Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 17

STRUCTURAL TYPES OF BEAMS

SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM


PROPERTIES OF FORCES SIMPLY SUPPORTED W/ OVER HANG (OVERHANGING BEAM)
MAGNITUDE the amount of force, N
CANTILEVER BEAM
DIRECTION refers to the orientation of its path or line of action. It is usually described
by the angle that the line of action makes with some reference. PROPPED CANTILEVER BEAM (indeterminate)
SENSE refers to the manner in which it acts along its line of action
CONTINOUS BEAM

FORCE SYSTEM

COPLANAR all acting in a single plane of a vertical wall


INTERNAL FORCES TYPES
PARALLEL all having the same direction
TENSION pulls away from joint
CONCURRENT all having their lines of action intersect at a common point. COMPRESSION pushes towards joint
SHEAR for connections
MOMENT force x distance
moment can be about any point called CENTER OF MOMENT
ASTM
MOMENT ARM distance from center of moment to force AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR TESTING AND MATERIALS
shortest or perpendicular distance from the center of moment to line of
action of force.
ACI
AMERICAN CONCRETE INSTITUTE
KINDS OF LOADS
According to ACI code, I the strain in concrete reaches
CONCENTRATED LOADS example is a beam supporting a column
0.003 (Єconc= 0.003), Є=3mm
UNIFORM LOADS a series of uniform concentrated loads, but for 5 or 1000
more uniformly spaced concentrated loads. It begins to crack
OTHER LOADS varying load, moment load
AISC
AMERICAN INSTITUTE FOR STEEL CONSTRUCTION

TYPES OF SUPPORT If a grade 60 steel (fy= 60ksi= 414Mpa) reaches a strain 0.0021 it begins to
yield of (2.1mm)
HINGED
ROLLER
FIXED/ RESTRAINED
FEATURES OF A STRAIN STRESS DIAGRAM: ELASTICITY
the property of a material that enables it to deform in response to an applied force and
to recover its original size and shape upon removal of the force
STRESS- STRAIN DIAGRAM
a graphic representation of the relationship between unit stress values and the
MALLEABILITY
corresponding unit strains for a specific material
the ability of a material to regain and rebound to original shape when the load is
released
1. PROPORTIONAL LIMIT
maximum stress which the material springs back to the original length when
TOUGHNESS
the load is released
the property of a material that enables it to absorb energy before rupturing, represented
by the area under the stress- strain curve derived from a tensile test of the material.
2. ELASTIC LIMIT
Ductile materials are tougher than brittle materials.
maximum stress below which the material does not return to its original
length but has incurred a permanent deformation we call permanent set
MODULUS OF ELASTICITY
a coefficient of elasticity of a material expressing the ratio between a unit stress and the
3.YIELD POINT
corresponding unit strain caused by the stress, as derived from Hooke’s law and
the stress wherein the deformation increases without any increase in the load.
represented by the slope of the straight line portion of the stress- strain line diagram.
The material at some portion shows a decrease in its cross section
Also called COEFFICIENT OF ELASTICITY, ELASTIC MODULUS
4. ULTIMATE STRENGTH
PERMANENT SET
the maximum stress that can be attained immediately before actual failure or
the inelastic strain remaining in a material after complete release of the stress producing
rupture
deformation

YIELD STRENGTH
RUPTURE STRENGTH the stress necessary to produce a specific limiting permanent set in a material,
stress at which material specimen breaks usually 0.2% of its original length when tested in tension. Yield strength is used to
determine the limit of usefulness of a material having a poorly defined yield point.
ALLOWABLE STRESS Also called POOR STRESS.
the maximum unit stress permitted for a material in the design of a structural member,
usually a fraction of the material’s elastic limit, yield strength, or ultimate strength. STRAIN- RATE EFFECT
Also called ALLOWABLE UNIT STRESS, WORKING STRESS. the behavior an increased rate of load application can cause in normally ductile material

ELASTIC RANGE TEMPERATURE EFFECT


the range of unit stresses for which a material exhibits elastic deformation the brittle behavior low temperatures can cause in a normally ductile material

ELASTIC DEFORMATION STRESS RELAXATION


a temporary change in the dimensions or shape of a body produced by a stress less the time- dependent decrease in stress in a constrained material under a constant load
than the elastic limit of the material
CREEP
BRITTLENESS the gradual permanent deformation of a body produced by a continued application of
the property of material that causes it to rupture suddenly under stress with little evident stress or prolonged exposure to heat. Creep deflection in a concrete structure continues
deformation. Since brittle materials lack the plastic behavior of ductile materials, they over time and can be significantly greater than the initial elastic deflection
can give no warning of impending material
FATIGUE
DUCTILITY the weakening or failure of a material at a stress below the elastic limit when subjected
the property of a material that enables it to undergo plastic deformation after being to a repeated series of stresses
stressed beyond the elastic limit and before rupturing. Ductility is a desirable property
of a structural material since plastic behavior is an indicator of reserve strength and
can serve as a visual warning of impending failure.
STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF A36 STEEL: STRESS-
the internal resistance or reaction of an elastic body to external forces applied to it.
Equal to the ratio of force to area and expressed in units of force per unit of cross-
Maximum allowable stress (Fv) in shear is 14.5 ksi
sectional area.
Maximum allowable stress (Fb) for bending is 24 ksi
Also called UNIT STRESS.
Modulus of elasticity (E) is 29,000 ksi
TENSILE STRESS
WEIGHT:
the axial stress that develops at the cross section of an elastic body to resist the
water= 1000 kg/ m3 collinear tensile forces tending to elongate it.
steel= 7850 kg/ m3
TENSILE STRAIN
concrete= 2400 kg/ m3
the elongation of a unit length of material produces by a tensile stress
weight= density x volume
ELONGATION
volume of cylinder= pi (diameter)2 x length a measure of ductility of a material, expressed as the percentage increase in length of a
4 test specimen after failure in tensile test

