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2AB * » C> . S i N i i-i/. 4„1. „ 3FNFRAI. BICHISSION :
2AB
*
» C>
.
S i
N
i i-i/.
4„1.
3FNFRAI.
BICHISSION :
f'hc::h :
1 -objec t - ver t
T h e
usuall y
contain s
a.
noi ! .i'r-phr-fe:>z
ae
th e
su b jee l
il
iQUSQ L
ee i'\l one. c
"id
a
predicat e
phras e
whic h
i s
a
predicatio n
abor !
th e
subj e
predicat e
pi irat e
may (.on
1
I
!
ver b
phras e
ex
e
r b
I n
Khez
bfei l Lr-TiC e ,
t h e
prt d
i
, t
F
xse
pla y
ph r :e-.e
a ! on e
I d
cca
jui '
I t
ca n
c. c-sstiiut e
th e
sentenc e
withoxrt .
a
subjec t
i n
I
*~>
For
example ,
i n
th e
sentence s
belo w
1
an
XX'Si S
••
et c
net ho- e
v:il 1 age
wO-dewA
g
o - \e
vise
'Wil l
c
t
n
v:i 1
1 su e -
''i c>— ex
wO
ee'o< i
r
i
H
••••
i
1
3
1
1
a u e
i- -£«nse
:i 1
1
eee
j
a
ii)
9 O li
e
C (J
v
1
i
!
:•-
A>
n
Khe-hx
i s
t
i. e
x eaa.i.rf
a r e
as.t
t
h e
sense
th ( .- '
-.-. <-r
•in
o f
sen t
e i xc e
Th e
x::.t.
ta n
:i ve
t h e
ob j
ex
'i
.,
uo \
X
I
i::=:l !
I
ne \'t'!"
t h e
d
o
t 1 i e y
r l"i a n g t •
!
t.' '
"<
!
j
i' •
or •ig i re
I
j
x
sue
[e
249 subject and object, can -freely be interchanged, but the verb position is -fixed in
249
subject and object, can -freely be interchanged, but the verb position
is -fixed in the -final position of the sentence.
Secondly, verbs ars
never marked passive even though its object is shifted to the initial
position. The interchanging of the subject and object pisition never
affects verb in the sentence in any sort.
Consider the following:
3. nie-na puwe-e
prisa c?-~a
I-nom him-acc money
gave
'I gave him money'
4. puwe-e nie-na prisa
11 im-ac <::. I -nom
c9-a
mon ey
g a ve
'I gave him money'
4.2. SENTENCE:
Khezha sentence may be divided into three-
categories, viz., simple sentence, complex sentence and compound
sentence.
4.2.1. SIMPLE SENTENCE: Simple sentence consists of a principal
clause , eg . ,
5. pu-nS anO-a
he
nty-ch i 1 d
'He/she is my child'
6. eja
nie-n £ kewhu- e j-©-a
yesterday J
Kohima went
'I went to Kohima yesterday'
O C A 7 . azO terho- a my-mother wel1 'My mother' i s we
O
C
A
7 .
azO
terho- a
my-mother
wel1
'My
mother'
i s
we 11 '
S.
no tedeyi' weda
you go-also good
'you can go'
9.
ize thu-ro
your--name who
'What is your name ?'
10.
ales i
he
be-a
my-book
here
exi
s t
'My
book
i s
here '
1
1
.
1imi-n a
awe-e
1 eche
ca -a
gir l
me
fruit ,
give?
'The
gir l
gave
me
a
-f
ruit '
%
i
'
'
p>u~na 1 imi kewe-a
she
girl good
'She is a good girl '
4.2.2. COMPLEX SENTENCE: The complex sentence consists of a
principal clause' with one or two subordinate clause(s) , but. normally
not more than two subordinate clauses.
These types of sentences can
be formed with or without conjunctive markers, eg.,
251 ( i ) Principa l Claus e Wit h One Subordinat e Clause :
251
( i
)
Principa l
Claus e
Wit h
One
Subordinat e
Clause :
13 pu-yimoy
.
nb-el e
i
riie-na
ch»-eh a
you
Bay
even
i f
I
do-no
'
I
wil l
not
do
even
i f
you
say. '
14 .
pu-n a
meku-e
Z9
nie-n
a
che- a
he
li e
tha t
I
know
' I
know
tha t
he
i s
lying '
15.
nb-n?
anhi e
p;i-a
?a
you
me-at
tel 1
tha t
clif- p i mu-a
know-never
'
I
never
knew
tha t
you
tol d
me.'
16.
nie-n-a
lesike- e
wO-e
z>
nhi e
puwe-e
z a
kecha-a
I
school
go
tha t
tim e
him
wit h
met
'
I
met
him
when
I
was
going
t o
school
'
17.
nb
1 es i
book
phr j
male
meze-e-da
you
read
i f
not
suffe r
'
I f
you
don' t
study
you
wil l
suffer. '
I S.
dilhi-r v
phrp
meci-l e
Dilh i
read
lazy-Conj
f el-d a
faile d
'Dilh i
faile d
because
he
i s
laz y
t o
study. '
19.
pu
wU-ele
anhie
pu-h i
he
come
me-to
tel 1
'Tel l
me
i f
he
comes'
:0. wepe-n? wO awe-e kess-a Wepe come me scold 'Wepe came to scold me' (ii)
:0.
wepe-n? wO
awe-e
kess-a
Wepe
come me
scold
'Wepe came to scold me'
(ii) Frincipal Clause With Two Subordinate Clauses:
Whenever there are: two subordinate clauses in a sentence, the
principal clause always occurs in between the two clauses,eg.,
21. mhekekelebalo pu wO-eleanhie puhidieyi sirO pu-a
in-case
he
come-Conj . me-to tel 1 Conj
tel 1
'He told me 1 to
tell him in case
H-e • comes.'
