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THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 1

LITERATE PARENTS’ EARLY INTERVENTION ACTIVIES FOR


CHILDREN WITH AUTISM

A Research Paper

Presented to

Mr. Leonardo O. Munalim


Language and Literature Professor
Philippine Women’s University-Manila

In Partial Fulfillment of the


Requirements for Subject Offering in
English Plus B (Advanced LRSW with Research)
First Trimester, SY. 2017-2018

By
Dones, Andrea Paula A. BEED
Macasling, Chonaphine Jethlie BSSW
Salcedo, Jessa Mae D. BEED-SPED

October 2017
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are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 2

Dedication

I dedicate this to my parents who supported my dreams and

decisions in life, I wouldn’t be theperson I am today if it wasn’t

for all the support and love you’ve beengiving me since day one.

Also to those parents whose still battling and embracing for their

child uniqueness, may they find joy, peace, love and comfort as

they lived with their child. Lastly to my friends, collegues and

classmates, thank you for all the encouragements you gave me.

-Jessa Mae D. Salcedo

I dedicate this thesis for those parents who have a child with

autism. To help them and to know what is the basic learnings to

teach for their child and to develop their learnings which they

can live a normal life like what other childrens can do. I wanted

-------------------------------------Disclaimer: This paper follows the THESIS format, not the IMRaD one as these students
are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 3

to dedicated this thesis to those parents who suffer and to fight

for their child.

-Chonaphine Jethlie Macasling

I would like to dedicate this research to my beloved parents and

to my two brothers, who always supported my dreams and

decisions in life. Also to my future students that I will share my

passion and knowledge in teaching.

-Andrea Paula A. Dones

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This thesis becomes a reality with the kind support and help of

many individuals. We would like to extend our sincere thank to all

of them.

Foremost, we would like to thank GOD for letting us to go through

this challenge with his guidance and blessings. Everything that

-------------------------------------Disclaimer: This paper follows the THESIS format, not the IMRaD one as these students
are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 4

happened and will happen is all part of his plan for us to live a

meaningful life.

Also, we would like to express our gratitude to our ever

supportive parents.

To our classmates and friends for sharing their opinions, ideas

and suggestions that strongly helped in the development of our

research.

Lastly, our Professor, Mr. Leonardo Munalim, for helping us every

step of the way, for giving us your criticisms which helped us to

will ourselves to improve our work, for giving your approval which

made us ecstatic and motivated us even further to make you

proud, and lastly, for unselfishly sharing your knowledge with us

that we will surely carry through the years.

-------------------------------------Disclaimer: This paper follows the THESIS format, not the IMRaD one as these students
are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 5

Table of Contents

Title Page i

Dedication ii

Acknowledgement

iii

Table of Contents

iv

CHAPTER 1: THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Background of the Study

1.3 Research Locale 3

1.4 Statement of the Problem

1.5 Hypothesis 4

1.6 Significance 4

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are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 6

1.7 Scope and Limitation

1.8 Definition of Terms

CHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY

10

Research Method

10

Respondents of the Study

10

Data Gathering Procedure

11

Research Instrument 11

Interpretation and Treatment of Data

13

Chapter 4: PRESENTATION OF THE RESULTS, DISCUSSION, AND


15 INTERPRETATION

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are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 7

Chapter 5: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION, AND


22
RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary of Findings 22

Conclusion

23

Recommendations

24

References

Appendix

Resume

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are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 8

CHAPTER 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction

One of the catchphrases that has gained a lot of traction in

the past few years is “early intervention.” As intuitive as the term

may sound, it has given rise to a set of principles and procedures

that can be applied to child development, socio-political

dynamics, management, and of course, health and well-being.

Since good health supersedes everything on the list, it makes

sense that identifying illnesses at their initial stages has grown

by leaps and bounds. “Today’s technology widens the range of

illnesses that can be diagnosed early, with screening tests

available even for those who may think they are healthy,” says

noted critical care specialist Dr. Emily Tan-Aventura. “If

diagnosed early, a critical illness can be prevented from

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are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 9

progressing with proper treatment. All these improve the chances

of recovery.”

Early Intervention refers to doing things as early as

possible to work on child’s autism spectrum disorder (ASD)

characteristics. The intervention for young children with autism

creates the most favorable outcomes. While in the past, doctors

often took a “wait and see” attitude, today most experts suggest

takes action as early as possible to help children with signs of

autism. Early interventions are likely to reduce the needs of

costly services later in life which would financially benefit

society in the future and will allow individuals with autism to

receive individualized treatment programs at a higher level of

intensity to meet their specific needs.

For young children especially, it is important that parents

are involved in every step of the learning process. Their

involvement has a positive impact on their children; however,

there is a need for continued research pertaining to how their

involvement improves and/or influences outcomes of their

-------------------------------------Disclaimer: This paper follows the THESIS format, not the IMRaD one as these students
are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 10

children with autism (Walker, Wilkins, Dallaire, Sandler, & Hoover-

Dempsey, 2005). This study focused on parental involvement and

how this involvement influences their child’s fine and gross motor

skills, academics, social skills, behavior and life skills. Early

intervention, its applications to health go beyond diagnostics,

treatment, and maintenance. Ideally, early intervention should

also include other factors such as lifestyle adjustments, a change

in attitude and perspective, financial planning and the most

important factor in their progress was the cooperation and

support of all the adults involved in the child’s development.

Background of the Study

Early intervention of autism has resulted in the recognition

of an increasing number of infants and toddlers being referred to

early intervention programs (Vismara & Rogers, 2008).There is a

critical need to identify children with autism at a very young age

so that they can access evidence-based interventions that can

significantly improve their outcomes (Ventola et al., 2006). With

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are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 11

this comes an increased emphasis on the importance of early

intervention.

Researchers have agreed that early detection of autism is

essential. Early interventions are likely to reduce the needs of

costly services later in life which would financially benefit

society in the future and will allow individuals with autism to

receive individualized treatment programs at a higher level of

intensity to meet their specific needs.

Parental Involvement

Ongoing parental involvement is an important piece of

treatment planning and intervention for children with autism. It is

crucial even before implementing an intervention. Observational

data from a parent and information on the child’s pattern of

behavior from infancy to childhood provide some of the most

useful data for programming. Other types of involvement include

observation of their child’s early intervention program, attending

classes or workshops on specific strategies, participating in

parent support groups, participation in team meetings and

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are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 12

communication such as communication notebooks, newsletters

or written materials (Smith & Elder, 2010).