PROPERTIES OF A MATERIAL REDUCTION OF AREA


a measure of ductility of a material, expressed as the percentage decrease in cross-
TENSION sectional area of a test specimen after rupturing in a tensile test
the act of stretching or state of being pulled apart, resulting in the elongation of an
elastic body TENSILE STRENGTH
the resistance of a material to longitudinal stress, measured by the minimum amount of
TENSILE FORCE longitudinal stress required to rupture the material
an applied force producing or tending to produce tension in an elastic body
STRAIN
AXIAL FORCE the deformation of a body under the action of an applied force. Strain is a dimensionless
a tensile or compressive force acting along the longitudinal axis of a structural member quantity, equal to the ratio of the change in size and shape to the original size and
and at the centroid of the cross section, producing axial stress without bending, torsion shape of a stressed element.
or shear also called AXIAL LOAD
STRAIN GAUGE
AXIAL STRESS an instrument for measuring minute deformation in a test specimen caused by tension,
the tensile or compressive stress that develops to resist axial force, assumed to be compression, bending or twisting.
normal to and uniformly distributed over the area of the cross section. Also called EXTENSOMETER
Also called DIRECT STRESS, NORMAL TRESS
YOUNG’S MODULUS
COMPRESSION a coefficient of elasticity of material expressing the ratio of longitudinal stress to the
the act of shortening or state of being pushed together, resulting in the reduction in size corresponding longitudinal strain caused by the strain.
or volume of an elastic body
POISSON’S RATIO
COMPRESSIVE FORCE the ratio of lateral strain to the corresponding longitudinal strain in an elastic body under
an applied force producing or tending to produce compression in an elastic body longitudinal stress

ECCENTRIC FORCE COMPRESSIVE STRESS


force applied parallel to the longitudinal axis of a structural member but not to the the axial stress that develops at the cross section of an elastic body to resist the
centroid of the cross section, producing bending and uneven distribution of stresses in collinear compressive forces tending to shorten it.
the section.
Also called ECCENTRIC LOAD.
COMPRESSIVE STRAIN REINFORCED CONCRETE
the shortening of a unit length of material produced by a compressive stress

SHEAR EFFECTIVE LENGTH


the lateral deformation produced in a body by an external force that causes one part of the depth of concrete section measured from the compression face to the centroid of the
the body to slide relative to an adjacent part in a direction parallel to their plane contact. tension reinforcement

SHEAR FORCE COVER


an applied force producing or tending to produce shear in the body the amount of concrete required to protect steel reinforcement from fire and corrosion,
measured from the surface of the reinforcement to outer surface of the concrete section
SHEARING FORCE
an internal force tangenial to the surface on which it acts, developed by a body in BOND STRESS
response to shear, shearing in a vertical plane necessarily involves shearing in a the adhesive for per unit area of contact between reinforcing bar and the surrounding
horizontal plane and vise versa concrete developed at any section of a flexural member

