.

4. Design the reinforcement for tension and compression.

For Compression:

Mu2

As’ = ---------------

fy(d – d’)

Mu2 = Ultimate Moment due to applied loads – Ultimate Moment Capacity of SRB

For Tension:

As = Asmax + As’

5. Check if comp steel yields: fs’ = 600 [(1/c) c – d’]

If fs’ < fy csdny fs’ fy As’ = As2(fy/fs’)

If fs’ ≥ fy csty fs’ = fy As’ = As2

(Conceal – to hide)

Example:

1. Determine the steel area required for the given section. Use fc’ = 27.6 MPa and

43

fy = 413.7 MPa. The beam is subjected to an ultimate moment due to the given

loads of 1000 kN.m. Use d’ = 60mm; 25mm main bars.

b = 350 mm

d = 600 mm

Solution:

1. b and d are given.

2. Asmax = max b d = 4493.49 mm2

max = 0.75 b = 0.02139757119

3. Mu1 = Mumax = T1 ( d – a/2) Asmax fy

Where: T1 = As1 fy = Asmax fy a = ----------- = 226.4 mm

0.85fc’ b

Mu1 = Mumax = 814.45 kN.m 1150 kN.m ( not safe!)

4. a.compression

(1150 – 814.45)106

As = ------------------------- = 1668.92 mm2

’

N’ = 4 bars

0.9(413.7)(600 – 60)

b.tension

Seatwork:

300 mm

500 mm

Seatwork

Compute the maximum permissible capacities of the given beam sections using

a.

70 mm

3 –25mm

700 mm

4 –32 mm

Steps:

44

1. Assume all steel yields.

b. 450 mm

70 mm

3#9

583 mm

4 # 11

3. Calculate the additional uniform load that can be carried by the 8.0m simply

4. What additional concentrated live load can be applied at the mid span of the

45

Vmax Vu

V

Vc/2

V – diagram

Av fy

s = -------------

v’ b

Vu

vact = ---------

bd

Vu

v’ = -------- - 1/6 fc’

bd

1 Vu

v’ = --------- [ --- - 1/6fc’ bd ]

bd

Let :

vc = 1/6 fc’ bd

1 Vu

v’ = -------- [---- - vc ]

bd

46

Substitute v’ to s where:

Av fy

s = ---------------------

Vu s = spacing of stirrups when the

1/bd [ ---- - vc ] b

shear at Vu.

Av fy d

s = ---------------

Vu

--- - vc

vn = Vu/

VS = Vn - vc

Therefore :

Av fy d

s = -------------

Vs

Exercises

47

3. For the given shear diagram, design proper spacing of the web reinforcement using

fc’ = 20 MPa, fy = 276 MPa, b = 300 mm, and d = 550 mm. The beam has a simple

span of 8.2m.

250 kN

-250 kN

48

4. A beam has a width of 350 mm and effective depth of 600 mm. Using fy = 414 MPa

and fc’ = 20.7 MPa, determine the theoretical spacing of #3 stirrups for each of the

following shears:

e. Vu = 14,000 lbs

f. Vu = 55,000 lbs

g. Vu = 70,000 lbs

49

5. Select stirrups spacing using fc’ = 20.7 MPa and fy = 275.8 MPa. The given dead load

includes beam’s weight. The beam is reinforced for tension only with

a. 4 - #11 main bars, width is 400 mm and effective depth is 750mm and protective

covering is 70 mm.

LL = 24 kN/m DL = 30 kN/m

8m

50

b. 6 - # 9 bars, b = 450 mm, d = 730 mm, d’ = 70 mm. The cantilever beam is 4m long

51

DESIGN OF BEAMS REINFORCED FOR COMPRESSION

ec = 0.003

d’

A s’ c a C1 C2 e s’

d

NA

As T1 T2 es

C1 = Compressive Force of Concrete

s y ; fs = fy max = 0.75 b + ’

s ’ y ; f s ’ = fy ’ = As’/bd

C1 + C 2 = T

C2 = As’ fy

T = T1 + T2 = As fy

(As – As’) fy

a = -----------------------

0.85 fc’ b

52

C 2 = T2 As1 = As – As2

As’ fy = As2 fy

As’ = As2

Mn = nominal moment

Mn = Mn1 + Mn2

Mu = Ultimate Moment

Mu = Mn

= 0.90

6. Design the width and depth of the beam considering singly reinforced. Follow the

8. Calculate the ultimate moment capacity of the designed singly reinforced beam. If

the ultimate moment capacity of the srb beam is lesser than the actual ultimate

moment (due to the applied loads), then design a doubly reinforced beam.

