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INTRODUCTION TO WATER

AND WATER POLLUTION

ALEX C. LUIS, PSE, MSCE


ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT BUREAU
CORDILLERA ADMINISTRATIVE REGION
Overview of Water Bodies
and Water Classification
FIGURE 2. Location of Major River Basins in the Philippines
Water Resources in the Philippines

The Philippines is endowed with water


resources such as rivers, lakes,
groundwater, and coastal and marine
waters.
Major River Basins

The country has 18 major river basins (Table 1) and 421


principal rivers as defined by the National Water
Resources Board (NWRB). The largest river basin is the
Cagayan River Basin in Cagayan Valley, with a drainage
area of 25,649 sq km. It encompasses parts of Isabela,
Cagayan, Nueva Viscaya, and Quezon Provinces. The
second largest river basin is the Mindanao River Basin
or the Rio Grande de Mindanao, which has a drainage
area of 23,169 sq km and receives the waters from
Pulangi and Allah Valley River Basins. Aside from
fishing, the rivers are extensively used for transporting
people and products.
TABLE 1. Major River Basins in the Philippines.
Source: NWRC, 1976.
Lakes

The Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources


(BFAR) reports that there are 79 lakes in the
country, mostly utilized for fish production. In
fact, 10 are considered major host for
aquaculture production (Table 2). Laguna Lake
is considered as the largest lake with a total area
of 3,813.2 sq km (watershed area and lake
proper). It is also considered as one of the five
largest lakes in Southeast Asia. Lake Lanao, on
the other hand, is the largest lake in Mindanao
and is one of 17 ancient lakes on earth.
TABLE 2. Ten Major Lakes in the Philippines
Source: BFAR, 2004.
Coastal and Marine Waters

Coastal and marine waters cover an area of about


266,000 sq km, including bays and gulfs. The
country’s coastline stretches to about 17,460 km
and coral reefs cover an area of about 27,000 sq
km. Sixty-four of the 79 provinces are in coastal
areas, which is home to millions of people that
depend on aquatic resources for livelihood.
Moreover, coastal fishing activities account for
97 percent of the total fish production (46%
aquaculture and 51% municipal fishing).
Groundwater
• In terms of groundwater, the country has extensive reservoir with an
aggregate area of about 50,000 sq km. It is recharged by rain and seepage
from rivers and lakes. The Mines and Geoscience Bureau (MGB) reported
that favorable groundwater basins are underlaid by about 100,000 sq km of
various rock formations. These are located in:

– Northeast Luzon
– Central Luzon
– Laguna Lake basin
– Cavite-Batangas-Laguna basin
– Southeast Luzon
– Mindoro Island
– Negros Island
– Northeast Leyte
– Ormoc-Ka nanga basin
– Agusan-Davao basin
– Occidental Misamis basin
– Lanao-Bukidnon-Misamis basin
Overview of Water Bodies and Water
Classification

• Limited water supply for all small-scale development is


available in Panay, Cebu, Bohol, Samar, Palawan,
Basilan Islands, Zamboanga Peninsula, and the coastal
groundwater basins.

• The MGB estimates that the country has an annual


water supply of 30 billion cubic meters, which is almost
30 times the annual domestic water supply requirement,
assuming an annual rainfall recharge of 0.3 meter.
However, most groundwater development is within the
upper 100 to 200 meters of various formations. In Metro
Manila, the deeper artesian aquifers are at 200 to 400
meters depth because of salt water intrusion at the upper
portion of the ground formation.
Water Quality Classification

• Water quality criteria are the benchmark against


which monitoring data are compared to assess
the quality of water bodies based on established
classifications.

• As of 2005, the EMB has classified 525 water


bodies in terms of best usage and water quality,
representing 62.5 percent of the inventoried
water bodies in the country (2005). Of these
water bodies, 263 are principal rivers, 213 are
minor rivers, 7 are lakes, and 42 are coastal and
marine waters (Figure 3).
FIGURE 3. Summary of Classified Water Bodies in
the Philippines.
Water Quality Classification

In view of the multiple uses of water, 133


water bodies have distinct classification in
their upstream, midstream, or downstream
sections. For instance, Marikina River in
NCR is Class A in its upstream and Class
C in its downstream. In addition, Lipadas
River in Region 11 has four classifications:
Class AA in its upstream, Class A and B in
its midstream, and Class C in its
downstream.
Water Quality Classification

• Table 3 presents the breakdown of the classified water


bodies in the country. Of the classified inland surface
water bodies, five are Class AA. These are the
upstreams of Lipadas River in Davao City (Region 11),
Baganga-Mahan-Ub River in Davao Oriental (Region
11), Ginabasan River in Cebu (Region 7), Nagan River
in Apayao (CAR), and Lake Ambulalakaw in Benguet
(CAR).
• Two hundred three are classified as Class A, 149 are
Class B, 231 are Class C, and 23 are Class D.
• For the classified coastal and marine water bodies, 4 are
Class SA, 20 are Class SB, 27 are Class SC, and 3 are
Class SD.
Water Quality Classification

• Surprisingly, there are several important coastal and


marine waters that are still unclassified. These include:
Manila Bay in NCR; Nasugbu Bay, Tayabas Bay, and
Balayan Bay in Region 4A; Albay Gulf in Region 5;
Panay Gulf in Region 6; Leyte Gulf and Cancacao Bay in
Region 8; Macajalar Bay in Region 10; and Malalag Bay
in Region 11.
• Overall, Region 3 has the most number of classified
water bodies with 53 followed by Region 5 with 50. The
NCR and ARMM have the least classified water bodies
with five and one respectively. Figure 4 presents the
regional distribution classified water bodies.
Table 3. Breakdown of the Classified Water
Bodies in the Country.
Fig. 4. Distribution of Classified Water
bodies per Region
The Water Cycle
WHAT IS WASTEWATER,

AND WHY TREAT IT?