SHEARING STRESS HOOK


the force per unit area developed along a section of an elastic body to resist a shear a bend or curve given to develop an equivalent embedment length, used where there is
force. insufficient room to develop in adequate embedment length
Also called SHEAR STRESS, TANGENIAL STRESS
STANDARD HOOK
SHEARING STRAIN a 90º, 135º, 180º bend made at the end of a reinforcing bar according to standards
the lateral deformation developed in a body in response to shearing stresses, defined as
the tangent of the skew angle of the deformation. ANCHORAGE
any of various means, as embedment length or hooked bars, for developing tension or
SHEAR MODULUS OF ELASTICITY compression in a reinforcing bar on each side of critical section in order to prevent bond
a coefficient elasticity of a material, expressing the ratio between shearing stress and failure or splitting
the corresponding shearing strain produced by the strain.
Also called MODULUS OF RIGIDITY, MODULUS OF TORSION CRITICAL SECTION
the section of a flexural concrete member at a point of maximum stress, a point of
BENDING inflection, or appoint within the span where tension bars are no longer needed to resist
the bowing of an elastic body as an external force is applied transversely to its length. stress
Bending is the structural mechanism that enables a load to be mechanism that enables
a load to be channeled in a direction perpendicular to its application. BALANCED SECTION
a concrete in which the tension reinforcement theoretically reaches its specified yield
TRANSVERSE FORCE strength as the concrete in compression reaches its assumed ultimate strain
a force applied perpendicular to the length of a structural member,
producing bending and shear OVERREINFORCED SECTION
a concrete section in which the concrete in compression reaches its assumed ultimate
TORQUE strain before the tension reinforcement reaches its specified yield strength. This is a
the moment of a force system that causes or tends to cause rotation or torsion dangerous condition since failure of the section could occur instantaneously without
warning
TORSION
the twisting of an elastic body about its longitudinal axis caused by two equal and UNDERREINFORCED SECTION
opposite torques, producing shearing stresses in the body a concrete section in which the tension reinforcement reaches its specified yield
strength before the concrete in compression reaches its assumed ultimate strain. This
is desirable condition since failure of the section would be preceded by large
deformations giving prior warning of impending collapse
BEAM VERTICAL SHEARING
the shearing stress developed along cross section of a beam to resist transverse shear,
having a maximum value at the neutral axis and decreasing nonlinearly toward the outer
BEAM
faces
a rigid structural member designed to carry and transfer transverse loads across spaces
supporting elements
HORIZONTAL SHEARING
the shearing stress developed to prevent slippage along longitudinal planes of a beam
SPAN
under transverse loading, equal to any point to the vertical shearing stress at that point.
the extent of space between two supports of a structure
Also called LONGITUDINAL SHEARING STRESS
CLEAR SPAN
FLEXURE FORMULA
the distance between inner faces of the support of a span
a formula defining the relationship between bending moment, bending stress, and the
cross sectional properties of a beam. Bending stress is directly proportional to bending
EFFECTIVE SPAN
moment and inversely proportional to the moment of inertia of a beam section.
the center to center distance between the supports of a span
MOMENT OF INERTIA
BENDING MOMENT
the sum of the products of each element of an area and the square of its distance from a
an external moment tending to cause part a structure to rotate or bend, equal to the
coplanar axis of rotation. Moment of inertia is a geometric property that indicates how
algebraic sum of the moments about the neutral axis of the section under consideration
the cross sectional area of structural member is distributed and does not reflect the
intrinsic physical properties of a material
RESISTING MOMENT
an internal moment equal and opposite to a bending moment, generated by a force
SECTION MODULUS
couple to maintain equilibrium of the section being considered
a geometric property of a cross section, defined as the moment of inertia of the section
divided by the distance from the neutral axis to the most remote surface.
DEFLECTION
the perpendicular distance a spanning member deviates from a true course under
LATERAL BUCKLING
transverse loading, increasing with load and span, and decreasing with an increase in
the buckling of a structural member induced by compressive stresses acting on slender
the moment of inertia of the section of the modulus of elasticity of the material
portion insufficiently rigid in the lateral direction
NEUTRAL AXIS
STRESS TRAJECTORIES
an imaginary line passing through the centroid of the cross section of a beam, other
lines depicting the direction but not the magnitude of the principal stresses in a beam
member subject to bending, along which no bending stresses occur
SHEAR DIAGRAM
BENDING STRESS
a graphic representation of the variation in magnitude of the external shears present in a
a combination of compressive and tensile stresses developed at a cross section of
structure for a given set of transverse loads and support conditions concentrated loads
structural member to resist transverse force, having a maximum value at the surface
produce external shears which are constant in magnitude between the loads uniformly
furthest from the neutral axis
distributed loads produce linearly varying shears
CAMBER
MOMENT DIAGRAM
a slight convex curvature intentionally built into beam, girder, or truss to compensate for
a graphic representation of the variation in magnitude of the bending moment present in
an anticipated deflection
a structure for a given set of transverse load and support conditions. The overall
How is camber treated in a steel truss 25 meters and longer?
deflected shape of a structure subject to bending can often be inferred from the shape
Camber shall be approximately equal to the dead load deflection
of its moment diagram
TRANSVERSE SHEAR
CONCENTRATED LOADS
an external shear force at a cross section of a beam or other member subject to
produce bending moments which vary linearly between loads
bending, equal to the algebraic sum of transverse forces on one side of the section
UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LOADS
produce parabolically varying moments
CONTINUOUS BEAM
POSITIVE SHEAR a beam extending over more than 2 supports in order to develop greater rigidity and
a net resultant of shear forces that acts vertically upward on the left part of the structure smaller moments than a series of simple beams having similar spans and loading. Both
being considered fixed end and continuous beams are indeterminate structures for which the values of all
reactions, shears and moments are dependent not only on span and loading but also on
NEGATIVE SHEAR cross sectional shape and material
a net resultant of shear forces that act vertically downward on the left part of the
structure being considered HAUNCH
the part of a beam that is thickened or deepened to develop greater moment resistance.
POSITIVE MOMENT The efficiency of a beam can be increased by shaping its length in response to the
a bending moment that produces moment that produces a concave curvature at a moment and shear values which typically vary along its longitudinal axis
section of a structure
SUSPENDED SPAN
INFLECTION POINT a simple beam supported by the cantilevers of two adjoining spans with pinned
a point at which a structure changes curvature from convex to concave or vise versa as construction joints at points of zero moment. Also called hung span
it deflects under a transverse load: theoretically an internal hinge and therefore a point
of zero moment EFFECTIVE LENGTH
the distance between inflection points in the span of a fixed end or continuous beam,
NEGATIVE MOMENT equivalent in nature to the actual length of simply supported beam
a bending moment that produces a convex curvature at a section of a structure

SIMPLE BEAM
a beam resisting on simple supports at both ends which are free to rotate and have no
moment resistance. As with any statistically determinate structure, the values of all
reactions, shears, and moments for a simple beam are independent of its cross
sectional shape and material

CANTILEVER BEAM
a projecting beam supported at only one fixed end

CANTILEVER
a beam or other rigid structural member extending beyond a fulcrum and supported by a
balancing member or a downward force behind the fulcrum

OVERHANGING BEAM
a simple beam extending beyond one of its supports. The overhanging reduces the
positive moment at midspan while developing a negative moment at the base of the
cantilever over the support

FIXED END BEAM


a beam having both ends restrained against translation and rotation. The fixed ends
transfer bending stresses, increase the rigidity of the beam and reduces its maximum
deflection
COLUMN RADIUS OF GYRATION
the radial distance from any axis to a point at which the mass of a body could be
concentrated without altering the moment of inertia of the body about that axis. For a
structural section, the radius of gyration is equal to the square root of the quotient of the
COLUMN
moment of inertia and the area
a relatively slender structural member designed primarily to support axial, compressive
The higher the radius of gyration of a structural section, the more resistant the section is
loads, applied at the member ends.
to buckling. In determining the cross- sectional shape of a column, the objective is to
providethe necessary radius of gyration about the different axes. For an asymmetrical
cross section, buckling will tend to occur about the weaker axis or in the direction of the
POST
least dimension
a stiff vertical support especially a wooden column in timber framing

LONG COLUMN
BUCKLING
a slender column subject to failure by buckling rather than by crushing
the sudden lateral or torsional instability of a slender structural member induced by the
action of a compressive load. Buckling can occur well before the yield stress of the
material is reached
SHORT COLUMN
a thick column subject to failure by crushing rather than by buckling. Failure occurs
when the direct stress from an axial load exceeds the compressive strength of the
BUCKLING
material available in the cross section. An eccentric load, however, can produce bending
the axial load at which a column begins to deflect laterally and becomes unsuitable.
and result in uneven stress distribution in the section

