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PART A UNIVERSITY QUESTIONS WITH ANSWER

UNIT –I THE 8086 MICROPROCESSOR

1. What is the need for interrupts in microprocessor operation?(Dec 2018)


Sometimes it is necessary to have microprocessor automatically execute one
of the collections of special routines whenever certain condition exists within
a program. Interrupt is an event or signal that request to attention of CPU.
This halt allows peripheral devices to access the microprocessor.

2. What are byte and string manipulations? (Dec 2018)


In byte manipulation, the arithmetic and logical operations are performed
on byte data. On the other hand, when the same arithmetic and logical
operation is performed on multiple bytes one by one, the operation is called
string manipulation

3. Define stack pointer(May 2018)


Stack register also called as stack pointer is a register which holds the16-bit
offset from the start of the segment to the top of the stack.

4. The offset address of a data is (341B)H and the data segment register
value is (123A)H. What is the physical address of the data?
(April/May 2017)
Data segment register value 3 4 1 B
Left shift 4 times the DS register value 3 4 1 B 0
Offset value 1 2 3 A

Physical address 3 5 3 E A
Therefore the physical address is (353EA)H
5. Define stack.(April/May 2017)(Nov/Dec 2014)
The stack is a portion of read/write memory set aside by the user for the
purpose of storing information temporarily. When the information is written
on the stack, the operation is called PUSH. When the information is read from
stack, the operation is called POP.

6. List the flags of 8086.(April/ May 2010)(May / June 2014) (Nov/Dec2014)


(Nov/Dec 2016)
i. Carry Flag (CF) - Set if there was a carry or borrow.
ii. 2. Parity Flag (PF) - Set if result is even number of one’s.
iii. 3. Auxiliary Carry Flag (AF) - Set if carry from lower nibble to higher
nibble.
iv. 4. Zero Flag (ZF) - Set if result is zero.
v. Sign Flag (SF) - Set if MSB bit of result is zero.
vi. Overflow Flag (OF) - Set if sign bit is affected by the result.
vii. Trace Flag (TF) - Used for single step operation.
viii. Interrupt Flag (IF) - Used to Enable the Interrupt
ix. Direction Flag (DF) - Used for String direction.

7. List the segment registers of 8086. (Nov/Dec 2016)


The segment registers of 8086 are given by Code segment, Data segment,
Stack segment and Extra segment registers.

8. List the addressing modes of 8086.Give examples. (April/May 2015)


(Nov/Dec 2017) (April/May 2018)
The various addressing modes are
i. Register addressing mode – MOV AX,BX
ii. Immediate addressing mode – MOV DX,0451H
iii. Direct addressing mode – MOV [1234 H], AX
iv. Register indirect addressing mode – MOV [BX],CL
v. Based indexed addressing mode – MOV [BX+SI], BP
vi. Register relative addressing mode – MOV CL, [BX+4]
vii. Implied addressing mode – CTC, STC

9. Write about the different types of interrupts supported by 8086.


Dedicated interrupts (April/May 2015)
i. Type 0: Divide by zero interrupt
ii. Type 1: Single step interrupt
iii. Type 2:Non maskable interrupt
iv. Type 3: Breakpoint
v. Type 4: Overflow interrupt
Software interrupts
i. Type 0-255
Hardware interrupts
ii. INTR : Maskable interrupt
iii. NMI: Non Maskable interrupt

10.Calculate the physical address, when the segment address is 1085H and
effective address is 4537H.(Nov/Dec 2015)
Data segment register value 1 0 8 5
Left shift 4 times the DS register value 1 0 8 5 0
Offset value 4 5 3 7

Physical address 1 5 3 8 7

11.Show how 2 byte INT instruction can be applied for debugging.


(Nov/Dec 2015)
The INT 3 instruction is defined for use by debuggers to temporarily replace
an instruction in a running program in order to set a breakpoint.
12.Define stack.(Nov/Dec 2014) ( April/May 2018)

The stack is a portion of read/write memory set aside by the user for the
purpose of storing information temporarily.
When the information is written on the stack, the operation is called PUSH.
When the information is read from stack, the operation is called POP.