What is wastewater?
We consider wastewater treatment as a water
use because it is so interconnected with the
other uses of water. Much of the water used by
homes, industries, and businesses must be
treated before it is released back to the
environment.
What is wastewater?

If the term "wastewater treatment" is confusing


to you, you might think of it as "sewage
treatment." Nature has an amazing ability to
cope with small amounts of water wastes and
pollution, but it would be overwhelmed if we
didn't treat the billions of gallons of wastewater
and sewage produced every day before
releasing it back to the environment. Treatment
plants reduce pollutants in wastewater to a level
nature can handle.
What is wastewater?

• Wastewater is used water. It includes


substances such as human waste, food scraps,
oils, soaps and chemicals. In homes, this
includes water from sinks, showers, bathtubs,
toilets, washing machines and dishwashers.
Businesses and industries also contribute their
share of used water that must be cleaned.
• Wastewater also includes storm runoff. Although
some people assume that the rain that runs
down the street during a storm is fairly clean, it
isn't. Harmful substances that wash off roads,
parking lots, and rooftops can harm our rivers
and lakes.
Why Treat Wastewater?

It's a matter of caring for our


environment and for our own health.
There are a lot of good reasons why
keeping our water clean is an important
priority:
Why Treat Wastewater?

• Fisheries
Clean water is critical to plants and animals that
live in water. This is important to the fishing
industry, sport fishing enthusiasts, and future
generations.
• Wildlife Habitats
Our rivers and ocean waters teem with life that
depends on shoreline, beaches and marshes.
They are critical habitats for hundreds of species
of fish and other aquatic life. Migratory water
birds use the areas for resting and feeding.
Why Treat Wastewater?

• Recreation and Quality of Life


Water is a great playground for us all. The
scenic and recreational values of our waters are
reasons many people choose to live where they
do. Visitors are drawn to water activities such as
swimming, fishing, boating and picnicking.
• Health Concerns
If it is not properly cleaned, water can carry
disease. Since we live, work and play so close to
water, harmful bacteria have to be removed to
make water safe.
Why Treat Wastewater?

• The major aim of wastewater treatment is to


remove as much of the suspended solids as
possible before the remaining water, called
effluent, is discharged back to the environment.
As solid material decays, it uses up oxygen,
which is needed by the plants and animals living
in the water. "Primary treatment" removes about
60 percent of suspended solids from
wastewater. This treatment also involves
aerating (stirring up) the wastewater, to put
oxygen back in. Secondary treatment removes
more than 90 percent of suspended solids.
COMMON WATER QUALITY
PARAMETERS AND THEIR
SIGNIFICANCE
COMMON WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS
AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE
COLOR – primarily aesthetic significance
and results from contact of water with
organic debris, such as leaves,
needles and conifers, and wood, all in
various stages of decomposition.

• Apparent color – caused by


suspended matter
• True color – due to vegetable or
organic extracts that are colloidal
COMMON WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS
AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE
TEMPERATURE – measurement of the relative
hotness or coldness of the wastewater as well
as the receiving body of water

• Temperature changes in water have extreme


biological effects on the life cycles of fish and
seaweed, as well as on that of the minute
organisms that cleanse the water of organic
pollutants. In general, as the temperature of
water increases, the amount of oxygen
dissolved in the water increases and there is a
tendency for the amount of pollutants to
increase.
COMMON WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS
AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE

pH – a measurement of the hydrogen in


concentration reflecting alkalinity or
acidity of the water.
• Enzymatic reactions are dependent
on the hydrogen ion concentration.
Very few organisms survive at pH
below 3.0 and above 11.0
COMMON WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS
AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE

TURBIDITY – applied to waters


containing suspended matter, which
range in size from colloidal to coarse
dispersions, that interferes with the
passage of light through the water or
in which visual depth is restricted.
COMMON WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS
AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE

CONDUCTIVITY – measure of the ability


of an aqueous solution to carry an
electric current.

• Electrolytes – (sodium chloride,


hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide)
COMMON WATER QUALITY ARAMETERS AND
THEIR SIGNIFICANCE
DISSOLVED OXYGEN (DO) – oxygen dissolved in
water which is used by aquatic organisms for
respiration

• The DO in the water body is important in


sustaining various aerobic organisms in the water.
Depletion of the DO results in the death of aerobic
organisms and dominance of anaerobic forms
occur. Anaerobic bacteria generates hydrogen
sulfide and methane which give the odor of a
rotten egg and causes black discoloration of the
water body. The gases generated during
anaerobic decomposition also help in the formation
of scum of floating matter on the water surface,
further insuring anaerobic conditions.
COMMON WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS
AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE

BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (BOD) -


amount of oxygen utilized when the
organic matter in a given volume of
water is degraded biologically by
bacteria.
Dissolved oxygen depletion
COMMON WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS
AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE

CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (COD) – amount of


oxygen consumed by the wastewater from a
strong oxidizing agent such as potassium
dichromate.
• The COD test considers some waste
components which are not degradable but are
attacked by potassium dichromate.
• The COD levels tend to be higher than the
BOD levels since COD includes substances
which are oxidized by potassium dichromate
although it does not undergo aerobic
decomposition in the water body.
COMMON WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS
AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE

SUSPENDED SOLIDS – like odor,


suspended solids, the primary cause
of turbidity, affect the aesthetic
acceptability of the water source for
domestic use although in rare
instances, suspended solids result
from decaying organic matter or
inorganic mineral pollution.
COMMON WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS
AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE

DISSOLVED SOLIDS – this parameter is


primarily a measurement of the
inorganic salts in the water. The
principal ions contributing to the total
dissolved solids (TDS) are bicarbonate,
chloride, sulfate, nitrate, sodium,
potassium, calcium and magnesium.
TDS influence other qualities of
drinking water such as taste, hardness
COMMON WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS
AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE

SURFACTANTS – are primarily surface


cleansing agents found in detergents.
The main effects of surfactants in
water are the inhibition of oxygen
transfer in surface waters and frothing
in wastewater treatment plants and in
the receiving body of water at
concentration of 0.3 mg/L or higher
COMMON WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS
AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE

OIL/GREASE – forms a thin layer on top


of the water surface which effectively
interferes with the oxygen transfer
mechanism between air and water
body. Grease and oil also dries up
and forms unsightly deposits on
beaches, ports and harbors. Grease
and oil of mineral organ are relatively
resistant to biodegradation
SIGNIFICANT PARAMETERS FOR
SELECTED TYPES OF INDUSTRIES

Only significant WQ parameters have to


be measured giving sufficient data to
provide decision makers enough
information for AA.
SIGNIFICANT PARAMETERS FOR SELECTED TYPES OF

INDUSTRIES

TYPE OF INDUSTRY SIGNIFICANT WASTEWATER


PARAMETERS

A. BEVERAGE BOD5, pH, Suspended Solids,


INDUSTRY Settleable Solids, Oil and Grease

B. CEMENT, CONC., pH, Suspended Solids, Dissolved


LIME & GYPSUM Solids, Temperature

C. DAIRY PRODUCT BOD5, COD, pH, Suspended


PROCESSING Solids, Dissolved Solids Settleable
Solids
SIGNIFICANT PARAMETERS FOR SELECTED TYPES OF

INDUSTRIES

TYPE OF INDUSTRY SIGNIFICANT WASTEWATER


PARAMETERS
D. FERRO ALLOY Suspended Solids, Chromium
MFG. (electric (hexavalent) Oil and Grease,
furnace with wet air Phenols, Phosphates
pollution control)
E. FERTILIZER Chloride, Chromium, Dissolved
INDUSTRY Solids, Nitrate, Suspended Solids
Nitrogen Fertilizer pH, Phosphorus, Suspended
Industry Phosphate Solids, Temperature, Cadmium,
Fertilizer Industry Arsenic
F. GRAIN MILLING BOD5, Suspended Solids,
INDUSTRY Temperature
SIGNIFICANT PARAMETERS FOR SELECTED TYPES OF

INDUSTRIES

TYPE OF INDUSTRY SIGNIFICANT WASTEWATER


PARAMETERS
G.INORGANIC CHE- pH, Total Suspended Solids, Total
MICALS, ALKALIES Dissolved Solids, Chlorides,
AND CHLORINE Sulfates, COD,
H. LEATHER TAN – BOD5, COD, Chromium, Oil and
NING & FINISHING Grease, pH, Suspended Solids,
INDUSTRY Color, Dissolved Solids
I. LIVESTOCK BOD5, COD, Total Suspended
INDUSTRY Solids, pH, Color, Total Coliforms
SIGNIFICANT PARAMETERS FOR SELECTED TYPES OF

INDUSTRIES

TYPE OF INDUSTRY SIGNIFICANT WASTEWATER


PARAMETERS
J. MEAT, FISH AND BOD5, COD, Suspended Solids,
FRUIT CANNING pH, Oil & Grease, Dissolved Solids
K. MEAT BOD5, pH, Suspended Solids,
PRODUCTS Settleable Solids, Oil and Grease,
INDUSTRY Total Coliforms, Toxic Materials
L. METAL Oil and Grease, Heavy Metals (Cr,
FINISHING Cd, etc.). Suspended Solids,
INDUSTRY Cyanide
SIGNIFICANT PARAMETERS FOR SELECTED TYPES OF

INDUSTRIES

TYPE OF INDUSTRY SIGNIFICANT WASTEWATER


PARAMETERS

M. MINERAL ORE Suspended Solids, Heavy Metals


PROCESSING (Hg, Cn, Cd, etc.), Arsenic
(Mining Industry)
N. ORGANIC BOD5, COD, pH, Total Suspended
CHEMICALS Solids, Total Dissolved Solids, Oil
INDUSTRY (Free-Floating)

O. PETROLEUM BOD5, Heavy Metals, COD, Oil


REFINING (Total) pH, Phenols, Suspended
INDUSTRY Solids, Temperature, Total
Dissolved Solids
SIGNIFICANT PARAMETERS FOR SELECTED TYPES OF

INDUSTRIES

TYPE OF INDUSTRY SIGNIFICANT WASTEWATER


PARAMETERS
P. PLASTIC BOD5, COD, pH, Total
MATERIALS Suspended Solids, Oil and
& SYNTHETIC Grease, Phenols
INDUSTRY
Q. PULP & PAPER BOD5, COD, pH, Total
INDUSTRY Suspended Solid, E. Coli, Color,
Heavy Metals, Dissolved Solids,
Oil & Grease, Phenols
R. STEEL INDUSTRY Oil and Grease, pH, Cyanide,
Phenol, Suspended Solids,
Temperature, Chromium
SIGNIFICANT PARAMETERS FOR SELECTED TYPES OF