For Compression:

Mu2

As’ = ---------------

fy(d – d’)

53

Mu2 = Ultimate Moment due to applied loads – Ultimate Moment Capacity of SRB

For Tension:

As = Asmax + As’

Example:

2. Determine the steel area required for the given section. Use fc’ = 27.6 MPa and

fy = 413.7 MPa. The beam is subjected to an ultimate moment due to the given

350 mm

600 mm

54

2.

300 mm

500 mm

Compute the maximum permissible capacities of the given beam sections using

b = 300mm

70 mm

3 –25mm

55

700 mm

4 –32 mm

Steps:

b. 450 mm

70 mm

3#9

583 mm

56

4 # 11

5. Calculate the additional uniform load that can be carried by the 8.0m simply

57

6. What additional concentrated live load can be applied at the mid span of the

58

beam in prob. 3b if it has a simple span of 6.0m?

’

SLAB

FLANGE

WEB

L

S1 s2 s3

bw’

Case I: When N.A. lies on the flange, a t analyze as singly reinforced beam.

bf

t

N.A.

d

bw

59

bf = width of the flange t =thickness of the slab d = effective depth bw = width of the beam a = depth of the

Case II: When N.A. lies on the web, a t analyze as real T-beam.

bf

d

N.A.

bw

Case III: When tension bar lies on top of the beam, analyze as singly reinforced

bf

bw

bf bf’

S1 s2 s3

bw’

60

1 a. bf ≤ ¼ of the span of the beam.

b. bf ≤ 16t + bw

2 c. bf ≤ center to center distance (s) between supports. (s = s 1 = s2 = s3)

SEATWORK USING ¼:

A symmetrical T-beam with a simple span of 6m has t = 100mm, bw = 300mm

and clear spacing of the beams = 2m. Find the safest bf.

b. bf =16(100)+300 = 1900mm

c. bf =2300 mm

Use bf = 1500mm

2. For beams having an slab on one side only, the effective overhanging slab width

shall not exceed one twelfth of the span length, six times the slab thickness, or

one-half of the clear distance to the next beam.

bf’

b. bf’ ≤ 6t + bw’

c. bf’ ≤ ½ s3 + bw’

3. For isolated beams in which the flange is used only for the purpose of providing

additional compressive area, the flange thickness shall be less than one-half the

width of the web, and the total flange width shall not exceed four times the web

width.

a. bf ≥ 4 bw

b. t ≤ ½ bw

4. If area of the compression concrete is lesser than the area of the flange, the T-

beam is analyzed as SRB.

61

5. If the area of the compression concrete is greater than the area of the flange,

analyzed as real T- beam.

2. Calculate the loads.

3. Calculate the designing moment.

4. Solve “a” considering that N.A. lies on the flange and determine whether the

given is a real T-beam.

5. Solve steel requirements.

6. Check if steel yield.

7. Check for shear.

8. Draw details.

Exercises

1. Determine the area of reinforcing bars, As=? required for the given T-beam. Use fc’ =

20.7 MPa and fy = 344.8 MPa.

1600 mm

100mm

500 mm

As = ?

300 mm

Solution:

2. Calculate the loads.

3. Designing ultimate moment = 475 kN.m (given).

4. Solve for “a” assuming N.A is on the flange,

Mu = Fc ( d – a/2)

475 (106) = 0.9 (0.85)(20.7)a (1600)(600 – a/2)

a = 32.1mm t = 100 mm ( analyze as SRB)

5. Mu = T ( d – a/2) = 0.9 As fy (d – a/2)

As = 2621.25 mm2

Using 25 mm main bars

N = 6 bars

62

2.Calculate the required steel area for a RC T-beam with bf = 1200mm; t = 100mm. Mu = 1300 kN.m due to the applied

loads; bw = 300mm; d = 550mm, fc’ = 28 MPa; fy = 400 MPa.

1200 mm

C1

t= 100mm

a C2

450 mm

As = ?

