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Statics

1) Some object like a heavy box is lying motionless on the top of a table. Does it
mean there are no forces acting on the box?
Ans. : No. Even a static object also carries a good number of forces. For a static
object, the reactive forces neutralise the active forces completely. Therefore the
object remains static.

2) Approximately how many forces shell the box have, acting on it? One? Two?
Ten? Hundred?...
Ans. : Theoretically infinite in number. The box experience the gravitational force
provided by Earth, commonly called as the self weight of the box. Even the
Sun, Moon, all stars and planets and theoretically all objects around the box
create gravitational pulling forces. The table top provides support reaction.
However, the significant forces of all these are only two : 1) Self weight of the
box due to gravitational force by Earth and 2) Support reaction provided by
the table top.

3) The box mentioned above now moves and accelerates along the table top due to a
horizontal push ‘P’ at the C. G. of the box. Does it means that the box is
subjected to a single force ‘P’ generating acceleration ‘a’ given by expression
P = m x a?
Ans. : No. This box also carries a number of significant forces. At this case, some
forces (like ‘P’) trying to create motion, overpower some forces trying to
oppose the motion (like friction). The self weight, surface support reaction also
exist. The motion is due to the difference between the contributing force and
the apposing force.

4) Are two non parallel coplanar forces always concurrent?


Ans. : Yes.

5) Are three non parallel coplanar forces always concurrent?


Ans. : No.

6) Are two non-co-planer forces always concurrent?


Ans. : No.

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7) Are two parallel force always coplanar?
Ans. : Yes.

8) An object is subjected to three non concurrent coplanar forces whose F x and Fy


summations are zero. Shall the object be necessarily static?
Ans. : No. The non-concurrency shall generate some revolving action at least.

9) Three coplanar concurrent forces keep an object under equilibrium. What are the
mathematical relations between these forces?
Ans. : a) Fx and Fy summations must be individually zero.
b) Lami’s Theorem : Ratio of, any force to the sine of the opposite angle, must
be constant.
c) Any third force must be equal and opposite to the resultant of the other two
forces.

10) A 100 N Weight is suspended by means of two strings equally inclined to the
vertical. Can the string be stretched to such an extent that they become
absolutely horizontal?
Ans. : No. The tensions in both strings must have a vertical component to balance the
100 N weight. Such vertical component and an appropriate horizontal
component shall make the strings inclined.

11) Two concurrent forces of magnitude ‘P’ each act at a point. A third force, at the
same point, of magnitude ‘P’, generate static condition. What is the angle
between the two original forces?
Ans. : Applying relation (c) at question (9) above,
P  P 2  P 2  2 P P cos    120 0

12) Two concurrent forces of magnitude ‘P’ act at a point. A third force at the
same point, of magnitude ‘2P’ generates static condition. What is the
inclination between the two earlier forces?
Ans. : 2 P  P 2  P 2  2 P P cos    0 0

13) Two concurrent forces of 20N and 30N act at a point with a variable angle
between them. What is the smallest and largest possible resultant?

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Ans. : Smallest possible resultant = 10 N when the given forces are opposite to each
other. Largest possible resultant = 50 N when the forces are in the same
direction.

14) What is the similarity between the Moment of a force and a couple?
Ans. : Both produce revolving action.

15) What is the difference between the Moment of a force and a Couple?
Ans. : The moment is due to one force away from convenient point of reference. A
couple is due to two equal, opposite, parallel forces.

16) A light triangular plate carries three forces of 100 N each along the three sides of
the triangle, in order. What shall be the response of the plate?
Ans. : The plate shall start rotating around its center.

17) When three parallel unequal forces have a zero resultant force and a zero resultant
moment, how shall the forces be related to each other for their direction?
Ans. : The two end forces must have a common direction but apposite to the central
force.

18) A sphere with self weight ‘W’ is suspended by means of two concurrent string.
One supporting string is vertical and the other makes some angle with the
vertical. What is the tension in the inclined string?
Ans. : Zero.

19) A 900 lever ABC with AB = BC = 10 cm each, angle B = 90 0 and self weight 100
N is freely suspended at ‘A’. Can an appropriate horizontal force at ‘C’, bring
the point ‘C’ vertically below the point ‘A’?
Ans. : Yes.

20) A 900 lever ABC with AB = BC = 10 cm each, angle B = 90 0 and self weight 100
N is freely suspended at ‘A’. Can an appropriate vertical force at ‘C’, bring the
point ‘C’ vertically below the point ‘A’?
Ans. : No.

21) A string passing over a pulley takes 900 turn and is used for supporting a hanging
weight by means of an appropriate horizontal pull at the other end of the string.

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The pulley is supported at its center by means of another string AB tied to the
ceiling of a room. Will the string have a specific inculination?
Ans. : Yes, 450 always.

22) A hinge support permits ………… but prevents ………….. [Fill in the blanks]
Ans. : Rotation, dislocation.

23) What is the advantage of a roller support at a beam?


Ans : It permits thermal linear expansion / contraction of the beam and protects the
beam from thermal stresses.

24) At which case, the hinge support for a beam shall offer a vertical downward
reaction component?
Ans. : In case of an overhanging beam with an appreciable downward load at the
overhanging zone.

25) Which support is capable of preventing the rotation of the beam at the same
support?
Ans. : Fixed support.

26) Which type of stresses are expected at a “Two force member” of a truss or a
frame?
Ans. : Direct Tensile or compressive stresses.

27) Which type of stresses are not expected at a “Two force member’ of a truss or a
frame?
Ans. : Direct shear stresses, bending stresses, torsional shear stresses.

28) A truss carries 10 joints and 20 members. Is this truss deficient, perfect or
redundent?
Ans. : Redundent.

29) What is the advantage of a redundant truss over a perfect truss?


Ans. : A redundant truss allows removal of any member for servicing / repairs
without disturbing the normal performance of the truss.

30) What is the draw-back of a deficient truss?

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Ans. : A deficient truss is not capable of retaining its geometrical stability when loads
are applied.

31) Which supporting system for a beam is deficient?


Ans. : Simple supports at both ends.

32) Which supporting system for a beam is just perfect?


Ans. : Hinge support at one end and simple (or roller) support at the other end.

33) Which supporting system for a beam is redundant?


Ans. : Hinge supports or fixed supports at both ends.

34) At a roof truss, the upper members are generally under………….


[Fill in the blank space]
Ans. : Compression.

35) If a roof truss carries only one moment load then. What types of forces are
experienced by the members?
Ans. : Tension or compression as usual.