22. no
menO-mal e pu-ns' iwe--e kej*-de-yi 1ikhO-sa ley
you careful -Conj he-nom you-acc cheat-also angry-no
(Unless you are? careful you should not -feel bad even if
he bluf f ed you) .
23. no-ns chj-mo nie-n? chvsa-yi sirO be-a
you
do-Conj I
do
Conj remain
'I am thinking that i-f you don't do I will have to
do it.'
24. no-ele pu-yimoyi
nie-np ch?-eha wOi.ptit.o-da
you
say-al so-no~al so I
do
no
absol Lite
'It is absol Lttel y impossibl e -for m e to do even i-f you say '
25. no kewhu-e j»-ele anhie 1esi thu-hi-de-nie sirO mesa-a
you Kohima go-Conj . me-to letter write-will Conj. expect
'I hope you will write to me if you go to Kohima.'
253 4.2.3. COMPOUND SENTENCE: Two or more principal clauses or sentences can be conjoined together
253
4.2.3. COMPOUND SENTENCE:
Two or more principal clauses or
sentences can be conjoined together to form a .coordinate sentence by
conjunctive particles
ne 'but',
nesiyi 'even though' , sio 'if it is
so'.
It can 1 so be formed by the disjunctive marker -le, eg.,
26. nilo-na' neso-a
ne puchikez^-na
mekit-a
Nilo honest Conj his-younger-brother lie
'Nilo is honest but his younger brother is dishonest'
27.
snU-na
pns a
kha.-a
nesiy i
kel
i
be mo-a
my-son
money
ar-k
Con j
even-on e
have-n o
'My son is asking money
but I have nothing
with me '
« .
achikeza-na lesiphrj-de
sio nie-nj eta ta-de
my-younger-brother read-will Conj I field plough-will
'My younger brother will study and I will cultivate'
29. no-nj mha-de-le nie-n> mha-di-a
you go-will-Disj I go-Int
'Shall you go or I will go.'
30. jon-ni kO-1 Ode-1e
;hiweni-n« kO-lodi'-a che-mo-a
John wjn-wi11 -Disj Lhiwenyi
win-wi11 know-not
'(I) don't know whether John will win or Lhiwenyi will win.'
254 • 4.3. INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES. Any stative or declarative sentence can be changed to interrogative
254 •
4.3. INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES.
Any stative or declarative
sentence can be changed to interrogative sentence by an interrogative
maker , eg . ,
31(a) .
meri-na
zowe-a
Mary-nom beautiful
'Mary is beautiful . '
(b) mer
i - n9
z owe- n
i
Mary-nom
beaut"i f u l
-Int .
'
I s
Mary
beau t i-ful
? '
32(a) .
ap-f?-na
kewhu- e
jv~d a
fny-father-no m
Kohima-lo c
go-per f
'My
-fathe r
has
gone
t o
Kohima. '
(b)
.
apfa-n ^
kewhu- e
j3-da-n i
'Has my -father gone to Kohima ?.
33(a). pu-nj chahale
che-a
he-nom English
know-«*|s
'He knows English.'
(b) . pu-n» chahaie
cne-a- m
'Does he know English ?'
34(a). pu-na che-1o-da
he-nom know-pe/f
'He has 1 earned it . '
{b)
.
pu-n9
6he-1o-da-ni
'Has he 1 earned ?'
A .A . IMPERATIVE SENTENCES: Imperative sentences do not take the subject o-f the sentence
A .A .
IMPERATIVE SENTENCES:
Imperative sentences do not take
the subject o-f the sentence
Like al 1 the interrogative sentences,
the imperative sentences are closed by an imperative marker, eg.,
35 „
ch9-de
do-imp
'Do it ! '
36.
te-de
go-inip
37
lesi-pfo awe- e ch^-ley
book
me
g i ve- imp
'Give me the book: . '
38.
p uwe-e c h3-sa
him
give-imp
'Don't give him !'
3?,. meku-sa'
lie-imp
'Don't tel 1 ail ie ! '
4.5. DOUBLE SUBJECT SENTENCE:
Khezha has sentences with
double' subjects, both marked wih the nominative marker -na.
The:
second subject
is pronominal ir.ed i-f it. i Sr identical to the first
subject.
It seemr th<:st the -firet subject
is- ! "ot in th e same simpl e
sentence, as thi.- verb can be shcu^. h,
the -fc, ' thot. it has direct
'0 xl- relationship with the second subject only. If I he first subject is o.
'0 xl-
relationship with the second subject only.
If I he first
subject
is o.
human subject, a clausal complementizer is i-•< *<|ii i r< >< I tn occur after
the
verb which has relationship with the -first subject , rather than
the second one.
Thus, it appears that they have a structure
that can
bw represented as
C S
T S V8]
]
E::ampl e :
4<J .
nilo-nf l wepe-n< > te-d a
si- a
Nilo-no m
Wepe-nom went
sai d
'Nil o
sai d
tha t
Wepe
ha d
gone
away. '
4
1
.
nilo-n 3 pupfa -IT? puwe- e
thro- a
si- a
Nilo-no m
his—father—nam
hi m
lov<
sai d
'Nil o
say s
tha t
hi s
-fathe r
love s
him.
'
4
2 .
daru-n ?
s?-n 9
wemo-a
medicine-no m
that-no m
good-n o
(lit .
The
medicin e
i
t
i s
no t
good)
'Th e
medicine ,
the n
i
t
i s
no t
good. '
4
3 .
ece-n j
hi-n a
ey e
to-a-d a
cattle-no m
this-no m
vegetabl e
eat-wil l
'
I
f
th e
cattl e
remain s
lik e
thi s
i
t
wil l
ea t
vegetables. '
4.6 .