Research Locale

The study was conducted in different Elementary School in

Quezon City and also to those parents who was near to us that

known to have a child with autism.

Statement of the Problem

This study aims to describe the experience from home of

every Parent/Guardian in terms of providing their child’s

development in every area of domain. Specifically it will answer

the following questions.

1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of:

1.1 Age

1.2 Gender

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are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 13

1.3 Educational Background

1.4 Status

2. What are the domains of the respondents in terms of:

2.1 Fine and Gross Motor Skills

2.2 Academics

2.3 Social Skills

2.4 Behavior

2.5 Life Skills

Hypotheses

Due to busy schedule or lack of knowledge of early

intervention of every parent/guardian they tend to neglect the

development of their child who has a disability.

Significance of the Study

This study will help the parent/guardian to bridge the gap

between practices and activity in forming the early intervention

for their child with autism by highlighting those practices and

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are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 14

activity that have been shown to result in better outcomes for

young children with autism, their families, and the personnel who

involved in the development of the child.

Scope and Limitations

This investigation was conducted to determine how parents

conduct intervention activities and practices to their children

with autism with the following domains such as; Fine and Gross

Motor skills, Academics, Social Skills, Behavior and Life Skills.

Definition of Terms

In this section, key terms used in special education policy

and practice are defined as they relate to the study, which will

enhance the reader’s understanding and establish a common

frame of the research, the following terms are defined below as

they were used in the study:

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) – A severe behavior

disorder usually characterized by extreme withdrawal and lack of

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are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 15

language and communication skills. Lack of affect, self-

stimulation, self-abuse and aggressive behavior.

Early Intervention (EI) - A support and educational system

for very young children (aged birth to six years) who have been

victims of, or who are at high risk for child abuse and/or neglect

as well as children who have developmental delays or

disabilities.

Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act

(IDEA)- It has four-part (A-D) piece of American legislation that

ensures students with a disability are provided with Free

Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) that is tailored to their

individual needs. IDEA was previously known as the Education for

All Handicapped Children Act (EHA) from 1975 to 1990. In 1990,

the United States Congress reauthorized EHA and changed the

title to IDEA (Public Law No. 94-142). Overall, the goal of IDEA is

to provide children with disabilities the same opportunity for

education as those students who do not have a disability.

Individual Educational Plan (IEP)- it sets out a program

designed to meet the student’s educational needs, describes

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are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 16

what placement is appropriate, and lists the related services to

be provided. It reflects the multi-desciplinary evaluation team’s

decision and arise out of a conference that certain people

attend. Every IEP has three components, each with information

specifically relevant to the individual student’s evaluation

information, curriculum and placement and related services.

CHAPTER 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

History of Autism

Autism, or what originally termed the “early infantile

autism”, was first described by an American child psychiatrist,

Leo Kanner. In 1943, he published a series of descriptions of

eleven children who had a number of peculiar behaviors but who

all showed a marked lack of interest in the people around them.

In the past fifty or so years, a great deal of scientific research

and clinical study has resulted from Kanner’s original

observations. Kanner called the common thread he observed

among these children “early infantile autism” because the

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are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 17

disorder seemed to be present from the earliest part of infancy.

In many ways, the autistic child’s self-absorption and inability to

take the perspective of others seemed similar socially to the

limited way in which infants normally relate to the world during

the early months of infancy when they are aware of nothing but

their own satisfactions and dissatisfactions (Siegel,1996).

History of Early Intervention

Early intervention is the term widely used to refer to the

comprehensive programs for young children who are living in

conditions that include one or more risk factors for possible

future problems in school or life. The overarching goals of early

intervention programs are to provide developmentally

appropriate, stimulating, individualized learning experiences and

comprehensive health services for families and children living in

poverty or with disabilities. (Follari,2007)

The history begins with the American Disabilities Act of

1973 which raised awareness to the special needs population.

With the passage of this legislation, Congress developed a task

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are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
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THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 18

force to study the needs of children with disabilities. It was

reported that before 1975 the special educational needs of

children with disabilities were not being fully met.

Congress established the program of early intervention for

infants and toddlers with disabilities in recognition of “an urgent

and substantial need” to ; enhance the development of

handicapped infants and toddlers and to minimize their potential

for developmental delay, enhance the capacity of families to

meet the special needs of their children with handicaps.

Characteristics of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Behavior. Children on the spectrum may exhibit unusual

behaviour due to the difficulties they have responding to their

environment. Their behaviour is generally an attempt by them to

communicate their feelings or to cope with a situation. Behaviour

problems may occur as the result of their heightened sensitivity

to a sound or something they may have seen or felt. For children

on the spectrum, rigidly sticking to routines and spending their

time in repetitive behaviours are ways for them to reduce

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are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
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THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 19

uncertainty and maintain the predictability of their environment.

It also include stereotypical behavior, self injurious behavior and

aggreesion. Stereotypical behaviors are inappropriate, repetitive

acts that an individual frequently displays. Examples include

rocking back and forth, waving fingers in front of the face and

twirling objects. Some individuals with autism have self-injurous

beahviors, susch as head banging, biting or scratching.

Individuals with severe self injurious beahviors may permanently

injure themselves; and for a rare few, self injurious beahviors are

life threatening. Aggressive behaviors are similar to self injurious

beahaviors, but the behavior is directed towards others. Children

are far less likely to engage in challenging behaviors when they

are involved in preferred and meaningful activities. The principles

of positive behavioral support may help in reducing these

behaviors.

Psychosocial. A lack of social interaction is a hallmark of

Autism (Denkla, 1986; Rutter, 1978) Children with autism have

difficulty establishing and maintaining relationships. They do not

respond to many of the non-verbal forms of communication that

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are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 20

many of us take for granted like like facial expressions, physical

gestures and eye contact. They are often unable to understand

and express their needs just as they are unable to interpret and

understand the needs of others. This impairs their ability to share

interests and activities with other people. For this reason they

may appear distant and aloof. Because they are often delayed in

their speech and struggle to make sense of other non-verbal

forms of communication, they may withdraw into repetitive play

and behaviour and avoid interaction. Their difficulties with social

interaction may manifest in the following ways: limited use and

understanding of non-verbal communication such as eye gaze,

facial expression and gesture difficulties forming and sustaining

friendships lack of seeking to share enjoyment, interests and

activities with other people difficulties with social and emotional

responsiveness. Social interaction can also be enhanced through

family/professional collaboration.