10.Identify the addressing modes in the following instructions.


(May / June 2014)
ADD AL, BL
SUB AL, 24H
MOV AL, [BP]
MOV CX, 1234H.
ADD AL, BL- Register Addressing mode
SUB AL, 24- Immediate Addressing mode
MOV AL, [BP]- Base Addressing mode
MOV CX, 1234H - Immediate Addressing mode.

11.Why is the memory bank is divided into add and even bank? (Nov / Dec
2013)
The 8086 microprocessor has 16 bit data lines but each memory location have
only 8 bit data. So two memory read operation is required for 16 bit data. If
memory bank is divided into odd and even bank, we can access 16 bit data
from consequent locations with single memory read operation.

12.Why do you mean by segment override prefix? (Nov / Dec 2013)


The segment override prefix is an additional 8-bit code which is put in
memory before the code for the rest of the instruction. This additional code
selects the alternate segment register.

13.Name the hardware interrupt of 8086. (April/ May 2013)


i. INTR : Maskable interrupt
ii. NMI: Non Maskable interrupt

14.Why is 8284 clock generator connected to the 8086 clock pin?


(April/ May 2013)
The 8086 does not have on chip clock generation circuit. Hence the clock
generator chip, 8284 is connected to the CLK pin of 8086. The clock signal
supplied by 8284 is divided by three for internal use.

15.What interrupt in vector table are used for a Type 2 interrupt in 8086?
(Nov / Dec 2012)
Non Maskable interrupt (NMI) in the vector table 008H is used for type 2
interrupt.
16. Why do we use macro? (Nov / Dec 2012) (Nov / Dec 2017)
Macro is used when a small group of instruction needs to use many times.
The macro assembler generates the code in the program each time where the
macro is called. Creating macro is similar to creating new opcodes that can
be used in the program.

17.Illustrate the operation of the following instructions in 8086 processor.


a) DAA b) CBW (May/ June 2012)
a. DAA- Decimal adjust for addition
This instruction converts the binary result of an ADD or ADC instruction
in AL to packed BCD format.
Example: MOV AL, 0Fh; AL = 0Fh
DAA ; AL = 15h

b. CBW- Convert Byte to Word


This instruction converts a byte in to a word.
Example: If AL =9B,
After Execution, AX becomes FF9B.

18.What are the instructions used for BCD arithmetic? (May/ June 2012)
i. DAA- Decimal Adjust for Addition
ii. DAS - Decimal Adjust for subtraction

19.What are the general purposes registers of 8086? (Nov / Dec 2011)
i. AX - 16-bit Accumulator
ii. BX - Base Register
iii. CX - Count Register
iv. DX - Data Register
v. SP - Stack pointer
vi. BP - Base pointer
vii. SI - Source index
viii. DI - Destination index

20.Give the importance of the assembler directive EVEN. (Nov / Dec 2011)
The assembler directive EVEN aligns on even memory address. It tells the
assembler to increment the location counter to the next even address if it is not
already at the even address.

21.What are assembler directives? Give examples. (April / May 2011)


Assembler directives also called as assembler pseudo instructions. This
is instruction used by the assembler. They produce no executable code for the
processor and normally do not take up any memory locations. They are used
by the assembler to make programming easier.
Example:
DB - Define Byte
END - End of the program.
22.List any four program control instruction available in 8086.
(April / May 2011)
i. HLT
ii. WAIT
iii. LOCK
iv. ESC
23.List the pointer and index register of 8086 architecture? (Nov / Dec 2010)
i. SP-Stack pointer
ii. BP-Base pointer
iii. SI-Source index
iv. DI-Destination index

24.Identify the addressing modes involved in the following 8086 instructions.