SUBJECT
AND OBJECT
DELETION:
Th e
occurrenc e
o f
subjec t
o
r
objec t
ca n
become
an
ill-forme d
sentenc e
i n
specifi c
situatio n
when
answerin g
th e
question .
Fo r
insatnee ,
th e
sentence s
(b)
belo w
th e
subject/objec t
i s
recoverabl e
fro m
linguisti c
o r
nolinyuisti c
contex t
*->cr—> even i-f it : i s delete d i n normal speech , e
*->cr—>
even
i-f
it :
i s
delete d
i n
normal
speech ,
e r j
.
,
44(a )
nib
awe- e
the~tf l f j
mo-r n
you
me
know
or
no-Int .
'Do
you
know
me
or
not
? '
(b)
.
che-a
'
(T)
know
(You) '
45(a)
.
no
daba
wOni-a-ro
I
where
gowant-Int
'Where
do
you
want
t o
go
(b)
.
emerika-e
wOni-a
'
(I)
want
t o
go
t o
America. '
46(a)
.
no
ake
nU-e
clu- e
mo-1 e
yo u
my-hous e
see
can
i\o-
Int.
'Can
you
-find
out
my
liouse
? '
(b)
.
rjO-e
thp- a
see
can-asp
'(I) can -find (out your house)
47(a) .
pu
daba
be-r o
he
where
remain-In t
'Where
i
s
he
? '
(b) .
delhi- e
be-a
Delh i
remain-c.^1 3
'(He)
i s
i n
Delhi. '
258 48(a) . n o m e I••: u - a - n i e
258
48(a) .
n o m e I••: u - a - n i e
you 1ie-Int
'Are you 1ying
?'
(b) .
meku
ma)
lie
no
'(I) am not
1ying . '
4.7. PHRASES.
4.7.1. NOUN PHRASE:
Khenha noun phrase may consist of single
noun or a noun with one or more attributes preceding or -following the
head
nouns.
It may also be a coordinate noun phrases where two or
more head nouns with or without attributes ar-e 1 inked together by a
conjunctive marker. There arE also sentential noun phrases composed
o-f embedded
sentences which av^e often enclosed by a determiner or a
case marker. The determiner and nominative case marker indicate the
demarcation o-f the boundary between noun phrase and verb phrase of the
sentential noun phrase. Noun phrases function as subjects of intran-
sitive verbs and stative predicates, agents or patients of transitive
verbs, objects of postpositions and complements of verbs. They ar&
discussed below:
(i). SINGLE NOUN PHRASE:
Single nouns phrase may consist
of single noun, eg.,
49.
meri wU-a
Mary
come--k«v\ »<
'Mary came/has come'
50. el & j9thr*-a dish wash 'Was h i 11 g the dish es' 51.
50. el & j9thr*-a
dish wash
'Was h i 11 g the dish es'
51. hi pf c:Jmete-de
remave
lesi
book
'Remove the book !'
52. meri-n3
:awe-a
Mary-nom
beautiful
'Mary is beautiful'
53.
jon-n 2
lesike- e
wU-da
John
school
come
'John
has
gone
t o
school
'
v
cry.
i
•'
•'» A
i
'
i. x
'
54.
lesi
mis?
phe be-a
book
table on
exist
'The book is on the table'
In examples 53, jon 'John' constitute subject noun phrase,
while lesike 'school' constitute predicate noun phrase.
Similarly,
lesi 'book' constitute subject noun phrase, while miza 'table'
constitute postpositional noun phrase j-n example SA.
In many cases, adjectives and numerals are used as noun
phrases without a noun. They are illustrated with sentences, eg.,
55.
awe-e
good det• me
kewe z2
c2-de
give
'Give me that good one'
260 56. ketrO hi whit e de t . zowe-a beau t i-fi.il 'Thi s
260
56.
ketrO
hi
whit e
de t
.
zowe-a
beau t i-fi.il
'Thi s
whit e
one
i s
beautiful '
57.
tec e
z9
pf o
pedi
kenu—da
eigh t
det .
tak e
-four
plus-d a
'Tha t
eigh t
i s
a*Wed
l&|«lfiev wit h
-four '
58. kecha hi daba-16 wO-ro
three det . where--from come-lnt
'Where did this three came •from ?'
(ii). ATTRIBUTIVE NOUN PHRASE:
An attributive noun phrase
built up
of a single
head
with one or more attr:i bute (s) that either
ecede or follow the head noun:
(a) Noun + Adjective
59.
era
ketrO
cloth white
'white cloth'
60.
emi kewe
person good
'good man'
61 .
1imi
zokesa
g irl
ugl y
'ugl y girl '
261 62 . thromi boy mel i kewe heart good 'brave bay' 63. eke keche
261
62 .
thromi
boy
mel i kewe
heart good
'brave bay'
63.
eke keche
house new
'new house'
(b) Noun + Numeral :
64 .
1 esi
kel e
book
one
'one book'
65.
emi cir?
person ten
'ten persons'
66.
raka' mek i
rupee twenty
'twenty rupees'
67. emi trirOpukele
person hundred-and-seed-one
'one hundred and one persons'
(c) Noun + Determiner:
68. nb hi
you det .
'you (such a type of person)'
26? 69. lra£i' hi book del. 'this book' 70 . ikezv 2?' your—friend det. 'your
26?
69. lra£i' hi
book del.
'this book'
70
.
ikezv 2?'
your—friend det.
'your friend (that one)'
71 .
lesi' B J
book det.
