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Government investment in the arts, such as music and theatre, is a waste of money.

Governments must invest this money in public services instead.

To what extent do you agree with this statement?

Nowadays, many governments allocate some portion of their budgets on arts, like music
and theater. It is argued that this money should not be wasted and must be spent on
public services instead. I am against the statement and will present the reasons in this
essay.

To begin with, the arts of a country have a great significancein preserving its cultures and
as a matter of fact, cultures are essential because they give the country a unique identity.
So, artists and arts institutions play a pivotal role in preserving and introducing the
national arts and cultures to the public, both local as well as international. Moreover, the
arts also have an important impact on our quality of life, as many people derive great
pleasuresfromwatching music and theatre performances.

However, it is difficult for many arts institutions to generate much profit. Although many
arts venues do charge entrance fees, but often the revenue is not sufficient to cover all
the operational costs. Without some financial support from the government, many
theaters and other similar places may have to close. This is clearly not acceptable as
these arts institutions play critical functionsin preserving the national cultures as well as
offering entertainment to the general public. So, it is essential that the government
continues to provide the necessary funding to prevent these places from closing.

In conclusion, I believe that government investment in the arts is requiredsincethe arts


serve important purposes in society and the arts institutions need government financial
aid to continue to operate.

(258 words)

V2.0 Exercise 1a
Government investment in the arts, such as music and theatre, is a waste of money.
Governments must invest this money in public services instead.

To what extent do you agree with this statement?

The government allocates its budget on various sectors including public services as well
as on the arts. Although I am convinced that it is important to invest money on public
services, I do not believethat spending some portion of it on the arts is a waste.

Obviously, it is critical that a sufficient amount of the government budget is spent on


public services. This is because public services whichinclude facilities and infrastructures
such as hospitals, schools, roads and bridges significantlydetermine the quality of life
that the citizens will enjoy. For example, if the government does not invest enough
money on hospitals, the health of the general population may decline. Similarly, if not
enough fund is allocated on schools, children may not be properly educated.

However, this does not mean that the arts should be completely neglected. Firstly, the
arts of a country have a great significancein preserving its cultures, which give the
country a unique identity. Moreover, the arts also have an important impact on the
citizens’quality of life as many people derive great pleasuresfromwatching music and
theatre performances. That being said, many arts institutions struggle to generate much
profit. So,it is essential that the government continues to provide the necessary funding
to prevent these places from closing.

To sum up, there are clear benefits of ensuring that a large amount of investment goes
into public services as this influences the quality of life for all of us. Nonetheless, I believe
that government spending on the arts is not a waste of money as this too provides
positive impacts to the socitey.

(270 words)

V2.0 Exercise 1b
Some people believe that unpaid community service should be a compulsory part of
high school programmes (for example working for a charity, improving the
neighborhood or teaching sports to younger children).

To what extent do you agree or disagree?

It is argued that volunteering should be made a mandatory part of high school


curriculum. This essay agrees with that suggestion completely because of the benefits it
brings to pupils.

To begin with, education should not be strictly limited to academic pursuits. Instead,
students should also be taught to develop life skills, such as teamwork, self-disciplineand
problem solving, and one of the best ways to hone these aptitudes is through community
service. Also, serving those less fortunate than themselves teaches the students many
valuable lessons including how to work with people from different backgrounds, the
value of hard work and empathy. For example, I personally volunteered to spend 6
weeks in Africa teaching disadvantaged children and this led to a much higher work ethic
when I returned to my studies.

In addition, many colleges and companies are also increasingly looking for this type of
experience in their students or employees. Most school graduates have the same grades
and hence,some experiences in charitable work can help set someone apart from the
herd. For example, Cambridge and Oxford receive thousands of applications from
straight-A students every year and can only accept a small percentage of the applicants.
What some individuals have done outside the classroom is often the factor that
differentiates them from everyone else and helps them get the coveted spots.

In conclusion, teenagers should be made to take part in unpaid social work as part of
their school activities because it will help them acquire skills and knowledge they would
not ordinarily learn in classrooms and these will boost their chances of successin future.

(267 words)

V2.0 Exercise2
As technology like computers and the internet are being used more and more in
education, there will be no role for traditional teachers in the classroom.