MOV AX, 005H and MOV AX, [BX + SI]. (Nov / Dec 2010)
MOV AX, 005 H - Immediate Addressing modes
MOV AX, [BX + SI] - Based Index Addressing modes

25.Write an assembly language program to multiply to multiply two 16 bit


unsigned numbers to provide 32 bit result. Assume that the two numbers
are stored in CX and DX. (April/ May 2010)

MOV AX, DX
MUL CX
MOV [1100], DX
MOV [1102], AX

26.Give the significations of Interrupt flag? (Nov / Dec 2009)


Significance of interrupt flag is that it is used to enable or disable the
maskable interrupts.
When this bit =1 => Maskable interrupts are enabled.
When this bit =0 => Maskable interrupts are disabled.

27.What is indexed addressing? Give an example. (Nov / Dec 2009)


In the indexed addressing mode the operant’s offset is the sum of an index
register SI or DI and an 8 bit or 16 bit displacement.
MOV AX, [SI+0100]
MOV [DI+4], AH

UNIT II – 8086 SYSTEM BUS STRUCTURE

1. Define system bus. (Nov/Dec 2018)


A microprocessor based system uses three bus namely address bus, data bus
and control bus to communicate between microprocessor and other parts of
the system like memory and I/O devices. These three buses are combined
called as system bus.
2. What is meant by multiprogramming?(April/May 2018)(Nov/Dec 2015)
Multiprogramming is a technique to execute multiple programs
simultaneously by a single processor. Number of processes is executed in a
time multiplexed manner. Hence CPU is not idle at any time.

3. Write some examples for advanced processors. (April/May 2017)


(Nov/Dec 2017)
The examples for advanced processors are Intel 80386, 80486, Pentium 4
processors, Intel dual core processors, Intel core i3 processors, Intel core i5
processors etc.,

4. Define Machine cycle.(Nov/Dec 2016)


Machine cycle is defined as time required by the microprocessor to complete
the operation of accessing memory or input/output device. Operations like
opcode, fetch, Memory read, Memory write ,i/o read ,i/o write are performed
in a machine cycle. This cycle may consist of three to six T-states.

5. Define bus.(Nov/Dec 2016)


It is a group of wires or lines that are used to transfer the information between
microprocessor and Memory or I/O devices. Depending upon the information
it carries, bus is classified as
i. Address bus
ii. Data bus
iii. Control bus
6. Define bus? Why bus request and cycle stealing are required?(April/May
2015)
Bus is a group of wires or lines that are used to transfer the addresses of
Memory or I/O devices. Requesting for a bus cycle is known as bus request.
Taking control of the bus for a bus cycle is called cycle stealing. These are
required since this allows the CPU to continue its work until the next data
byte is available.

7. Draw the read cycle timing diagram for minimum mode.(April/May


2015)
8. Schematically show, how synchronization is made between 8086 and its
coprocessor.(Nov/Dec 2015)

9. Differentiate external versus internal bus.(May/June 2016)


An internal bus or local bus enables communication between internal
components and memory. An external bus or expansion bus is capable of
communicating with external components such as a printer.

10.List the advantages and disadvantages of parallel communication over


serial communication. (May/June 2016)
Advantage – Communication is fast as 8 bits are sent simultaneously.
Disadvantage – Implementation cost is high and hence used for short distance
communication.

11.What is Coprocessor? (May / June 2014)


The coprocessor is a processor which specially designed for processor to work
under the control of the processor and support special processing capabilities.
Example: 8087 which has numeric processing capability and works under
8086.

12.What are loosely coupled systems? (May / June 2014)


i. Loosely coupled system can be expanded in a modular form.
ii. Each module may consist of an 8086 and another processor capable of being a
bus master, or processor or closely coupled configuration.
iii. Normally each processor has its own local memory and I/O devices, to which
other processors do not have direct access. But they can share system resources.

