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Introduction to Thermal

Systems Engineering:
Thermodynamics, Fluid Mechanics,
and Heat Transfer

Michael J. Moran
The Ohio State University

Howard N. Shapiro
Iowa State University of Science and Technology

Bruce R. Munson
Iowa State University of Science and Technology

David P. DeWitt
Purdue University

John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


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10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Preface
ur objective is to provide an integrated introductory • An engaging, case-oriented introduction to thermal
O presentation of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics,
and heat transfer. The unifying theme is the application of
systems engineering provided in Chapter 1. The
chapter describes thermal systems engineering gen-
these principles in thermal systems engineering. Thermal erally and shows the interrelated roles of thermody-
systems involve the storage, transfer, and conversion of en- namics, fluid mechanics, and heat transfer for ana-
ergy. Thermal systems engineering is concerned with how lyzing thermal systems.
energy is utilized to accomplish beneficial functions in
industry, transportation, the home, and so on.
• Generous collection of detailed examples featuring
a structured problem-solving approach that encour-
Introduction to Thermal Systems Engineering: Thermo- ages systematic thinking.
dynamics, Fluid Mechanics, and Heat Transfer is intended
for a three- or four-credit hour course in thermodynamics, • Numerous realistic applications and homework prob-
fluid mechanics, and heat transfer that could be taught in lems. End-of-chapter problems classified by topic.
the second or third year of an engineering curriculum to • Student study tools (summarized in Sec. 1.4)
students with appropriate background in elementary include chapter introductions giving a clear
physics and calculus. Sufficient material also is included statement of the objective, chapter summary and
for a two-course sequence in the thermal sciences. The study guides, and key terms provided in the
book is suitable for self-study, including reference use in margins and coordinated with the text
engineering practice and preparation for professional en- presentation.
gineering examinations. SI units are featured but other
commonly employed engineering units also are used.
• A CD-ROM with hyperlinks providing the full
print text plus additional content, answers to
The book has been developed in recognition of the team- selected end-of-chapter problems, short fluid flow
oriented, interdisciplinary nature of engineering practice, video clips, and software for solving problems in
and in recognition of trends in the engineering curriculum, thermodynamics and in heat transfer.
including the move to reduce credit hours and the ABET-
inspired objective of introducing students to the common • Access to a website with additional learning
themes of the thermal sciences. In conceiving this new resources: http://www.wiley.com/college/moran
presentation, we identified those critical subject areas
needed to form the basis for the engineering analysis of Features especially useful for faculty are:
thermal systems and have provided those subjects within
a book of manageable size. • Proven content and student-centered pedagogy
Thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, and heat transfer are adapted from leading textbooks in the respective
presented following a traditional approach that is familiar disciplines:
to faculty, and crafted to allow students to master funda- M.J. Moran and H.N. Shapiro, Fundamentals of
mentals before moving on to more challenging topics. This Engineering Thermodynamics, 4th edition, 2000.
has been achieved with a more integrated presentation than B.R. Munson, D.F. Young, and T.H. Okiishi,
available in any other text. Examples of integration include: Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics, 4th edition,
unified notation (symbols and definitions); engaging case- 2002.
oriented introduction to thermodynamics, fluid mechanics,
F.P. Incropera and D.P. DeWitt, Fundamentals of
and heat transfer engineering; mechanical energy and
Heat and Mass Transfer, 5th edition, 2002.
thermal energy equations developed from thermodynamic
principles; thermal boundary layer concept as an exten- • Concise presentation and flexible approach readily
sion of hydrodynamic boundary layer principles; and more. tailored to individual instructional needs. Topics
are carefully structured to allow faculty wide
Features especially useful for students are:
latitude in choosing the coverage they provide to
• Readable, highly accessible, and largely self- students—with no loss in continuity. The accom-
instructive presentation with a strong emphasis on panying CD-ROM provides additional content that
engineering applications. Fundamentals and allows faculty further opportunities to customize
applications provided at a digestible level for an their courses and/or develop two-semester
introductory course. courses.
iii
iv Preface