Pyschomotor. As per American Psychiatric Association

(APA), 2000, the current diagnostic criteria for autism reflect

these general categories and include qualitative impairment in

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are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
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THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 21

social interaction, communication, and a restricted repertoire

and repetitive stereotyped pattern of behaviors, interests, or

activities with a total of six symptoms needed to meet full

criteria. They have motor abnormalities manifested in children

with autism, the function of these behaviors, and the underlying

biological mechanisms to explain the occurrence of these

behaviors. Symptoms—including restricted and stereotyped

range of activities and interests—have typically been

conceptualized as behaviors that are observable and atypical.

The APA lists a cluster of symp-toms representative of this

category in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental

Disorders, 4th edition text revision (DSM-IV-TR; APA, 2000).

Stereotypic behaviors and movement disorders are observed in

individuals with autism and the DSM-IV recognizes this symptom

as a diagnostic feature of autistic disorder. However, behavioral

abnormalities of this nature are common early in development

and among children with mental retardation, other pervasive

developmental disorders (PDDs), and neurological conditions,

thus, limiting its specificity to autism. Diagnosing children with

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are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 22

autism should not be predicated on observations of stereotypic

movements. Nevertheless, the occurrence of these behaviors and

the interference they cause in the child's social and cognitive

development has led to a body of research on the cause and

treatment of stereotypic behaviors in individuals with autism.

Etiological explanations for these abnormal movements are

largely based on biological and neurochemical theories but may

be reinforced, managed, and maintained by social and sensory

consequences. It also importatnt to know the development and

organization of the nervous system and the brain. Essentially, it

follows a sequence which starts from the primitive reflex levels

of muscular functions to the uniquely human function of speech

and cognition.

Cognition and Communication. Children with autism often

have communication difficulties in one form or another. There are

some people with autism who speak fluently, others who are

speech impaired to varying degrees and others still, who are

unable to speak at all. Of those who can speak, they will often

use language in a very limited or unusual way.Their line of

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are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 23

conversation may involve repeating your phrases or words back

to you or asking the same questions over and over. People with

autism will usually only talk about topics that are of interest to

them which makes the give and take in communication difficult.

They have difficulty interpreting non-verbal forms of

communication like facial expressions, hand gestures and other

body language. Impaired communication is characterised by:

delayed language development difficulties initiating and

sustaining conversations, stereotyped and repetitive use of

language such as repeating phrases from what they see and hear.

Daily Living Skills. Daily living skills (DLS), such as personal

hygiene, meal preparation, and money management, are

important to independent living. Research suggests that many

individuals with autism spectrum disorder exhibit impairments in

daily living skills relative to their cognitive skills.

Sample of Individualized Educational Plan of a Children with

Autism

Name: Axhel Ruiz Samia


Date of Birth: February 14, 2011
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are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 24

Address: Cluster 25 ROTC Hunters Tatalon Quezon City


Contact No. : 0926-7135621
Diagnostic Impression: Autism Spectrum Disorder/ High-
Functioning

CURRENT EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM


School Year of 2017-2018

AREA PRESENT LEVEL ANNUAL GOAL SHORT-TERM


OF FUNCTIONING OBJECTIVES
Cognitive Axhel can names Ability to grasp - Sustain attention
most colors and concepts and span on structure
shapes. He often draw activities/discussi
names the relationships on.
different animals among object. -Perform cognitive
that he sees on activities on
the pages of the To be able to command
storybooks. stay focus on a - Develop
However with the given task or necessary
help of teachers activity. behaviors,
he was able to attitudes and
sustain attention observation that
and focus in class will lead to self
during discussion, growth.
also he is -Answer WH
challenge to questions
answer WH -Establishing eye
questions. contact
-Sitting long
enough to finish
task
- Acquire
spontaneity in
conversing with
others.
-Ask questions in
correct context.
-Acquire single-
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are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 25

word vocabulary
meaningfully.

Reading Axhel is able to - Will read - Complete a


and read well and spell preprimary and Reading Record,
Language words. He is survival sight showing he has
familiar with word read books using
letters but he has -Will show the preprimary
a trouble in giving comprehension and survival sight
examples of words of literature. words four out of
that begin with five school days
contain letters. He per week.
often names the - Read a story and
different animals will answer simple
that he sees on questions about
the pages of the the story by
storybooks. He is choosing the
not able to correct answer
consistently from a field of two
identify the or three.
beginning, middle - Read a
and end of a story story and
using pictures. He will answer a
is not able to simple
consistently question
predict what about the
happens next in a story by
story. writing a
simple
sentence.
- Develop an
understandin
g of text
organization
and
structure to
assist in
comprehensi
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are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 26

on (e.g.,
cause-effect,
time order,
order of
importance).
Mathemat Axhel can -He will exhibit -Identify the
ics sequence numbers skills in using number of sides of
from 1-30. He can sequencing a shape.
names most and - Complete a
colors and shapes. measurement pattern by
He has no choosing the next
difficulty in shape in a
pinpointing sequence of
missing numbers shapes.
in given numerical -Sequence by size.
sequence. - Given
number
words 11 -
20, and by
10's to 100,
Axhel will
read and
sequence
them in order
with 80%
accuracy.
-Write the
numbers 1 -
100 without
visual
prompts with
80%
accuracy.
- skip count
A. By 5's
with 100%
accuracy
a. by 2's
-------------------------------------Disclaimer: This paper follows the THESIS format, not the IMRaD one as these students
are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 27

b. by 25's
- Add with
manipulative/pictu
res to 20.
- Do math
homework
four out of
five

Social Axhel is able to - He will - Address all


Skills use polite demonstrate adults and
expression even improved students he
as “I’m sorry”, social skills regularly
“Excuse me”, comes in
“Thank you”. He contact with
also greet his by name, and
teachers in class. will use
He follows appropriate
instruction well pleasantries
but he distracted (please,
by his thank you,
environment. He etc.) with
has challenged by fading
taking turns to models/prom
others like sharing pts -
toys, materials, Participate
etc. to his in turn
classmates. taking during
group
activities
with minimal
assistance.
- During
connect,
Axhel will
participate in
group
activities
-------------------------------------Disclaimer: This paper follows the THESIS format, not the IMRaD one as these students
are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 28

and games
with minimal
assistance
from a
connect-peer
partner.

