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Entity: SSP

Document Identification: SSP-001


Version Number: 2.0
Issue Date: 25 May 2017
Title : State Safety Programme (SSP) for QATAR

QCAA Issue 0.1 Page ii of 64


Entity: SSP
Document Identification: SSP-001
Version Number: 2.0
Issue Date: 25 May 2017
Title : State Safety Programme (SSP) for QATAR

Executive Summary

The State Safety Programme (SSP) is established for the management of safety in the
State, in order to achieve an acceptable level of safety performance in civil aviation. This is
required by Article 6 of Law 15 as amended in the primary legislation. It addresses the
safety performance delivered by the State overall, which relies upon the total system
performance of all service providers, and also the regulator, working together for a safe
outcome.

The SSP is a formal activity, called for by an ICAO Standard; it includes a periodic review
of the legislative framework and regulation, and activities within the State to ensure the
discharge of the State‘s safety obligations under the Chicago Convention.

The SSP Framework, in this document provides a checklist of essential Regulatory


elements to achieve safety. In many cases this is met by describing the existing activities
of QCAA without further action, or improvement programmes already established such as
the RSRP. In some cases where gaps are identified, it will initiate new actions. These are
identified in the Gap Analysis and the Detailed Implementation Plan.

The focus of the SSP will be to embed best practice into the QCAA and to promote
adoption of best practice in Qatar’s Service Providers. Specifically, this will include a major
upgrade of the QCAA Regulatory Framework to align with ICAO and EASA, and a range of
actions to increase capability in Safety Management, including improvements in:

· Safety Data (new centralized collection, enhanced analysis capability, new data
sources such as inspections, audits and voluntary reports)

· SMS oversight capability (enhanced inspector training, standardization between


individual inspectors and provision of supporting materials)

· Safety Promotion (safety culture/ reporting culture, safety information protection and
convenient reporting mechanisms)

The safety priorities will be those identified by the ICAO Middle East Regional Aviation
Safety Group Report (May 2016). These will be the initial focus of the evolving safety
data system. Highest priorities include Runway Safety, Loss of Control in Flight and
System Component Failure. Further priorities include CFIT, Mid Air Collision, Lasers,
Remotely Piloted Aircraft System, Wildlife, Foreign Object Damage. Additional items to
include may be identified locally such as weather related events and aircraft fire. When
QCAA data is sufficiently mature, priorities will be refined to reflect the specific
circumstances of Qatar.

An Acceptable Level of Safety Performance for the State will be defined using a range of
metrics that include reactive (statistics on accidents and serious incidents), proactive
(occurrence reports on operational Safety performance), and predictive (organizational
factors such as responses to occurrences or findings, change management, safety
culture surveys).

In addition to Service Provider SMS, the QCAA will examine some hazards at the State
level and explore how these are addressed in each Service Provider SMS. This could
include a range of challenges associated with the current and predicted rapid expansion
of the aviation industry in Qatar.

QCAA Issue 0.1 Page 1 of 63


Entity: SSP
Document Identification: SSP-001
Version Number: 2.0
Issue Date: 25 May 2017
Title : State Safety Programme (SSP) for QATAR

QCAA Issue 0.1 Page 2 of 64


Entity: SSP
Document Identification: SSP-001
Version Number: 2.0
Issue Date: 25 May 2017
Title : State Safety Programme (SSP) for QATAR

Revision History

Changes to this document will be achieved by a re-issue of the entire document rather than
by the amendment of individual pages.

Issue No Date Description

Issue 1.0 01 January 2016 Qatar SSP document - initial issue


the review of the document according to the GASP
Issue 2.0 25 may 2017 2017- 2019, RASG MID5 and the new regulation

QCAA Issue 0.1 Page 4 of 64


Entity: SSP
Document Identification: SSP-001
Version Number: 2.0
Issue Date: 25 May 2017
Title : State Safety Programme (SSP) for QATAR

QCAA Issue 0.1 Page 5 of 64


Entity: SSP
Document Identification: SSP-001
Version Number: 2.0
Issue Date: 25 May 2017
Title : State Safety Programme (SSP) for QATAR

Contents

Pa g e

Executive Summary 1

State safety policy statement of Qatar 3

Revision History 4

Contents 6

Part I – General 9

1. Purpose of this Document 9


2. Background 13
3. State’s Safety Programme Gap Analysis 14
4. State’s Safety Programme Implementation Plan 14
5. Acceptable Level of Safety Performance (ALoSP) 14
6. Document Control 16
7. Distribution List and Record of Copies of the SSP Document 17

Part II – State’s Safety Programme 18

1. State’s safety policy and objectives 18


1.1 Safety legislative framework 18
1.2 QCAA safety responsibilities and accountabilities 21
1.3 Accident and incident investigation 23
1.4 Enforcement policy 23

2. State’s safety risk management 25


2.1 Safety requirements for service providers SMS 25
2.2 Approval of service provider’s acceptable levels of safety 25

3. State’s safety assurance 26


3.1 Safety oversight 26
3.2 Safety data collection, analysis and exchange 28
3.3 Safety data driven targeting of oversight on areas of
greater concern or need 29

QCAA Issue 0.1 Page 6 of 64


Entity: SSP
Document Identification: SSP-001
Version Number: 2.0
Issue Date: 25 May 2017
Title : State Safety Programme (SSP) for QATAR

4. State’s safety promotion 29


4.1 Internal training, communication and dissemination of
safety information 29
4.2 External training, communication and dissemination of
safety information 30

5. Conclusion 31

References 32

Attachments (restricted documents)

Attachment 1 — Initial draft of State enforcement policy 34

Attachment 2 — State safety indicators and ALOSP 39

Attachment 3 —SSP GAP analysis and implementation plan 49

Attachment 4 — CAA organizational structure within the SSP framework 55

Attachment 5 — SSP Implementation Structure 57

Attachment 6 – Management of Safety Data 58

Attachment 7 – Safety culture 59

Attachment 8 – Abbreviation and definition of Terms 62

QCAA Issue 0.1 Page 7 of 64


Entity: SSP
Document Identification: SSP-001
Version Number: 2.0
Issue Date: 25 May 2017
Title : State Safety Programme (SSP) for QATAR

QCAA Issue 0.1 Page 8 of 64


Entity: SSP
Document Identification: SSP-001
Version Number: 2.0
Issue Date: 25 May 2017
Title : State Safety Programme (SSP) for QATAR

P a r t I – G e ne ra l

1. Purpose of this document

ICAO standards now require States to establish a State Safety Programme


(SSP) in accordance with the International Standards and Recommended
Practices (SARPs) contained in the Safety Management Annex 19. This requires
States to establish an integrated set of regulations and activities for the
management of safety in the State, in order to achieve an acceptable level of
safety performance in civil aviation (ALoSP). The ALoSP is a means to verify
satisfactory performance of the SSP and service providers Safety Management
Systems (SMS). The SSP consists of four main categories of activity: Safety
Policy & Objectives, Safety Risk Management, Safety Assurance, and Safety
Promotion. In this way it resembles an SMS concept at the level of the State.

