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(Semester 2: AY2017/2018)

Time Allowed: 2.5 Hours


1.Please write your student number only. Do not write your name.

2.This assessment paper contains FOUR questions and comprises NINE printed pages.

3. Answer ALL questions. All questions DO NOT carry equal marks.

4.Please start each question on a new page.

5.This is an "OPEN BOOK"assessment.

6.Page 9 is detachable and to be submitted with your answer book.


Question 1 Site Investigation, Axial Pile Capacity and Deflection [30 marks]
(a) A piezocone penetration test was carried out for a site investigation and the
ollowmg data (tip resistance, sleeve friction, porewater pressure) have been
obtained. Elaborate site characteristics based on your observation on the given data
in Fig. Qla(e.g., probable soil type and layer variation).
[6 marks]
Stress <j, (AAPo) Sleeve, f,(Jd>a) Porewater, ub (MPe)
0 2 4 6 8 10 • 50 100 150

60- -

mui IT

Fig. Qla: Piezocone Test

(b) A 0.6-m diameter pre-stressed concrete pile is driven into a deep deposit of
homogeneous sand. The pile embedment depth is 10 meter. Using undisturbed
samples (freezing method)obtained at 5 meter depth, laboratory testing provides the
following soil properties: effective friction angle, overconsolidation ratio
(OCR) = 4, saturated soil unit weight (ysat) = 18.8 kN/ml Groundwater table is
located at the ground surface. Evaluate base resistance and side friction along the
[Do not use API recommendation]
[10 marks]
-3- CE5107

(c) In order to apply p method for evaluating side resistance in drained loading, two
important correction factors need to be determined. Especially for in-situ horizontal
stress condition, the following table was given in the lecture. Based on the given
recommendation, please describe and explain the likely in-situ stress condition for
driven pile -large displacement.
[4 marks]

Foundation & installation K/Ko

Jetted pile 0.5-0.7

Driven pile -small displacement 0.7-1.2

Driven pile-large displacement 1.0-2.0

Bored pile - dry method with minimal sidewall

disturbance and prompt concreting

Bored pile-slurry method with good workmanship 0.9-1.0

Bored pile -slurry method with fair workmanship 0.6-0.7

Bored pile - casing method below water table 0.7-0.9

(d) A closed-ended rigid steel pipe pile having a diameter of 0.70 meter is installed at a
certain site in Bukit Timah region. The site consists of upper residual silty sand(0 to
16 meter) and weathered granite below 16 meter depth. Groundwater table is located
at the surface. The pile tip is embedded in the weathered granite. Based on site
investigation data, the upper residual soil is considered to be Gibson soil type with
following characteristics: elastic soil modulus at surface, Eso = 20 Mpa; elastic
modulus at 8 meter depth, Esm = 30 Mpa. The weathered granite exhibits much
higher elastic modulus of 90 Mpa. If a static load of6MN is applied to the pile top,
calculate the estimated settlement at the pile tip using the Randolph & Wroth
analytical method.

[10 marks]

Question 2 Lateral Capacity and Deflection (30 marks]

(a) A closed-ended rigid steel pipe pile is driven into deep homogeneous sand layer
with M embedded length of 15 meter. The pile has a diameter of 0.75 meter. Site
investigation report gives the following information: i) groundwater table located at
the groimd smface, ii) saturated soil unit weight = 18.8 kN/m', ill) effective friction
Mgle ofsand - 30 degree. Assuming a lateral load is applied at an eccentric height
1.5 meter above the ground surface, answer the following questions.
(a.l) A lateral pile load test is carried out on the installed pile. Unfortunately, the testing
provides only two measurements due to problems with the hydraulic jack. Despite
the limited dat^ you may still reasonably estimate the lateral pile capacity. Show
your estimated lateral capacity using a simple hyperbolic model.
Load, H(kN) Deflection,6 or s fmml
0 0
450 8
900 22
[4 marks]

(a.2) Estimate the lateral capacity using the simplified Brom's theory by assuming rigid
pile with free head condition. e g"

[4 marks]

(a.3) For this question, please assume that the testing site consists of homogeneous firm
clays with undrained shear strength of 100 kPa. Continue your estimation for the
laterd capacity using the simplified Brom's theory. Assume the other conditions are
identical except for the soil type and properties.

[4 marks]

(a.4) Continue the above question (a.3) based on static analysis of a rigid pile. Estimate
the lateral capacity by adopting a imiform distribution of ultimate lateral soil
[Hint: Assume a typical Np value]
[4 marks]

(b) A pile group that consists of three restrained circular prestressed concrete piles is
installed in Gibson soil type - stiff clay with a penetration depth of 16 meter. Each
pile has an equivalent diameter of 500 mm and Young's modulus of pile (Ep) of 26
X 10^ kN/m^(moment ofinertia of pile section, Ip = 7cd'*/64). According to SI report,
the soil properties are given as follows: undrained shear strength, Su = (60 + z)
kN/m^ (here,z = depth, m); soil modulus(Es)= 250'Su; total soil unit weight, yt =18
kN/m^; Groimdwater table located at surface(z = 0 m). The pile group is attached to
a massive pile cap so that top ofeach pile is fixed and deflects equally.

