Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 11

ExxonMobil Proprietary

PUMPS Section Page


X-E 1 of 11
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP
DESIGN PRACTICES PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS December, 2001

Changes shown by ➧

CONTENTS
Section Page

SCOPE ............................................................................................................................................................ 2

REFERENCES ................................................................................................................................................ 2

DEFINITIONS .................................................................................................................................................. 2

IMPELLER CLASSIFICATION, SPECIFIC SPEED ........................................................................................ 2


EXAMPLE 1: SPECIFIC SPEED CALCULATION.................................................................................. 3

PERFORMANCE............................................................................................................................................. 3

AFFINITY LAWS ............................................................................................................................................. 3


EXAMPLE 2: AFFINITY LAW CALCULATION....................................................................................... 4
IMPELLER SPEED & DIAMETER CHANGES........................................................................................ 4

SUCTION SPECIFIC SPEED .......................................................................................................................... 4

EFFECT OF VISCOSITY ON PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS .......................................................... 5


EXAMPLE 3: VISCOSITY CORRECTION CALCULATION ................................................................... 5

DROOPING HEAD-CAPACITY CURVES....................................................................................................... 5

POWER REDUCTION - VARIABLE VERSUS CONSTANT SPEED.............................................................. 6

NOMENCLATURE .......................................................................................................................................... 6

FIGURES
Figure 1 Pump Impeller Classification ........................................................................................... 6
Figure 2 Average Performance for Radial Impeller........................................................................ 7
Figure 3 Pump Performance Curve at Various Speeds................................................................. 8
Figure 4 Correction Factors for Viscous Fluids (Customary) ......................................................... 9
Figure 5 Correction Factors for Viscous Fluids (Metric)............................................................... 10
Figure 6 Comparison of Constant and Variable Speed Drive ...................................................... 11

Revision Memo
12/01 Reaffirmed with 2 minor editorial changes.

ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company – Fairfax, VA


ExxonMobil Proprietary
Section Page PUMPS
X-E 2 of 11
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP
December, 2001 PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS DESIGN PRACTICES

SCOPE
This section presents information on the hydraulic performance characteristics of centrifugal pumps. This information is
intended to aid in estimating pump performance, modifying existing pumps, and in reapplying pumps in new pumping services.

REFERENCES

GLOBAL PRACTICE
GP 10-1-1 Heavy Duty Centrifugal Pumps

OTHER REFERENCES
➧ API 610, Centrifugal Pumps for Petroleum, Heavy Duty Chemical and Gas Industry Services.
Cameron Hydraulic Data, Published by Ingersoll Rand.
Pump Handbook, Second Edition, Edited by Igor J. Karassik, William C. Krutzsch, Warren H Fraser and Joseph P. Messina,
McGraw Hill, 1986.
Stepanoff, A. J., Centrifugal and Axial Flow Pumps, Theory, Design and Application, Second Edition, by, John Wiley & Sons,
1957.
Transamerica Delaval Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition, Edited by Harry J. Welch, McGraw Hill, 1983.
Application Guide for Electrical Variable Frequency Drives (VFD's), EE.52E.94.

DEFINITIONS
Best Efficiency Point (BEP) - The point on a pump performance curve corresponding to the flow rate with the highest possible
efficiency for that pump.
Cavitation - The formation and subsequent collapse of vapor-filled cavities in a liquid.
Head - The amount of energy per unit mass of a liquid. It is expressed in an equivalent column height of the fluid pumped, e.g.,
ft or m.
Net Positive Suction Head Available (NPSHA) - The total suction head, in ft (m) of liquid absolute, determined at a datum
elevation, minus the vapor pressure of the liquid in ft (m) absolute.
Net Positive Suction Head Required (NPSHR) - The reduction in total head as the liquid enters the pump. This includes
losses due to friction and turbulence. The NPSHA must always be greater than the NPSHR to avoid cavitation.

IMPELLER CLASSIFICATION, SPECIFIC SPEED


Centrifugal pumps are generally divided into three classes depending on the specific speed. The classes are as follows:
Centrifugal or Radial-Vane, Mixed-flow, and Axial-flow.
Specific speed (NS) is calculated using the following equations:
Customary Units Metric Units

N Q N Q
NS = NS =
H3 / 4 1.16 H3 / 4

where: N = The pump speed in RPM


Q = Volume flow rate at best efficiency point in gallons per minute (cubic m per hour),
use Q/2 for double suction pumps
H = Pump head (per stage) at best efficiency point in ft (m), use the first stage head for multi-
stage pumps
When used as a type number, specific speed is always calculated at the best efficiency point. Typically, pump impellers can be
classified into the following specific speed ranges (see Figure 1).

ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company – Fairfax, VA


ExxonMobil Proprietary
PUMPS Section Page
X-E 3 of 11
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP
DESIGN PRACTICES PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS December, 2001

IMPELLER CLASSIFICATION, SPECIFIC SPEED (Cont)

NS RANGE IMPELLER TYPE


500 < NS < 4200 Centrifugal or Radial Flow
4200 < NS < 9000 Mixed Flow
NS > 9000 Axial Flow

EXAMPLE 1: SPECIFIC SPEED CALCULATION


A pump is specified that will produce 100 ft (30.5 m) of head at a flow rate of 5000 gpm (1135.7 m3/hr) at a speed of 500 rpm.
Customary Units Metric Units
Calculate NS

500 5000 500 1135.7


NS = = 1118 NS = = 1118
100 3/4
1.16 x 30.53 / 4

For the same head-capacity requirement, higher specific speed pump impellers will run at a higher speed and will be physically
smaller. For the same speed and head, a higher specific speed pump will deliver a higher capacity.

PERFORMANCE
Typical pump performance curves include head, power requirement, efficiency, and NPSHR as a function of capacity. The
curve shapes vary very little between pumps that utilize the same impeller types. Figure 2 shows average curve shapes for the
main performance parameters for a radial flow impeller. This figure may be used to estimate the effect of a change in flow, but
actual curves should, of course, be used on existing pumps of known characteristics. Deviation of performance characteristics
of specific pumps from the average values of these figures should not be considered deficiencies, simply because they differ
from the average values.

AFFINITY LAWS
Pump characteristics vary with speed and impeller diameter in such a way that the performance curves retain their
characteristic features. The variation of head, capacity, and brake power with speed and impeller diameter follows definite
rules known as the affinity laws. When curves are supplied that do not present performance at different speeds and impeller
diameters, the affinity laws can be used to estimate the modified performance with reasonable accuracy.
The affinity laws are expressed by the following equations:
1. As the speed varies and diameter is held constant:
2 3
Q1 N1 H1  N1  BHP1  N1 
= =  = 
Q2 N2 H2  N2  BHP2  N2 

2. As the diameter varies and speed is held constant:


2 3
Q1 D1 H1  D1  BHP1  D1 
= =  = 
Q2 D2 H2  D2  BHP2  D2 

where: Q = Capacity, gpm (m3/hr)


H = Total Head, ft (m)
BHP = Brake Power, horsepower (kilowatts)
N = Pump Speed, RPM
D = Impeller Diameter, ft (m)

ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company – Fairfax, VA


ExxonMobil Proprietary
Section Page PUMPS
X-E 4 of 11
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP
December, 2001 PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS DESIGN PRACTICES

AFFINITY LAWS (Cont)

EXAMPLE 2: AFFINITY LAW CALCULATION


A pump manufacturer has provided a performance curve (see Figure 3) for a pump at design (100%) speed. At a capacity of
1250 gpm (284 m3/hr), the pump provides 385 ft (117 m) of head at a brake power of 400 horsepower (298 kW). The following
calculations demonstrate the shifting of performance parameters to 92% speed or impeller diameter:
Customary Units Metric Units
First, determine head at Ho = 450 x (0.92)2 = 380 ft Ho=137 x (0.92)2=116 m
zero flow.
To define any other point on the 92% speed curve proceed downward from the 100% curve to a point equal to H x (0.92)2.
From Point 1 at 1250 gpm (284 m3/hr) and 385 ft (117 m) head:
Calculate H2 H2 = 385 x (0.92)2 = 324 ft H2 = 117 x (0.92)2 = 99 m
Calculate Q2 Q2 = 1250 x 0.92 = 1150 gpm Q2 = 284 x 0.92 = 261 m3/hr
Point 2 would be on the curve at 1150 gpm (261 m3/hr) and 324 ft (99 m).
For the power curves at 92% speed or impeller diameter, proceed downward from point 3 on the 100% speed curve to a point
equal to BP x (0.92)3:
Calculate Power BHP = 400 x (0.92)3 = 312 hp BP = 298 x (0.92)3 = 232 kW
Calculate Q4 Q4 = 1250 x 0.92 = 1150 gpm Q4 = 284 x 0.92 = 261 m3/hr
Point 4 would be on the 92% curve at 312 BHP (232 kW) and 1150 gpm (261 m3/hr).