INDUSTRIES

TYPE OF INDUSTRY SIGNIFICANT WASTEWATER


PARAMETERS
S. SUGAR CANE BOD5, pH, Suspended Solids, Oil
PROCESSING and grease
INDUSTRY
T. TEXTILE MILL BOD5, COD, pH, Suspended
INDUSTRY Solids, Chromium, Phenols, Color,
Oil and Grease
U. THERMAL BOD5, Color, Chromium, Oil and
POWER Grease, pH, Phosphate,
GENERATION Suspended Solids, Temperature
ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS

RELATED TO WATER AND

WATER POLLUTION
What is Pollution?
• Pollution – means any alteration of the
physical, chemical and biological properties
of any water, air and/or land resources of
the Philippines, or any discharge thereto of
any liquid, gaseous or solid wastes as
will/or is likely to create or to render such
water, air and land resources harmful
detrimental or injurious to public health,
safety or welfare or which will adversely
affect their utilization for domestic,
commercial, industrial, agricultural,
recreational or other legitimate purposes
What is Pollutant?
Pollutant- shall refer to any substance, whether
solid, liquid, gaseous or radioactive, which
directly or indirectly:
(i) alters the quality of any segment of the receiving
water body to affect or tend to affect adversely any
beneficial use thereof;
(ii) is hazardous or potential hazardous to health;
(iii) imparts objectionable odor, temperature change, or
physical, chemical or biological change to any
segment of the water body; or
(iv) is in excess of the allowable limits, concentrations,
or quality standards specified, or in
contravention of the condition, limitation or
restriction prescribed in this Act.
SOURCES OF POLLUTION

• Non-point source - means any source of


pollution not identifiable as point source to
include, but not be limited to, runoff from
irrigation or rainwater, which picks up
pollutants from farms and urban areas.
• Point source - means any identifiable
source of pollution with specific point of
discharge into a particular water body.
Republic Act 9275 (March 22, 2004)

Philippine Clean Water Act of 2004

DENR Administrative Order No. 2005-10


(May 16, 2005)

Implementing Rules and regulations of


the Philippine Clean Water act of 2004
Presidential Decree No. 296

Direct all persons, natural or juridical, to


renounce possession and move out of
portions of rivers, creeks, esteros,
drainage channels and other similar
waterways encroached upon by them and
prescribing penalty for violation hereof.
Presidential Decree NO. 1067
Water Code of the Philippines
A decree instituting a water code, thereby
revising and consolidating the laws
governing the ownership, appropriation,
utilization, exploitation, development,
conservation and protection of water
resources
Presidential Decree NO. 1067

Chapter 1, Article 3. The underlying principles


of this Code are:

– All waters belong to the State.

– All waters that belong to the State can not


be the subject of acquisitive prescription.

– The State may allow the use or development


of waters by administrative concession
Presidential Decree NO. 1067
• The utilization, exploitation, development,
conservation and protection of water resources
shall be subject to the control and regulation of
the government through the National Water
Resources Council.
• Preference in the use and development of
waters shall consider current usages and be
responsive to the changing needs of the
country.
• Chapter1, Article 4. Waters, as used in this
Code, refers to water under the ground, water
in the atmosphere and the waters of the sea
within the territorial jurisdiction of the
Philippines.
Presidential Decree NO. 1067
• Chapter III, Article 10.
• BENEFICIAL USES OF WATER:
– Domestic
– Municipal
– Irrigation
– Power generation
– Fisheries
– Livestock raising
– Industrial
– Recreational, and
– Other purposes
• DAO 34 Series of 1990
Revised water usage and classification water
quality criteria. Amending section nos. 68
and 69, Chapter III of the 1978 NECC Rules
and Regulations

• DAO 97-23
Updating DAO 34, Series of 1990
Section 68. Water Usage and Classification: (a)
Fresh Surface Waters (rivers, lakes, reservoirs,
etc.)
CLASSIFICA-
BENEFICIAL USE
TION
Class AA Public Water Supply Class I.
Class A Public Water Supply Class II.
Class B Recreational Water Class I.
Fishery Water, Recreational Water
Class C Class II, and Industrial Water
Supply Class I.
For agriculture, irrigation,
livestock, watering, etc.; Industrial
Class D
Water Supply Class II; and other
inland waters.
(b) Coastal and Marine Waters
CLASSIFICA-
BENEFICIAL USE
TION
Water suitable for shellfish, national
Class SA marine parks and marine reserves,
and coral reefs parks and reserves.
Tourist zones and marine reserves,
Class SB Recreational Water Class I, and Fishery
Water Class I.
Recreational Water Class II, Fishery
Class SC Water Class II and Marshy and/or
mangrove areas.
Industrial and Water Supply Class II
Class SD
and other coastal and marine waters.
Water Quality Criteria for Conventional and Other
Pollutants Contributing to Aesthetics and Oxygen
Demand for Fresh Waters
Parameter Unit Class AA Class
A
Total mg/L 25 50
Suspended
Solids
Total Dissolved mg/L 500 1000
Solids
5-Day 20°C mg/L 1 5
BOD
Water Quality Criteria for Toxic and Other
Deleterious Substances for Fresh Waters (For the
Protection of Public Health)
Parameter Unit Class AA Class
A
Cyanide mg/L 0.05 0.05

Lead mg/L 0.05 0.05

Total Mercury mg/L 0.002 0.002


DENR ADMINISTRATIVE ORDER
No. 35
Series of 1990
• REVISED EFFLUENT REGULATIONS
OF 1990, REVISING AND AMENDING
THE EFFLUENT REGULATIONS OF
1982
• “Effluent" is a general term denoting
any wastewater, partially or completely
treated, or in its natural state, flowing out
of a manufacturing plant, industrial plant
or treatment plant.
Effluent Standards: Toxic and Other Deleterious
Substance
(Maximum Limits for the Protection of Public Health)