'the book (which you mentioned)'
(d) Noun + Quantifier:
72
.
1imi kerne
girl some
'some
y irls'
73. bethu kece
rice 1ittle
'little quantity of rice'
t
74. lesi katrO
book many
'many books'
75. bethu tina
rice
few
'few rice'
263 (e) Attributive +• Noun: 76. aro netho our vi11 age 'our vil1 age' 7
263
(e) Attributive +• Noun:
76. aro netho
our vi11 age
'our vil1 age'
7 7 .
enii
netho
person
vil 1
age
'other' s
vil 1 age'
78. dikha netho
Dikha
vil1 age
'Dikha's village'
79. kenie tate
day
walk(N)
'One day journey'
80. kesero sepu
elders speech
'elders advice'
81 .
kec"»ro
mhetho
youngers work
'Job for young people'
82. deobani mepQ
Sunday meeting
'Sunday service'
83. melimi
kekha
be'i iever prayer
'Prayer o-f believers'
264 84. kewumi meze theft problem 'The prohl em of theft' A noun phrase may
264
84. kewumi meze
theft
problem
'The prohl em of
theft'
A noun phrase may also contain pre-nominal
and post-nominal
attributes. There are no co-occurrence restrictions across the head
noun, eg.,
NP >
Gen + N + Adj + Num + Dem + Q
85.
atepi
razu
keche pedi
hiro kerne
my-sister blouse new
four these some?
'some of these four new blouses of my sister'
86.
aro
1akhu
keche pedi
our
bag
new
four
hiro med"
these al1
'all these four new basket, of ours'
- 87.
noro
you(pi) fruit riped nine-pl det. few
1eche kemu
tekO-ro z»
kece
'few of those six riped fruits of yours'
(iii). COORDINATE NOUN PHRASE:
Two or more noun phrases can
be conjoined by either conjunctive particle le or disjunctive particle
mo
and
leas ,
NP
>
NP + NP (+NP)
(i) CONJUNCTIVE PARTICLE mo and It o fte r i r i :i t i
(i) CONJUNCTIVE PARTICLE mo and It
o fte r
i r i :i t i a 1 n o u n p h r a & t?.
occur
without further introducing thee (
case, two distinction is observed belwt
phrases.
In the case of animate noun,
phrase to be attached by a number mark*
-ro;
whereas in the case of inanimate
88. e;:0 le
epf£-nhi eke-
mother and fathei—Dl housi
'Father and mother are at
8 9 .
throm i
l e
limi-nh i
wO-a
boy
and
girl-D l
come
'Bo y
and
gir l
are
coming. '
90. ezO
le
epf?
nOmi-ro
mother and father child=F'
'All the father, mother at
91. dikha
le nipe wete dilhi |
Dikha and Nipe Wete Dilhi
'Dikha, Nipe, Wete and Di
92. echafl e evo-nhi
wO-a
dog and pig-Dl come
'Dog and pig are coming.'

phrae i s bui1I. up , i.he conjunctive pai

T h e r e a f t e r

266 93 a/iii-n a w e? -non ) metrit a m a i; : e
266
93 a/iii-n a
w e? -non )
metrit a
m a i; : e
l e
a n <::!
clon e
t a
dewa
m :i. 1 1 e t .
gro w
f u I
i
.
t
I •
• r
'We are going to grow mai;re and mil let. '
94. lesi It? pen(--nhi) diba he-ro
boo k a n d p en where re in a in - I n t
'Where are the book and pen.'
95. lesi le pen cokhO 1ssichjka(-TO) ch» mass-a
book
and
pen si atC pencil
use
must
'All
the
book , pen , si ate and pencil are necessary.'
(ii) DISJUNCTIVE particles mo and le:
Disjunctive particle can
also conjoin two noun phrase.
Unlike conjunctive NP construction,
disjunctive NPs never cause any ambiguity. Because the number marker
is attached to each phrase -for both animate and inanimate nouns in the
case where the number o-f participants in a phrase is more than one.
These types o-f coordinate noun phrase construction under the dominance
of verb phrase normally don't expand more than two phrases.
And when
they are
expanded more than two pht <J ,t ••., IIK- <fi jV ,< live particle must
occur after
t.?ach and i.?very phr-asc"3. The
dif/V'i••< m >> h: 't.:w: •(.•>n l
li<?
f '.vo is
thai, mo is used
-for state and command, while le is used -for
interrogation:
96. pen
mo
le &\chaK* kethy i thre bi-a
pen or pencil
any
same
'It is all the same whether pen or pencil .'
267 97 . mel he mo. 1 akhO-p-fo basket-Disj bag awe-e c3-l ej me give
267
97 .
mel he mo. 1 akhO-p-fo
basket-Disj bag
awe-e
c3-l ej
me
give
'Give me? those two baskets or those two bay, !'
98.
thromi-ro mo 1 imi-ro Itiba
boy-Pi
wu
or girl-PI this side come
'Come this side, either boys or girls'
99.
thromi mo limi ketoyi thre bi-a
boy
or
girl any
same
'Whether boy or girl , they are
all the same.)
100. hinohi metrita le chsbe-ro
this
maize
or millet-Int
'Is this maize or millet ?'
lul .
thromi le
boy
or
limi wO dewa-ei
girl come -future-Int
'Is boy or girl coming ?'
102.
no
lesi le pen
loni-a-ro
you book or pen want-Int.
'Do you want book or pen ?'
103.
whorohi ch?bo le eprg bi-ro
those
tree or grass only-Int
'Are those tree or only grass ?'
4.7.2. VERB PHRASE:
Like noun phrases, Kliezha verb phrases
also vary considerably in their structures.
They may contain one or
more noun phrases, or no noun phrase at all.