Figure 1: Structure of SSP

It is important to distinguish between the State Safety Programme (SSP) and the SSP
document. The SSP itself is the integrated set of regulations and activities for purpose
of managing and improving civil aviation safety in the State, in order to achieve an
acceptable level of safety performance (ALoSP).

QCAA Issue 0.1 Page 9 of 64


Entity: SSP
Document Identification: SSP-001
Version Number: 2.0
Issue Date: 25 May 2017
Title : State Safety Programme (SSP) for QATAR

1.1 Current Status of SSP

The SSP document describes the relevant elements of the SSP according to a
framework prescribed by ICAO. This framework provides a checklist of key regulatory
elements that a State should have, in order to achieve good aviation safety. The
responses to the checklist create the SSP document. In many cases this is simply
achieved by describing what QCAA already does for each item, or improvement
activities that were already planned or already underway such as the Regulatory
Structure and Regulations Programme. Where there are gaps, new actions are identified
to enable QCAA to meet the checklist and these are described in the Gap Analysis in
Attachment 3 and in the associated Detailed Implementation Plan. The SSP document
also defines how the State sets its Acceptable Level of Safety Performance. This is a
relatively new concept and does not have the benefit of extensive guidance or
experience of other States to benchmark. Therefore an ALoSP concept has been
generated that is appropriate to the Qatar context using a mixture metrics (reactive,
proactive and predictive) and approaches (Compliance Based Approach “CBA”, Risk
Based ”RBA” and Performance Based “PBA”). This is described in paragraph 5 below
and also Part II section 2.2.

The purpose of this document is to demonstrate:

(a) A fully functioning State Safety Programme including:

· the proactive management of aviation safety in the State, to achieve an


Acceptable Level of Safety Performance (ALoSP);

· that the QCAA has conducted an ICAO GAP Analysis comparing the State’s
Safety Programme (SSP) requirements against the existing resources and
active programme plans in the State;

· that the QCAA has developed the State’s Safety Programme (SSP) and its
implementation plan based on the results of the SSP gap analysis; See
Attachment 3;

· that ALoSP goals for aviation within the State are being set and achieved, and
expressed in terms of safety performance indicators using a range of metrics
that include reactive, (statistics on fatal accidents and serious incidents),
proactive (operational performance monitoring), and predictive (Direct
observation systems, change management, safety culture surveys), and there
are also targets for both regulatory compliance and achievement of activities that
support operational safety performance;

(b) A mature regulatory and oversight system (Compliance Based Approach) including:

· that adequate provisions are being made for the safety regulation of the aviation
system within the jurisdiction of the State and that the State is meeting the
requirements of the larger global aviation system;

· that regulatory, oversight and enforcement functions are in place; and periodic
regulatory safety audits are conducted to ensure compliance by all operators and
service providers;

QCAA Issue 0.1 Page 10 of 64


Entity: SSP
Document Identification: SSP-001
Version Number: 2.0
Issue Date: 25 May 2017
Title : State Safety Programme (SSP) for QATAR

· the updating of the regulatory framework, demonstrating full compliance with the
SARPs of ICAO and aligning it with EU/EASA regulatory system;

c) The establishment of safety risk management (Risk Based Approach) at the State level:

· that the QCAA has established a hazard identification programme through the
implementation of:

o Mandatory safety reporting system;


o Voluntary (non-punitive) safety reporting system;

· that the state has appropriate legislation for the protection of safety
information in accordance with Annex 19

· where safety events are reported, they are assessed to identify causal factors
and where practicable, mitigating actions are taken by QCAA or service
providers, as appropriate;

· the State is establishing accident and incident investigation capabilities that


will evolve to be fully competent and independent from the Regulator.

· that the QCAA has initiated activity to establish national safety monitoring
(trend monitoring and analysis, safety inspections / audits, incident
investigations and safety surveillance);

· that the QCAA has plans to establish active safety promotion programmes to
assist service providers and to make safety information broadly accessible
(including safety database, trend analysis, monitoring of best industry
practices, etc.);

(d) the reinforcement of the State Safety Oversight (SSO) system through the Performance Based
Approach (PBA) in line with ICAO guidance including:

· the clear commitment to a performance based, safety management approach,


providing a visible linkage between national regulatory planning and an
operator's/service provider's SMS outcomes that risk-based resource
allocations approach for all regulatory functions (proactively targeting
regulatory attention on known areas of high risk) will be implemented;

· that the QCAA will establish performance monitoring for safety regulatory
functions (licensing, certification, enforcement, etc.);

· that the QCAA will establish procedures to prioritize inspections, audits and
surveys towards those areas of greater safety concern or need in matter to
meet his surveillance obligations

· the integration of the diverse, multidisciplinary safety regulatory activities into a


coherent whole as a ‘total system’ as a foundation for a Total System
Approach.

QCAA Issue 0.1 Page 11 of 64


Entity: SSP
Document Identification: SSP-001
Version Number: 2.0
Issue Date: 25 May 2017
Title : State Safety Programme (SSP) for QATAR

1.2 Looking Forward

In addition, it should help us to look forward. According to the benchmark at global and
particularly the European and American model with regard to advanced aviation safety
management, some fundamental questions become inescapable to us, which are: (1) are
we using the right safety management model? (2) are we using the safety management
model right? (3) What added value can new models deliver to the safety data? (4) What
is most likely to be the risk contributor factor to the next accident or serious incident? (5)
How do we know that? (6) What are we doing about it? (7) Is it working?