To what extent do you agree or disagree?

In the last decade, technology has advanced tremendously and become an essential part
in many aspects of our modern society. In education, the use of technology in classrooms
is also becoming more and more prevalent. However, I strongly question the claim that
technology will lead to the presence of traditional teachers becoming redundant.

First of all, it is true that technology like computers and the internet have contributed
positively to the students’ learning process. These tools provide students the access to a
great wealth of information, which range from general knowledge to specific
information related to their school subjects. However, while few students may be able to
study independently based on the materials obtained online, the vast majority still need
assistance from a teacher so that they can understandthe lessons. Besides, teachers
facilitate discussion, assign group projects and other activities, which result in a learning
environment that is more dynamic and social.

In addition, education process is not restricted to only acquiring academic knowledge.


Beyond that, it also encompasses the chacarter and personality development of the
students. At school, teachers help instill good moral values in the students and build
positive characters through their daily interaction in the classroom. This is another reason
why the role of traditional teachers will not become obsolete despite the existence of
various education-based technologies.

To conclude, although technology has progressed significantly and aided students greatly
in their learning prosess, the role of a teacher is still relevant. Teachers help students
understand the materials faster and also create a learning environment that is conducive
to the development of both academic and non-academic skills of the students.

(272 words)

V2.0 Exercise3
The society would benefit from a ban on all forms of advertising because it serves no
useful purpose, and can even be damaging.

Do you agree or disagree?

It is regularly argued that prohibition of all categories of advertisements, which are


thought to be pointless and even detrimental, could generate numerous benefits for the
community. I do not agree with this argument because a complete ban on advertising
will also bring disadvantages to the public.

On the one hand, it may seemthat banning advertisements could be beneficial for
consumers. Firstly, the absence of advertising is synonymous with the fact that
purchasers may not have to pay a remarkable amount of money for advertising services
included in product prices. This can reduce consumers’ expenditures for shopping.
Moreover, numerous advertisements tend to exaggerate the functions, values and
qualities of commodities with the goal of misleadingpotential customers to purchase
their products. Without these advertisements, individuals will select the items to
purchase based on their requirements without being adversely affected by the
advertisements’ messages.

On the other hand, it is obvious that forbidding allkinds of advertisement services will
pose untold drawbacks to the society. The first shortcoming could be the joblessness
which employees involved in advertising companies could be confronted with. This
willgive rise to an increase in the national unemployment rate. Another disadvantage
might be that this barcan keep consumers in ignorance of the latest goods available on
the market. Hence, they may be faced with obstacles in searching for and comparing the
qualities and pricesconcerning the products of the same category before deciding to
purchase them.

In conclusion, I am convinced that a complete ban of advertisements must not be


implemented as it leads to adverse effects on the consumers as a whole.

(269 words)

V2.0 Exercise4
Some people believe that visitors to other countries should follow local customs and
behaviour. Others disagree and think that the host country should welcome cultural
differences.

Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.

Millions of tourists travel every year, mainly driven by the desire to experience other
cultures. While travelling, visitors carry their own set of cultural values to the destination
of their choice and interact with the locals who have different cultures.

Obviously, it is necessary for the tourists to know and follow the local practices and
norms to a certain degree. This will make the local inhabitants feel comfortable with their
presence and avoid unnecessary conflicts during their trip. For example, in Bali on the
“Nyepi” day, the Balinese stay at home, refrain from doing any activities and observe
silence throughout the day. On this day, the foreign tourists in Bali will also stay in their
hotels and avoid making any noise or creating any disturbance in order to respect the
locals. This is a good example of foreign visitors respecting the local tradition.

On the other hand, a host country should have a policy of tolerance and welcome visitors
of all cultures as well. Some countries, for example Saudi Arabia, have a strict dress code
for women and expect visitors to abide by it. For many foreign visitors, this may be
difficult and consequently discourage them from visiting that country. As a matter of
fact, a host country should provide visitors with friendly surroundings and less cultural
shock. This is also beneficial to the country as the more visitors come, the country’s
economy will also improve. Moreover, the local people will also get opportunity to learn
other cultures and traditions while staying in their own country.

In my opinion, a host country should welcome visitors and accept the cultural differences
as long as they do not abuse a country’s hospitality and overstep cultural boundaries.