CRITICAL BUCKLING LOAD


INTERMEDIATE COLUMN
the maximum axial load that can theoretically be applied to a column without causing it
a column having a mode of failure between that a short column and a long column, often
to buckle. The critical buckling load for a column is inversely proportional to the square
party inelastic by crushing and partly elastic by buckling
of its effective length and directly proportional to the modulus of elasticity of the material
and to the moment of inertia of the cross section.
Also called EULER BUCKLING LOAD
ECCENTRICITY
The amount by which an axis deviates from another parallel axis.
BIFURCATION
the critical point at which a column carrying its critical buckling load, may either buckle
P-DELTA EFFECT
or remain undeflected. The column is therefore in a state of neutral equilibrium
An additional moment developed in a structural member as its longitudinal axis deviates
from the line of action of a compressive force equal to the product of the load and the
member deflection at any point.
CRITICAL BUCKLING STRESS
the critical buckling load for a column divided by the area of its cross section
MIDDLE THIRD RULE
The proposition that a compressive load should be located within the middle third of a
SLENDERNESS RATIO
horizontal section of a column or wall to prevent tensile stresses from developing in the
the ratio of the effective length of a column to its least ratio of gyration
section.
The higher the slenderness ratio, the lower is the critical stress that will cause buckling.
A primary objective in the design of a column is to reduce its slenderness ratio by
minimizing its effective length or maximizing its effective length or maximizing the radius
EFFECTIVE LENGTH
of gyration of its cross section
The distance between inflection points in a column subject to buckling load. When this
portion of a column buckles the entire column falls.
COMBINED STRESSES DEFINITION OF TERMS
A set of tensile and compressive stresses resulting from the superposition of axial and
bending stresses at a cross section of a structural member, acting in the same direction
ACTIVE EARTH PRESSURE
and equal at any point to their algebraic sum.
a soil pressure acting on any structure that will tend to push the structure wherein the
structure or a wall tends to move away from the soil
KERN
ACCELEROGRAPH
The central area of any horizontal section of a column or wall within which the resultant
is an instrument which measures the velocity and acceleration of an earthquake in the
of all compressive loads must pass if only compressive stresses are to be applied
ground
beyond this area will cause tensile stresses to develop in the section. Also called kern
area.
ANCHOR BOLTS
a round, steel bolt embedded in concrete or masonry used to hold down machinery,
steel columns or beam casting, shock beam plates and engine heads
KERN POINT
A point on either side of the centroidal axis of a horizontal column or wall section
BALANCED DESIGN
defining the limits of the kern area.
is one which both the concrete and the steel are so proportioned as to work to their full
working stresses when the member carries its full allowable load
LATERAL BRACING
BATTER PILES
the bracing of a column or other compression member to reduce its effective length.
are piles at an inclination to resist forces that are not critical. This is also known as brace
Lateral bracing is most effective when the bracing pattern occurs in more than one
pile or spur pile
plane.
BEARING WALL SYSTEM
a structural system without a complete vertical load carrying space frame
UNBRACED LENGTH
BENDING MOMENT
the distance between the points at which a structural member is braced against buckling
is the algebraic sum of the moments of the forces acting on either side of the section of
in a direction normal to its length.
a beam about an axis through the center of the gravity of the section

BORED PILE (bearing pile)


EFFECTIVE LENGTH FACTOR
a concrete pile which concreted either with a casing or without a casing at its permanent
a coefficient for modifying the actual length of a column according to its end conditions
location. This is a cast in place pile
in order to determine its effective length. Fixing both ends of a long column reduces its
effective length by half and increases its load-carrying capacity by a factor of 4.
CAISSON
a watertight, cylindrical or rectangular chamber used to in under water construction to
protect workers from water pressure and soil collapse
TRUSS
CEMENT GUN
is an ejector operated by compressed air to force gunite into cavities or cracks in rocks
METHOD OF SECTIONS
or cement works
a method of determining member forces in a truss by considering the equilibrium of any
portion of the truss assembly.
CHUTE
is an open-top through which bulk materials are conveyed and by gravity
METHOD OF JOINTS
COFFER DAM
a method for determining member forces in a truss by considering the equilibrium of the
a temporary dam- like structure constructed which excludes water from the site of the
various joints idealized as points in free body diagrams
foundation during its excavation and construction
CONSTRUCTION JOINT FATIGUE
the vertical or horizontal face in a concrete structure where concreting has been stopped is a phenomenon of failure under repeated stresses. A fact, based experience and
and continued later experiments, is well known that stresses which are applied to a body a few times without
causing apparent structure injury may, if applied repeatedly or causing a great number
COLD JOINT of times, causes failure
formed when a concrete surface hardens before the next batch o f concrete is placed
GUNITE
CREEP is a rich cement mortar which is applied by spraying under high air pressure
he tendency of most material to move or deform over time under a constant load The
amount of movement varies enormously depending upon the material. The area that is GRADE BEAM
highly stressed will move the most. The movement causes stresses to be redistributed. a concrete beam placed directly on the ground to provide foundation for the
superstructure
COUNTER (inner in retaining wall)
a cantilever wall that is reinforced with a masonry structure extending upward from the GRANOLITHIC FINISH
foundation or from the inner face of the retaining wall to provide additional resistance to a surface layer or granolithic concrete which maybe laid on a base of either fresh or
thrust and are placed at regular intervals. (Buttress if outer) hardened concrete