The answers to these questions, is to develop a strong data collection processes


(interoperable with regional and global Databases) that allow us understand better which
are the most important risk contributory factor, so that we can address them in the future
in a targeted way through an advanced program that strengthens our capability to
manage the risk. It will help us also to establish a collective wisdom on aviation safety
from several sources such: service providers, operators, foreign service providers,
different types of operation and aircraft, authorities, and other stakeholder organizations.
We will approach this using a Total System model of aviation to help us to translate the
input safety data into a picture of risk.

Figure 2: A Total System Approach to Regulation


Note 1: Within the context of this SSP, the applicable Laws and Civil Aviation
Regulations (QCARs), the term “service provider” refers to any Qatari organization(s)
authorized to provide aviation services for international commercial air transport. The
term includes;
(a) Approved training organizations that are exposed to safety risks related to aircraft
operations during the provision of their services;
(b) Operators of aerodromes or helicopters authorized to conduct international
commercial air transport;
(c) Approved Maintenance organizations (AMO’s) providing services to operators of
aeroplanes or helicopters engaged in international commercial air transport;
(d) Organizations responsible for type design or manufacture of aircraft, engines or
propellers;
(e) ATS providers; and
(f) Operators of certified aerodromes.
Note 2: International general aviation (IGA) operators are not considered to be service
providers in the context of this document.

QCAA Issue 0.1 Page 12 of 64


Entity: SSP
Document Identification: SSP-001
Version Number: 2.0
Issue Date: 25 May 2017
Title : State Safety Programme (SSP) for QATAR

2. Background

Qatar is a signatory to the Convention on International Civil Aviation (the Chicago


Convention) and, therefore, agrees to comply with the Standards and Recommended
Practices (SARPs) published by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) in
the Annexes to the Convention.

QCAA is responsible for:

· safety regulation of all aspects of civil aviation, including the licensing of


personnel and the certification of aircraft, airlines, airports, air traffic service and
meteorology;
· regulatory oversight of aviation activities within the State and of aircraft on their
register wherever they may be;
· ensuring that the QCAA financial and human resources are sufficient for
establishment and maintenance of SSP

The State safety programme (SSP) includes a periodic review of legislative framework
and specific regulation, and set of integrated activities within the State to ensure the
discharge of the State‘s safety obligations under the Chicago Convention.

The Civil Aviation Regulations gives effect to the Qatar Civil Aviation Authority (QCAA)
Requirements and these provide a sound, simple, cohesive legal framework which is,
wherever practicable, consistent and compliant with the Annexes to the Convention and
suited to the level of aviation activity within the State.

The SSP is established for the management of safety in the State, in order to achieve an
acceptable level of safety performance in civil aviation. The SSP is commensurate with
the size and complexity of aviation activities in Qatar and regularly reviewed. The SSP
review process is checked across the available SMICG (Safety management
International Collaboration Group) assessment Tool Document and checklist.

The SSP is being implemented in accordance with requirements stipulated in the ICAO
Safety Management Annex (Annex 19) and guidance provided in the ICAO Safety
Management Manual (Doc. 9859). In addition, implementation of the SSP in the State of
Qatar is being implemented in phases in accordance with the Middle East Implementation
strategy in order to achieve the Global Aviation Safety Plan (GASP) objectives, which are
the establishment of a sustainable safety oversight system and to progressively evolve
them into more sophisticated means of managing safety performance.

This SSP has been produced in accordance with Annex 19 Edition 1, because this is the
version currently Applicable. Whilst Edition 2 became available late in the process of
preparing the document, the guidance supporting the new elements of the Annex were
not yet available and restructuring the document to align with Edition 2 would have
delayed publication. This will be updated at the first review of the SSP in 2019.
However, many of the activities planned under the current SSP are deliberately designed
to set the foundations for upgrading to the new content of Edition 2. For example the
current plans for promotion of safety reporting, improving data collection and processing,
and identification of safety priorities will serve to support the new SARPs in Edition 2 on
safety risk management at the State level and the improvement of safety performance.

QCAA Issue 0.1 Page 13 of 64


Entity: SSP
Document Identification: SSP-001
Version Number: 2.0
Issue Date: 25 May 2017
Title : State Safety Programme (SSP) for QATAR

Implementation is in accordance with the State’s safety objectives, CAA safety policy and
SSP document and based on the CAA Gap analysis and implementation plan.

By these means Qatar, as a signatory to the Chicago Convention, can be assured, and
demonstrate as required, that the aviation industry within the State is meeting the agreed
international standards and that the regulatory oversight of the industry is adequate.

3. State’s Safety Programme Gap Analysis

The implementation of an SSP requires the QCAA conducts an analysis of its safety
system to determine which components and elements of an SSP are currently in place
and which components and elements must be added or modified to meet the
implementation requirements. This analysis is known as gap analysis, and it involves
comparing the SSP requirements against the existing activities and resources in the
QCAA.
The gap analysis indicates the broad scope of gaps and hence overall workload to be
expected. This initial information should be useful to senior management in anticipating
the scale of the SSP implementation effort and hence the resources to be provided.
The actions required to meet the gaps are broadly indicated in the Implementation Plan
in Attachment 3. They are then described more fully for planning purposes in a separate
document, the QCAA Detailed Implementation Plan. This will also require resource
planning if it is to be successful.

4. State’s Safety Programme Implementation Plan

Based on the result of the SSP gap analysis, a high level phased implementation plan
has been developed by the QCAA and which is attached at Attachment – 3.

In a separate document, the activities will be described more fully in the QCAA SSP
Detailed Implementation Plan and this schedule includes the following features:
(a) input from relevant sections of the CAA;
(b) identification and description of the gap;
(c) action/task required to fill the gap;
(d) the team identified to deal with the issue;
(e) the status of compliance and a timeline for the implementation of the
components and different elements of the SSP;
(f) a Review Schedule for the SSP and ALoSP

5. Acceptable Level of Safety (ALoSP) See also 2.2

ICAO Annex 19 – safety management requires States to establish a State Safety


Programme so as to achieve an acceptable level of safety performance in civil
aviation.

QCAA Issue 0.1 Page 14 of 64


Entity: SSP
Document Identification: SSP-001
Version Number: 2.0
Issue Date: 25 May 2017
Title : State Safety Programme (SSP) for QATAR

The ALoSP concept complements the traditional approach to safety oversight


with a performance-based approach as defined by its safety indicators and their
associated target and alert levels and is pertinent to the state’s safety policy and
objectives.