IMPELLER SPEED & DIAMETER CHANGES


➧ The affinity laws remain fairly accurate for a wide range of speed changes (up to about 50%). The pump's efficiencies,
however, will change significantly when there is a decrease in speed. There are accepted rules of thumb that can be used to
approximate the change in efficiency for pumps with specific speeds of 1000 - 2000 (radial flow). They are summarized by the
following table:

SPEED CHANGE EFFICIENCY CHANGE


Increase No Significant Change
Decrease Down to 20% No More than 2 Percentage Points Decrease
Decrease 20% to 50% 2 to 8 Percentage Points Decrease

In general, the affinity laws are only accurate for diameter changes that are limited to within 20% of the maximum diameter
impeller.

SUCTION SPECIFIC SPEED


Suction specific speed (SSS) is an index of pump suction operating characteristics determined at the best efficiency point with
the maximum-diameter impeller. It is an indicator of the net positive suction head required for given values of capacity and
rotative speed and provides an assessment of a pump's susceptibility to internal recirculation. It is calculated using the
following equations:
Customary Units Metric Units

N Q N Q
SSS = 3/4
SSS =
(NPSHR ) 1.16 (NPSHR )3 / 4

where: N = The operating speed in RPM


Q = Volume flow rate at best efficiency point in gallons per minute (cubic m per hour)
NPSHR = Net positive suction head required at best efficiency point in ft (m)
GP 10-1-1 limits SSS to 12000. Values of SSS range from 7000 to approximately 13000 for commercially available pumps.
Higher specific speed pumps have large inlet eye areas and are generally prone to internal recirculation when operated at flows
away from the BEP. The intent of the GP requirement is to avoid these problems, provide adequate turndown capability, and
improve pump reliability at reduced flow operation.

ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company – Fairfax, VA


ExxonMobil Proprietary
PUMPS Section Page
X-E 5 of 11
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP
DESIGN PRACTICES PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS December, 2001

EFFECT OF VISCOSITY ON PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS


Figures 4 and 5 provide a means of correcting the pump performance with viscous liquids by introducing correction factors for
capacity (CQ), head (CH), and efficiency (CE). To use the chart, enter the lower chart at the specified (design) capacity and
move vertically up to the head; move horizontally over to the viscosity and vertically up into the upper chart to read each
correction factor curve for efficiency, capacity, and head. CH is given on 4 curves corresponding to flow with respect to the BEP
(QN). These are given to approximate the shape of the head-capacity curve with the viscous liquid. CQ, CH, and CE are defined
as follows:
Qvis Hvis Evis
CQ = CH = CE =
Qw Hw Ew

where: subscript vis = Parameter of viscous liquid


subscript w = Parameter of water

EXAMPLE 3: VISCOSITY CORRECTION CALCULATION


The use of Figures 4 and 5 is illustrated in the following example. It is desired to select a pump to deliver 750 gpm (170 m3/hr)
at 100 ft (30.48 m) total head for a liquid having a viscosity of 220 centistokes (220 mm2/sec) and a specific gravity of 0.90.
First read the chart and calculate the corresponding head and capacity of a water pump.
Customary Units Metric Units
CQ from Chart 0.95 0.95
CH from Chart 0.92 0.92
(Assume 1.0 x Qn)
CE from Chart 0.635 0.635
750 170
Calculate QW Qw = = 790 gpm Qw = = 179 m3 /hr
0.95 0.95
100 30.48
Calculate HW Hw = = 108.8 ft Hw = = 33 m
0.92 0.92
Select a pump with a water capacity of 790 gpm (179 m3/hr) at 108.8 ft (33 m) of head and read the efficiency from the
performance curve. Assume the pump selected has an efficiency with water of 81 percent.
Calculate Evis Evis = 0.635 x 81 = 51.5% Evis = 0.635 x 81 = 51.5%
Q vis (gpm) x Hvis ( ft ) x SGc. Qvis (m3 /hr) x SGc. x Hvis (m) x 9.8
Calculate Power BHP = BP =
3960 x E vis 3600 x Evis
750 x 100 x 0.9 170 x 0.9 x 30.48 x 9.8
Calculate Power BHP = = 33.1 hp BP = = 24.7 kW
3960 x 0.515 3600 x 0.515
For new services, the vendor should account for changes in viscosity when offering a pump to meet service requirements. The
designer needs only to specify the anticipated viscosity range.