The composition of noun
?J ,B p h r a s e i s t h e phrase or
?J ,B
p h r a s e
i s t h e
phrase or verb phrase-.
A verb phrase
is built
up o-' a verb, which
is
the nucleu o-f the verb phrase with certain other foil owing
or
preceding elements. Normally, the post-verb elements consist of the
markers such as tense, aspect, mood, conjunctive and negative. The
adverb may precede or -follow the verb.
There ar-B two types o-f verbal
elements: verbs and adjectives. However, the adjectives ar-B always
intransitive in the sense that they do not dominate noun phrases.
Khe::ha verb phrases have the -following possible structure:
VP
NP
(NP) VB
The above structure rule indicates several verb phrase structure
possib il it ies :
( i) a verb only,
(ii) a verb preceded by a single noun phrase,
(iii) a verb preceded by two or more noun phrases,
(i) VERB PHRASE WITH SINGLE VERB:
Every verb phrase has to
contain at least one verb (VB), which is the primary constituent
o-f a verb phrase. The -following sentences contain only one verb
under the dominance o-f verb phrase:
VP
>
VB

s a m e w h e t her- it f u n c t i o n s u n < :l e r 1h <? c:l o m i r i cnc e o-f no it n

269 104 » k eweI< h a wO-a Kewekha come 'Kewekha came/has come/is comi uu
269
104 »
k eweI< h a wO-a
Kewekha come
'Kewekha came/has come/is comi uu
lUo.
eco
mesa—a
stone heavy
'The stone is heavy'
106. 1 ecjj? mil-da
•fruit riped
'The fruit is riped'
107.
nie-nj wO-dewa
I come
'I am coming/will come'
*
i
/
\
108. llmi-rT?
:owe-a
girl
beautiful
'The girl is beautiful'
(ii) VERB PHRASE WITH NOUN PHRASE:
Thu -fall owing sentences
contain both a verb and a noun phrase:
VP
>
NP (NP) VB
109. wete-n#
eke
meche-a
Wete
house
clea n
'Wete
i s
cleanin g
th e
house'
110. men-n ?
eke
meche-e
cha-a
Mary
house
clea n
abl e
'Mary
can
clea n
the
house'
270 111. apf -\\d mel he do-a my—father basket w\>0ve 'My father is plaiting basket
270
111. apf
-\\d
mel he do-a
my—father basket w\>0ve
'My father is plaiting basket '
112. ami-res evo meru-a
we
pig
rsar
'We rear pig'
113. 1imi-na thromi-e 1esi-pfo
c3-a
girl
boy
book
give
'The girl gave? the boy a book.'
114. kaj3 1esi-pfo
nie-na
keza hi-.-.
I
ground book
throw
'I
threw the book on the ground . '
115. ami kemetha-n* ami-e metha-a
our
teacher
U B
teach
'Our teacher taught us.'
116. apfa-n3
les i
thu- a
my—father letter write
'My father is writing a letter'
(iii) COORDINATE VERB PHRASE: Two verb phrases can be conjoined
by conjunctive marker -rO and disjunctive particle mo and le, eg.,
(i) Conjunctive Marker -rO:
117. meri-na wO-rO te-da
Mary
come-Conj. went
'Mary came and went away'
271 110 . nieri-n a khOne to-i- 0 be- a Mary food teat-Conj remain (Mary
271
110 .
nieri-n a
khOne
to-i- 0
be- a
Mary
food
teat-Conj remain
(Mary
is citing -focd
so < he remaininy)
119. mha-rO
nie-ra
wO-da
I
go-Conj came
'I went to the -field and
came bad::'
120. puuro-nj lacha-rO
mhecha-a
they-nom sing-conj work
'They are singing when working'
121. atepi-na awe-e 1ikh0-r0
tre-da
my-sister me
angry-Conj cry
'My sister got angry with me and then cried'
(ii) Disjunctive Particle mo and le:
122. no lesi phra mo
tata
de-ni
you book read Disj cultivate will-Int
'If you don't study , will you cultivat e ?'
123. cha mo
bi-de
do-Disj stop
'Do or stop it !'
124
.
no
les i
phra-d e
l e
you
ook
read-wil1-Dis j
tata-di- a
cultivate-w i 1 1
'Shal l
yo u
stud y
o r
cultivate ?
? '
77? 1 -5. [ju-n? tre le ng-ya he cry Disj laugh chemo-da I: iio< •
77?
1 -5.
[ju-n? tre le
ng-ya
he
cry
Disj laugh
chemo-da
I: iio< • -~rn >
'I don't know whether he cried or- laughed,'
126.
nie be
le
mha de-ro
I remain Disj
go
fut-Int
'Shall
I stay or yo to the field '""
4.8. WORD ORDER VARI ATI ON:
Khezha is a verb—-final language.
Word order' in the lenience is
relatively -free, as long as the sentence ends i-rilli a
main verb.
This
is not surprising, however, because there <Ar& a number of overt
syntactic markers which specify syntactic relations within (lie
sentence and al 1 caw unambiguous identification uf function not
dependent on word order.
In some cases, however, morphological
markings of syntatic relations are restricted.
This makes some
statement of normal word order possible.
Thus, the anlysis reveals
two trends :
(i) freedom of word order variation where the syntactic
relations are overtly marked; and (ii) word order pattern is fixed
where the syntactic relation are covertly marked.