• Highly integrated presentation. The authors have exchanged between authors and critically evaluated. By
worked closely as a team to ensure the material such teamwork, overlapping concepts were clarified, links
is presented seamlessly and works well as a whole. between the three disciplines strengthened, and a single
Special attention has been given to smooth transitions voice achieved. This process has paralleled the engineer-
between the three core areas. Links between the core ing design process we describe in Chapter 1. We are
areas have been inserted throughout. pleased with the outcome.
• Instructor’s Manual containing complete, detailed We believe that we have developed a unique, user-
solutions to all the end-of-chapter problems to assist friendly text that clearly focuses on the essential aspects
with course planning. of the subject matter. We hope that this new, concise
introduction to thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, and heat
transfer will appeal to both students and faculty. Your
suggestions for improvement are most welcome.
A Note on the Creative Process
How did four experienced authors come together to
develop this book? It began with a face-to-face meeting in Acknowledgments
Chicago sponsored by our Publisher. It was there that we
Many individuals have contributed to making this book
developed the broad outline of the book and the unifying
better than it might have been without their participation.
thermal systems engineering theme. At first we believed it
Thanks are due to the following for their thoughtful com-
would be a straightforward task to achieve our objectives
ments on specific sections and/or chapters of the book:
by identifying the core topics in the respective subject areas
Fan-Bill Cheung (Pennsylvania State University), Kirk
and adapting material from our previous books to provide
Christensen (University of Missouri-Rolla), Prateen V.
them concisely. We quickly found that it was easier to agree
DeSai (Georgia Institute of Technology), Mark J.
on overall objectives than to achieve them. Since we come
Holowach (Pennsylvania State University), Ron Mathews
from the somewhat different technical cultures of thermo-
(University of Texas-Austin), S. A. Sherif (University of
dynamics, fluid mechanics, and heat transfer, it might be
Florida). Organization and topical coverage also bene-
expected that challenges would be encountered as the
fited from survey results of faculty currently teaching
author team reached for a common vision of an integrated
thermal sciences courses.
book, and this was the case.
Thanks are also due to many individuals in the John
Considerable effort was required to harmonize different
Wiley & Sons, Inc., organization who have contributed
viewpoints and writing styles, as well as to agree on the
their talents and efforts to this book. We pay special recog-
breadth and depth of topic coverage. Building on the good
nition to Joseph Hayton, our editor, who brought the author
will generated at our Chicago meeting, collaboration
team together, encouraged its work, and provided resources
among the authors has been extraordinary as we have taken
in support of the project.
a problem-solving approach to this project. Authors have
been open and mutually supportive, and have shared com- April 2002
mon goals. Concepts were honed and issues resolved in Michael J. Moran
weekly telephone conferences, countless e-mail ex- Howard N. Shapiro
changes, and frequent one-to-one telephone conversations. Bruce R. Munson
A common vision evolved as written material was David P. DeWitt
Contents
THERMO

1 What Is Thermal Systems


Engineering? 1
4 Evaluating Properties 59
4.1 Fixing the State 59
1.1 Getting Started 1 Evaluating Properties: General
1.2 Thermal System Case Studies 3 Considerations 60
1.3 Analysis of Thermal Systems 7 4.2 p-v-T Relation 60
1.4 How to Use This Book Effectively 9 4.3 Retrieving Thermodynamics Properties 64
Problems 11 4.4 p-v-T Relations for Gases 79

Evaluating Properties Using the Ideal

2 Getting Started in
Gas Model 81
4.5 Ideal Gas Model 81
4.6 Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and Specific Heats of
Thermodynamics: Introductory Ideal Gases 83
Concepts and Definitions 14 4.7 Evaluating u and h of Ideal Gases 85
2.1 Defining Systems 14 4.8 Polytropic Process of an Ideal Gas 89
2.2 Describing Systems and Their Behavior 16 4.9 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 91
2.3 Units and Dimensions 19 Problems 91
2.4 Two Measurable Properties: Specific Volume