Gross Axhel is able to -Increase - Maintain


Motor follow simple Ability to appropriate
Skills dance steps and assume and or posture during
also simple maintain locomotion.
gestures during appropriate - Assume and/or
class. He is able posture during maintain safe
to follow through the activities. posture during
imitation of steps -Increase the physical education
of a teacher. He ability to use activities.
likes to play the safety - Maintain pace
games and techniques, with peers when
activities. when moving moving between
around the locations in the
school building.
environment. - Maintain pace
- Increase with classmates
ability to when moving in a
rhythmically group.
move to - Use appropriate
various tempos speed.
- Attend visually to
environment.
- Maintain safe
distance from
others.
- Move in time to a
rhythmic beat.
Fine - Axhel is able to -Increase -Write with left to
Motor hold the pencil organization of right. top to
Skills and crayons with written work bottom flow.
a grip. He can so that it is -Write with correct
-------------------------------------Disclaimer: This paper follows the THESIS format, not the IMRaD one as these students
are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 29

write, color and legible formation of


guidance by the letters and
teacher to improve numbers.
his writing skills -Write with correct
as well as the orientation to the
coloring skills. lines.
- Write with
correct size and
proportion of
letters and
numbers.
- Write with no
reversals or
rotations. Leave
appropriate
spacing between
letters and words.
- Slay within
guidelines of the
paper (margins,
etc.).

SPECIFIC EDUCATIONAL SERVICES:


 Axhel is attending ABA Therapy and Speech Therapy, for

this second semester of SY 2016-2017 his participation in

class was improved. Thus he may continue with tutorial

following ABA procedures.

EVALUATON CRITERIA
 Utilizing varied evaluation strategies specifically:

1. Criterion referenced evaluation


2. Providing control of error in choice of materials to
ensure built-in evaluation teaching.

-------------------------------------Disclaimer: This paper follows the THESIS format, not the IMRaD one as these students
are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 30

3. Tasks-analysis evaluation making sure that sub-skill is


mastered before proceeding to higher sub-skills.
4. Post-teach evaluation such as observation and home
visitations alongside interview with family members.

SPECIAL PROVISION
 Aside from the formal sessions with the child at school,

plenty of opportunities are provided for training the child to

apply learned skills in varied practical situations. Such

opportunities:

a. provide supplementary training


b. enrich and promote skills/ skills-building, and
c. must be in collaboration with parents in order that
mastery is achieved.
CHAPTER 3

METHODOLOGY

Research Method

This study was descriptive quantitative in nature. The

interview/checklist was distributed through schools that given to

the students and answered by the parents, having a total of 6

respondents. There were 6 Parents/Guardian that answered the

interview/checklist that was handed directly to the respondents

by the students who conducted this research. They were 6

Female parent/guardian who answered this interview/checklist

-------------------------------------Disclaimer: This paper follows the THESIS format, not the IMRaD one as these students
are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 31

and 6 Male students who has a Autism Spectrum Disorder. The

purpose was to find out which among the domains we’re the least

concerned or aware of most parents/guardian in relating to early

intervention.

Respondents of the Study

The respondents of this study were all married and one

single parent. They belong to a middle class of the social status

and they were all college graduate. The reason of this study is to

gain information if the parents/guardians are literate.

Data Gathering Procedure

The data for this research were gathered using an

interview/checklist. This survey is made stating the performance

assessment of the ASD child to check by the following of their

parents. The questionnaire was composed of 5 categories stated

with 10 main questions. A scale was used to settle if the

respondents check the always, sometimes, rare and never in the

stated question.

-------------------------------------Disclaimer: This paper follows the THESIS format, not the IMRaD one as these students
are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 32

Research Instrument

The questionnaires have five-parts categories, and are as

follows:

1. Fine and Gross Motor Skills – this part will show how

children perform using their small and large muscles.

2. Academic – this part will show what are the behavior of the

children in learning experience.

3. Social Skills – this part will show how the children interact

with their peers.

4. Behaviors – this part will show how children act in front of

other people.

5. Life Skills – this part will show ASD child understand the

demands of living in their own home.

The Likert Scale involves a four-point scale, that is Always,

Sometimes, Rare and Never.

Interpretation and Treatment of Data

-------------------------------------Disclaimer: This paper follows the THESIS format, not the IMRaD one as these students
are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 33

The parent’s checked the most activity that they do to their

children by means of a Likert Scale and scores are then analyzed

as follows:

Always 4
Sometimes 3
Rare 2
Never 1

-------------------------------------Disclaimer: This paper follows the THESIS format, not the IMRaD one as these students
are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 34

CHAPTER 4

FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

I. Profile

Table 1. Age of Respondents

Age Frequency Percent


29-32 y/o 3 50%
33-36 y/o 1 16.67%
38-40 y/o 2 33.33%
TOTAL 6 100%

In terms of age, there are 50% respondents are in 29-32 y/o

while the ages 33-36 y/o and 38-40y/o are the remaining 50% of

the respondents.

Table 2. Gender of Respondents

Sex Frequency Percentage


Male 0 0%
Female 6 100%
TOTAL 6 100%

-------------------------------------Disclaimer: This paper follows the THESIS format, not the IMRaD one as these students
are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 35

The results have shown that out of 6 respondents, a

majority of which are female (6).

Table 3. Educational Background of the Respondents

Educational Frequency Percentage


Background
Undergraduate 0 0%
Graduate 6 100%
TOTAL 6 100%

The table shows that all respondents are graduates and

there are no undergraduate respondents.

Table 4. Status of the Respondents

Status Frequency Percentage


Married 5 83.33%
Single Parent 1 16.67%
TOTAL 6 100%

The table shows that 4 of the respondents are married and

1 respondent is single parent.