The ALoSP expresses the minimum safety objectives (or expectations) of the
QCAA to be achieved by the State, that is, the aggregated safety performance of
all service providers under its authority.

In determining ALoSP, it is necessary to consider such factors as the level of risk


that applies, the cost/benefits of improvements to the system, and public
expectations on the safety of the aviation industry.

The ALoSP is expressed by three main types of measures/metrics; reactive:


statistics on accidents and serious incidents, proactive: operational safety
measures, and predictive: successful implementation of best practice in QCAA
and Service Providers.

Since there is currently no quantified guidance or benchmarks on event rates that


are considered acceptable internationally, QCAA has based the initial ALoSP on
achieving:

(a) Statistics on accidents and serious incidents that are at least as good as
the international norms for similar operations;

(b) Continuous improvement in key SPIs, with more ambitious improvement


targets for the highest priority safety issues. In the absence of a fully
mature data system, the safety priorities are considered to be those
published by the ICAO Middle East Regional Aviation Safety Group in
2016, e.g. Runway Safety, Loss of Control in Flight and System
Component Failure. Key SPIs are considered to be events that
represent precursors to priority safety issues. For example runway
incursions, runway excursion could be selected as precursor events to
Runway Safety issues, and low airspeed or in flight icing could be seen
as precursors to Loss of Control.

(c) Confirmation of best practice on organizational factors considered good


predictors of good safety performance, as measured by QCAA
surveillance of service providers, and achievement milestones in QCAA
safety promotion projects.

With hopes for greater Regional involvement in the analysis and sharing of safety
data, through a network of analysts, it may be possible to increase opportunities
for benchmarking and exchange of data to help identify any areas for special
attention.

As the system evolves, the QCAA will seek to agree and approve acceptable
level(s) of safety for different operators/service providers. From the perspective
of the relationship between the QCAA and operators/service providers, it
provides an objective in terms of the safety performance that operators/service
providers should achieve while conducting their core business functions, as a

QCAA Issue 0.1 Page 15 of 64


Entity: SSP
Document Identification: SSP-001
Version Number: 2.0
Issue Date: 25 May 2017
Title : State Safety Programme (SSP) for QATAR

minimum acceptable to the QCAA. It is a reference against which the QCAA can
measure safety performance.

The QCAA will be responsible for the establishment of the ALoSP measures
across aviation operations. However, this will not be addressed in the initial
stages until there is greater maturity in the State level ALoSP, the QCAA data
system and SMS oversight.

The ALoSP is new concept that will continue to develop as the data capability of
QCAA evolves. A fully developed ALoSP monitoring and measurement process
will, on an ongoing basis:

(a) Identify the key safety priorities and the safety indicators that best predict
the level of safety in these areas;
(b) identify targets that define the level to be maintained or desired
improvement to be achieved for relevant indicators in each sector with a
view to achieving continuous improvement throughout the entire aviation
system;

(c) identify alerts or trends that will indicate an actual or developing safety
performance problem in a particular safety indicator or sector;

(d) review SSP safety performance to determine whether modifications or


additions are needed to achieve continuous improvement;
(e) monitor the achievement of good practice as indicated by surveillance
reports and programme milestones in support of the SSP.

Note:- 1 Establishing ALoSP safety indicators, targets and alerts for an SSP will
not replace or supersede the need for States to implement all applicable SARPs
nor does it relieve States from their obligations regarding the Convention on
International Civil Aviation and its related provisions.
Note:- 2 Establishing a SSP and ALoSP does not in any way transfer the safety
risk accountabilities from the Service Providers to the State organizations.

6. Document Control
This is the State’s Safety Programme (SSP) required under ICAO Annexes for
Qatar. A soft copy of the SSP will be made available to all regulatory staff having
safety oversight responsibilities by the QCAA SSP Department.

Changes to this document will be achieved by a re-issue of the entire document


rather than by the amendment of individual pages.

This document will be reviewed annually to ensure the relevance and currency of
all Legislation, Rules, Regulations, Directives and Advisory Circulars etc.

QCAA Issue 0.1 Page 16 of 64


Entity: SSP
Document Identification: SSP-001
Version Number: 2.0
Issue Date: 25 May 2017
Title : State Safety Programme (SSP) for QATAR

7. Distribution List and Record of Copies of the SSP Document

The total number of copies of this SSP document produced for use by the QCAA officials
is shown below. One printed copy of the manual has been designated as the “Master
Copy”. Some users are provided with a printed copy of the SSP document while others are
given an electronic copy. This is also indicated in the table below.

Copy SSP Document User Name Print (P) Signature Date Date
No. Electroni Provided Returned
c (E)
1 Chairman P/E
2 Director Air Safety P/E
3 Director AND P/E
4 Director Air Transport P/E
5 Head of Security P/E
6 Head of Flight Operations P/E
7 Head of Airworthiness P/E
8 Head of Personnel Licensing P/E
9 Head of ATM P/E
10 Head of Aerodromes P/E

QCAA Issue 0.1 Page 17 of 64


Entity: SSP
Document Identification: SSP-001
Version Number: 2.0
Issue Date: 25 May 2017
Title : State Safety Programme (SSP) for QATAR

Pa rt – II State’s Sa fety Prog ramme

1. State’s Safety Policy and Objectives

1.1 Safety legislative framework

Qatar is signatory of the International Civil Aviation (Convention). In accordance


with Article 37 of the Convention, the Qatar government has agreed to
collaborate in securing the highest practicable degree of uniformity, in all matters
in which such uniformity will facilitate and improve air navigation. This includes
regulations, standards, procedures and organization in relation to aircraft,
personnel, airways and auxiliary services.

The Legislative system in Qatar comprises three tiers:

· Law: the primary aviation legislation; the Civil Aviation Law

· Regulation: the Qatar Civil Aviation Regulations (QCARs) and Acceptable


Means of Compliance; and

· Guidance: the supporting guidance material and other relevant


regulatory material

The legislative framework is then underpinned by additional considerations such


as specific Policies & Procedures, Consultation practices, Objectives & Criteria,
and Monitoring & Review processes. These provide the less visible but no less
important structure that enables the legislative system to function effectively.