COFFER DAM GRILLAGE


a temporary watertight enclosure around an area of water or water bearing soil, in which is a footing which consist of steel beams arranged to distribute a concentrated load to
construction is to take place, bearing on a stable statum at or above the foundation level the supporting masonry or soil
of new construction. The water is pumped from within to permit free access to the area
DISTRIBUTION OF HORIZONTAL SHEAR
DIAPHRAGM design analysis requirement, considered as the basis for the structural design of
a horizontal or nearly horizontal system including horizontal bracing system, that act to structures where the total lateral forces are distributed to the various vertical
transmit lateral forces to the vertical resisting elements elements of the lateral force resisting system in proportion to their rigidities
considering the rigidity of the horizontal bracing system or diaphragm
DIAPHRAGM STRUT
a structural member of a horizontal bracing system that takes axial tension or HYBRID STEEL GIRDER
compression. It is parallel to the applied load that collects and transfers shear to the is a fabricated metal beam composed of flanges with a material of a specified minimum
vertical resisting elements or distributive loads within the horizontal bracing system yield strength different from that of the web plate

DIVING BELL INTENSITY


a watertight bell- shaped steel chamber which can be lowered to or raised from a fresh the measure of the damage level of an earthquake (subjective to visual assessment)
or seawater bed crane. It is opened at the bottom and filled with compressed air so that
men can prepare foundations and undertake similar construction work under water. INFLECTION POINT
a point in the moment diagram where it changes from positive to negative moment of
DOWEL vise versa and the value of the moment at this point is zero
a short steel bar extending from one concrete element to another as for instance a
concrete foundation to a concrete column. It may or may not transfer direct stress

DRIFT BOLT
is a long pin of steel or wood, made with or without the head, driven through the timber JETTING
and into an adjacent timber to hold them together and to transmit stresses a method of driving piles or well points into the sand in the situations where a pile
hammer might not be suitable owing to the risk of damage by vibration to the piles of
EXPANSION OR CONTRACTION adjacent buildings.
a joint designed to take expansion and contraction
the designed break in a structure to allow for the drying and temperature shrinkage of LINTEL BEAM
concrete, brickwork of similar material, thereby preventing the formation of harmful a beam especially provided over an opening for a door, window, to carry the wall over
cracks the opening
MAGNITUDE PORTLAND CEMENT
the measure of the energy released by an earthquake (measured by instrument) is the product obtained by finely pulverizing clinker produced by calcining to incipient
fusion an intimate and properly proportioned mixture of argillaceous and calcareous
MODULUS OF ELASTICITY materials with no additions subsequent to calcinations except water and calcined or
is the constant which, within the proportional limit, express ratio between the unit stress uncalcined gypsum
to the unit strain. It is the measure of the relative abilities of the different materials of
construction to resist deformation under stress within proportional limit PROPORTIONAL LIMIT
is the highest unit stress for which the deformation of a body is proportional to the
MODULUS OF RESILIENCE stress. Beyond this point, permanent deformation occurs
is a measure of the capacity of the material to absorb energy without danger of being
permanently deformed REDUNDANT MEMBER
is any framed structure or truss, is one which maybe omitted in the structure without
MOMENT OF RESITANCE affect in the possibility of analyzing the frame or truss by ordinary static method of
is the internal resisting moment of a beam. It is opposite in sense to the bending computations such as the counter diagonal truss
moment but of the same magnitude
RIP-RAP
MORTAR consist of rough stones of various placed compactly or irregularly to prevent scour by
is a mixture, composed of one part of Portland cement and one part of clean sand, used water and protect material which maybe washed out by the water
as a filter
SAGROD
MULLION structural member in the steel truss framing that counteracts forces in compression
is a vertical member between two portions of window sash usually designed to resist because of high probability of the purlins to deflect and bend down during purlin
wind load and not vertical load. It is different from muntin, which is smaller member installation.
which separates the panels of glass within the whole sash.
SAND DRAIN
NON- BEARING WALL it is provided to help in the compaction of natural soil which provide channels through
is wall that carries no load other than its own weight which water can escape much more rapidly then through the clay itself. The weight of
the drain itself helps in the compaction.
ORTHOGONAL EFFECT
the effect on the structure due to extreme lateral (earthquake) motions acting in SHEAR WALL
directions other than parallel to the direction to the direction of resistance under a wall designed to resist lateral forces parallel to the plane of a wall
consideration
SOFFIT is the concave surface of an arch
PARTY WALL
is a wall used or adopted for joint service between two buildings SPANDREL BEAM
is a beam from column to column, carrying an exterior wall in a skeleton building
PLASTER CEMENT FINISH
a mixture of Portland cement, with water and sand applied to surfaces such as walls STIFFNESS RATIO (K)
ceilings in a plastic state, later it sets to form a hard surface in moment distribution method- (as used in analysis of indeterminate structures) is the
ratio of moment of inertia of the cross section of its length
POINTING
in masonry, the final treatment of joints by the troweling of mortar or putty like filler into STRESS
joints is the cohesive force in a body, which resists the tendency of an external force to
change the shape of the body
PORTAL METHOD
method of analyzing indeterminate modular building frames by assuming hinges at the STRAIN OR DEFORMATION
center of beam spans and column heights or the interior column carries twice as much is the change in the shape of any material when subjected to the action force
shear as the exterior column
TIE BAR SEISMIC DESIGN PROVISION
a deformed bar, embedded in a concrete construction at a joint and designed to hold a
butting edges together, not designed for direct load transfer
ARTIFICIAL RIGIDITY
will cause torsion (twisting)
TORSION OR MOMENT OF INERTIA
is a quality which measures the resistance of the mass to being revolved about a line
BASE
is the level at which the earthquake motions are considered to be imparted to the
TRANSFORMED SECTION
structure
is one in which the flexural steel is conceived to be replaced by large area of imaginary
concrete which can take tension. This gives a homogeneous section of concrete to
BASE SHEAR
which ordinary beam analysis may be applied
is the total designed lateral force or shear at the base of the structure
TREMIE
BEARING WALL SYSTEM (shear type)
is a watertight pipe 300 mm to 600 mm in diameter with a flared top used in depositing
is a structural system without a complete vertical load carrying space frame
concrete under water
BOUNDARY ELEMENT
UNDERPINNING
is an element at edges of opening or at the perimeters of shear walls or diaphragm
is an art of placing new foundation under old foundation
BRACED FRAME
VIBRATOR
is an essentially vertical truss system of the concentric or eccentric type which is
is an oscillating power operated machine used to agitate fresh concrete so as to
provided to resist lateral forces
eliminate gross voids including entrapped air and to produce intimate contact with form
surfaces and embedded materials
BUILDING FRAME SYSTEM
is an essentially complete space frame which provides supports for gravity loads
VOID- CEMENT RATIO
is the ratio of volume of air plus water to the volume cement
CONCENTRIC BRACED FRAME
is a braced frame in which the members are subjected primarily to axial forces
WALL FOOTING
a continuous type of spread footing the supports vertical load, the weight of the wall
COLLECTOR
itself and the weight of the footing
is a member or an element provided to transfer lateral forces from a portion of a
structure to the vertical elements of the lateral force resisting system
WATER CEMENT RATIO
the ration of the amount of water, to the amount of cement in a concrete or mortar
DIAPHRAGM
mixture
is a horizontal or nearly horizontal system (including horizontal bracing system) acting to
transmit lateral forces to the vertical resisting elements
WEB CRIPPLING
local failure of a thin web plate of a steel beam or girder in the immediate vicinity of a
DIAPHRAGM STRUT
concentrated load
also known as tie or collector, is the element of a diaphragm parallel to the applied load
which collects and transfer diaphragm shear to the vertical resisting elements or
distribute loads within the diaphragm. Such members may also take axial tension or
ASD
compression.
ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN
DIAPHRAGM CHORD
LRFD
is the boundary element of a diaphragm or a shear wall which is assumed to take axial
LOAD RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN
stresses analogous to the flanges of the beam
DUAL SYSTEM SOIL- STRUCTURE RESONANCE
is a combination of a Special or Intermediate Moment Resisting Space Frame and is the coincidence of the natural period of structure which dominant frequency in the
Shearwalls or Braced Frame ground motion