(284 words)

V2.0 Exercise5
Some people think that all university students should study whatever they like. Others
believe that they should only be allowed to study subjects that will be useful in the
future, such as those related to science and technology.

Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.

There are contrasting views with regard to what students should study at university.
While some argue that high school graduates should only enroll in science and
technology related courses, others believe that theyought tobe allowed to choose based
on their interests.

One the one hand, it is asserted that university courses like medicine, engineering and
information technology are more likely to be beneficial than certain art degrees. From a
personal perspective, it can be argued that these courses provide more job
opportunities, career progression, better salaries, and therefore an improved quality of
life for students who take them. On the macro level, by encouraging students to choose
particular university subjects, governments can ensure that any knowledge and skill gaps
in the economy are covered. Finally, a focus on technology in higher education could lead
to new inventions, economic growth, and greater future prosperity.

In spite of these arguments, I believe that university students should be given freedom to
choose their preferred areas of study. In my opinion, society will benefit more if our
students are passionate about what they are learning. Besides, nobody can really predict
which areas of knowledge will be most useful to society in the future, and it may be that
employers begin to value creative thinking skills above practical or technical skills. If this
were the case, perhaps we would need more students of art, history and philosophy than
of science or technology.

In conclusion, although it might seem sensible to focus only on certain subjects perceived
as useful, I personally prefer the current system in which people have the right to study
whatever they like.

(272 words)

V2.0 Exercise6
Many developing countries require aid from international organizations to develop.
Many people think that this aid should be financial, while others think that practical aid
and advice are more useful.

Discuss both views and give your own opinion.

Someargue thatinternational aid should be in the form of financial assistance while


others believe that non-financial support is more beneficial for the receiving countries. In
this essay, I will explore both arguments and present my view on the matter.

There are several reasons to believe that monetary assistance is more advantageous.
Firstly, millions of people living in the so-called third world countries still do not have
proper access to food, water or sanitation. In order to provide these basic needs and
facilities to their citizens, the governments need funds from international organisations.
In addition, these nations are also struggling with the development of basic
infrastructures like roads, hospitals and schools. If a sufficient amount of money isspent
on these areas, the governments can complete these essential projects and this
willgreatly help improve the economic growth of the nations.

However, financial aid alone is not sufficient. It is critical that technical support and
practical advice are also offered. The reason is that most leaders in these countries have
limited vision or knowledge of strategic development. Hence, experts from international
groups could help them devise and manage appropriate development policies. This will
give a positive impact on all aspects of their countries’ programs. In addition, proper
supervisions are also highly crucial. This is to ensure that the monetary help provided by
foreign agencies is utilized for the right purposes, and not corrupted by politicians to
serve their personal interests.

In my opinion, international organizations should help developing countries by offering


financial support. However, it is equally important that non-financial aid is also given to
ensure that problems are solved and progress can be achieved.

(276 words)

V2.0 Exercise7
Some people believe that living in big cities is becoming more difficult. Others believe
that it is getting easier.

Discuss both views and give your own opinion.

There has been much debate about whether city life is becoming harder or easier. While
some argue that it is more difficult to live in large cities, others think there are more
comfortsassociated withurban life.

On the one hand, city dwellers may be confronted with various problems. The first
matter is the higher cost of living because theyneed to pay higher prices for various
services such as transport, healthcare and household bills. Secondly, the high population
density in urban areas leads to overcrowding, which combined with competitive work
environments, contributes to a high level of stress. Finally, a huge quantity of fumes is
released from motor vehicles and factories daily, leading to air and water pollution. This
could pose serious health risks to the city residents.

However, in my view, city life is becoming more pratical for severalreasons. Firstly, high
quality schools anduniversitieslocated in metropolitan centersoffer advantages for the
city inhabitants as they can enjoy better educational opportunities to increase their
knowledge. Another factor is that due to the government financial investment in
improving public transport systems like buses or underground services, daily commute in
big cities is becoming more convenient. Furthermore, various entertainment and art
venues are available for metropolian residents. For example, they can choose to relaxby
going to the cinema and theater or spending time in art galleries as well as museums.

In conclusion, although there are numerous difficulties of residing in metropolitan areas, I


believe it is increasingly easier to live in big urban areas on the basis of my above-
mentioned explanation.