Parameter Unit Inland Waters


Class C

OEI NPI
Cyanide mg/L 0.3 0.2

Mercury mg/L 0.005 0.005


DAO 2005-10: The CLEAN
WATER ACT & ITS IRR

OUTLINE
• Clean Water Act of 2004 – Salient Features
• Implementing Rules and Regulations –
Major Aspects of WQMA & WWCS
Clean
Water
Act of
2004 -
RA 9275

(NWRC, 1976)
PERSPECTIVE
• The CWA is not perfect, but it is the law
• The IRR provides implementation
directions/ “mother” rules & regulations
• The IRR lays down policy directions &
decisions of DENR on concerns & issues
(where the CWA grants agency discretion)
• DENR will provide framework for
coordination with other government
agencies
• Room to grow: other concerns may be
addressed in future issuances
• DENR has the final say, after careful
consideration of inputs from various
stakeholders.
DIFFERING FEATURES
• Policy statements (sec 2)
– Integrated approach to water quality
management and improvement
• Major regulatory shifts
– Increased role of LGUs (sec 20)
– Market-based instruments; net waste
load (sec 13)
• Room to grow
– Non-point sources (sec 19)
– Effluent trading (sec 14)
– Programmatic EIA (sec 17)
COVERAGE
All water bodies (natural and man-
made) bodies of fresh, brackish, and
saline waters, and includes but not
limited to aquifers, groundwater,
springs, creeks, streams, rivers,
ponds, lagoons, water reservoirs,
lakes, bays, estuarine, coastal and
marine waters
Primarily applies to abatement and
control of pollution from land-
based sources
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Integrated Water Quality  Joint Oversight Congressional


Improvement. Framework Committee
 Natl. Septage/ Sewerage Mgt.
 Classification/ Reclassification
 Groundwater Vulnerability
Water Quality WQMAP WQMAP Mapping
Mgt. Action  WQ Guidelines/ Criteria
Plan  Effluent Standards
(WQMAP)  Categorization of Industry
 Wastewater Charge System
 Discharge Permits
 Financial Liability
LGU LGU CP LGU CP  Programmatic EIA
Compliance  Incentives
Plan (CP)  Prohibitions/Sanctions/Actions
Water Quality Management
Area (WQMA)
LGUs w/ common interest or
development programs, projects, or
problems
Governed by Governing Board
(composed of LGUs, NGAs, civil
society, water/utility & business sector)
w/ Technical Secretariat
Laguna Lake under LLDA as one WQMA
Composed of LGUs w/ similar
geographic, meteorological, conditions,
etc.; OR
Water Quality Management
Area (WQMA)
GB – Formulate strategies to coordinate
policies for implementing CWA.
GB – Monitor the action
Each WQMA will have its own multi-
sectoral group to establish and conduct
WQ surveillance & monitoring network.
The group shall report to GB.
Technical support by Secretariat,
composed of experienced 1 lawyer; 1
Geol/Biol; 1 C.E./Hydrologist; and 1
Chem /Chem. Engr. /San.Engr.
National Sewerage & Septage
Management Program
A priority listing of sewerage, septage and
combined systems/project for LGUs based
on relevant considerations for the
protection of water quality
LGUs may enter into BOT or joint venture
agreement w/ private sector for
constructing, rehabilitating and/or
operation of such facilities
Each LGU shall appropriate land, including
right-of-way/ road access fro construction
of sewage and septage treatment facilities.
Domestic Sewage Collection,
Treatment & Disposal

W/in 5 years
Subdivisions, condominiums, malls, hotels, public
buildings, etc. in highly urbanized cities (HUCs)
shall connect their sewage lines to available
systems or utilize their own sewerage system
For non-HUCs, septage or combined sewerage-
septage management systems to be employed
Said connection subject to service charges/fees
DOH to prepare appropriate guidelines
National Water Quality
Management Fund
 Established as a Special Account in the National
Treasury ( To be Administered by DENR)
 Sourced from fixed permit fees under the CWA
Wastewater Charge system; PAB fines; donations,
endowments, grants .
 To be used for:
- Containment and clean-up operations
- Guarantee rehab of affected areas
- Support research, enforcement and monitoring activities
- Technical assistance
- Rewards and incentives
- Support IEC & Others
Area Water Quality
Management Fund
- Maintenance & upkeep of water bodies under
WQ mgmt area.
- Grant of rewards & incentives for those whose
discharges are better than WQ criteria;
- Loans for facility acquisition & repair to improve
discharge WQ;
- Regular maintenance of water body within WQ
Management Area;
- 10% of funds accruing annually shall be
allocated for MOE of GB; Secretariat and multi-
sectoral WQ group
Area Water Quality
Management Fund . . . /2

To be sourced from the variable or load-based


fee under the CWA Wastewater Charge system
and donations, endowments and grants for WQ
management in area.
Funds to be managed by the GB in
corresponding area.
Wastewater Charge System
Established on the basis of payment to
government for discharging wastewater
into the water bodies
Based on net waste load (diff. of initial
load of abstracted water to waste load of
discharged effluent),
Complying industries to be charged
minimal reasonable amount
Discharge Permits