DROOPING HEAD-CAPACITY CURVES


There are pumps for which the shut-off head is lower than the maximum head. The head-capacity curve for such a pump is
described as drooping because the curve “droops" as flow decreases from maximum to shut-off. GP 10-1-1 states that head
curve should be continuously rising from the rated capacity point to the shutoff point and the shutoff head should be between
110% and 120% of head at the rated capacity point. Low capacity, high head pumps may be exempt from both of these
requirements with approval of the owner's engineer.
Drooping head-capacity curves are caused by extreme internal turbulence at flow rates near shutoff due to pump physical
design. Pump impeller vane and diffuser angles are designed for best efficiency at or near the required flow rate. Deviation
from that flow rate increases turbulence, causing a decrease in pump efficiency. In certain pump designs turbulence becomes
very excessive at very low flow, diminishing the net head produced and thus causing “droop."

ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company – Fairfax, VA


ExxonMobil Proprietary
Section Page PUMPS
X-E 6 of 11
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP
December, 2001 PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS DESIGN PRACTICES

DROOPING HEAD-CAPACITY CURVES (Cont)


Pumps which are especially prone to drooping curve shape are one with the following characteristics: 1) Vaned diffuser
construction, 2) Radial or nearly radial impeller vanes, 3) High speed pumps, 4) Impeller designed for low NPSH requirements,
and 5) Pumps with very high head per stage.
If a pump with a drooping head-capacity curve is operated near the maximum head/flow point, unstable operation may result.
The system may experience fluctuations in head and capacity as the pump tries to match the system flow rate and head
requirements. Fluctuations in head and capacity are followed by fluctuations in the power and the speed of the unit, which
under certain conditions, can induce mechanical vibrations in the piping system.

POWER REDUCTION - VARIABLE VERSUS CONSTANT SPEED


The following example shows the power consumption reduction that is possible with variable rather than constant speed
operation. This power reduction is occasionally sufficient to justify a variable speed turbine over a constant speed motor, or a
motor with a variable speed drive unit over a constant speed motor.
Figure 6 shows the power reduction potential based on a pipeline application. Assume the pump is operating at 100% rated
capacity at 100% rated pressure, Point 1. The power used, BHP1 on Curves A and B, would be approximately the same for the
constant speed unit as for the variable speed unit, since the variable speed unit would be operating at full speed.
If, however, it is desired to reduce the flow to 80% of the rated capacity, the head at Point 2 is all that is required. A variable
speed drive could be employed to reduce the pump speed to form a new head-capacity curve intersecting the line characteristic
curve at Point 2 and the pump would require only 73% of rated power, BHP2. If the pumping unit were a constant speed unit, it
would produce 110% of rated head at 80% of rated capacity, Point 3. The desired capacity could be achieved only by throttling
off the head between Points 3 and 2 (∆H as shown). The power used by the constant speed unit would be 92% of rated power
as shown by Curve A at BHP3.
The explanation for the difference in power requirements as indicated by the Curves A and B on Figure 6 lies principally in the
fact that throttling across control valve consumed a significant amount of driver power. Power requirement is determined by
three factors: the capacity, the head, and pump efficiency. As speed is reduced, the reduction in the product of pump head and
capacity exceeds the reduction in pump efficiency and results in a rapid decrease in brake power. At constant speed and
partial flow, the effect of the reduced flow in the power equation is partially offset by the increase in head and the decrease in
pump efficiency, hence, a relatively slight reduction in power as compared to the variable speed arrangement. In determining
the overall energy savings, the efficiency of the drive transmission must also be considered.

NOMENCLATURE
See Section X-A.

FIGURE 1
PUMP IMPELLER CLASSIFICATION
10,000

15,000
500

600

700

800

900
1,000

1,500

2,000

3,000

4,000

5,000

6,000

7,000

8,000

9,000

Impeller RPM GPM


Values of specific Speed Ns =
Shrouds H 3/4

Impeller
Shrouds
Impeller
Hub Hub Hub Hub
Hub
Vanes
Vanes Vanes Vanes Vanes
Axis of
Rotation
Radial - Vane Field Francis - Screw Field Mixed - Flow Field Axial - Flow Field
DP10Ef01

ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company – Fairfax, VA


ExxonMobil Proprietary
PUMPS Section Page
X-E 7 of 11
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP
DESIGN PRACTICES PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS December, 2001