(264 words)

V2.0 Exercise8
Many people think that increasing the number of sports facilities is the best way to
improve the public health. Others however, say that this is not an effective way of
improving the public health and other measures should be taken.

Discuss both these views and give your opinion.

A problem of modern societies is the declining level of health in the general population,
with conflicting views on how to tackle this worrying trend. One possible solution is to
provide more sports facilities to encourage a more active lifestyle.

Advocates of this believe that today’s sedentary lifestyle and stressful working
conditions mean that physical activity is no longer part of either our work or our leisure
time. If there were easy-to-reach local sports centres, we would be more likely to make
exercise a regular part of our lives, rather than just collapsing in front of a screen every
evening. The variety of sports that could be offered would cater for all ages, levels of
fitness and interests.

However, there may be better ways of tackling this problem. Interest in sport is not
universal, and additional facilities might simply attract those already fit, not those who
most need them. Physical activity could be encouraged relatively cheaply, for example by
installing exercise equipment in city parks. This has the added benefit since parents and
children often use them together just for fun, which develops a positive attitude to
exercise at an early age.

As well as physical activity, high tax penalties could be imposed on high-fat food
products, tobacco and alcohol, as excessive consumption of any of these contributes to
poor health. Even improving public transport would help as it takes longer to walk to the
bus stop than to the car.

In my opinion, focusing on sports facilities is too narrow and would not have the desired
results. People should be encouraged not only to be more physically active but also to
adopt a healthier lifestyle in general.

(278 Words)

V2.0 Exercise9
In some countries young people are encouraged to work or travel for a year between
finishing high school and starting university studies.

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages for young people who decide to do this.

It is quite common nowadays for young people in many countries to take a gap year after
graduating from high school. This essay analyses the benefits as well as drawbacks for
students who decide to follow this path.

First of all, it is commonly believed that a young adult who passes directly from school to
university is still rather restricted in terms of general knowledge and experience of the
world. By contrast, those who have spent some time earning a living or traveling to other
places have a broader view of life, better personal resources to draw on and tend to be
more independent. All of these are very important factors in academic study and
research, so these students will possess a significant advantage in terms of the ability to
cope with the challenges of university life.

On the other hand, there are certainly dangers in taking time off at that important age.
Young adults may end up never returning to their studies or finding it difficult to readapt
to an academic environment. They may think that it is better to continue in a particular
job, or to do something completely different from a university course. However, I think
this is less likely today, when most students understand that academic qualifications are
essential for getting a reasonable career in future.

In conclusion, I believe that young people should be encouraged to broaden their


horizons and toacquire a clear perspective of what they are hoping to achieve with their
lives. Students with such insights are usually the most effective and motivated ones and
taking a year off may be the best way to gain this.

(275 words)

V2.0 Exercise10
Many criminals commit further crimes as soon as they are released from prison.

What do you think are the causes of this? What effects will this have on society?

Numerous ex-convicts re-offend soon after they have been freed from jail. This essay will
first discuss why this is happening and then present the negative impacts it has on
society.

On the one hand, the primary cause of ex-prisoners committing crimes as soon as they
are out of prison is because they think that this could be the fastest way to earn money.
Having a criminal record means that it is hard to find employment, which means that ex-
cons cannot find suitable jobs. Most employers would be very hesitant to hire someone
who has a criminal record, even though the person might have the right skills for the
position. For example, a special HBO documentary in 2017 reported that 90% of
employers would not hire an employee if he had committed criminal offences.

Obviously, this has detrimental effects on society, because new offences will be
committed and the taxpayers will keep paying for these criminals. This will also lead to
the need for bigger prisons to accommodate more prisoners, which will place an
additional burden on the government budget. If more prisons are required, taxes will rise
and the public will pay for these people to stay incarcerated. Besides, high crime rates
will make the citizens lack a sense of security, which will negatively impact their overall
life style and well-being.

In conclusion, the lack of opportunities for ex-convicts to restart their lives is the main
reason why they tend to commit the same mistakes. The effects are immense not only
for the individuals but for the whole country as well, as it can affect both the economic
and social aspects.

(271 words)

V2.0 Exercise11
As most people spend a major part of their adult life at work, job satisfaction is an
important element of individual well-being.