T2 T1

Web Flange

300 mm

Solution:

a = 101.3mm ˃ t ( analyze as T- beam )

C 1 = T1

As1 fy = 0.85 fc’ b’ t

a = 105.15 mm

T2 = C 2

min = 1.4/fy =

63

Solve As max:

C = 600d/600 + fy = 330mm

a = c = 280.5 mm

T=C

Asmax = 0.75 (10362) = 7771.5mm2 ˃ 7232mm2 mm (0k)

Use As = 7232mm2

2. A fully continuous T-beams has a span of 4.8 m and are centered 2.5 m. The

Design the T-beam using fc’ = 211kg/cm2 and fy = 345 MPa. Use moment at

64

3. Determine the maximum permissible capacity of the given T-beam using fc’ =

750mm

100mm

800 mm

8 #10

350 mm

65

4. Design a T-beam if the thickness of the slab is 75 mm, width of the web is

375mm and effective depth is 600 mm. The T-beam carries a dead load moment

of 270 kN.m and a live load moment of 460 kN.m. The beam has a span of 5.4 m

and the center to center spacing of beams is 1.8 m. Use fc’ = 20.7 MPa and fy =

345 MPa.

66

5. Redo exercise no. 4 if MDL = 285 kN.m and MLL = 570 kN.m and the effective

depth is 675 mm and the thickness of the slab is 80 mm. Other data remain the

same.

67

PRE-STRESSED CONCRETE

member in such a manner that the combined internal stresses in the member,

resulting from this applied force or moment will be confined within specific

limits.

the stresses in the concrete resulting from bending are compressive and none

68

is tensile.

while the stress is maintained in the tendons, the concrete is placed around

the tendons. After the concrete has hardened, the tendons are released and

result of the tendons attempting to regain its length before, when it was being

stressed.

the tendons after the concrete has been cast and has attained sufficient

strength to safely withstand the per-stressing force. The wires or tendons are

placed on a mortar tight metal tube or flexible metal base to prevent the

tendon from bonding to the concrete during placing and curing of concrete.

After the tendon has been released, the void between the tendon and the

1. Concentric Force, P

P P d

(+) (+) (+) (+)

+ + =

69

(-) (-) (+) (0)

Tension Tension Compression Stress in Loaded Pre-

Stressed Member

Dead Load Live Load Stress Due to

Stress Stress Pre-Stressing

2. Eccentric Force, P

e

P P

+ + =

Dead Load Stress Live Load Stress Stress due to Pre Stress In Loaded

-Stressing Pre-Stressed Member

ACI Specifications:

fc

Fc

D 0.65d

d/2 e

T

Tendons

70

1. T = Fc = Effective Pre-stressing Force

T = F = As fs

M = F (0.65d)

M

2. As fs = --------

0.65d

Fc

3. c = ------

Ac

d =thickness in cm

6. Loss of pre-stress ranges from 10% to 30% due to the effect of steel relaxation and

shrinkage and creep of concrete. Relaxation is the loss in a material that is placed

under stress and held at a constant strain. Creep is the change in strain for a

71

3. Determine the required area and number of tendons.

a. Asfs = F

b. N = As/Atendon

5. Try b and d. Add 50 mm to 150 mm to b and d as allowance for the weight of the

beam.

6. Calculate the dead load stress, live load stress, and stress due to pre-stressing alone.

Exercises

1. Design a 9.15 m simply supported rectangular pre-stress concrete beam, given the

following data:

LL = 30 kN.m

Fy = 1655 MPa

72

fs = 0.6Fy

Allow. fc = 0.45fc’

d’ = 10 cm

Allowable Eccentricity:

e Pn

73

C

d’ h – 2d’ d’

h – 2d’ h – 2d’

-------- ---------

2 2

Pn

As As’

b c.g.

74

Section

NA

d

ec

es’

Strain Diag.

es C

d-c c – d’ d’

Stress Diag.

T Fc

Fcs

d – a/2

d – d’

ec/c = es / d – c

ec = 0.003

75

es = fy/Es = fy/200 000

600d

c = ------------ (value of c at balanced condition only)

fy + 600

Let:

Pu = Ultimate Load

Pu = Pn (where: = 0.70 for tied col. and = 0.75 for spiral col.)

Pn = Nominal Load

Two Cases:

If fs’ fy:

600 ( c – d’)

fs’ = -----------------

c

If fs fy:

600 (d – c)

fs = --------------

c

76

Steps in the investigation of eccentrically loaded columns:

1. Calculate eb, by

b. Solving Pn.

Example:

Calculate the ultimate capacity of the given column section when e = 40 cm. Use fc’ = 28

h = 40 cm

b = 45 cm 10 –36 mm

Solution:

a. Fc = 0.85 fc’ ab

a = c

a = 0.85c

a = 0.85(600d/fy + 600)

d = h – d’

d = 40 – 7.5

d = 32.5 cm

d = 325 mm

a = 0.85[600(325)/300 + 600]

a = 18.42 cm

fc’ = 28 MPa

77

fc’ = 2.8 kN/cm2

Fc = 0.85(2.8)(18.42)(45)

Fc = 1972.78 kN

T = As fy

T = 50.89(30)

T = 1526.7 kN

Fcs = As’ fy

Fcs = 50.89(30)

Fcs = 1526.7 kN

b. Fv = 0

Pb + T = Fc + Fcs

Pb = Fc = 1972.78 kN

c. MCGTS = 0

eb’ = 42.64 cm

h – 2d’

eb’ = eb + -----------

2

40 - 15

eb = 42.64 - -----------

2

eb = 30.14 cm

b. compression steel may or may not yiled : fs’ fy or fs’ = fy, assume fs’ = 30 kN/cm2.