13.What is the function of 𝑳𝑶𝑪𝑲̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅ and 𝑹𝑸


̅̅̅̅/𝑮𝑻
̅̅̅̅ signals?(May / June 2013)
̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅
𝑳𝑶𝑪𝑲
This signal indicates that other system bus masters cannot gain control of the
̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅is active Low.
system bus while (𝐿𝑂𝐶𝐾)
̅̅̅̅/𝑮𝑻
𝑹𝑸 ̅̅̅̅
This pin is used by other local bus maters to force the processor to release the
local bus at end of the processors current instruction.
14.When the 8086 processor is in minimum mode and maximum
mode?(May / June 2013)
When MN/ ⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑
MX pin of the 8086 are tied HIGH (+5V) the processor is in
minimum mode and when it tied to LOW (0Volt) the processor is in
maximum mode operation.

15.What are the features of closely coupled multiprocessor systems?


(Nov / Dec 2011)
i. In closely coupled system, processors use shared memory.
ii. The information can be shared among the CPUs by placing it in the
common global memory
iii. System structure is less flexible.

16.Compare closely coupled configuration with loosely coupled


configuration. (May/ June 2010)
Closely coupled system Loosely coupled system
A multiprocessor system with A multiprocessor system which each
common shared memory is known as processor having its own private
closely coupled system local memory is known as loosely
coupled system
Here, the information can be shared Here, the information is transferred
among the CPUs by placing it in the from one processor to another by
common global memory message passing system.
System structure is less flexible. System structure is more flexible.

17.What are the basic multiprocessor configurations that the 8086 can
support?(April / May 2009)
i. Closely coupled configuration
ii. Loosely coupled configuration

18.What is a co-processor? How is it useful? (April / May 2009/Dec 2018)


The co-processor is the processor which executes the instructions fetched for
it by host processor. It is designed to work in parallel with a microprocessor
so it will be useful to increase the speed.
Example: 8087 Numeric Data Processor used for floating point operations.

18.Distinguish between the maximum mode and minimum mode of


operation of the 8086 processor? (April/May 2018)
S.No Minimum mode Maximum mode
1. ̅̅̅
M/IOsignal is connected to ̅̅̅
M/IOsignal is connected to ground.
Vcc (+5V).
2. It is a single processor It is a multi- processor system
system configuration. configuration.
3. The 8086 generates system External bus controller (8288) is
control signals by itself required to generate system control
signals.
4. The minimum mode pins are The maximum mode pins are
HOLD, HLDA, 𝑊𝑅 ̅̅̅,
̅̅̅̅̅, M/IO ̅̅̅̅/𝐺𝑇0
𝑅𝑄 ̅̅̅̅̅̅, 𝑅𝑄
̅̅̅̅/𝐺𝑇1
̅̅̅̅̅̅, ̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅
𝐿𝑂𝐶𝐾, ̅̅̅𝑆2, ̅̅̅
𝑆1,
DT/𝑅̅, 𝐷𝐸𝑁 ̅̅̅̅̅̅̅.
̅̅̅̅̅̅, ALE, 𝐼𝑁𝑇𝐴 ̅̅̅
𝑆0, QS0, QS1.

UNIT III I/O INTERFACING

1. What are bit manipulation instructions? Give two examples.(May 2018)


Bit manipulation instructions are very convenient when it is necessary to set
or reset a particular bit in internal RAM or SFRs.
Example:
1. CLR C:Clear carry flag
2. CPL C: Complement carry flag

2. Why is memory interfacing required?(Nov /Dec 2018)


Microprocessor has in-built register memory and it is not sufficient to store
program code and data .Hence, it is required to interface external memory to
the processor

3. Draw the format of read back command register of 8254.(May/June


2017)

4. Write a 16 bit delay program in 8086.(May/June 2017) (Nov/Dec 2018)


MOV BX, COUNT
L1: DEC BX
NOP
JNZ L1
RET

5. How DMA is initiated?(Nov / Dec 2016) (Nov / Dec 2017)


i. When an I/O device needs a DMA transfer, it will send a DMA request
signal to DMA controller.
ii. The DMA controller in turn sends a HOLD request to the processor.
iii. When the processor receives a HOLD request, it will drive its tri-stated
pins to high impedance state at the end of current instruction execution
and send an acknowledge signal to DMA controller.
iv. Now the DMA controller will perform DMA transfer.
6. What is the drawback of memory mapped I/O?(Nov / Dec 2016)
More hardware is required to decode 16-bit address

7. List the advantages and disadvantages of parallel communication over


serial communication.(May/June 2016)
Advantage: Data transfer is fast as 8 lines are used for communication.
Disadvantage: Implementation is expensive and hence used for short distance
communication.