Consider the
following word order variations. The sentence like 'Wepe gave me a
book' in Khezha can have the following word order variations:
?73 i*: 7 (a) . wepe-n » awe-e lesi-pf o c.3--a Wepe-nom me-acc book-lns l
?73
i*: 7 (a) .
wepe-n »
awe-e
lesi-pf o
c.3--a
Wepe-nom
me-acc
book-lns l
.
y :i
vi
(b)
.
wepe-n?
lesi-pf o
awe-t j
c 9
a
(<:)
.
awe~e
wepe-n »
1 es:i -p
f
o
ca~a
(iJ ) .
awe- e
1 e s i - p f a
wep e ~ n 9
c.•?' - a
(e)
.
lesi-pf o
wepe-na
awe- e
c.3~a.
(f )
.
le%i-pfo awe-e
wepe-n? c. 3-a
In the above sentences., -na, -e , and -p-fo i\r& case markers
representing the nominative, accusative and instrumental case marking.
All of them preserve the original meaning of the sentence (a) . The
subject initial sentence pattern is the most common among the various
word order patterns. However, despite
of that, :i n general , it is
extremely difficult to establish an underlying wort! ;:>rder of
constituents of a free word order language like Khezha. Consider
again the sentences where the accusative marker is 0. Even in the
cases where the accusative case is not overtly marked, the free word
order variation is still possible:
128(a). wepe-n? eha bophro-da
Wepe-nom cup broke
(b) .
eha
wepe-n? bophro-da
'Wepe broke the glass.'
Similarly, in all the cases the position of direct and indirect
object can be interchanged without any restriction, but the position
274 o-f ver b i s alway s -fixe d i n th e -fina
274
o-f
ver b
i s
alway s
-fixe d
i n
th e
-fina l
positio n
o f
th e
seriL t nee , ey. ,
129(a) W!:'pe-n3
Wepe
a--nhi e
me-to
le',1 * * tliu hi-a
letter write:'
(b) Wepe-ri3 lesi a-nhie
I lui hi-a
'Wepe wrote a letter to me.'
13u(a) akeiTU--n3 throminO
my-wife boy-baby
kele
awe-e
monO
:-»--a
one
me
born
(b) akemi-n? awe-e throminO kele mcnO .-»-a
'My wi-fe gave birth
a baby boy to me. '
There is however, one possible syntactic argument for hypothesi-
-'iri'j ",0V, and not. say OSV, as representing the underlying word order
•for Khezha.
For example, in the cases where both the subject and
object do not take any morphological marker, the subject position is
-fixed in the initial position. Thus, the object follows the subject,
eg • ,
131(a) .
chvka
stick
anech^ kethu-da
my-eye hit
'The stick hit my eye.'
(b) .
anecha
chaka
kethu-da
my-eye stick
hit
!
'My eye hit the stick.'
In the sentence 131(a), 'the stick' is agent and 'my eye ' is
27:; pat . i. e n I: ,' whil e i n th e <.:a<.:;n
27:;
pat .
i. e n I: ,'
whil e
i n
th e
<.:a<.:;n
o f
t.hi.>
'M'III.I'MI.I. '
IH I
(|I )
,
' tl \,
< • y» •'
i •,
,igeii l
an d
' th e
s 1; i c k
'
|:>at. i tont
.
Henc e
\
I \e
<r>en 1< M I(;• < •
132(h )
held w
i r
.
not
possibl e
wher e
th e
nominativ e
cas e
i s
no t
overtl y
m.ir- l
< •<! :
132(a). wepe
Wepe
lesi
thu-a
book
write
'Wepe is writing a letter.'
(b)
#lesi
wepe
thu-a
Since the subject and object positions are fined to SOV pattern
where their" cases i.\fE' not morpholocal1y marked, wr /nay conclude that
Khezha is SOV language.
In the case of the order of the clause",, 1 he p* >• > i t i un of the
subordinate
clause is fi::ed in
the initial position
• -ihenever there is
only one subordinate clause in the sentence, eg.,
133. pu
he come-if I remain-not
wU-ele m e be-eha
'If he come s I will not stay. '
134. no chal oyiwe-el e
awe-e prisa tepu-hi malesa-a
you possible-if me
money lend
must
'If
possibl e you must lend me some money. '
In the above sentences, the boundary between the main clause and
the subordinate clause is demarcated by the conjunctive marker -ele.
276 Thus, Uie subord iiidte clause is -fined in the initai1 position of [In- sentenc
276
Thus, Uie subord iiidte clause is -fined in the initai1 position of [In-
sentenc e in all th e cases .
However , in th e case?, wher e I hoi e ai •• tw o
subordinate clauses, the position of the principal is f hied between
!. I >n two cl auses .
In the case of the coordinate sentences, i.e., when the
conjunction conjoins two principal clauses, the conjunction must
occur between the two clauses.
In this case, the position of the
clauses can be interchanged freely, eg.,
1371(a).
ipfa-n? mheche sio
isO-na
;-nwi'
your-father educated Con j . your~niol
her
->i ,\
beautiful likewise
'Your father is educated and your mother- is beautiful .'
(b) .
izO-n^ zowe sio
ipf»-n» mheche s i-~a
'Your mother is beautiful and your fattier is educated.'
136(a). meri-n? zowe-a
ne
nipe-e-na zos?--a
Mary
beautiful Conj . Neipe-e
ugly
'Mary is beautiful but Neipe-e is ugly.'
(b) nipe-e-n? zbsa-a' ne meri-na
zowe-a
'Neipe-e is ugly but Mary is beautiful .'
In Khezha, the position of adjective and numeral is fixed, eg.,
277 r-, I t \ 137 . 1 iiiii kewe gir l good 'good gir
277
r-,
I
t
\
137 .
1
iiiii
kewe
gir l
good
'good
gir l
'
138. thromi ketha
boy
tal 1
'tal l
boy'
139. 1
i'mi
kel e
gir l
one?