What factors contribute to job satisfaction?How realistic is the expectation of job


satisfaction for all workers?

Nowadays, many adults have full-time jobs and the proportion of their lives spent doing
such jobs is very high. Hence, being satisfied with the jobis indeed very important for the
wellbeing of that person.

Employees get job satisfaction in a number of ways. Firstly, employees need to feel that
they are doing valuable work. So, positive feedback from superiors is very important and
the workers must also feel that their jobs allow them to contribute to the society or the
economy as a whole. Secondly, when someone feels that he is improving or developing
his skills through training opportunities, for example, then there is a sense of progression
and purpose that rewards the worker. Next, the sense of belonging to a team or a
working community also contributes to job satisfaction because colleagues help each
other to enjoy their working lives.

Of course, not all workers enjoy their work. Hard economic realities mean that many
people have little choice in the kind of job they can get. In some cases, an employee is
working in a job that suits neither his skills nor his personality. Also, some jobs are
repetitive and boring, and labour relations may be poor. All these will lead to resentment
and insecurity rather than to job satisfaction.

However, even though it is unlikely that all workers do feel happy in their work, I think it
is not unrealistic to promote more job satisfaction in any company. If the factors
identified above are implemented, then any job can be improved and more workers can
feel greater degrees of job satisfaction.

(264 words)

V2.0 Exercise12
Increasing the price of petrol is the best way to solve growing traffic and pollution
problems.

To what extent do you agree or disagree? What other measures do you think might be
effective?

There is no doubt that traffic and pollution from vehicles have become huge problems in
major cities around the world, especially those in developing countries. Increasingthe
price of fuel has been thought to be an effective solution. In my opinion, solving these
problems is likely to require more comprehensive approaches.

While it is undeniable that the use of private cars is one of the main causes of the
increase in traffic and pollution, higher fuel cost is unlikely to limit or reduce the number
private vehicles for long. Moreover, as this policy would also affect the cost of public
transport and the prices of commodities, it would be very unpopular, especially among
the middle and low income population. There are various other measures that could be
implemented that would be more effective on these problems.

I think to tackle the pollution problem, cleaner fuels need to be developed. The
technology is already available to produce electric cars that would be both quieter and
cleaner to use. Persuading manufacturers and consumers to adopt this new technology
would be a more effective strategy toimprovethe air quality.

However, traffic congestion will not be solved by changing the type of private vehicles
people use. Instead, the governmentneeds to improve the choice and quality of public
transport services. For example, if trains and public buses are made attractive and
affordable, more citizens will prefer to take public transport rather than drivetheir own
cars.

In conclusion, I think that long-term traffic and pollution reduction would require the
government to construct and run efficient public transport systems, so that the general
population will be attracted to use them.

(276 words)

V2.0 Exercise13
Nowadays the way many people interact with each other has changed because of
technology.
In what ways has technology affected the types of relationships that people make? Has
this been a positive or negative development?

It is true that new technologies have had an influence on communication between


people. Technology has affected relationships in various ways, and in my opinion there
are both positive and negative effects.

Technology has had an impact on relationships in business, education and social


life. Firstly, telephones and the Internet allow business people in different countries to
interact without ever meeting each other. Secondly, services like Skype create new
possibilities for relationships between students and teachers. For example, a student can
now take video lessons with a teacher in a different city or country. Finally, many people
use social networks, like Facebook, to make new friends and find people who share
common interests, and they interact through their computers rather than face to face.

On the one hand, these developments can be extremely positive. Cooperation between
people in different countries was much more difficult when communication was limited
to written letters or telegrams. Nowadays, interactions by email, phone or video are
almost as good as face-to-face meetings, and many of us benefit from these interactions,
either in work or social contexts. However, the availability of new communication
technologies can also have the result of isolating people and discouraging real
interaction. For example, many young people choose to make friends online rather than
mixing with their peers in the real world, and these ‘virtual’ relationships are a poor
substitute for real friendships.

In conclusion, technology has certainly revolutionised communication between people,


but not all of the outcomes of this revolution have been positive.

(252 words)

V2.0 Exercise14
Many of the world’s cities are currently facing a serious housing shortage.

What are some of the reasons for this shortage and what solutions can you suggest?