ESSENTIAL FACILITIES STRENGTH


are those structures which are necessary for emergency post- earthquake operations is the usable capacity of a structure or its members to carry loads within the deformation
limits prescribed in the code
FLEXIBLE ELEMENT
an element or system is one whose deformation under lateral load significantly larger SOIL STABILIZATION
than adjoining parts of the system is the process of improving the properties of a soil to make it more suitable for a
particular purpose
HARMONIC MOTION
the coincidence of the natural period of structural with the dominant frequency in the SPACE FRAME
ground is a three dimensional structural system without bearing walls composed of members
interconnected so as to function as a complete self contained unit with or without the aid
MOMENT RESISTING FRAME of horizontal diaphragms or bracing systems
is a space frame in which the members and joints are capable of resisting forces
primarily by flexure STOREY
is the space between levels. Storey x is the storey below level x
ORTHOGONAL EFFECT
is the effect of the structure due to earthquake motions acting in directions other than STOREY SHEAR
parallel to the direction of resistance under consideration is the summation of design lateral forces above the storey under consideration

P- DELTA EFFECT STOREY DRIFT


is the secondary effect on shears and moments of frame members induced by the is the displacement of one level relative to the level above or below
vertical loads acting on the laterally displaced building frame
STOREY DRIFT RATIO
PERT-CPM is the storey drift divided by the storey height
PROGRAM EVALUATION REVIEW TECHNIQUE- CRITICAL PATH METHOD
it is a presentation of project plan by a schematic diagram or network that depicts the STRUCTURE
sequence and interrelation of all the component parts of the project, and the logically is an assemblage of framing members designed to support gravity loads and resist
analysis and manipulation of this network in determining the best overall program of lateral forces. They maybe categorized as building or non- building.
operation.
RAINWATER LEADER
PLATFORM it is another term of a downspout. It is a vertical pipe, often of sheet metal, used to
is the lower rigid portion of a structure having vertical combination of structural system conduct water from a roof drain or gutter to the ground.

PNEUMATIC MORTAR TORSION RIGIDITY (is used in seismic design)


mortar applied to a surface with a cement gun in the same manner as gunite, with such refers to the relative stiffness of the structure to resist torsional stress
mortar has a cube crushing strength of 20.68 Mpa
at 28 days with water/ cement ratio of 0.45 TOWER
is the upper flexible portion of a structure having a vertical combination of structural
SHEAR WALL system
is a wall designed to resist lateral forces parallel to the plane of the wall (sometimes
referred to or a structural wall) VERTICAL LOAD CARRYING SPACE FRAME
is a space frame designed to carry all vertical (gravity) loads
SOFT STOREY
is a storey whose lateral stiffness is less than 70% of the stiffness of the storey above WEAK STOREY
is a storey whose strength is less than 80% of the strength of the storey
SEISMIC REQUIREMENT FOR TRANSVERSE REINFORCEMENT REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN

1. maximum spacing of hoops shall not exceed 24 times the diameter of the hoop bars ADMIXTURE
a material used as ingredient of concrete and added to concrete before or during its
2. maximum spacing of hoops shall not be 8 times the diameter of the smallest longitudinal mixing to modify its properties
bars
AGGREGATE
3. maximum spacing of hoops shall not be more than d/4 granular material such as sand gravel stone and iron blast furnace slag used with a
cementing medium to form a hydraulic cement concrete or mortar
4. the first hoop shall be located not more than 50 mm from the face of the supporting
member AGGREGATE LIGHTWEIGHT
aggregate with a dry, loose weight of 100 kg/m or less

ANCHORAGE
in post tensioning, a device used to anchor tendon to concrete member, in pre-
GRADING AND EARTHWORK tensioning, a device used to anchor a tendon during hardening of concrete