5 Control Volume Analysis Using


and Pressure 21
2.5 Measuring Temperature 23
2.6 Methodology for Solving Problems 26
2.7 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 27
Energy 96
Problems 28 5.1 Conservation of Mass for a Control Volume 96
5.2 Conservation of Energy for a Control
Volume 99

3 Using Energy and the First Law


5.3 Analyzing Control Volumes at Steady State 102
5.4 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 117
Problems 118
of Thermodynamics 31
3.1 Reviewing Mechanical Concepts of Energy 31
3.2
3.3
Broadening Our Understanding of Work
Modeling Expansion or Compression Work
33
36 6 The Second Law of
3.4 Broadening Our Understanding of Energy 40 Thermodynamics 123
3.5 Energy Transfer by Heat 41 6.1 Introducing the Second Law 123
3.6 Energy Accounting: Energy Balance for Closed 6.2 Identifying Irreversibilities 126
Systems 43 6.3 Applying the Second Law to Thermodynamic
3.7 Energy Analysis of Cycles 51 Cycles 128
3.8 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 54 6.4 Maximum Performance Measures for Cycles
Problems 55 Operating between Two Reservoirs 131
v
vi Contents

9 Gas Power Systems


6.5 Carnot Cycle 136
6.6 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 137 223
Problems 137
Internal Combustion Engines 223
9.1 Engine Terminology 223

7 Using Entropy 141 9.2 Air-Standard Otto Cycle


9.3 Air-Standard Diesel Cycle
225
230
7.10 Introducing Entropy 141
7.20 Retrieving Entropy Data 143 Gas Turbine Power Plants 234
7.30 Entropy Change in Internally Reversible 9.4 Modeling Gas Turbine Power Plants 234
Processes 149 9.5 Air-Standard Brayton Cycle 235
7.40 Entropy Balance for Closed Systems 151 9.6 Regenerative Gas Turbines 243
7.50 Entropy Rate Balance for Control 9.7 Gas Turbines for Aircraft Propulsion
Volumes 157 (CD-ROM) 247
7.60 Isentropic Processes 162 9.8 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 247
7.70 Isentropic Efficiencies of Turbines, Nozzles, Problems 247
Compressors, and Pumps 166
7.80 Heat Transfer and Work in Internally Reversible,
Steady-State Flow Processes
7.90 Accounting for Mechanical Energy
171
174
10 Psychrometric
(CD-ROM)
Applications
250
7.10 Accounting for Internal Energy 176
All material in Chapter 10 is available on the CD-ROM only.
7.11 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 177
10.1 Introducing Psychrometric Principles
Problems 178
10.2 Evaluating the Dew Point Temperature
10.3 Psychrometers: Measuring the Wet-Bulb and

8 Vapor Power and Refrigeration


Dry-Bulb Temperatures
10.4 Psychrometric Charts
Systems 185 10.5 Analyzing Air-Conditioning Processes
10.6 Cooling Towers
Vapor Power Systems 185 10.7 Chapter Summary and Study Guide
8.10 Modeling Vapor Power Systems 185 Problems
8.20 Analyzing Vapor Power Systems—Rankine
Cycle 187
FLUIDS
8.30 Improving Performance—Superheat
and Reheat 198
8.40 Improving Performance—Regenerative Vapor
Power Cycle 202 11 Getting Started in Fluid
Mechanics: Fluid Statics 251
Vapor Refrigeration and Heat Pump
Systems 206 11.1 Pressure Variation in a Fluid at Rest 251
8.50 Vapor Refrigeration Systems 207 11.2 Measurement of Pressure 255
8.60 Analyzing Vapor-Compression Refrigeration 11.3 Manometry 256
Systems 209 11.4 Mechanical and Electronic Pressure and
8.70 Vapor-Compression Heat Pump Systems 217 Measuring Devices 259
8.80 Working Fluids for Vapor Power and Refrigeration 11.5 Hydrostatic Force on a Plane Surface 260
Systems 218 11.6 Buoyancy 264
8.90 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 218 11.7 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 265
Problems 219 Problems 265
Contents vii