8. What is key debouncing.(May/June 2016)(Nov / Dec 2010)


The push button keys when pressed, bounces a few times (closing and
opening the contacts) before providing a steady reading. So reading taken
during bouncing may be faulty. Therefore the microprocessor must wait until
the key reach to steady state. This is known as key debouncing.

9. List the operating modes of 8255 and 8237.(Nov / Dec 2015)


8237
i. Signal transfer mode
ii. Block transfer mode
iii. Demand transfer mode
8255
i. BSR mode
ii. I/O mode
a. Mode 0 - Basic I/O mode
b. Mode 1 - Strobed I/O mode
c. Mode 2 - Strobed bi-directional I/O

10.What frequency (TxC) is required by 8251 in order for it to transmit data


at 4800 baud with baud rate factor of 16?(Nov / Dec 2015)
Frequency = 4800/16 = 300Hz.

11.Give the various modes and applications of 8254 timer.(April/May 2015)


(April/May 2018)
Applications
i. Real time clock
ii. Event counter
iii. Square, Saw tooth, sine, triangular and complex waveform
generation
iv. Binary rate generation
Modes
i. Mode 0: Interrupt on terminal count.
ii. Mode 1: Hardware retriggerable one shot.
iii. Mode 2: Rate generator.
iv. Mode 3: Square wave generator.
v. Mode 4: Software triggered strobe
vi. Mode 5: Hardware triggered strobe

12.What are the advantages of Programmable Timer/ Counter IC?(May /


June 2014)
i. It is used to generate accurate time delay under software control.
ii. It’s Compatible with all microprocessors.
iii. Both BCD and binary counting available.
iv. In Timer/ Counter IC, there are three independent timer / counter available.

13.List the features of memory mapped I/O (May / June 2014).


i. 16-bit device address is used.
ii. Data transfer between any general-purpose register and I/O port.
iii. The memory map (64K) is shared between I/O device and system memory.
iv. Arithmetic or logic operation can be directly performed with I/O data.

Nov / Dec 2013


14. State the importance of sample and hold circuit.
i. In ADC, at equal interval, samples are taken and it will be maintained till
next sample.
ii. This will be done by sample and hold circuit.

15. List the applications of programmable interval Timer.


i. Real time clock
ii. Event counter
iii. Square, Saw tooth, sine, triangular and complex waveform generation
iv. Binary rate generation
May/ June 2013
16.What are the modes of operation of 8237?
i. Signal transfer mode
ii. Block transfer mode
iii. Demand transfer mode

17.State the applications of Programmable Interval Timer.


i. Real time clock
ii. Event counter
iii. Square, Saw tooth, sine, triangular and complex waveform generation
iv. Binary rate generation

Nov / Dec 2012


18.List the four display modes of 8279 keyboard/display controller.
i. Eight numbers of 8 bit character display left entry.
ii. Sixteen numbers of 8 bit character display left entry.
iii. Eight numbers of 8 bit character display right entry.
iv. Sixteen numbers of 8 bit character display right entry.
19.What are the enhanced features of 8254 programmable interval timer
compared to 8253?
i. Compatible with all microprocessors.
ii. Six programmable counter modes.
iii. Three independent 16 bit timer / counter available.
iv. It generates accurate time delay under software control.
v. BCD and binary counting.
vi. Each counter has a separate clock input, count enable (gate) input lines and
output lines.
20.What is DMA?
DMA stands for Direct Memory Access. It is a high speed data transfer device
that can control data transfer between an I/O subsystem and a memory subsystem
without the help of CPU.

