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# Problem.

A two-story building frame is modeled as shown in Fig. 5.32. The girders are assumed to be rigid, and
the columns have flexural rigidities and with negligible masses. The stiffness of each column can be
computed as

EI2 1
Solution

## We find that for m1=m, m2=2m, k1 = k and k2 = 2k

𝑘 𝑘
𝜔12 = (2 − √3) ; 𝜔22 = (2 + √3)
𝑚 𝑚
𝑋21 𝑘2 1
𝑟1 = 1 = 2 =
𝑋1 −𝑚2 𝜔1 + 𝑘2 −1 + √3

𝑋22 𝑘2 1
𝑟2 = 2 = 2 =
𝑋1 −𝑚2 𝜔2 + 𝑘2 −1 − √3

## First mode shape

𝑋11 cos(𝜔1 𝑡 + 𝜃1 )
𝑋11 𝑋11 cos(𝜔1 𝑡 + 𝜃1 )
{ 1} = { 1 } = { 𝑋11 }
𝑋2 𝑟1 𝑋1 cos(𝜔1 𝑡 + 𝜃1 ) ( ) cos(𝜔1 𝑡 + 𝜃1 )
√3 − 1
For the motion to be identical with the first normal mode, we need to have 𝑋12 =0

1
1 1 2
[{−𝑟1 𝑥1 (0)}2 + 2 {{−𝑟1 𝑥1 (0)}2 }] = 0
𝑟2 − 𝑟1 𝜔2
𝑥1 (0)
𝑥2 (0) = 𝑟1 𝑥1 (0) =
√3 − 1
𝑥1 (0)
𝑥2 (0) = 𝑟1 𝑥1 (0) =
√3 − 1
Problem 2

A two-story building is modeled as 2-DOF system and rigid floors as shown in the Figure 4.9.
Determine the top floor maximum displacement and base shear due to El-Centro, 1940 earthquake
ground motion using the response spectrum method. Take the inter-story stiffness, k =197.392 ×
103 N/m and the floor mass, m = 2500 kg and damping ratio as 2%.

Solution

## Mass of each floor, m = 2500 kg and stiffness, k = 197.392 kN/m

thus,
Stiffness matrix
3𝑘 −𝑘
= [𝑘] = [ ]
−𝑘 𝑘
and mass matrix
5000 0
= [𝑚] =
0 2500

Using equation (4.19), eigen values and eigen vectors can be obtained

0.5 −1
[𝜙1 ] = 𝑎𝑛𝑑 [𝜙2 ] =
1 1
Modal participation factors are given by

Similarly,

## 1st mode response

From the response spectra, (refer Figures 4.2 and 4.4 or Appendix-II)

## Top floor displacement = Γ1 × φ 21 × Sd1 = 1.333× 1 × 0.153

= 0.204m
Base Shear
2nd Mode Response

## Mode Top floor displacement (m) Base shear (kN)

1 0.204 40.16

2 -0.0214 -8.652

Exact Response
0.202 40.72
(from Example 3.6)
Problem 3
A three-story building is modeled as 3-DOF system and rigid floors as shown in Figure 4.12.
Determine the top floor maximum displacement and base shear due to El-Centro, 1940 earthquake
ground motion using the response spectrum method. Take the inter-story lateral
stiffness of floors i.e. k1 = k2= k3=16357.5 x 103 N/m and the floor mass m1 = m2= 10000 kg
and m3=5000 kg.

Solution

## The mass matrix of the structure

and the stiffness matrix

Finding eigen values and eigen vectors using the equation (4.19)
Implying that

## On substituting ω2 in the characteristic equation,

From the response spectra (refer Figures 4.2 and 4.4 or Appendix-II),
Peak responses using the SRSS modal combination rule are given below