II. Main Results

Table 5: Parents’ Intervention in Terms of FINE AND


GROSS MOTOR SKILLS

-------------------------------------Disclaimer: This paper follows the THESIS format, not the IMRaD one as these students
are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 36

Item No. Statements Mean Score Verbal


Interpretation
4 I practice him/her to hold a pencil with dynamic tripod 3.33 High
grip.
6 I guide him/her to trace broken line coordinately. 3.17 High
10 I instruct him/her to put things in place after use. 3.17 High
2 My husband and I teach him/her arranging things and 3.00 High
personal items.
5 I teach him/her to imitate exercises 3.00 High
7 I practice him/her to draw common forms and shapes 3.00 High
from copy and then on his own.
3 I teach him/her how to fold things. 2.83 High
8 I teach him/her to copy words and words combination 2.17 Low
neatly and accurately.
9 I instruct him/her to engage ball passing and ball rolling 2.17 Low
with peers.
1 I practice him/her to use the scissor. 1.83 Low

Table 5 presents the level of parents’ interventions in terms

of addressing their children’s fine and gross motor skills. Results

show that item number 4, “I practice him/her to hold a pencil with

dynamic tripod grip”, tops the ranking with an average mean

score of 3.33, considered high. Putting all the mean scores

together, the overall mean score is 2.77, considered moderate.

Interestingly, item number 2 zeroes in on the role of a father

in the family. Although the verbal interpretation is high at 3.00

average mean score, the ranking is only at the fourth level. It may

be expected that the father’s role in the development of his

child’s fine and motor skills should have been at the top. Both

-------------------------------------Disclaimer: This paper follows the THESIS format, not the IMRaD one as these students
are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 37

parents are very important. Generally, mothers do more of the

explicit nurturing, while fathers tend to be more involved in play,

particularly physical play and “rough and tumble” play. However,

fathers do much more hands-on caregiving now than they did a

generation ago—changing diapers, getting up at night, taking

children to the doctor, sharing drop-offs and pick-ups, and helping

with homework according to Dante Spenter of Harvard University.

As we observed, Fathers are more in a practical way than in an

emotional way.

Table 6. Parents’ Intervention in Terms of ACADEMIC

Item no. Statements Mean Score Verbal


Interpretation
1 I practice him/her naming unfamiliar 2.33 Moderate
objects around the pictures
4 I teach him/her how to answer simple 2.33 Moderate
WH questions
7 My husband and I teach him/her how 2.33 Moderate
to greet other people with their names
(e.g. Hello Mary! How are you?)
8 I practice him/ her pronounce words 2.33 Moderate
flashed/written on flash cards in
appropriate pace
9 I practice him/her to repeat words, 2.33 Moderate
paragraphs and sentences
10 I practice him/her enunciating vowels 2.33 Moderate
appropriately in a word
3 I allow him/her to answer simple word 2.17 Low
puzzles with pictorial clues
5 I allow him/her to answer simple word 2.17 low
puzzles with pictorial clues

-------------------------------------Disclaimer: This paper follows the THESIS format, not the IMRaD one as these students
are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 38

6 I let him/her identify picture vocabulary 2.17 Low


in categories such as animals, school
items and clothing
2 I guide him/her to pronounce the 2.00 Low
sounds of /s/ and /z/ and /b/, /p/ and
/v/ properly

Table 6 Presents the level of parents’ interventions in terms

of addressing their children’s academic. Results show that items

number 1,4,7,8,9, and 10, tops the ranking with an average mean

score of 2.33, considered moderate.

We probably assume that most of the parents/guardian we

interviewed had a busy schedule or they just entrusted the

learning of their child academically to the teachers or the school

we’re they enrolled their child. Academic is one of the most

important domains in child’s development that’s why the

presence of the parents and family are really important. Parents

should be involved in their child’s academic development in order

to enhance their children’s self-esteem, improve academic

achievement, and also improves parent-child relationship.

According to Caplan (2000), meaningful family involvement is a

powerful predictor of high student achievement. Students attain

-------------------------------------Disclaimer: This paper follows the THESIS format, not the IMRaD one as these students
are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 39

more educational success when schools and families work

together to motivate, socialize, and educate students.

Table 7. Parents’ Intervention in Terms of SOCIAL SKILLS

Item No. Statements Mean Score Verbal


Interpretation
8 I allow him/her to share toys with 4.00 Very high
classmates and friends
5 I teach him/her to complete given 3.83 Very high
tasks more consistently before doing
or having what he likes
4 Me and my husband allow him/her to 3.67 Very high
mingle with classmates in school
3 I practice him/her to join play with one 3.17 High
or two children at home and in other
places even with physical prompting
1 I allow him/her to express complaints 2.83 High
verbally when frustrated, upset or
noisy instead of spacing out and
whining
2 Engaging in constructive verbal tasks 2.83 High
instead of laughing and talking
inappropriately
6 I practice him/her Imitating teacher 2.67 High
and peers in action singing, rote
counting, physical exercises, and
other group tasks
7 I practice him/her to lining up 2.67 High
9 Me and my husband practice him/her 2.67 Moderate
to keeps a conversation going
10 I practice him/her for interactive and 2.33 Moderate
fun activity on communication using
gestures with classmates.

Table 7 Presents the level of parents’ interventions in terms

of addressing their children’s social skills. Result shows that item

number 8 “I allow him/her to share toys with classmates and

-------------------------------------Disclaimer: This paper follows the THESIS format, not the IMRaD one as these students
are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 40

friends”, tops the ranking with an average mean score of 4.00,

considered very high.

In this table, the top statement shows how parents allow

their children to have this kind of attitude by sharing the

teachers’ children about compromise. They learn that if we give a

little to others, we can get some of what we want as well.

Children who share also learn how to take turns and negotiate,

and how to cope with disappointment. These are all really

important life skills. According to Raising Children Network

Australia (2016) Sharing is a vital life skill. It’s something

toddlers and children need to learn to make and keep friends and

play cooperatively. .

Table 8 Parents’ Intervention in Terms of BEHAVIOR

Item No. Statements Mean Score Verbal


Interpretation
2 I teach him/her finishing one activity at a 3.67 Very high
time
3 I teach him/her waiting for his turn in 3.67 Very high
doing an activity
5 I teach him/her to seek personal 3.67 Very high
attention when needed
8 I allow him/her responds positively to 3.67 Very high
authority
4 I instruct him/her to respond properly to 2.83 High
perceived needs of other persons
6 I practice him/her to discriminate 2.17 Low
permissible and non-permissible
behaviors given visual and verbal cues
-------------------------------------Disclaimer: This paper follows the THESIS format, not the IMRaD one as these students
are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 41

7 I allow him/her to imitate safety-focused 2.00 Low


behavior modelled to him
1 I practice him/her recalling the rules and 1.83 Low
regulations in a class

Table 8 Presents the level of parents’ interventions in terms

of addressing their children’s behavior. Result shows that the

items number 2,3,5,8, tops the ranking with an average mean

score of 3.67, considered very high.