May/ June 2012


21.Why latch is used for an output port, but a tri state buffer can be used for an
input port?
i. The Latch will hold the data until new data arrives from input of Buffer. A
latch is necessary to hold the output data for display.
ii. In a tri-state buffer, output is available when enable signal is active. When
microprocessor wants to read data from the input device (keyboard), the
control signals activates the buffer by asserting input enable of the buffer.
Once the buffer is enabled, data from the device is available on the data bus.
22.List the modes of Programmable Interval Timer.
i. Mode 0: Interrupt on terminal count.
ii. Mode 1: Hardware retriggerable one shot.
iii. Mode 2: Rate generator.
iv. Mode 3: Square wave generator.
v. Mode 4: Software triggered strobe
vi. Mode 5: Hardware triggered strobe
Nov / Dec 2011
23.How many address lines and data lines are necessary for accessing 32Kx8
memory?
32K= 32x1024=32768
2n =32768; => n=15
No of Address lines are 15
No of data line are 8.
May/ June 2011
24.State the use of cascading signals of 8259 programmable interrupt
controller?
These signals are used to expand the number of interrupt levels by cascading two
or more 8259s.
25.Mention any two applications of ADC and DAC.
ADC
i. Temperature Control system.
ii. Blood sugar measurement.
DAC
i. Square and Saw tooth waveform generation
ii. Temperature Control system.
Nov / Dec 2010
26.Give the salient features of 8254 Programmable Interval Timer.
i. Compatible with all microprocessors.
ii. Six programmable counter modes.
iii. Three independent 16 bit timer / counter available.
iv. It generates accurate time delay under software control.
v. BCD and binary counting.
vi. Each counter has a separate clock input, count enable (gate) input lines and
output lines.
April/ Many 2010
27.Can an input port and an output port have the same address? Justify
Yes - each operation can be distinguished by the R/W signal on the system bus. It
can be considered to be an extra address line to be decoded - one address with
R/W high triggers one device, the same address with R/W low triggers the
second.

28.Why is each channel in DMA controller restricted to 16K bytes of data


transfer?
In terminal count register, MSB two bits are used to specify the type of operation
so only 14 bits are used for terminal count. 2 14 = 16 KB so each channel in DMA
controller can transfer 16KB.
April/ Many 2009
29.What are the modes of operations supported by 8255?
1. BSR mode
2. I/O mode
Mode 0 - Basic I/O mode
Mode 1 - Strobed I/O mode
Mode 2 - Strobed bi-directional I/O

30.What are the different operating modes of 8259?


i. Fully Nested Mode
ii. Automatic End of Interrupt (AEOI)
iii. Automatic Rotation
iv. Specific Rotation
v. Special Mask Mode
vi. Poll command
vii. Special Fully Nested Mode
viii. Buffered mode
UNIT IV MICROCONTROLLER

April/May 2017
1. Which port is used as multifunction port? List the signals.
Port 3 is used as multifunctional port in 8051 microcontroller. The alternate
functions of port 3 are given below.

2. Illustrate the CJNE instruction.


The CJNE instruction compares the first two operands and branches to the
specified destination if their values are not equal. If the values are the same,
execution continues with the next instruction.
Example: CJNE @R1, #24H, LABEL
Nov/Dec 2016
3. Draw the pin diagram of 8051 (April/May 2018)
4. What is the significance of EA pin?
When the pin EA̅̅̅̅ = ‘0’ (Ground) the microcontroller chose External program
memory.
When the pin ̅̅̅̅
EA = ‘1’ (Vcc) the microcontroller chose on chip ROM.