'one
girl '
140. les i
pedi
book
fou r
'•four
book s '
When adjective and numeral occur together, the numeral must
occur after adjective, eg.,
X
/
/
141. 1 imi kewe kele
girl good one
'one good girl'
142. thromi ketha pedi
boy
tal1
four
'four tal1 boy'
Adverb always occurs ofter verb or adjective, eg.,
27G 143. we *>e good Adv. ' very yood' 144. inlie to ";e~<::!a nie I
27G
143. we *>e
good Adv.
' very yood'
144. inlie to ";e~<::!a
nie
I
food eat Adv
'I ate -food so much.
145. pu-n?
ch«? mesa so-da
he-nom do
'He did it
badly
146. nie-n9 puwe-e kech^rO menie sc'-da
I-nom him-acc meet and shamo Adv
'I -felt
very shy by meeting him.'
(lit. I met him and I felt very shy)
0
279 Words: Words are arranged in alphabetical order. Proper names are not included in the
279
Words:
Words are arranged in alphabetical order. Proper names are not
included in the list. Compound words and loan words which facilitate
grammatical explanation arB included, the rest are excluded. Since
the list is intended mainly to facilitate understanding of the
grammatical categories, their meanings are not eleborately discussed,
but to give some indication of the most central meaning of Khezha
words.
a-
N ' 'first person possessive ' ,eg . , atepi 'my sister '
ami
N
'we' (exclusive second person)'
a'nhi
N
'we (Dual)'
aro
N
'we (plural ) '
afe
adv
'before'
afe
adv 'long before'
ba
Vint
'to joke'
ba Vtr 'to place horizontally',
ba
Vtr
'to put on shawl on body'
baco
N
'wrist'
bal akez2 adj 'lucky (in purchasing animals from others
for
rearing that the purchased animal brings blessing
to the new owner)'
bali
N
'forearm'
balu N 'sand for construction'
bapfo
N
'arm between wrist and elbow'
280 baphe adj 'horizontal' bas* N 'handle' basu N 'elbow' bata N 'production o-f
280
baphe adj 'horizontal'
bas*
N
'handle'
basu
N
'elbow'
bata
N 'production o-f crops'
bata
N 'muscle loading gun'
bathi
adj
'care-full (in giving things to others) '
batha
adj
'hand which steals' (lit. long
hand)
batra
N
'thumb'
bathra N
'hand'
bac3
N
'finger'
bacanOke N 'little -finger'
bacakwe N
'finger nail'
baza
N
'paw'
ba5a
N
be
Vint
'hand towel for lifting pots while cooking'
'to sit', '*• •v«* rt *»'"'
be
Vtr
'to boil vegetables', 'to have'
be
Vtr
'to add'
bedi
N
'a kind of long jump' (jump by standing)
bedie N 'capital/headquarter'
bel he
Vtr
'to gather paddy after drying in the sun '
bera
N
'chair'
bethu
N
'rice'
bi
Vtr
'to throw (stone)', 'to patch'
bi
Vint
'to stop',
2B1 bO Vint 'to clear excreta' bO Vint 'to swel1', bO Vtr 'to protect from
2B1
bO
Vint 'to clear excreta'
bO
Vint
'to swel1',
bO
Vtr 'to protect from falling'
bOkhO
N
bOkhOke N
bOkwe
N
'latrine'
'shed for latrine'
'hard stool'
bOkhwe
N
'a kind of
black frog found in the river'
b0z3
N
bOza
N
'dirts carry aw*y by water from the village'
'soft stool'
bOz^bO Vint 'having loose motion'
bOzakebO' N 'diarhea'
bo
Vtr
'touch'
bo
Vtr
'to imprison'
-bo adv 'indicating suddenly/instentaneously'
-bo adj indicating 'used/ second hand'
bole. Vtr
'to drop/spill ' (by touching)
bo7jQ.ioche N 'tomato'
borOmicache N
'a variety of chillies big in size and very hot'
bu
Vtr
'to
enclose' , { \c b-r<W[ b,Wc ^
bu
Vtr 'to cut with scissors',
-bu
Vtr
bule
N
bulo Vint
bvo
Vtr
'to gather together in one place'
'measure of barn'
'to take out grain from grainary'
'to take out paady from barn'
282 bvo Vint 'grow of new leaves' bva Vtr 'to suppress' cabi' N 'lock' caha
282
bvo
Vint
'grow of new leaves'
bva
Vtr 'to suppress'
cabi' N
'lock'
caha
N
'tea'
catrd
N
'tea without
sugar and milk'
ce
Vtr
'to water the plant', 'tease',
ce
Vint 'open hole'
ce
vtr
'to mix liguid',
cedie N 'month corresponding with November'
ceke
N 'season for harvesting paddy'
ceco
N
'hard rock'
ci
adj
'smal1'
c i
Vt r
'kic k
wit h
fla t
foot '
cini e
N
'wealth '
ciwa
N
'wal
1
'
cirO
-N
'front board of the house'
cirO
N
'dry bamboo stick'
cirOke' N
'house constructed with bi board in the front side of th
house'
cirhO
N
'bamboo bar for holding thatch in the roof'
crass Vtr
'kick with toe'
co
Vint
'wake up'
to
adj
'indicating as it is ready, okay, etc.