(b.l) Case I: When a horizontal force Ho = 800 kN is loaded as shown below,estimate the
pile group deflection using Randolph elastic solution.

1.5 m 1.5 m
*Not scaled

(b.2) Case II: Repeat by changing the loading direction (but same Ho = 800 kN).

1.5 m 1.5 m
*Not scaled

Fig. Q2b: Lateral pile load test

[14 marks]

Question 3 Pile Load Test and Unified Pile Concept[40 marks]

(a) A factor building is to be constructed on a clay site with a pile foundation using
IS 1300 kN,consisting of DeadP"®® Load DL=1000 kN Theand
desired Working
Live Load LoadIcN.
LL=300 per The
parameters for soils at the site are shown in Tahie 1 below, and assume GWT is Im
below ground level.

Table 1 Soil Parameters at Factory Site

Soil Thick(m) SPTN Unit Weight Lab Tests
Soft Marine Clay 20 0to2 16 Cu=15 kPa; alpha=1.0
Dense OA Silty Sands
10 30(average) 20 Nil

Hard Clay 10 50(average) 20 Nil

If the pile IS to be jacked into a depth of 35m, what would be the estimated jack-in
force needed to install the pile? What is the probable EOS of the pile design
immediately after installation? How will the EOS change in the long-term?
For the above analysis, assume for the dense OA Silty Sands and Hard Ciay, SPT N
eoirelations showed that skin friction resistance fs = 2.5N kPa, and end 'bearina
resistance fb = lOON kPa.

[10 marks]

(b) Using the Unified Pile concept; what would be the neutral plane(NP)depth of the
pile foundation of Q3(a)? Estimate the maximum dragload on the pile using the
Unified Pile method? What do you expect to be the likely dragload if the neutral
plane is assumed at the base ofthe soft clay?
IDnt: Use a graph paper to plot the load transfer and the force distribution curves to
determine the theoretical neutral plane.
[5 marks]

(c) If the GWT is permanently lowered by 2m, and the expected long-term
consolidation ground settlements is about 500 mm. Show by a simple sketch, how
you expect the NSE and NP to develop over time period of next 30 years?
[5 marks]
-7- CE5107

(d) Fig.Q3a shows the mobilized resistance diagram of a 30m length, 1.13m diameter
bored pile in a conventional head down test with downward head movement of
30mm. The site consists of 20m of soft clay(Wt=16kN/m^)above 20m of stiff clay
(Wt=20kN/m^). What are the estimated unit shaft friction of the two soil types
observed in the test data, and the mobilized end bearing resistance in kPa? Assume
GWT is near the ground surface.
[5 marks]

(e) If you were to do an 0-Cell test, where would you locate the 0-Cell? Use the Fig.
Q3a to sketch what you would expect the 0-Cell force distribution plot to be like.
What is the maximum load capacity needed in the 0-Cell?
[Note: Fig.Q3a is on page 9 where it is detachable for you to submit with your
answer scripts.]

[7 marks]

Fig.Q3a: Axial Load Distribution in Bored Pile- please refer to page 9

(f) Fig.Q3b shows the estimated pile response, of shaft, toe and total resistances as a
function of pile head and toe displacements. What would you expect the 0-cell
upward and downward plates movement to be like if the 0-Cell test would
mobilized all the upper and lower shaft resistances, and only part ofthe end bearing
resistance up to 5000 kPa. Sketch your answer on a graph paper.

Hint: Neglect pile buoyant weight and assume NO residual loads. [8 marks]
la«<Sng Test Sbraistion
St AmICoMttfOB
Load fliftaslftance
frW) I (kN) I (IcN) {mm) Head-Down Loading Test Simulation
1.13m bp at Final Condition
(Residual Load Not Induded)
CE5107 Q3d 2018
Ll29.e 299.7
1.709.1 13D3.9
2.043.9 1.581.0
3,4023 2,7203
4.447.2 3,900.7
5300.4 43193
9,117.0 4.995.7 1.1213
8,4413 9.895.8 1385.7
93323 7389.9 1,942.1
10,U8.8 8,4463 23423
113743 8,7673 23073
11.701.4 8.954.9 2.7493
12,0323 9,0663 2,969.5
123033 9,131.9 3,171.4
U,S35.0 9,1713 3353.7
10 15
12.7403 9,1943 33KJ
12,927.9 9388.9 3,718.8
Movement (imi)
13,101.4 93173 3,884.1
1336S.1 93223 4342.7
U.420.7 932S.4
Total Load vs Pile Compression Total Load vs Head Movement
Toe Load vs Toe Movement Shaft Load vs Head Movement
Fjg.Q3b: Load Test Results of30m x 1.13mD Bored Pile

Matriculation Number:

Guestion 3(el

Load and Resistance(kN)

0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000

2 L„ £i4,25£L-^



12 f \

14 ^


20 [ y* 12,100
22 j

_jr 1
y* 1

Fig.QSa: Axial Load Distribution in Bored Pile