3. Solve Pu.

a. Fc = 0.85 fc’ab

78

a = c

Fc = 0.85(2.8)(0.85c)(45)

Fc = 91.035c

T = A sf y

T = 1526.7 kN

Fcs = 50.89(30)

Fcs = 1526.67 kN

b. Fv = 0

Pn + T = Fc + Fcs

Pn = 91.035c (1)

c. MCGTS = 0

e’ = e + (h – 2d/2)

e’ = 52.5 cm

c = 15.714 cm

Subst c in (1):

Pn = 91.035 (15.714)

Pn = 1430.52 kN

Pu = 0.70 (1430.52)

79

Pu = 1001.36 kN

Exercises

1. e = 20 cm

2. e = 45 cm

80

3. e = 30 cm

81

82

4. e = 25 cm and h = 45 cm and b = 50 cm.

83

ANALYSIS OF ECCENTRICALLY LOADED COLUMNS

1. Using the interaction curves, determine the value of Pn for the short tied column

shown in the figure for e = 18” and e = 8” and fc’ = 4000 psi and fy = 60 000 psi.

2.5”

3#9

24”

19”

3#9 2.5”

14”

a. e = 18”

e 18

--- = ------- = 0.75

h 24

6

= --------- = 0.0179

14(24)

19

= ----- = 0.792

24

Pn e

---- ---- 0.50 0.525 0.590

Ag h

Pn e

-------- = 0.525

Ag h

14(24)(24)(0.525)

Pn = ---------------------

0.70(18)

Pn = 336 k

52

84

b. This is left for your exercise.

2. Determine the value of Pn using the interaction diagram. Use fc’ = 4000 psi and fy =

e = 6”

8#7

20”

e 6

--- = ---- = 0.30

h 20

= 4.81/314 = 0.0153

= 15/20 = 0.75

Pn e

------- = 0.39

Ag h

314(20)(0.39)

Pn = -----------------

(0.75)(6)

Pn = 544.3 k

3. The 12” x 20” tied column is designed to carry a dead load of 100 k and live load of

110 k, dead load moment of 60 ft-k and live load moment of 80 ft-k. If fc’ = 4000 psi

Solution:

Pu = 327 k

Pn = Pu/0.70

Pn = 327/0.70

Pn = 467.1 k

Mu = 220 ft – k

53

85

Mn = Mu/0.70

Mn = 220/0.70

Mn = 314.3 ft – k

e = 12(314.3)/467.1

e = 8.07”

e 8.07

---- = -----

h 20

e

--- = 0.404

h

Pn e 0.70(467.1)(8.07)

------- = --------------------- = 0.550

Ag h 240(20)

= 15/20 = 0.75

= 0.020

As = Ag

Use 8 # 7 bars

86

54

Exercises

Determine the value of Pn using the interaction curve and fc’ = 4000 psi and fy =60 000

psi.

12. 14” x 16” tied column reinforced with 4#9 above and below the x - axis with steel

87

55

13. 14” x 18” with 3 # 10 bars to the left and right of the y – axis with e = 8” and d’ =

3” and e = 8”.

88

56

14. 20” spiral column with 8 # 8 bars and d’ =2.5” and e =13”.

89

DESIGN FORMULA IN RCD

WSD

n

1. k = -------------- (design)

fs/fc + n

15. j = 1 – k/3

16. R = ½ fc k j

17. M = Rbd2

18. T = As fs

20. M = Asfsjd

21. Fc = 0.45fc’

USD

0.85fc’ 600

15. b = ------------- . ------------

fy 600 + fy

16. a = c

600d

18. c = ------------

fy + 600

0.5fy

19. Mu = fybd2(1 - -------------)

fc’

0.59fy

90

20. Ru = fy(1 - -----------)

fc’

21. Mu = Rubd2

22. a = bdfy/0.85fc’ab

23. fc = 0.85fc’

25. Pu =Pn ( = 0.70 for tied col. and = 0.75 for round col.)

26. Pn = Po ( = 0.80 for tied col. and = 0.85 for round col.)

Exercises

91

11. Derive the value of k in design.

92

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