Worldwide, the steadily increasing demand for houses and accommodation has left many
cosmopolitan cities unable to meet the housing needs of their citizens.

One of the main reasons for housing shortage in urban areas is the rapid increase in
urban populations. Many individuals have migrated from rural areas to the cities in search
of a better life for themselves and their families. Another cause behind this shortage in
housing supply is the desire of citizens and councils to protect ‘green spaces’ and
environmental areas within the city. As admirable as this goal may be, it actually ties up
valuable land that could be used for housing, which also causes the house prices to
increase and become too expensive for many citizens to afford. A final contributing
factor in some cities is a lack of coordinated planning and vision for the future, which fails
to consider population growth and the needs of future residents.

It is clear that solutions to this housing crisis need to be found. One suggestion is to
implement town planning systems which encourage the concept of satellite cities to give
residents the best of both worlds. These satellite cities have all the benefits of small town
living in regard to environment and community, but are situated only a short distance
from the nearest city for employment purposes. Thus, they take the pressure off city
infrastructure and in particular housing stock. In addition, building more high density
accomodation, such as high rise apartments, could also assist in alleviating the housing
shortage.

All in all, the answers to the urban housing crisis lie in effective planning for future
population growth while addressing current needs.

(275 words)

V2.0 Exercise15
Successful sports professionals can earn a great deal more money than people in other
important professions. Some people think this is fully justified while others think it is
unfair.

Discuss both these views and give your opinion.

The world of sports is a multibillion dollar industry. Around the globe, people flock to
sporting events or watch their favourite teams faithfully each week on television. As a
result, professional sports athletes receive huge salaries – well above, for example, those
of doctors, lawyers, teachers or social workers. There are some debates about whether
such outrageously high salaries are justified.

On the one hand, sport is viewed as a professional career, in which the top players should
rightly earn high salaries. Athletes train rigorously from an early age to become peak
performers in their field. They also face tremendous pressure in each and every game,
match or competition. Moreover, their personal lives are compromised and they lose all
privacy. At the same time, their strong achievements bring honour and attention, not
only to themselves, but also to their teams, schools, cities or countries.

On the other hand, various professions contribute to making our world run smoothly. For
example, doctors put in at least ten years of grueling study and internship and their work
saves lives. Teachers educate and inspire young people to be responsible citizens and
their efforts produce the citizens of tomorrow. Social workers rescue individuals facing
physical, mental and psychological challenges. Yet, professionals in the fields above
usually struggle to get by, despite their meaningful and critical contribution to the world.

In my view, paying enormous salaries to sports people is unnecessary. We need to


reconsider our social priorities and eliminate the great disparity in income received by
diverse professionals. By doing so, we can build societies in which each one feels valued,
appreciated and appropriately compensated for their own vocation or specialization.

(275 words)

V2.0 Exercise16
The high sales of popular consumer goods reflect the power of advertising but not the
real need of the society where such products are sold.

Do you agree or disagree?

Critics of advertising argue that itinfluences consumers to purchase what they do not
actually need in their daily lives, leading to the soaring sales of many products. I
personally do not believe that this argument is entirely accurate.

On the on hand, it is true that nowadays, many advertising companies produce


advertisements that feature famous and popular actors or singers. Also, the
advertisements are designed in such a way that the products look very attractive to the
audience. These have led many consumers to buy the advertised goods, although they
do not really need them. Furthermore, as many people buy a particular product due to its
advertising campaign, others may be affected by the trend and make the same purchase,
driving the sales to increase significantly.

On the other hand, I believe that not all consumers show the similar behaviour. Some
individuals have their own spending habits and are not easily swayed by advertisements.
For example, my family members only buy certain products when there is a real need for
the products and only if the price is within our budget. We do not rush into buying the
latest smartphones simply because they look cool on billboards or because many of our
friends have had one. Instead, we continue to use our existing gadgets as long as they
still function well.

In conclusion, the high sales of popular goods are partly driven by the fact that some
consumers do react impulsively to the advertisements and make purchases they do not
need. However, there are others who are not easily influenced and they buy the goods
because of the actual needs.

(271 words)

V2.0 Exercise17
It is important for children to learn the difference between right and wrong at an early
age. Punishment is necessary to help them to learn this distinction.