1.1.1 Primary Aviation Legislation: the Civil Aviation Law

The Civil Aviation Law of the State defines the roles, duties and responsibilities of Ministry
of Transport, Department for Air Transport, Air Traffic and Airports and of Civil Aviation
Authority.

The Aviation Authority and Law No. 15, as amended and the Emiri Decree no. 45 of 2014
on the organization of the civil aviation, provides the authority to implement other statutory
instruments in the area of civil aviation within Qatar.

1.1.2 Qatar Civil Aviation Regulations (QCARs)

The Qatar Civil Aviation Regulations (QCARs) establishes the requirements for
compliance with the ICAO SARPs. For details please see
http://www.caa.gov.qa/en/safety_regulations. These are currently being updated
in a major project to adopt EASA Regulation across all disciplines, and replace
the previously existing QCARs with new QCARs based on the EASA Regulatory
approach. This project aims to achieve greater alignment with both ICAO and

QCAA Issue 0.1 Page 18 of 64


Entity: SSP
Document Identification: SSP-001
Version Number: 2.0
Issue Date: 25 May 2017
Title : State Safety Programme (SSP) for QATAR

EU/EASA regulation and to take steps towards a more performance based


approach.

1.1.3 QCAA Acceptable Means of Compliance

(a) The basic philosophy underlying the QCAA acceptable means of


compliance is to support Service Providers and QCAA staff by providing a
clear package of steps that they should perform in order to demonstrate
that they meet their obligations and comply with the legislation and
regulations in force in Qatar (and in doing so, they will also comply with the
ICAO SARPs). These steps are referred to as ‘requirements’ although
they are not regulations as such, but are the means of compliance
preferred by the QCAA. This provides a standardized method for
compliance that is clear and uniform, and aids the common understanding
of both service providers and regulators.
.

(b) The criteria to be applied in relation to QCAA acceptable means of


compliance are that:

· Penalties or sanctions for failure to comply with any obligation


imposed upon a person or organization must be contained in Civil
Aviation Regulations if it is to be enforceable.

· The QCAA acceptable means of compliance do not themselves


constitute legislation or regulations: they are the means by which
compliance with the legislation can be demonstrated. They also
provide a standardized means by which the Chairman of QCAA can
be satisfied as to the basis for the issue or maintenance of a
license, certificate or approval.

1.1.4 QCAA Advisory Circulars

Whereas the QCAA acceptable means of compliance are intended to provide a


comprehensive suite of requirements, there is also a need to promulgate additional
information which is not appropriate for inclusion in the QCAA requirements
themselves. Such information and guidance is included in QCAA Advisory
Circulars (ACs).

1.1.5 Policies and Procedures

The safety policy and objectives component provides management and


personnel explicit policies, procedures, management controls, documentation
and corrective action processes that will keep the safety management efforts of
the QCAA on track. It is essential in generating confidence in the QCAA’s ability
to provide safety leadership in an increasingly complex and constantly changing
air transportation system of the State. Where:

QCAA Issue 0.1 Page 19 of 64


Entity: SSP
Document Identification: SSP-001
Version Number: 2.0
Issue Date: 25 May 2017
Title : State Safety Programme (SSP) for QATAR

(a) Regulation and supporting materials which are to be used by the QCAA are
available to QCAA staff in intranet;

(b) Technical Procedures assist objective regulation by providing QCAA


inspector staff with essential information and protocols.

1.1.6 Consultation

(a) All amendments to the QCARs will be the subject of a full consultation
exercise. The consultative material is placed on the QCAA website for
comment usually for a period of 12 weeks. A Comments Log showing all
comments and QCAA’s responses is posted on the QCAA website
following the consultation period. The following will be consulted:

· the concerned Ministry;


· the concerned Department;
· the aviation industry;
· the Service provider.

(b) Additionally, it is open to any person reading the consultation on the


website to comment.

1.1.7 Objectives and Criteria

The regulatory framework is designed to meet the following objectives and criteria:

(a) To ensure that the safety regulatory regime of Qatar meets the ICAO 8
Critical Elements of a safety oversight system. Effective implementation
of the Critical Elements demonstrates that QCAA achieves and maintains
the highest standards of safety in Qatar;

(b) The regulatory framework provides consistency and compliance with the
Annexes to the Convention wherever practicable and ensures the Civil
Aviation Regulations provide a sound legal framework for the
establishment of requirements for the implementation of ICAO SARPs;

(c) The regulatory framework suits the level of aviation activity in Qatar; and

(d) Wherever possible, acceptable means of compliance are developed and


published and this largely eliminates the need for constant cross-
reference to the QCARs or the ICAO Annexes. This provides a simplified
interpretation of the QCARs in a modern, cohesive package. The
acceptable means of compliance will accordingly be reviewed and
amended regularly to reflect the latest regulations in place.

1.1.8 Monitoring and Review of the Regulatory Framework

(a) Oversight of the regulatory framework: The regulatory framework is

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regularly reviewed by QCAA in the course of its usual regulatory


business. It is as a result of such review, that the regulatory framework is
now being updated by the dedicated Programme in major alignment of
the Qatar regulations to EASA and ICAO SARPS.

(b) Maintenance of the regulatory framework: The Chairman of QCAA is


responsible for the administration necessary to maintain the regulatory
framework.

1.2 Safety Responsibilities and Accountabilities

The safety responsibilities and accountabilities for civil aviation in Qatar have
been assigned to the QCAA under the leadership of the QCAA Chairman. This
includes compliance with ICAO SARPs, the State’s safety programme, and the
resources for establishment, oversight and maintenance of the regulatory regime.

This includes the directives to plan, organize, develop, control and continuously
improve the State’s safety programme in a manner that meets Qatar’s safety
needs. The full SSP framework organizational structure is shown at Attachment
4.

1.2.1 State’s Regulatory Responsibilities

(a) Regulatory responsibilities of Qatar in civil aviation activities are:

· Civil Aviation Authority (QCAA). Qatar has established the Civil


Aviation Authority (QCAA), with the necessary powers to ensure
compliance with the regulations.

· SARPs. Qatar, as a signatory to the Chicago Convention, is


responsible for ensuring its regulated organizations comply with
the ICAO SARPs. QCAA is responsible for the implementation of
a regulatory regime that provides this compliance.