BONDED TENDON
AS GRADED is the extent of surface conditions on completion of grading
pre-stressing tendon that is bonded to concrete either directly or through grouting
BEDROCK is in-place solid rock
COLUMN
member with a ratio to least lateral dimension of 3 or greater used primarily to support
BENCH is a relatively level step excavated into earth material
axial compressive load
on which fill is to be placed
COMPOSITE CONCRETE FLEXURAL MEMBERS
BURROW is earth material acquired from an off site location
concrete flexural members of pre-cast and/or cast in place concrete elements but so
for use in grading on a site
interconnected that all elements respond to loads as a unit
COMPACTION s the densification of a fill by mechanical means
CONCRETE
mixture of Portland cement or any other hydraulic cement, fine aggregate, coarse
EARTH MATERIAL is any rock, natural soil or fill or any combination
aggregate, and water, with or without admixtures
EROSION is the wearing away of the ground surface as a result of the
SPECIFIED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE (f’)
movement of the wind, water or ice
compressive strength of concrete used in design expressed in megapascals (Mpa).
Whenever the quantity F”c is under a radical sign, square root of numerical value only is
EXCAVATION s the mechanical removal of the earth material
intended, and result has units of megapascals (Mpa).
FILL is a deposit of earth material placed by artificial means
CONCRETE, STRUCTURAL LIGHT WEIGHT
GRADE is the vertical location of the ground surface concrete containing lightweight aggregate and has an air-dry unit weight not
exceeding 1900 kg/m3. lightweight concrete without natural sand is termed all- light
EXISTING GRADE is the grade prior to the grading weight concrete and lightweight concrete in which of the fine aggregate consists of
normal weight sand is termed sand- lightweight concrete.
FINISH GRADE is the final grade of the site that conforms to the approved plan
CURVATURE FRICTION
GRADING is any excavating or filling or combination thereof friction resulting from bends or curves in the specified pre-stressing tendon profile

KEY is a designed compacted fill placed in a trench excavated material


beneath the toe of a proposed fill slope
DEFORMED REINFORCEMENT PEDESTAL
deformed reinforcing bars, bar mats, deformed wire fabric and welded deformed fabric. an upright compression member with a ratio of unsupported height to average least
lateral dimensions of less than 3
DEVELOPMENT LENGTH
length of embedded reinforcement required to develop the design strength of PLAIN CONCRETE
reinforcement at a critical section concrete that does not conform to the definition of reinforced concrete

EFFECTIVE DEPTH OF SECTION (d) PLAIN REINFORCEMENT


distance measure from extreme compression fiber to centroid of tension reinforcement reinforcement that does not conform to the definition of deformed reinforcement

EFFECTIVE PRESTRESS POST TENSIONING


stress remaining in prestressing tendons after all losses has occurred, excluding effects method of prestressing in which the tendons are tensioned after concrete has hardened
of dead load and super imposed load
PRECAST CONCRETE
EMBEDMENT LENGTH plain or reinforced concrete element cast elsewhere than its final position in the
length of embedded reinforcement provided beyond a critical section structure

JACKING FORCE POSTENSIONING


in prestressed concrete, temporary force exerted into prestressing tendons method of prestressing concrete which the tendons are tensioned before concrete is
placed
DEAD LOAD (DL)
dead weight supported by a member. REINFORCED CONCRETE
Loads of constant magnitude that remains in one position. designed on the assumption that two materials act together in resisting forces

LIVE LOAD (LL) SPIRAL REINFORCEMNT


loads that may change in magnitude and position continuously wound reinforcement in the form of a cylindrical helix

FACTORED LOAD STIRRUP


load multiplied by appropriate load factors, used to proportion a members by the reinforcement used to resist shear and torsion stresses in a structural member: typically
strength design method. bars, wires or welded wire fabric (smooth or deformed) either single leg or bent into L, U
or rectangular shapes and located perpendicularly to or at angle to longitudinal
MODULUS OF ELASTICITY reinforcement (The term stirrups is usually applied to lateral reinforcement in flexural
ratio of normal stress to corresponding strain for tensile or compressive stresses below members and the term ties to those in compression members.)
proportional limit of material
DEIGN STRENGTH
MODULUS, APARENT (concrete) nominal strength reduction factor, Ø
also known as long term modulus, is determined by using the stress and strain obtained
after the load has been applied for a certain length of time NOMINAL STRENGTH
strength of a member or cross- section before application of any strength reduction
MODULUS, INITIAL (concrete) factors
the slope of the stress strain diagram at the origin of the curve
REQUIRED STRENGTH
MODULUS, SECANT (concrete) strength of a member or cross section required to resist factored loads or related
the slope of the line drawn from the origin to appoint on the curve somewhere between internal moments and forces in such combinations
25% and 50% of its ultimate compressive strength
TENDON
MODULUS, TENGENT (concrete) steel element such as wire, cable, bar, rods or strand, or a bundle of such elements
the slope of tangent to the curve to some point along the curve used to impart prestress to concrete
TIE AGGREGATES
loop or reinforcing bar or wire enclosing longitudinal reinforcement
Fine aggregates- sand
TRANSFER
are those that passes through a No.4 sieve (about 6mm in size)
act of transferring stress in prestressing tendons from jacks
or pretensioning bed to concrete member
Coarse aggregate -gravel or crushed stone
Coarse aggregate shall not be less than:
WALL
member, usually vertical, used to enclose or separate spaces  1/5 the narrowest dimension between sides of forms
 1/3 the depth of slabs
WOBBLE FRICTION
in pre-stressed concrete, friction caused by unintended deviation of prstressing sheath ¾ minimum clear spacing between individual reinforcing bars or wires, bundle of bars or
or duct from its specified profile prestressing tendons or ducts