FIGURE 2
AVERAGE PERFORMANCE FOR RADIAL IMPELLER

180

160

140

120

Head
% of Rating

100

80

NPSHR
BHP
60

EFF

40

20
0 10 30 50 70 90 110 130

DP10EF02 Capacity, % of BEP

ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company – Fairfax, VA


ExxonMobil Proprietary
Section Page PUMPS
X-E 8 of 11
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP
December, 2001 PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS DESIGN PRACTICES

FIGURE 3
PUMP PERFORMANCE CURVE AT VARIOUS SPEEDS
152 500

100% Speed
137 450

122 400
92% Speed System Head (Fouled)
117 x (0.92)2m
385 x (0.92)2ft System Head (Clean)
107 350 86% Speed

Point 2
91 300 284 x 0.92 m3/hr
1250 x 0.92 gpm
Head, m

Head, ft

74% Speed
76 250
69% Speed

61 200

46 150

31 100

15 50

1250 gpm 284 m3/hr


400BHP 298kW

100% Speed
375 500
Point 3

300 400
92% Speed
Brake Power, kW

Brake Power, HP

86% Speed
Point 4
225 300

74% Speed
150 200
69% Speed

75 100

0
0 200 400 400 400 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800
Flow Rate, gpm
0 100 200 300 400
DP10EF03 Flow Rate, m3 / hr

ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company – Fairfax, VA


ExxonMobil Proprietary
PUMPS Section Page
X-E 9 of 11
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP
DESIGN PRACTICES PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS December, 2001

FIGURE 4
CORRECTION FACTORS FOR VISCOUS FLUIDS (CUSTOMARY)
100
CH
90
Head

80
- 0.6 x Qn
70 - 0.8 x Qn
Correction Factors, %

- 1.0 x Qn
- 1.2 x Qn
60

100

90
CQ
80
Capacity and Effciency

CE
70

60

50

40

30

20
1320
1776
2200
3300
132
176
220
330
440
660
880
10
15
20
32
43
65
88

Centistokes

600
300
150
80
40

400
Head in Feet

200
100
60
30 15000
20
15 10000
100
150
200
300
400
600
800
40

60
80

1000
1500
2000
2000
4000
6000
8000

Viscosity - SSU

1 1.5 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 15 20 30 40 50 60 7080 90100


Capacity in 100 gpm

Notes:
(1) Enter chart at design capacity and move up to design head (for multi-stage pumps, use head per stage).
(2) Move horizontally to the fluid viscosity and vertically to the correction curves.
DP10EF04

ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company – Fairfax, VA


ExxonMobil Proprietary
Section Page PUMPS
X-E 10 of 11
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP
December, 2001 PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS DESIGN PRACTICES

FIGURE 5
CORRECTION FACTORS FOR VISCOUS FLUIDS (METRIC)
1.0

1.0
CH
1.0
0.6 x Q00
1.0 0.8 x Q00
1.0 x Q00
1.0 1.2 x Q00
0.9
CQ
0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4 Cη
mm2/s
0.3 1217
1670
2280
3190
6.25

11.8

16.5
21.2
33.4
45.2
60.5

114
152
190
228
304
350
456
610
760
915
76

150
80
40
20
10
6
4
Head, m

200
100
60 420
30
25
15
300
8
100
120
160
220
10
15
20
25
30
40
50
60
80
2

6
8
1.5

2.5

4.5

Engler °

20 30 40 80 60 80 100 150 200 300 400 500 600 800 1000 1500 2000

DP10EF05 Q, m3/h

ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company – Fairfax, VA


ExxonMobil Proprietary
PUMPS Section Page
X-E 11 of 11
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP
DESIGN PRACTICES PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS December, 2001

FIGURE 6
COMPARISON OF CONSTANT AND VARIABLE SPEED DRIVE

130 130
A
120 120
3
110 110
Constant - Speed
Pump Characteristic B.H.P.3
1
100 100
∆H Constant - Speed
B.H.P.1
90 B.H.P.
Percent of Rated Horsepower

Percent of Rated Horsepower


90
B
80 80
A
2 B.H.P.2
70 70
Variable - Speed
Pump Characteristic B
60 60

Variable - Speed
50 50 B.H.P. - Includes
Drive Losses
40 40

30 30

20 Line Characteristic 20

10 10

0 0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110

DP10EF06 Percent of Rated Capacity Percent of Rated Capacity

ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company – Fairfax, VA