Legal authorization to discharge


wastewater, as granted by DENR
Permit specifies ff, among others:
the allowed effluent quantity and
quality; compliance schedule;
monitoring equipment
Programmatic EIA & Financial
Liability for Environmental
Rehabilitation
Programmatic compliance to the EIA
system for a series of similar or
cluster projects
May require EGF as part of
Environmental Management Plan
pursuant to PD 1586 – EIA in the
issuance of the Environmental
Compliance Certificate (ECC)
Clean Up Operations

Any person who pollutes in excess of


applicable and prevailing standards shall
be responsible to contain, remove, and
clean-up any pollution incident at his own
expense
The DENR in collaboration with other
agencies shall do the same in case of
emergency(ies). Expenses incurred shall
be reimbursed by guilty persons or
parties.
Role of LGUs
Be responsible for WQ within their
jurisdictions; As such, LGUS shall prepare
a compliance scheme subject to review &
approval of the GB;
Through their ENROs, LGUs shall
- Monitor WQ
- Emergency response
- Compliance within framework of the
WQMA Action Plan
- Actively participate in all WQM activities
- Coordinate with All sectors to implement
WQM
Rewards & Incentives
Rewards - For individuals, private
organizations, civil society with
outstanding and innovative WQM
projects, activities, processes
Incentives – For LGUS, water districts,
enterprises, or private entities and
individuals that develop effective WQM or
actively participate in WQM
- Non-fiscal: Inclusion in Investment Priority
Plan (IPP);
Rewards & Incentives . . . /2

- Fiscal: I)Tax & duty exemption on


imported capital equipment; ii)Tax
credit on domestic capital
equipment; iii)Tax and duty
exemptions of donations, legacies
and gifts
- Financial Assistance Program
- Extension of grants to LGUs for
developing technical capabilities re:
sewerage facilities
Fines, Damages
and Penalties
- Fines of 10,000 – 200,000 PhP for
every day of violation; upon PAB
recommendation (rates to be
increased 10% every 2 years);
- Closure, suspension of development
or construction or cessation of
operations, upon PAB
recommendation;
- 2 to 4 yr imprisonment for failure to
clean up & 50,000 – 100,000 for
every day of violation;
Fines, Damages
and Penalties . . . /2

- 6 to 12 yrs imprisonment & 500,000


PhP for every day of violation for
such refusal resulting in serious
injury or death and/or irreversible
contamination;
- 6 to 10 yrs imprisonment, plus
500,000 – 3M PhP for each day of
violation, plus criminal charges
Admin. Sanctions for Non-
compliance to WQMA Action
Plan
- For local government officials that fail to
comply with the WQMA Action plan: 6 to
12 yrs imprisonment & 500,000 PhP for
every day of violation for such refusal
resulting in serious injury or death and/or
irreversible contamination;
- 6 to 10 yrs imprisonment, plus 500,000 –
3M PhP for each day of violation, plus
criminal charges
Oversight
- Joint Congressional Oversight
Committee to monitor implementation
and review the implementing rules
and regulations (IRR)
- Composed of 5 Senators and 5
Representatives, as appointed by
Senate President and House Speaker,
respectively
- Co-chaired by Chairpersons of Senate
Comm. on Environment and the
House Comm. on Ecology
Implement
ing Rules
and
Regulation
s (IRR) of
RA 9275

(NWRC,1976)
WATER QUALITY MANAGMENT
AREA (WQMA)

• Criteria for establishment


• Procedure for establishment
• Governing Board and Secretariat
• Powers and functions
– LGU implementation of action plan
– Management of the Area Fund (sourced
from discharge fees)
18 Water
Resources
Regions /
421 Principal
and Major
Rivers (NWRC, 1976)
WASTEWATER CHARGE
SYSTEM

Established on the basis of


payment to government for
discharging wastewater into the
water bodies
Attributes
• Strong economic inducement
• Cost of administering water quality
management or improvement
programs
• Damages caused by water pollution
on the surrounding environment
• Type of pollutant
• Water body classification
Wastewater Charge System
• Expansion of Coverage
• Wastewater Recycled with Zero Discharge
• Wastewater Charges in ECOZONE
• Sewerage Treatment Plant
• Fees Collected from LLDA Area
Wastewater Charge
• Wastewater charge = fixed permit fee +
variable discharge fee
• Fixed permit fee (As tabulated, based on
discharge volume), validity of up to 5 yrs
maximum, accrues to NWQMF
• Variable discharge fee based on net waste
load (for now, only TSS or BOD); paid
annually in advance, accrues to AWQMF
• Actual pollution load may vary (based on
SMR); if proved, may serve as basis for
adjustment of fee for the following year.
PERMIT FEE
• Specifies Volumetric Annual Annual Fee
Rate of Fee (PhP) (PhP)
quantity and Discharge
quality of W/O W/ Metals
effluent Metals
(should not < 10 2,000 2,600

exceed >10 – 30 2,200 2,800


standards)
>30 - 100 2,500 3,100
• Source of
NWQMF >100 - 150 2,700 3,300

>150 3,300 3,900


DISCHARGE FEE
• Formula
WDF = Ln x R

Where:R is the rate per kilogram (PhP/kg)


which is initially fixed at P5.00 per
kilogram for priority pollutant
parameter(e.g.BOD or TSS )
Ln refers to the net waste load (kg/year),
computed further as follows:

Ln (BOD5/TSS)= [( Cf – Ca ) (Qf x Nf )] x 0.001


Where: Cf is the average daily effluent
concentration limit (mg/l) for priority pollutant
parameter (BOD or TSS); Qf is the average daily
volumetric flow rate measurement or final
discharge effluent (m3/day) and Nf is the total
number of discharge days in a year (days/ year).
Ca is the average water quality concentration
limit for priority pollutant parameter (BOD or
TSS) of abstracted or intake water (mg/l).
Ex. Discharge Fee (BOD)
Type Intake Flow Discharge Net waste LBF
conc. Rate days (d/yr) Load (kg/yr) (PhP/yr)
(mg/L) (m3/d)
1 5 10 365 146.00 730.00