· Safety oversight. QCAA has established appropriate safety


oversight mechanisms to ensure that operators and service
providers maintain an acceptable level of safety in their
operations.

(b) In the discharge of regulatory responsibilities of Qatar, the QCAA strives


for:

· a well-balanced allocation of responsibility between the State and


the operator or service provider for safety;
· economic justification within the resources of the QCAA;

· adequate resources to maintain continuing regulation and


supervision of the activities of the operator or service provider
without unduly inhibiting their effective direction and control of the
organization; and
· harmonious relationships between the QCAA and the operators
and service providers.

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1.2.2 Civil Aviation Authority

The Civil Aviation Authority (QCAA) is the State’s agent for implementing the legislative
and regulatory provisions for aviation safety. In effect, the QCAA develops and delivers
the State’s safety programme.

The QCAA is guided by:

(a) a clear statement of its vision and mission regarding safety (refer to a QCAA
Safety Policy Statement page 3);

(b) a well understood and accepted set of:

· operating principles, such as delivering safe and efficient service


consistent with public expectations and at reasonable cost; treating clients
and employees with respect, etc.; and
· corporate values such as competence, openness, fairness, integrity,
respect, responsiveness to client needs, etc.;

(c) a statement of the QCAA’s safety objectives; for example, reduce the probability
and consequences of unsafe aviation occurrences, improve understanding
throughout the aviation industry and general public of the State’s actual safety
performance; and

(d) strategies for fulfilling the objectives; for example, reduction of safety risks to
aviation through the identification of those operations that fall below accepted
levels, encouraging their return to an acceptable level of safety or, if necessary,
rescinding their certification.

1.2.3 Responsibilities and Accountabilities of the QCAA Chairman

The QCAA Chairman has a range of safety responsibilities and accountabilities. He is


responsible for ensuring compliance with the relevant Laws and regulations, and the
effective operation of the regulator, which includes, but is not limited to:

(a) establishing and implementing the rules, regulations and procedures for safe and
efficient aviation on the following areas:

· Personnel licensing;

· Procedures for obtaining and renewing:

o Operating Certificates;
o Airworthiness Certificates;
o Aerodrome Certificates, etc.;

· Operation of Air navigation services;

(b) implementing a system for safety oversight of the entire civil aviation system by

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surveillance, inspections and safety audits, etc.;

(c) carrying out enforcement actions as necessary;

(d) monitoring technological developments and best industry practices with a view to
improving the State’s aviation system performance;

(e) maintaining a system of aviation records, including licenses and certificates,


infractions, reported accidents and incidents, etc.;

(f) conducting analyses of safety trends, including accident/incident data, service


difficulty reports, etc.;

(g) promoting safety through the dissemination of safety information, specific safety
materials, conducting safety seminars, etc.;

(h) ensuring that the QCAA financial and human resources are sufficient for
implementation, establishment and maintenance of the SSP;

(i) establishing a SSP Implementation Team (SIT) which is responsible to the


accountable executive for the day to day SSP management, planning and
administration including data analysis and document preparation. This Team
reports to the Director of Aviation Safety Department; and

(j) establishing a National Safety Committee (NSC) to serve as the State’s ongoing
SSP coordination platform. This committee is headed by the chairman of the
QCAA and includes as members the representatives of aviation QCAA, AIG,
service providers, industry and military aviation.

1.3 Accident and Incident Investigation

Qatar has always investigated accidents and serious incidents in civil aviation,
and has now recognized that this function should be independent from the
Regulator. The State is now in the process of establishing an independent
accident and incident investigation process, the sole objective of which is to
support the management of safety in the State and not the apportioning of blame
on liability. The investigation of accidents and serious incidents is subject to
Qatar – Law No. 15 of 2002 on Civil Aviation chapter 11 and Article no. 15 of
Emiri Decree no. 45 of 2014 which will be amended in the course of 2017.

1.4 Enforcement Policy

QCAA is developing an enforcement policy that allows service providers to deal


with, and resolve, events involving safety deviations and minor violations
internally. This is conducted within the context of the service provider safety
management system (SMS), to the satisfaction of the QCAA. The enforcement
policy is also complemented by the enforcement procedures thus enabling the
QCAA to deal with events involving gross negligence and willful deviations.

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The QCAA enforcement policy is currently at initial draft (see Attachment 1) and
this allows:

(a) Operators/service providers to deal with, and resolve, events involving safety
deviations and minor violations internally, within the context of the service
provider safety management system (SMS), to the satisfaction of the QCAA;

(b) The QCAA to deal with events involving gross negligence and willful deviations
through established enforcement procedures.

Note: Although the QCAA acceptable means of compliance “requirements” do not


themselves constitute legislation or regulations, they are the means by which the
QCAA can be satisfied as to the basis for the issue or maintenance of a license,
certificate or approval. The QCAA may, however, on the basis of non-compliance
with the QCAA means of compliance requirements, revoke a license, certificate or
approval, refuse to grant a license, certificate or approval or grant a license,
certificate or approval with conditions.

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2. State’s Safety Risk Management

2.1 Safety requirements for service providers SMS

Service providers and International General Aviation (IGA) operators in State of


Qatar are required to establish a Safety Management System which is subject to
initial acceptance and ongoing oversight by the QCAA. Relevant service
providers are listed in Part I. Further information regarding the establishment of
SMS and oversight by QCAA is described in QCAR 19.

(a) The hazard identification process and safety risk management are
described in the QCAA Advisory Circular 01_09 SMS. Please see
http://www.caa.gov.qa/en/advisory_circulars Advisory Circular 01_09
SMS.

(b) The QCAA has established the following requirements for the operator’s/
service provider’s SMS to achieve an acceptable level of safety
performance in their operations. Please see
http://www.caa.gov.qa/en/safety_regulations. QCAR 19 :
· Mandatory occurrence reporting scheme;
· Voluntary (non-punitive) incident reporting scheme;
· Service difficulty reporting scheme;
· Wildlife/bird strike hazard reduction programme; etc.

(c) Those requirements are reviewed periodically taking into consideration


amendment of ICAO SARPS and feedback of the service providers.

(d) The QCAA will also identify some generic hazards at the State level and
may explore how the Service Provider SMS will address these. These
may include issues related to the current and predicted rapid expansion
of aviation in Qatar.