April/May 2016
5. What are the different ways of operand addressing in 8051?(Dec 2018)
i. Immediate addressing mode
ii.
Register addressing mode
iii.
Direct addressing mode
iv.
Register indirect addressing mode
v. Indexed addressing mode
6. Write an ALP to toggle P1 200 times .Use RAM location 32H to hold your
counter value instead of registers R0 – R7.
MOV R1, #200
MOV 32,R1
MOV A,P
CPL A
HLT
Nov/Dec 2015
7. Mention the number of register banks and their addresses in 8051.
Register bank 0 - 00h – 07h
Register bank1 - 08h – 0fh
Register bank 2 - 10h – 17h
Register bank 3 - 18h - 1fh

8. What is jump range?


The short jump allows 8051 to jump to memory location with +127 and -128
bytes from memory location. Long jump allows 8051 to jump anywhere in 64
KB of memory.
April/May 2015

9. Draw the diagram for program status word in 8051.

10.How do you select register banks in 8051?


RS1 and RS0 are used to select Register bank in 8051.
RS1 RS0 Bank Selection
0 0 Bank 0
0 1 Bank 1
1 0 Bank 2
1 1 Bank 3

May / June 2014


11.How does the microcontroller 8051 know whether on chip ROM or
External program memory is used?
̅̅̅̅ = ‘0’ (Ground) the microcontroller chose External program
When the pin EA
memory.
When the pin ̅̅̅̅
EA = ‘1’ (Vcc) the microcontroller chose on chip ROM.

12.What is difference between AJMP and LJMP?


AJMP - it is Absolute jump. It is a two byte instruction. The target addresses
within 2K bytes.
LJMP - it is Long jump. It is a three byte instruction. The target addresses any
ware of 64KB.
Nov / Dec 2013
13.How do you place a specific value in the DPTR register?
DPTR stands for data pointer. DPTR consists of a high byte (DPH) and a low
byte (DPL). Its function is to hold a 16-bit address. We place a specific value
in the DPTR register by using the following instruction.
MOV DPTR, #4100h>> the 4100 Value is moved to DPTR.

14.Which of the 8051 port need pull up register to function as I/O port?
To function as an input port, the port 1 need external pull up resister.
May/ June 2013
15.What is baud rate for mode 0 operation of the serial port of 8051?
Baud rate in mode 0 is = oscillator frequency/12
If 12 MHz is used, the baud rate = 12 MHz/12= 1 MHz.

16.In the program status word of 8051, the bits RS0 and RS1 are 1 and 0
then which register bank is selected for operation?
Bank 1 is selected when RS0 and RS1 are 1 and 0.

17.Specify the size of memory systems used in 8051 microcontroller.


(Nov / Dec 2012)
i. Internal RAM size:128 Bytes
ii. Internal ROM size:4 KB
iii. Maximum External RAM size:64 KB
iv. Maximum External ROM size:64 KB

18. Mention the different operand types used in 8051 microcontroller.


(Nov / Dec 2012)
i. Immediate addressing mode
ii.
Register addressing mode
iii.
Direct addressing mode
iv.
Register indirect addressing mode
v.
Indexed addressing mode

19.What is the size of on chip program memory and on chip data memory of
8051 µC?(May/ June 2012)
On chip RAM size: 128 Bytes
On chip ROM size: 4 KB

20.List the modes of 8051 Timer.(May/ June 2012)


Mode 0: 13 bit timer / counter.
Mode 1: 16 bit timer / counter.
Mode 2: 8 bit auto reload.
Mode 3: 8 bit split timer mode.

21.What are the difference between a microprocessor and microcontroller?


(Nov / Dec 2011)(Dec 2018)
Microprocessor Microcontroller
Microprocessor is a general Microcontroller is intended for a
purpose device. specific purpose.
Memory, I/O devices etc need to It has built- in ROM, RAM, I/O
be interfaced with microprocessor. devices, timers and counters.
We can say that microprocessor is
Microcontroller is a system on a chip
a CPU on a chip.
It has more byte handling
It has more bit handling instructions.
instructions.
UNIT V INTERFACING MICROCONTROLLER

1. What are the types of sensors used for interfacing? (May 2018)
Temperature, pressure, flow, force, light intensity sensors are used for interfacing

2. What are the types of ADC? ( Dec 2018)


Flash ADC, Successive approximation ADC, Dual scope ADC, Counter type
ADC

3. List the modes of timer in 8051. (Nov / Dec 2016)


Mode 0: 13 bit timer / counter.
Mode 1: 16 bit timer / counter.
Mode 2: 8 bit auto reload.
Mode 3: 8 bit split timer mode.