2 5 30 365 438.00 2,190.00

3 5 100 365 1,460.00 7,300.00

4 5 200 365 2,920.00 14,600.00

5 5 1,500 365 21,900.00 109,500.00


R13.2 Discharge Fee on Effluents
for agricultural purposes

• Fees for discharge of effluents for


agricultural purposes shall be
assessed fixed fee, provided that the
wastewater shall not drain into water
bodies
• Provided further that the conditions under
Rule 14.6 are met.
• Once the Standards for land discharge have
been developed ,the wastewater discharge
fee shall be applied .
• Discharge on land other than for agricultural
purposes shall be outright charged a
wastewater discharge fee based on the
above formula. Applicable conditions under
rule 14.6 shall apply
R13.3 Wastewater Reuse for
Irrigation and other agricultural
purposes
• The DA ,through its implementing agencies and
bureaus shall provide guidelines for the safe re-
use of waste water for irrigation and other
agricultural purposes.
• Such guidelines shall form the basis for the
department to set standards for disposal on land
and computation of waste water discharge fee.
R13.4 Schedule of
Implementation
• Unless otherwise stated herein, the
wastewater charge system shall be
implemented immediately in all areas
upon the effectivity of this IRR.
R13.5 Discharge Fee Surcharge
• New sources of pollution subject to
the non-attainment provisions will be
assessed a 20% surcharge on the annual
discharge fee for the pollutant for which
the area is designated non-attainment
R13.6 Expansion of Coverage
• Expansion of coverage of the charge
system to cover other pollutants after due
consultations with the affected sectors
• Criteria pollutants that have exceeded
guideline values in non-attainment areas
R13.7 Wastewater Recycled
with Zero Discharge
• Industries that recycle their wastewater
without discharge into any water body or
land shall pay only the permit fee
R13.8 Wastewater Charges in
Ecozones
• WW discharge fee shall be paid by the
operator of the WWTP located within the
ECOZONES. Provided, that industries
within ECOZONES that are not connected
to the WTP shall be liable for the
wastewater charges individually
R14.1 Who May Apply for a
Wastewater Discharge Permit

• Any person that shall discharge, in any


manner, wastewater into Philippine waters
and/or land shall secure a wastewater
discharge permit from the Regional Office of
the Bureau.
• Industries w/o permit, have 12 months after
IRR effectivity to secure permit
R14.2 Requirements for First
Time Application
Engineer’s Report prepared by a registered
chemical engineer, sanitary engineer or
pollution control officer containing the ff:
• a) Vicinity map identifying the street
address , location or plant premises
• b) Nature of project or business
• c) Production capacity,quantity or volume
of and the generic name (s) of products
• d) Nature & character of the applicant’s
waste water and its physical and chemical
composition;
• e) Total daily volume of discharge of raw
waste water;
• f) Treatment process and its treatment
efficiency;
• g) Total daily volume of of water
consumption and discharge of final treated
waste water or effluent;
• h) Name of receiving body of water and its
official water classification and in case of
land discharge, the nearest receiving body
of water and its official water classification;
• i) Information on flow measurement
equipment and procedure;
• j) Pollution prevention/Environmental
Management System;
• k) DENR ID Number as hazardous wastes
generator
• l) Statement of the cost incurred in the
installations and maintenance of waste
water treatment facility, if any,
• m) Quality and quantity of abstracted
water
• n) Copy of the Environmental Compliance
Certificate(ECC) from the Department or
Certificate of Non-Coverage (CNC) as
applicable
R14.3 Renewal Of Discharge
Permit
• Existing Permittees shall submit the ff: in
the application for renewal of discharge
permit:
• a) copies of the quarterly SMR for the
immediately preceding year;
• b) A copy of the the Certificate of
Accreditation of the PCO duly issued by
the DENR or appointment/designations as
such by the Managing Head;
• c) Official Receipt for the payment of the
applicable Permit Fee and the Wastewater
Discharge Fee
• d) Other Documents that may be required
related to Land Application.
R14.4 Processing of the
Application for a Waste Water
Discharge Permit
• The RO shall act on the application
for a waste water Discharge Permit
within thirty (30) working days from
receipt of all the requirements.
Requirements for the Approval and
Issuance of a Wastewater Discharge
Permit for Discharge of Effluents for
Agricultural Purposes

• a) Certified true copy of land ownership or


notarized copy of agreement between the
owner of the land where the effluent is to
be applied and the discharger /permitee
• b) The wastewater that shall be used for
land application shall not contain toxic or
hazardous substances (as defined in RA
6969)
• c) No waste water applied for agricultural
purposes shall directly or indirectly seep or
drain into groundwater or nearby surface
waters which will affect the quality of such
ground and /or surface water

• d) A Certification from the Department of


Agriculture stating that the” quantity,
quality and distribution methodology of
application are suited for agriculture
purposes” shall be submitted
• e) Land Application shall be used only
during periods of low surface water flow
to enhance loading limits compliance.