YIELD STRENGTH
specified minimum yield strength or yield point or reinforcing in Mpa CONCRETE PROTECTION FOR REINFORCEMENT
BALANCED DESIGN 75 mm -for concrete cast and permanently exposed to earth such as footings
a design so proportioned that the maximum stress in concrete (with strain of 0.003) and
steel (with strain of Fy/Es) are reached simultaneously once the ultimate load is 40-50 mm for concrete members exposed to weather
reached, causing them to fall simultaneously
40 mm concrete cover of pipes, conduits or fittings and exposed to weather
UNDERREINFORCED DESIGN
a design in which the steel reinforcement is lesser than what is required for balanced 40 mm for beams and columns
conditioned. Failure under this condition is ductile and will give warning to the user of
thee structure to decrease the load 20 mm for concrete not exposed to weather or in contact with ground, such as slabs,
walls and joists
OVERREINFORCED DESIGN
a design in which the steel reinforcement is more than what is required for balanced
condition
FOR BUNDLED BARS

a. groups of parallel reinforcing bars bundled in contact as a unit shall be limited to 4 in any
one bundle

b. bundled bars shall be enclosed within stirrups or ties

c. bars larger than 32mm shall not be bundled in beams

d. individual bars within a bundle terminated within the span of flexural members should
terminate at a different points at least 40db stagger

The minimum concrete cover for bundled bars shall be:

 Equal to the equivalent diameter of the bundle but not exceeding 50 mm

 75 mm- for concrete cast against and permanently exposed to earth


STANDARD HOOKS LOAD FACTORS

A. 180º bend plus 4db extension but not less than 65 mm at free end
Dead load, DL……………………………………………….. 1.40
B. 90º bend plus 12db extension, at free end of bar
Live load, LL…………………………….…………………… 1.70
C. for stirrups and tie hooks:
 16 mm bar and smaller, 90º bend plus 6db extension at free end of bar or Wind load, WL………...…………………………………….. 1.70
 20 mm and 25 mm bar, 90º bend plus 6db extension at free end of bar or
 25 mm bar and smaller, 135º bend plus 6db extension at free end of bar
Earthquake, E……………………………………….………. 1.87

Earth or water pressure, H……………………...……….… 1.70


MINIMUM BEND DIAMETER

The diameter of bend measured on the inside of the bar shall not be less than the following:

(a.) 6db for 10 mm to 25 mm bar


(b.) 8db for 10 mm to 28 mm bar
(c.) 10db for 10 mm to 36 mm bar STRENGTH REDUCTION FACTOR Ø

4db minimum inside diameter of bend of stirrups and ties for 16 mm bar and smaller in diameter
Flexure w/o axial load……………………………………………….. 0.90

Axial tension & axial tension w/ flexure……………………………. 0.90


ONE- WAY SLAB

A one-way slab is considered as wide shallow rectangular beam. The reinforcing steel is usually Shear and torsion ……………………………………………………. 0.85
spaced uniformly over its width. The flexural reinforcement of a one-way slab extends in one
direction only. Axial compression & axial compression w/ flexure
Maximum flexural reinforcement spacing:
3 times the slab thickness or 450 mm a. spiral reinforcement ……………………………………… 0.75

Minimum thickness of one-way slab: b. tie reinforcement …………………………………………. 0.70


Solid one-way slab
L/20 - simply supported
L/24 - one end continuous Bearing on concrete ………………………………………………….. 0.70
L/28 - both end continuous
L/10 - cantilever
* Span length L is in millimeter

Ribbed one-way slab


L/16 - simply supported
L/18.5 - one end continuous
L/21 - both end continuous
L/8 - cantilever
REQUIRED STRENGTH, U or Pu MINIMUM REQUIREMENT FOR DEVELOPMENT OF REINFORCEMNT

Required strength U to resist dead load DL and live load LL is 1. not less than 12 db
U= 1.4DL + 1.7LL
2. not less than 1/16 clear span
Wind load W are included in design
U= 0.75 (1.4DL + 1.7LL + 1.7W) 3. not less than d
whichever is greater
Earthquake loads or forces are included in design
U= 0.75 (1.4DL + 1.7LL + 1.87E)
CRITERION FOR CONDUITS AND PIPES EMBEDDED IN CONCRETE
Where structural effect T of differential settlement, creep, shrinkage or
temperature change are significant in design a. Conduits and pipes embedded in slab, the wall or beam shall not be larger in outside
U= 0.75 (1.4DL + 1.4T + 1.7LL) dimension than 1/3 the overall thickness of slab, wall or beam

b. Reinforcement with an area not less than 0.002 times the area of cross- section shall be
but required strength U shall not be less than provided normal to piping
U= 1.4 (DL + T)
c. Conduits and pipes with their fittings, embedded within a column shall not displace more
than 4% of the area of the cross section on which strength is calculated

SIZE AND SPACING OF MAIN BARS AND TIES d. Concrete cover for pipes, conduits and fittings shall not be less than 40 mm for concrete
exposed to earth or weather
1. Clear distance between longitudinal bars shall be not less than
1.5 db nor 40 mm
CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGH BOLTED CONNECTION
2. Use 10 mm diameter ties for 32 mm bars or smaller and at least
12 mm in size for 36 mm and bundled longitudinal bars 1. High-strength bolted parts shall fit solidly together when assembled and shall not be
separated by gaskets or any other interposed compressive material.
3. Vertical spacing of ties shall be the smallest of the following: 2. Bolts tightened by means of a calibrated wrench shall be installed with a hardened
a. 16 x db (db = longitudinal bar diameter) washer under the nut or bolt head whichever is the element turned in tightening.
b. 48 x tie diameter
c. least dimension of columns 3. When assembled, all joint surfaces, including those adjacent to the washer, shall be free
of scale, except tight mill scales, dirts and burns.

4. Ties shall be arrange such that every corner and alternate longitudinal 4. Surface in contact with the bolt head and nut head shall have slope of not more than
bar shall have lateral support provided by the corner of the tie with an 1:20 with respect to a plane normal to the bolt axis.
included angle of not more than 135º and no bar shall be farther than
150 mm clear on each side along the tie from such a laterally
supported bar. Where longitudinal bars are located around the
perimeter of a circle tie is allowed.