In this table, one of the top ranking statements “I teach

him/her finishing one activity at a time” shows that most parents

considered this one of the important behavior of their children.

According to Hume (2008), All individuals must finish the first

task they did before they begin to other activity, whether at

home, school or workplace. Children with special needs may have

greater difficulty in shifting attention from one task to another or

in changes of routine. This may due to greater need for difficulty

when a pattern of behavior is disrupted. That’s why parents

practice their children to adopt this behavior to make it easier for

their children to do a certain task.

Table 9 Parents’ Intervention in Terms of LIFE SKILLS

Item no. Statements Mean Score Verbal


Interpretation

-------------------------------------Disclaimer: This paper follows the THESIS format, not the IMRaD one as these students
are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 42

2 I practice him/her to eats independently 3.33 High


(spoon,knife,and fork)
3 I teach him/her to clean spillage knows 3.33 High
proper table setting
4 I allow him/her cooperates when 3.33 High
dressing/undressing
5 I let him/her pulls off shoes/socks 3.33 High
6 I teach him/her how to takes off 3.33 High
pants/underwear/dress etc
7 I allow him/her knows how to zip/unzip 3.33 High
8 I teach him/her how to combs/brushes 3.33 High
hair properly
9 I practice him/her Brushes teeth 3.33 High
regularly
10 I guide him/her how to takes care of 3.33 High
personal needs
1 I practice him/her to pours liquid from a 2.33 Moderate
container

Table 9 presents the level of parent’s interventions in terms

of addressing their children’s life skills. Result shows that items

number2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10, tops the ranking with an average mean

score of 3.33, considered high.

In this table, one of top ranking statements “I practice

him/her to eats independently (spoon,knife,and fork)” considered

high in verbal interpretation. Every human body needs food, it is

a basic important need for normal growth, development and

energy. Eating a meal can be particularly challenging for children

who have disabilities. Parent’s shows that they encourage their

children to feed themselves independently by introducing the use

-------------------------------------Disclaimer: This paper follows the THESIS format, not the IMRaD one as these students
are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 43

of spoon and fork. According to Articles Extension Org (2015) Let

children be as independent as possible during mealtimes. Give

them the tools they need to be successful. Encourage children to

try for themselves but provide help and encouragement when

needed so they don't get frustrated.

Table 10: Combination of behavior and education domains

Item no. Statements Mean Score Verbal


Interpretation
2-B I teach him/her finishing one activity at a 3.67 Very high
time
3-B I teach him/her waiting for his turn in 3.67 Very high
doing an activity
5-B I teach him/her to seek personal 3.67 Very high
attention when needed
8-B I allow him/her responds positively to 3.67 Very highB
authority
4-B I instruct him/her to respond properly to 2.83 High
perceived needs of other persons
1-E I practice him/her naming unfamiliar 2.33 Moderate
objects around the pictures
4-E I teach him/her how to answer simple 2.33 Moderate
WH questions
7-E My husband and I teach him/her how to 2.33 Moderate
greet other people with their names
(e.g. Hello Mary! How are you?)
8-E I practice him/ her pronounce words 2.33 Moderate
flashed/written on flash cards in
appropriate pace
9-E I practice him/her to repeat words, 2.33 Moderate
paragraphs and sentences
10-E I practice him/her enunciating vowels 2.33 Moderate
appropriately in a word
3-E I allow him/her to answer simple word 2.17 Low
puzzles with pictorial clues
5-E I allow him/her to answer simple word 2.17 low
puzzles with pictorial clues

-------------------------------------Disclaimer: This paper follows the THESIS format, not the IMRaD one as these students
are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 44

6-E I let him/her identify picture vocabulary 2.17 Low


in categories such as animals, school
items and clothing
6-B I practice him/her to discriminate 2.17 Low
permissible and non-permissible
behaviors given visual and verbal cues
2-E I guide him/her to pronounce the 2.00 Low
sounds of /s/ and /z/ and /b/, /p/ and /v/
properly
7-B I allow him/her to imitate safety-focused 2.00 Low
behaviours modelled to him
1-B I practice him/her recalling the rules and 1.83 Low
regulations in a class

It will be noted that Behavior and Education domains

appear to have interrelated activities that a parent can do for his

or her child with special needs. With this in mind, they are both

merged into on for further and detailed analysis. When an average

score we’re put together, it was found out that the mean score is

3.67 at behavior domain, considered it is the highest between the

Education and Behavioral domain. Therefore, It shows that

behavior and education should correlate together for the success

of the intervention of the parent to meet the needs of the child.

Table 11: Overall performance of parents’ intervention

Mean Score Verbal


Domains Interpretation
Life skills 3.93 Very High
Social skills 3.07 High
Behavior 2.94 High
Fine and Gross Motor Skills 2.77 Moderate
Academics 2.25 Moderate

-------------------------------------Disclaimer: This paper follows the THESIS format, not the IMRaD one as these students
are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 45

It shows on the table that the least awareness in terms of

intervention of the parent was in the area of Academics. It has

the mean score of 2.25 we assumed that in this case most of the

parent had only time to checked on their child academic thru

their teachers they don’t have time to re-checked it to their

homes or they have lack of knowledge or materials to do some

academic matters, On the other hand the highest mean score

result was 3.93 at the Life skills, in this area of domain we

assumed that at somewhat as a human being we always does the

everyday routine like eating using spoon and fork, dressing and

undressing, and etc., practically say as a parent we always

include this life skills that’s why it has a highest mean score

result out of all the domain we presented.

3.44 – 4.00 very high


2.83 – 3.43 high
2.22 – 2.82 moderate
1.61 – 2.21 low
1.00 – 1.60 very low

-------------------------------------Disclaimer: This paper follows the THESIS format, not the IMRaD one as these students
are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 46

CHAPTER 5

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION, AND

RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary of Findings

-------------------------------------Disclaimer: This paper follows the THESIS format, not the IMRaD one as these students
are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 47

Profile of the Respondents. Most of the respondents is between

29 to 40 years old. They are college graduates who are mostly

married.