• f) Submission of an emergency plan-


which shall respond to emergencies that
can prevent or minimize damage to
equipment, land, groundwater, etc. and/or
public health.
• h) The plan shall highlight the design
consideration, system
operation,treatment/monitoring of
soil,crops, effluent and groundwater
before and after irrigation.Such
requirements shall be in addition to
section 14.2
14.9 Effectivity of the Discharge
Permit

The Discharge Permit shall be valid for a


maximum period of five (5) years from the date
of its issuance, renewable for 5-years period.
The Department may, however, renew the
discharge permit valid for a longer period if the
applicant has adopted waste minimization and
waste treatment technologies, consistent with
incentives currently provided has been paying
the permit fees on time.
Discharge Permit
• Posting of Permit
• Transfer of Permits
• Plant Operational Problems
• Self-Monitoring Reports
• Procurement of Effluent Quota Allocation
• Pollution sources connected to sewerage
systems
• Effluent Trading
14.10 Geographically Targeted
Permitting

The Regional offices of the Bureau shall adopt a


system of scheduling the expiration and
renewal of permits on designated months of
the year for identified clusters of LGUs in order
to efficiently process applications. During the
transition phase, the permit fee assessed shall
be pro-rated to the period of effectivity of the
permit.
14.11 Ground for Suspension or
Revocation of Permits
The Bureau may suspend or revoke any
existing and valid permit on any of the
following grounds:
a. Non-compliance with or gross violation of
any provision of the Act, these rules and
regulations and/or permit conditions;
b. Deliberate or negligent submission of false
information in the application for permit
that lead to the issuance of the permit.
c. Deliberate or negligent submission of false
monitoring data or report required in the
discharge permit;
d. Refusal to allow lawful inspection
conducted by the Department thru the
Bureau of duly authorized personnel;
e. Non-payment of appropriate wastewater
discharge fees within a 30-day cure period
from the date such payment is due;
f. Other grounds provide by law.
14.15 Plant Operational Problems

14.15.1 PCO shall immediately notify the EMB


Regional Office of breakdown within 24
hours from occurrence.
While the necessary installation is not
operational, temporarily NO discharge if the
breakdown will result in a discharge of more
than 10% of the prescribed standard,
14.15.2 Within seven (7) working days from
such notification, the permittee shall
submit a detailed report to the Regional
Office, including the steps being taken
to solve the problem and/or to prevent
its recurrence.
14.15.3 Within five (5) working days of the
receipt of the report, the EMB Regional
Office shall review & evaluate the sufficiency
of proposed measures that will be or is
being undertaken.

14.15.4 Upon Completion of the necessary repair


or rehabilitation works, the Regional Office
shall be notified within three (3) working
days. Within seven (7) days of the receipt of
such notification, the regional office
concerned shall determine whether the
facility would be allowed to discharge and
assess the fine, if applicable.
14.18 Pollution Sources Connected
to Sewerage Systems

Pollution sources currently discharging to


existing sewerage systems with operational
wastewater treatment facilities shall be exempt
from the permit requirement. Provided that, in
the absence of, or pending the establishment of
a sewerage system, pollution sources shall be
covered by the permit requirement.
Prohibited Acts

• Depositing material of any kind which


could cause water pollution
• Discharging, injecting or allowing to seep
into the earth any substance that would
pollute groundwater
• Operating facilities that discharge
regulated water pollutants without the
valid required permits
Prohibited Acts . . . /2
• Sea disposal of infectious medical wastes
• Unauthorized sea transport/dumping of sewage
sludge and solid wastes
• Operating Facilities that discharge regulated
water pollutants without the valid required
permits or after the permit was revoked for any
violation of any condition therein
• Discharging regulated water pollutants without
valid permits
• Undertaking activities or development and
expansion of projects or operating
wastewater/sewerage facilities in violation of PD
1586
Prohibited Acts . . . /3

• Refusal to allow entry, inspection and monitoring


• Refusal to allow access by the Department to
relevant reports and records in accordance with
this Act
• Refusal or failure to submit reports whenever
required by the Department
• Refusal or failure to designate pollution control
officers whenever required by the Department
Prohibited Acts . . . /4

• Non-compliance of LGUs with


the WQM Action Plan
• Direct use of booster pumps in
the distribution system or
tampering with the water
supply
Gross Violation
• Deliberate discharge of pollutants per RA 6969
• 5 or more violations of any of the prohibited acts
within 2 years
• Blatant disregard of PAB order

Punishment
• Imprisonment - 6 to 10 years
• Fine P 0.5-3M / day
• Criminal Charges
• “When the well’s dry, we know the
worth of water.” –
“Peace and survival of life on Earth as we know it
are threatened by human activities that lack
commitment to humanitarian values. Destruction
of nature and natural resources results from
ignorance, greed, and lack of respect for the
Earth’s living things . . . It is not difficult to forgive
destruction in the past, which resulted from
ignorance. Today however, we have access to
more information, and it is essential that we re-
examine ethically what we have inherited, what we
are responsible for, and what we will pass on to
coming generations . . . Clearly this is pivotal
generation . . . Our marvels of science and
technology are matched if not overweighed by
many current tragedies, including human starvation
in some parts of the world, and extinction of other
life forms . . . We have the capability and
responsibility. We must act before it is too late.” –
Tenzin Gyatso the fourteenth Dalai Lama
“Everyone should take responsibility for
his/her impacts on nature. People should
conserve ecological processes and the
diversity of nature, and use any resource
frugally and efficiently, ensuring that their
uses of renewable resources are
sustainable.”

“Individually, each of us can do a little.


Together, we can save the world.” –
Dennis Hayes, Founder Earth Day.
DAKDAKE AY IYAMAN SIN
ORAS YO AY NANDINGE!

GOD BLESS US ALL!!!

ALEX C. LUIS, PSE, MSCE


ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT BUREAU
CORDILLERA ADMINISTARTIVE REGION