4. Show how baud rate is calculated for serial data transfer in mode 1.
(Nov / Dec 2016)
The baud rate in the 8051 is programmable and can be set through Timer 1 or
by changing the external crystal oscillator. Timer 1 is used to generate baud
rate for mode 1 serial communication by using overflow flag of the timer to
determine the baud frequency.

5. Compare polling and interrupt. (April/May 2016)


Polling: Processor always checks the status of the interfacing device so as to
service the device. Processor time is wasted in monitoring the status of the
device.
Interrupt: Processor performs its routine task and if any interfacing device
needs service, it contacts processor through a process called interrupt. Interrupt
means to break the sequence of operation.

6. Define baud rate of 8051. (April/May 2016)


The baud rate is the rate at which the serial data are transmitted. Baud rate is
defined as the data bits per second.

7. Mention the features of serial port in mode 0. (Nov / Dec 2015)


In this mode serial enters & exits through RXD, TXD outputs the shift clock.8
bits are transmitted/received:8 data bits(LSB first).The baud rate is fixed at 1/12
the oscillator frequency.

8. How A/D converter is interfaced with 8051. (Nov / Dec 2015)


9. Differentiate between timer and counter. Draw the diagram of TCON in
8051. (April/May 2015)
For timer operation the internal clock is connected and it will be counted for
generating time delay. For counter external count pulse is connected and that will
be counted.

10.Which register is used for serial programming in 8051? Illustrate.


(April/May 2015)
SBUF register is used for serial programming. For a byte of data to be
transferred via the TXD line, it must be placed in SBUF register.

7. Write about the design steps involved in using microcontroller for stepper
motor. (May / June 2014)
i. Find the Look up table data based on type of energizing scheme and
direction of rotation.
ii. Load the count value.(based on the number of look up table data)
iii. Using step angle find the number of sequences required to reach required
angle.

8. What do you mean by RTC? (Nov / Dec 2013)


RTC stands for Real time clock. RTC is used in almost all the electronic
device which needs to keep accurate time.

9. State the importance of relay coils. (Nov / Dec 2013)


The relay coils are used to control the high voltage devices. Without this
coil we can’t separate high voltage from controller signal.
10.What is the resolution of 10 bit ADC? (May/ June 2013)
The resolution of ADC is = Vi / (2n-1)
Vi =5V, n=10; resolution = 5/210-1 =5/ 123=0.00488

11.Mention any two applications of stepper motor control. (May/ June 2013)
Some of the applications of stepper motor control are,
i. Robotics
ii. Dot matrix Printers
iii. Disk Drives

12.How do you change the direction of the stepper motor from clock wise
direction to anti clock wise direction? (Nov / Dec 2012)
By reversing the look up table data, the direction of stepper motor is changed.

13.Differentiate microprocessor from microcontroller in system design.


(April/ May 2010)
Microprocessor does not contain RAM, ROM and I/O ports on the chip. But a
microcontroller contains RAM, ROM and I/O ports and a timer all on a single
chip.

14.List the interrupts of 8051. (Nov/ Dec 2017) (April/ May 2018)
Vector
Interrupt Priority
Address
External hardware interrupt 0 (INT
0003H Highest
0)
Timer interrupt 0 (TF0) 000BH
External hardware interrupt 1 (INT 1) 0013H
Timer Interrupt 1(TF1) 001BH
Serial communication Interrupt (TI
0023H Lowest
and RI)

15.List the applications of a microcontroller. (May/ June 2008)


The various applications of microcontroller are,
i. Control applications such as home monitoring system.
ii. Automotive application
iii. Embedded systems
iv. Robotics
v. Appliances such as microwave oven, refrigerator etc.

16.Define watchdog timer. (May/ June 2006)


Watchdog timer is a timing device that reset the controller when in not responds
for a predefined time.