2.2 Acceptance of service provider’s ALoSP

The QCAA has initiated the process of monitoring an acceptable level of safety
performance for the State (see Part I Section 5). In time, and with growing maturity of
SMS and the data analysis system, this may evolve to define acceptable levels of safety
performance for individual service providers. These would be commensurate to the
complexity of individual service provider’s specific operational contexts. The agreed
acceptable levels of safety performance are expressed by multiple safety performance
indicators and targets / alert levels or trends, never by a single one. They would be
periodically reviewed to ensure they remain relevant and appropriate to the service
providers

Information sources for safety performance monitoring and measurement include (but are

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not limited to):


a) accident and serious incident investigation reports
b) mandatory occurrence reports
c) audit / inspection reports
d) automatic / manual data capture systems
e) voluntary reports
f) hazard reporting;
b) safety studies;
c) safety reviews;
e) safety surveys; and
f) safety investigations.

The ALoSP is a relatively new concept both at State and service provider level.
As yet, there is no internationally calibrated or accepted event rates that have
been indicated to be acceptable. If there were, it might raise the question
whether any level is ‘acceptable’ as a static situation or whether we should
always be striving to do better. Thus during these early stages it is likely that a
service provider’s ALoSP will be framed as a target for continuous improvement,
rather than absolute rates. Since not everything can be the focus of attention at
one time, it might be appropriate to set the most ambitious improvement targets
for the highest safety priorities and accept more modest targets for the lower
priorities. The ALoSP and targets will be regularly reviewed with the service
provider in order to ensure they continue to be relevant and suitable.

3. State’s Safety Assurance

3.1 Safety Oversight

QCAA has established mechanisms to ensure effective oversight of the eight


critical elements of the safety oversight system, through a planned system of
inspections, visits and audits conducted by qualified inspectors in each area.
With the move towards more focus on SMS, surveillance will include verification
that the identification of operational hazards and the management of safety risks
by service providers follow established requirements, specific operating
regulations and implementation policies. These mechanisms include inspections,
audits and surveys to ensure that effective safety risk controls are appropriately
integrated into the service providers’ SMS, that they are being practiced as
designed, and that the safety risk controls have the intended effect on safety
risks.

3.1.1 Safety Oversight of Operators and Service Providers

The responsibility for regulatory oversight of the operators and service providers rests with
the QCAA. QCAA regulatory staff are experts in the functional area which they regulate
and there are plans to further augment their skills with additional training in oversight of
SMS, to enhance this specific capability and to promote standardization between
individual Inspectors.

Oversight is conducted through a mixture of what ICAO terms the ‘traditional perspective’
based on compliance checking, and the ‘modern perspective’ – the QCAA is moving
towards the “modern” performance based oversight. The Regulatory oversight system

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includes obligations related to the initial approval and continued surveillance of the
aviation service providers to assure compliance with national regulations established in
accordance with ICAO SARPs.

The State’s initial “certification” of a service provider / operator includes


acceptance of the organization’s SMS implementation plan. Surveillance is
conducted through inspections, audits and surveys together with provision of
advice and guidance, to ensure that:

(a) Operators and service providers meet the national and international
standards;

(b) the identification of operational hazards and the management of safety


risks by service providers follow established regulatory controls (e.g.,
requirements, specific operating regulations and implementation policies);

(c) effective safety risk controls are appropriately integrated into the service
provider’s SMS;

(d) regulatory safety risk controls are practiced as designed; and

(e) regulatory safety risk controls have the intended effect on safety risks;

Ramp checks of foreign aircraft are conducted by the designated authority with
regulatory responsibility for airworthiness and flight operations. Ramp check
reports are included in the Safety Assessment of Foreign Aircraft (SAFA)
process.

For complex general aviation including corporate operations, where an operator


uses an operating base in a State other than the State in which the aircraft has
been registered, CARs requires the operator to notify the CAA of the State in
which aircraft has been registered and the State in which the operating base is
located. This is to facilitate the co-ordination of regulatory oversight.

3.1.2 ICAO Safety Oversight Audit on State’s Safety Oversight

At the present time, the ICAO Universal Safety Oversight Audit Programme
(USOAP CMA) audits States’ safety responsibilities in a comprehensive manner
following procedures prescribed by the relevant Annexes to the Convention.
Accordingly, each State must implement eight critical elements of safety
oversight and USOAP CMA audits verify the status of implementation of the
elements and functions, on a compliance/noncompliance basis. ICAO USOAP
has now evolved into a continuous monitoring approach (CMA) and verification of
compliance with the requirements will be made on an on-going basis on the
USOAP CMA online framework (OLF). Activities under the CMA may also
include interventions on the basis of the State safety risk profile which may
include audits, validation missions etc. to be conducted by ICAO on the basis of
an MOU.

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3.2 Safety data collection, analysis and exchange


The QCAA has established mechanisms to ensure the capture and storage of
data on operational hazards and safety risks. These are currently being
upgraded from separate systems at Section level to create a more integrated
central data capability at an aggregate State’s level, within the framework of a
safety data collection and processing system. A dedicated safety data analyst
has been recruited and there are plans to further expand this capability to
develop more information from the stored data. This will also enable QCAA to
actively exchange safety information with service providers and/or other States.
It will initially focus on data that is relevant to the highest safety priorities,
expanding to other issues as the system develops.

3.2.1 Occurrence Reporting and Analysis

Service providers are required to report safety occurrences to QCAA as


described by QCAR on Occurrence reporting. The QCAA currently uses the
safety database which includes capabilities for analyzing the data and presenting
the information in a variety of formats.
The safety database(s) will enable the CAA to collect, analyse and evaluate
safety risks on consequences of hazards based on probability and severity. This
mechanism will assist in continuously monitoring the safety performance of civil
aviation through the performance indicators, targets and alert levels in support of
the ALoSP of the State.