Main Results

Intervention in Terms of FINE AND GROSS MOTOR SKILLS .

Parents have demonstrated a high level of engagement in terms

of their children’s fine and gross motor skills. The lowest is in the

low level.

Intervention in Terms of ACADEMIC. Parents have

demonstrated a moderate level of engagement in terms of their

children’s Academic. The lowest is in the low level.

Intervention in Terms of SOCIAL SKILLS. Parents have

demonstrated a very high level of engagement in terms of their

children’s social skills. The lowest is in the moderate level.

Intervention in Terms of BEHAVIOR. Parents have

demonstrated a very high level of engagement in terms of

behavior. The lowest is in the low level. Intervention in Terms

of LIFE SKILLS. Parents have demonstrated a high level of

-------------------------------------Disclaimer: This paper follows the THESIS format, not the IMRaD one as these students
are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 48

engagement in terms of life skills. The lowest is in the moderate

level.

Combination of behaviour and education domains. Parents

have demonstrated a very high level of engagement in terms of

the combination domain of behavior and educaton. The lowest is

in the low level.

Overall performance of parents’ intervention. Parents have

demonstrated a very high level of engagement in terms of life

skills. The lowest is in the moderate level in terms of academics.

CONCLUSION

Having a child with an autistic spectrum disorder is a

challenge for any family. Involvement of families in the education

of young children with autism spectrum disorders can occur at

multiple levels, including advocacy, parents as participating

partners in and agents of education or behavior change, and

family-centered consideration of the needs and strengths of the

family as a unit. Nearly all empirically supported treatments

reviewed by the committee included a parent component, and

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are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 49

most research programs used a parent-training approach. More

information is needed about the benefits of a family-centered

orientation or combined family-centered and formalized parent

training in helping parents.

It is well established that parents can learn and

successfully apply skills to changing the behavior of their

children with autistic spectrum disorders, though little is known

about the effects of cultural differences, such as race, ethnicity,

and social class, nor about the interactions among family factors,

child characteristics, and features of educational intervention.

For most families, having a child with an autistic spectrum

disorder creates added stress. Parents’ use of effective teaching

methods can have a significant effect on that stress, as can

support from within the family and the community. Parents need

access to balanced information about autistic spectrum

disorders and the range of appropriate services and technologies

in order to carry out their responsibilities. They also need timely

information about assessments, educational plans, and the

available resources for their children. This information needs to

-------------------------------------Disclaimer: This paper follows the THESIS format, not the IMRaD one as these students
are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 50

be conveyed to them in a meaningful way that gives them time to

prepare to fulfill their roles and responsibilities.

In the last ten years the widespread availability of the

Internet and media attention to autism spectrum disorders have

increased parents’ knowledge but often conveyed perspectives

that were not balanced nor well-supported scientifically. Of

crucial importance is the question of how to make information

available to parents and to ensure their active role in advocacy

for their children’s education.

Recommendations

In light of the given results and conclusion, the following

recommendations have been offered:

1. Parent should communicate with the teacher of their

child for them to know the progress of their child.

-------------------------------------Disclaimer: This paper follows the THESIS format, not the IMRaD one as these students
are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 51

2. Observe what are strengths and weaknesses of your

child that has an autism spectrum disorder.

3. Individual-based parent-training/education programs

for the parents or carers and the child.

4. Enhance relationship between parent and child

through bonding such as play, educational activities,

and etc.

5. The parent/guardian must give time to see the

progress of their child.

6. Identified the gap exists in home and school settings

7. Analyze educational outcomes and issues for the

specific intervention.

8. Emphasized consultaion, participation and self-

determination in doing home intervention for your

child.

9. Continued research is needed, therefore to add to the

current research addressing the home and school

integration for the developmental needs of the child.

-------------------------------------Disclaimer: This paper follows the THESIS format, not the IMRaD one as these students
are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 52

10. Socialize to other parent who has a child with

autism spectrum disorder for you to exchange ideas

and knowledge in regards of intervention they do at

home for their child.

-------------------------------------Disclaimer: This paper follows the THESIS format, not the IMRaD one as these students
are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 53

REFERENCES

Wehman, p. (2006). Autism and transition to adulthood. Brookes

Publishing. Baltimore, Maryland.

Acuna, Jasmin E. Raef A. and Nestor N. Pilar eds, Introduction

special education: a textbook for college students

Inciong, Teresita G., et al. Introduction to special education: a

textbook for college students.

Dizon, Edilberto I., Teaching Filipino Children with Autism,

University of the Philippines.

Dizon, Edilberto I., (2000) Teaching Filipino Children with Autism.

(revised ed.) University of the Philippines.

Turnbull, Ann P., et Al. Exceptional lives: Special education in

today’s schools, Prentice-Hall, Inc., New Jersey

-------------------------------------Disclaimer: This paper follows the THESIS format, not the IMRaD one as these students
are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 54

Siegel,B. (1996). The world of the autistic child. New York: Oxford

University Press

APPENDIX

Profile

No. Gender age Grade Curriculum Impression


Gene Special
male female d Education

1 1 7 1 1 Autism

2 1 8 3 1 ADHD/Autism

3 1 8 2 1 Autism

4 1 5 K1 1 Autism

5 1 5 K2 1 Autism

6 1 6 1 1 Autism

-------------------------------------Disclaimer: This paper follows the THESIS format, not the IMRaD one as these students
are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
Academic

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY
2 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 2 2
55
4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

1 1 1 1 1 1 Fine1 and Gross


1 1
Motor1Skills
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 3 4 4 3 3 3 2 1 4
1 3 1 14 2 4 1 14 2 4 2 4 1 4 1 4 4 4
1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
4 2 4 33 3 3 4 43 3 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 3 3
1 2 2 4 3 3 3 1 1 2
2 4 2 3 3 4 3 1 2 4
2 2 2 2
. . . .
2.31.80 13.0 2.32.81 13.3 2.33.0 2.33.1 2.33.0 2.32.1 2.1
3 30 7 0 3 37 73 3 0 3 7 3 0 3 7 7 3.17
Fine and Gross Motor Skills
low hig hig Academic
hig hig hig hig low
mo l hl moh l hl moh moh moh mo low high
der o o der o o der der 2.77
der der
ate w w ate w w ate ate ate ate