12 The
14.50 Pipe Flow Head Loss 317
Momentum and Mechanical 14.60 Pipe Flow Examples 322
14.70 Pipe Volumetric Flow Rate Measurement
Energy Equations 269 (CD-ROM) 325
12.1 Fluid Flow Preliminaries 269
External Flow 325
12.2 Momentum Equation 272
14.80 Boundary Layer on a Flat Plate 326
12.3 Applying the Momentum Equation 273
14.90 General External Flow Characteristics 330
12.40 The Bernoulli Equation 278
14.10 Drag Coefficient Data 332
12.50 Further Examples of Use of the Bernoulli
14.11 Lift 335
Equation 280
14.12 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 337
12.60 The Mechanical Energy Equation 282
Problems 338
12.70 Applying the Mechanical Energy Equation 283
12.80 Compressible Flow (CD-ROM) 286
12.90 One-dimensional Steady Flow in Nozzles and HEAT TRANSFER

15 Getting
Diffusers (CD-ROM) 286
12.10 Flow in Nozzles and Diffusers of Ideal Started in Heat
Gases with Constant Specific Heats
(CD-ROM) 286 Transfer: Modes, Rate Equations
12.11 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 287 and Energy Balances 342
Problems 287 15.10 Heat Transfer Modes: Physical Origins and Rate
Equations 342

13 Similitude, Dimensional 15.20 Applying the First Law in Heat Transfer


15.30 The Surface Energy Balance 351
348

Analysis, and Modeling 293 15.40 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 355
Problems 356
13.10 Dimensional Analysis 293

16 Heat
13.20 Dimensions, Dimensional Homogeneity, and
Dimensional Analysis 294 Transfer by
13.30 Buckingham Pi Theorem and Pi Terms 297
Conduction 359
13.40 Method of Repeating Variables 298
13.50 Common Dimensionless Groups in Fluid 16.10 Introduction to Conduction Analysis 359
Mechanics 301 16.20 Steady-State Conduction 362
13.60 Correlation of Experimental Data 302 16.30 Conduction with Energy Generation 373
13.70 Modeling and Similitude 304 16.40 Heat Transfer from Extended Surfaces:
13.80 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 308 Fins 377
Problems 309 16.50 Transient Conduction 385
16.60 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 395

14 Internal
Problems 397
and External Flow
313
Internal Flow 313
17 Heat Transfer by
Convection 405
14.10 General Characteristics of Pipe Flow 314 17.10 The Problem of Convection 405
14.20 Fully Developed Laminar Flow 315
14.30 Laminar Pipe Flow Characteristics Forced Convection 412
(CD-ROM) 316 17.20 External Flow 412
14.40 Fully Developed Turbulent Flow 316 17.30 Internal Flow 423
viii Contents

Free Convection 438 Radiative Exchange Between Surfaces in


17.40 Free Convection 438 Enclosures 489
18.5 The View Factor 489
Convection Application:
18.6 Blackbody Radiation Exchange 492
Heat Exchangers 446
18.7 Radiation Exchange between Diffuse-Gray
17.50 Heat Exchangers 446 Surfaces in an Enclosure 495
17.60 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 456 18.8 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 502
Problems 458 Problems 503

18 Heat Transfer by
Radiation 468
A Appendices 511
18.1 Fundamental Concepts 468
18.2 Radiation Quantities and Processes 470
Index to Property Tables
18.3 Blackbody Radiation 473 and Figures 511
Spectrally Selective Surfaces 479
18.4 Radiation Properties of Real Surfaces 479 Index 557