3.2.2 Mechanisms of Capturing & Storage of Data


The objective is to ensure continued availability of safety data and safety information to
support safety management activities. The safety database uses a standardized taxonomy
to facilitate safety information sharing and exchange with ADREP-compatible systems.
There are many potential data sources and these may include:

(a) Mandatory Occurrence Reports

(b) Accident and incident investigation reports;

(c) Voluntary reporting data;

(d) Data from audit findings/reports

(e) Continuing airworthiness reporting data;

(f) Operational performance monitoring data;

(g) Automated monitoring data from Flight Data Monitoring and Radar;

(h) Safety risk assessment data;

(i) Data from safety studies/reviews; and

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(j) Safety data from other States, regional safety oversight organizations
(RSOOs) or regional accident and incident investigation organizations
(RAIOs), etc.

3.2.3 Protection of Safety Data, Safety information and related sources


It is important to encourage reporting of safety data and not to punish those who
make Voluntary reports to the QCAA or service providers. This is supported by
Primary Legislation. Therefore QCAA and Service Providers are required to
establish systems to ensure that safety data, safety information and related
sources are protected against disclosure and punitive action, except in very
specific circumstances.

For general promotion of safety reporting, the QCAA endorses a ‘just culture’
approach to both mandatory and voluntary safety reports and a positive safety
culture in all organizations.

3.3 Safety data driven targeting of oversight on areas of greater concern


or need

The QCAA is moving towards performance based procedures, using data to


prioritize inspections, audits and surveys to those areas of greater safety concern
or need. Attention will focus on the issues identified by the analysis of data on
operational hazards and safety risks areas. This is already achieved at the
Section level through use of locally held data, previous audit findings and
expertise. As the system evolves, this may become more formalized,
standardized and documented.

4 State’s Safety Promotion

Safety Promotion is the opportunity to raise knowledge and awareness of


important issues, to motivate individuals to change their behavior on a day to day
basis and personally champion the issues that can change safety performance.

Priorities for safety promotion include

(a) increased awareness of the importance of Safety Culture / Reporting


Culture (see attachment 7), because without this the SSP, performance
based regulation and other safety benefits of SMS are lost:
(b) the impact of the rapidly expanding aviation system in Qatar and the
importance of change management at both service provider and national
level;
(c) implementation of SMS and capability in SMS Oversight, including
awareness of the key safety priorities and how SMS can contribute to
improving them.
4.1 Internal training, communication and dissemination of safety
information
(a) Training: QCAA's remit, and budget, includes the provision of assistance,

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training and advice to those responsible for aviation safety regulation


within the QCAA. Individual and group training, for both initial and
recurrent training, is provided under this heading. The QCAA will promote
the above priorities through:

· training for all relevant staff to raise the importance of safety culture and
safety reporting. This will clarify the benefits of safety culture and also
address the realities of how concepts like just culture work in practice,
how to raise the issue with service providers and the issues associated
with cultural change;

· a seminar on the issues associated with change management for relevant


staff including a discussion on the changes occurring and those expected
over the coming years, the potential safety impact and how this should be
approached during oversight;

· training of inspectors and development of supporting material to increase


the capability among regulatory staff in assessing operator’s/service
provider’s SMS and its performance, and to promote standardization
between individuals;

· training of all relevant staff in the processing and use of safety data, the
importance of standardized terminology and data interpretation; training
may be different levels according to roles;

· awareness information on key safety priorities and how they can


contribute to them;

· training for all relevant staff in the general awareness of SSP.

(b) The QCAA has established the following methods of communication and
dissemination of safety-relevant information within the QCAA:

For critical safety-relevant information:


· Confidential Letters;
· Email system.

For non-critical safety-relevant information:


· QCAA Website;
· QCAA Intranet;
· Safety Notice Boards;
· Safety Alerts;
· Safety Newsletters (quarterly);
· Safety Journal (annual).

4.2 External training, communication and dissemination of safety information

The QCAA provides education, awareness of safety risks and two-way

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communication of safety relevant information to support, among service


providers, the development of a positive organizational culture that fosters safe
practices, encourages safety communications and actively manages safety with
the same attention to results as financial management.

(a) A substantial package of measures will be defined in order to create a


sustained campaign to promote reporting culture / safety culture in
Service Providers. This is likely to be a long project and should plan in
terms of years.

(b) Following internal discussions, a plan will be generated to address the


issue of Change Management in Service Providers, possibly including
expert training and specific oversight techniques from Inspectors.

(c) Training will be identified that can be recommended to Service Providers


on SMS, and by running seminars/ workshops for the industry to promote
confidence among operational staff in encouraging and assessing SMS
development and performance. The cultivation of an active safety culture
at all levels and in all functional areas in the aviation industry is seen as a
key area of development;

(d) The QCAA holds regular meetings with operators and service providers,
in order to keep them advised of likely regulatory developments, and
promote a positive safety culture;

(e) The QCAA runs a ‘Safety Road Show’ every two years, where seminars
are provided on key regulatory topics, at one location within Qatar;

(f) The QCAA has established the following methods of communication and
dissemination of safety-relevant information nationally and internationally:

For critical safety-relevant information:


· Confidential Letters;
· Email system.
For non-critical safety-relevant information:
· QCAA Website;
· Safety Alerts;
· Safety Newsletters;
· Safety Journal;
· Email system.

5. Conclusions

The Qatar State Safety Programme is developing rapidly and this seems appropriate
since the growth in aviation is also rapid and sustained. There are many items in the
document that are ambitious and break new ground, but this is perhaps necessary to
underpin such an expansion of a complex and dynamic industry. There will be
challenges, but we are committed to the task and will make our best endeavor to
achieve the goals that we have set ourselves.

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References

1 ICAO Annex 19 1 st edition, July 2013.

2 GASP version 2017-2019.

3 RASG-MID 5 final report.

4 ICAO State´s Safety Programme Course.

5 ICAO Doc. 9859, AN/474 Safety Management Manual, Third


Edition 2013.

6 ISTARS-ICAO Guidance on the Development of a State’s Safety


Programme Gap Analysis.

7 ICAO Doc 9734, AN/959 Safety Oversight Manual, Part A – The


Establishment and Management of a State’s Safety Oversight
System, Second Edition – 2006.

8 State Safety Programme for the United Kingdom, Published –


February 2009.

9 Safety Management System for Evaluators Course, CAAI, June 2013.

10 Coscap Draft generic State Safety Program

11 https://portal.icao.int/space/Pages/welcome.aspx and

12 ICAO publications http://www.icao.int/SAM/SSP

13 Total Aviation System Risk Picture 2016 – (ref: D4.3), CAA UK.

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