2.25
Social Skills
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
3 3 3 4 4 3 2 4 2
3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
2 2 1 2 3 1 1 4 2
3 3 4 4 4 3 3 4 2
2 2 3 4 4 1 2 4 2
4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

2.83 2.83 3.17 3.67 3.83 2.67 2.67 4.00 2.67


Social Skills
very very very
high high high high high high high high mod mod
3.07

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are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 56

Behavior
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1 4 4 1 4 1 1 4
3 4 4 3 3 4 3 4
1 2 2 1 3Life Skills
1 1 3
2 1 4 2 43 44 45 36 37 48 9 10
11 4 3 43 43 43 13 13 33 3 3
34 4 4 44 44 44 34 34 44 4 4
2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
1.83 4 4 4
2.8 4 2.14 2.04 4 4 4
31 3
3.67 3
3.67 23 2
3.67 27 02 2
3.67 2 2
3 4 4 4
Behavior 4 4 4 4 4 4
very very hig very very
low2.33high3.33 high
3.33 h3.33 high
3.33 low 3.33 low
3.33high3.33 3.33 3.33
2.94 Life Skills
mod high high high high high high high high High
3.23

Salcedo, Jessa Mae D.


Cluster 25 ROTC Hunters Tatalon Q.C
Contact No: 09267135621
Email Add.: jessasalcedo@yahoo.com

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND:

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are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 57

TERTIARY: Philippine Women’s University


2014-Present Epifanio De Los Santos Avenue, Quezon City
 BEED Major in SPED
 BSBA Major in Management

VOCATIONAL: Mary the Queen College of Science and


Technology 2009-2010 Commonwealth, Quezon
City
 Caregiving/NCII

SECONDARY: Ramon Magsaysay High School


2004-2008 Graduated

PRIMARY: Legarda Elementary School


1999-2004 Graduated

PERSONAL BACK GROUND:

NICKNAME: Jessa
BIRTHDATE: May 02,1992
BIRTHPLACE: Quezon City
CIVIL STATUS: Single
RELIGION Chistian Born Again
LANGUANGE: Filipino, English

WORK EXPERIENCE:
 Administrative Aide VI
Department of Agriculture
Elliptical Road Quezon City
September 2012- December 2017

TRAININGS/ SEMINARS ATTENDED:

Feb. 15-20, 2010 First Aide and Basic Life Support Training
Quezon City

March 15-27, 2010 On the Job Traning at Handsmaid of


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are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
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THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 58

Mary for
Children Centre Inc (NGO)
926 Sto. Tomas St., Sampaloc Manila

May 10-28 ,2010 On the Job Training at Fairview


General Hospital
Lot 20 Corner Mercury St., Fairview
Avenue
Fairview Quezon City

ORGANIZATION/CLUBS

 Association of Secondary and Elementary Education


Students (ASEEDS)

President

2016-2017

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THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 59

Macasling, Chonaphine Jethlie


#247 Gen. Luis St. Novaliches Proper, Quezon City
0948 408 9372 (SMART) / 0935 842 0611 (TM)
mchonaphinejethlie@gmail.com

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND:

Tertiary Education
Philippine Woman’s University 2013-
2016
Taft Ave, Malate, Metro Manila, 1004 Metro Manila
(Undergraduate)
Degree: Bachelor of Science in Social Work- 3rd Year

Secondary Education
Camarin High School 2008-2012
Cadena de Amor st., Area B, Camarin, Caloocan City

Primary Education
Camarin Elementary School (Main)
2002-2008
Area A, Camarin, Barangay 175, Caloocan City

PERSONAL BACKGROUND:

Birth date : September 18, 1993


Age : 23 years old
Birthplace : Manila
Citizenship : Filipino
Civil Status : Single
Sex : Female
Languages Spoken English and Filipino

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are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 60

WORK EXPERIENCE:

VROSS STORE May 2012 - January


2013
2027 Cadena De Amor ST. Area B. Camarin Caloocan City
Camarin, Caloocan City
Position: Customer Service

TRAININGS/ SEMINARS ATTENDED:

Intervention in working with Person with Disabilities, April


30,2016
Intervention of Violence against Women and their Children
Philippine Women’s University

Mentally Challenged April 23, 2016


Philippine Women’s University

Social Protection
Philippine Christian University

Child Protection Network: Multi-Disciplinary Approach on


Handling Child Abuse Cases, September 19,
2015
Philippine Women’s University

Seminar on Drug Addiction


Philippine Women’s University

A Shelter of Hope: Working with Children


in Rehabilitation and Recovery Shelter, August 15,
2015
Philippine Women’s University

-------------------------------------Disclaimer: This paper follows the THESIS format, not the IMRaD one as these students
are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 61

Dones, Andrea Paula A.


1665 KC 21 St., Karangalan Village,
Manggahan, Pasig 1611
Contact number: +63977 1762 950
andreaaadones@gmail.com

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND:

College Level : Philippine Women’s University


Taft Avenue, Malate, Metro Manila
Bachelor of Elementary Education
2016-Present

BA Speech Communication
Undergraduate (2013)
University of the Philippines

Secondary : Philippine High School for the Arts


National Arts Center
Mt. Makiling, Los Baños, Laguna
Philippines
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are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 62

2009-2013

Primary Level: Padre Burgos Elementary School


Sta. Mesa, Manila, Philippines

PERSONAL BACKGROUND:

Date of Birth : June 18, 1996


Place of Birth : Manila
Gender : Female
Age : 21
Civil Status : Single
Nationality: Filipino
Religion : Born Again Christian
Language : Filipino, English

ORGANIZATION:

KALOOB: Philippine Music and Dance Ministry


Folk Arts Theater, Cultural Center of the Philippines
Manila, Philippines
(COMPANY MEMBER)
Performer 2009 to present

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are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
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may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 63

-------------------------------------Disclaimer: This paper follows the THESIS format, not the IMRaD one as these students
are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 64

-------------------------------------Disclaimer: This paper follows the THESIS format, not the IMRaD one as these students
are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
may not necessarily reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence and knowledge of the rudiments of research writing.