To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion?What sort of punishment
should parents and teachers be allowedto use to teach good behavior to children?

One important stage in children’s growth is the development of the ability todistinguish
between right and wrong. In this context, it is often debated whether punishment should
be allowed in educating the children. I personally believe that some forms of punishment
are essential and should be permitted.

To some extent, punishment can be considered as a supplementing method to discipline


children. People who oppose punishment claim that it exerts a detrimental influence on
children’s psychology and therefore they may lose their self-confidence and even
develop hatred to society. However, they seem to overcomplicate the situation. Actually,
parents and teachers do not simply punish children. They also have to provide a thorough
explanation to their children on why theiractions are wrong. As a result, children are
more likely to understand the circumstances and will not commit similar mistakes in
future.

In addition, it is important to note thatthe punishment must not be of physical in nature


because that will send the message that it is acceptable for adults to hit young children,
which may result in the child starting to bully others younger than him.Instead, teachers
and parents can use a variety of methods to discipline the kids, such as detention,
withdrawal of priviledges and time-out. Making the punishment fit the wrong deeds
committed is also essential, for example making the children pick-up the rubbish they
have dropped or apologise to someone they have hurt. In these ways, responsibility is
developed in the child, which leads to much better future behaviour.

To conclude, punishment is necessary for children education since it teaches children to


be responsible and is an effective method if given appropriately.

(277 words)

V2.0 Exercise18
It's generally believed that some people are born with certain talents, for instance for
music and sport, and others are not. However, it's sometimes claimed that any child can
be taught to become good sports person or musician.

Discuss both views and give your opinion.

It has been frequently discussed, whether people need talents in order to master the
skills in sports or music, or anyone can be taught to gain those skills.

On the one hand, it is widely believed that some people are born with specific talents
that will greatly determine their success in sports or music. Certainly, we have seen many
individuals who have been very good at music or sports since their young age. Some of
them even managed to develop their skills to the highest level on their own, without any
help from experts. This leads people to believe that talents are very pivotal for anyone to
be a successful athlete or musician.

On the other hand, several people argue that anyone can become a good musician or
athlete, provided that they receive sufficient trainings from qualified mentors. They also
argue that the determination and resilience to keep pushing the boundaries are more
imporant than talents. Obviously, there are many examples of children who initially do
not seem to be able to play sports or music well, but after a lot of practise and lessons,
finally succeed.

I personally think that talents do give someone an advantage over their peers as he will
master certain skills faster. However, as with all questions of nature versus nurture, these
are not mutually exclusive. Good musicians and exceptional sports stars have probably
succeeded because of both good training and natural talent. Without the natural talent,
continuous training would be neither attractive nor productive, and without the training,
the child would not learn how to exploit and develop their talent.

(266 words)

V2.0 Exercise19
Some people think that parents should teach children how to be good members of
society. Others, however, believe that school is the place to learn this.

Discuss both views and give your own opinion.

Everyone would agree that for children to become good citizens and contribute
positively to the society in future, they need to be provided with guidance or directions.
Some argue that this is the responsibility of parents, while others say it is the job of
schools.

To begin with, parents are the ones that children have the first interactions with. In
addition, children naturally tend to imitate their parents’ behaviour. Therefore, parents
have a major influence on their children’s upbringing and consequently bear the
responsibility to serve as good role models. Among other things, they should set good
examples, provide sound advice and give proper understanding on numerous issues, as
well as shield the kids from bad influence. However, not all parents can fulfill these tasks
due to various reasons, such as busy work schedules or inadequate knowledge. This is
where schools can assist.

At school, students can learn how to get along with other individuals. They will obtain a
host of experiences on social skills through interacting with their peers and teachers.
Moreover, they also learn about the norms, values and conducts commonly accepted in
society through relevant lessons taught at school. Lastly, I believe that teachers, to a
certain extent, should also assume parental roles as cited earlier. All these can help
consolidate the learning that happens at home or provide an alternative model of how to
be a good citizen for those who are not exposed to positive role models in their families.

In my view, both parents and schools have complementing roles to play in educating
children. I am convinced that both parents and schools must work together in helping
children grow up to become good members of society.

(282 words)

V2.0 Exercise20

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