coha
N
'akind of red ant'
5183 coca N 'a kind o-f red ant' chaha N 'officer' che adj 'artful '
5183
coca N
'a kind o-f red ant'
chaha
N
'officer'
che
adj
'artful '
che
Vtr 'frknow' , 'fohear' ,
the Vtr '^insert'
chele
Vint 'to sing while working or walking'
chel i
N
'petticoat -for women'
chena
N
'a kind of hornet'
cheena adv
'early in the morning'
chi Vint 'to die'
chica N
'a kind of poisoneous tree'
chijakeche N 'prophecy'
chijskechemi N 'prophet'
chiyili Vint 'a kind of expression of cursing someone'
"cti& Vtr 'to curse someone by the community, 'to concide with'
clra adj 'enough/sufficient'
ch-abe N 'millet'
chS>chi adj 'weak/fatigue'
chalo N 'shifting cultivation'
chspahi
N
'army'
clra'rhi adj 'enthusiastic'
chw e
N
'a kind of rake for spreading paddy while drying in the sun'
thsi.^
N
'a kind of blue bird whose feather is used as ornament by
menfolk of Khezhas'
284 da Vtr 'add' (liguid) da Vint 'wet', 'to place in row' daboe adv 'where'
284
da Vtr
'add' (liguid)
da Vint
'wet',
'to place in row'
daboe adv
'where' (exact point of place)
dal i' N
'dal '
dano
N
'which'(Sg)
dapa
adv 'where' (part of desection)
da'ro
N
daru
N
daze
adv
'which' (PI)
'medicine'
'how much'
de
Vtr
'to beat'
de
Vtr 'to plug vegetables'
di
Vtr 'to fold leave for making cup to drink', 'to rule/control'
di
Vint
'flow of water',
di
Vtr 'to place in standing position'
di
Vtr 'to wish to own something'
dibi
N
'what'
dibikechanhie adv 'when'
dibidacharO adv
'in what way'
dibikechS'je 1 o adv 'for what reason'
dibicharO adv 'how/why/for what reason '
die
adj
'big'
dicharO adv
'why'
dize
adv
'how many'
do
Vtr
'to weave',
285 do Vtr 'to block' do adj 'expression of asking or in some cases it
285
do
Vtr
'to block'
do
adj
'expression of asking or in some cases it indicates that the
speaker has decided to act'
dole
adj
'frank'
dO
Vtr
'to cut' (log)
dO
Vtr
'to hook with rope'
dOl i
N
'half o-f
rupee'
du
Vtr
'to cut' <but not to cut apart)
du
Vtr 'to touch with pointed edge'
dumi
N
'ancient people'
dumise N '-folk-tale'
je
Vtr
'to wrap'
je
Vtr
'to soothe', 'to construct in layer'
j-& Vtr
'to burn', to descend', 'sting'
j-3 Vtr
'to boil soft'
jana
N
'a kind o-f tool -for weaving'
j9nie
N
'a name o-f festival '
eba
N
'arm', 'branch'
eba
N
'shoot
of
plant '
ebe
N
'space' ,
'paddy
i n
th e
house'
ebrf
N
'layer '
ebO
N
'stoo l
(excreta) '
ebo
N
'cadge'
ebb
N
'stem' ,
'base '
286 ebo N 'hive' ebu N 'barn' ebu N 'room or any kind of space
286
ebo
N
'hive'
ebu
N
'barn'
ebu
N
'room or any kind of space inside'
ebu
N
ebva
N
ebv ^
Vtr
ebva adj
ebva N
'arm'
'bunch'
'to step over so that things inside are destroyed'
'half rotten'
'chaff
ebvo N 'two measure of-basket'
ece
N
eci' N
ec?
N
'rock',
'horn', 'a kind of twig'
'baby animal/bird', 'interest of money'
ecu N 'children of brothers and sisters'
eche
N
eche
N
'fruit in the tree'
'any kind of basket for carrying on back'
echi
N
'bile',
echi
N
'behind'
echs
N
'breathe'
echa
N
'seed'
echu
adj
'fit'
eda
N
'trick'
ede
N
"leech'
edi
N
'smel1'
edO
N
'lump'
2B7 edie N 'breadth' eje N 'parcel ' eje N 'story' eja N 'yam' ej"a
2B7
edie
N
'breadth'
eje
N
'parcel '
eje
N
'story'
eja
N
'yam'
ej"a
N 'frame -for weaving'
ej"3
N 'one measure of basket'
efs>
N
'teeth'
efa
N
'fowl '
eha
N
'cup'
ehi
N
'taste'
ehu N 'singing during festival by menfolk'
ehu
Vint
'to sing (ehu)'
eha
N
'way'
eja
N
'yesterday'
eje
N
'width'
ej"3 • N
'water'
e
j V
N
'testicles '
e
j »
N
'front '
eka
N
'meaning'
eka
N
'a kind of stick with
two branches at the other end'
eke
N
'house'
eke
N
'last end'
ekO
N
'strength at the time of doing action'
ekO
N
'measure from thumb to longest finger'
288 eku N 'convenient ,side of body position' eku N 'monkey' eko N 'muscle' ekhi
288
eku
N 'convenient ,side of body position'
eku
N
'monkey'
eko
N
'muscle'
ekhi N 'a kind of water-tight woven basket'
ekhe
N
' a
kin d
of
jungl e
cat '
ekh i
N
'•fencin g
o-f
village '
ekhO
N '-fish', 'plate', 'coffin'
ekho
N
ekhu
N
ekhu
Vint
'nest'
'tiger'
'to cough'
ekhu
adj
'crooked'
ekwe
N
ekwe
N
'sheep'
'shell', 'tree bark'
ekhwe
N
ekhwi
N
'sound'
'a kind of jungle fowl'
el a " Vint
'stand'
ela
N
'falcon'
ele
N
'line'
el e
N
'language'
ele
Vint
'return'
ele
Vint
ele
Vint
'move'
'to fall (object)'
ele
N
eli
N
'pot'
'larvae which lives in the tree trunk'
289 el i N 'buf f al o' e l i N 'mind ' e
289
el
i
N
'buf f al
o'
e
l
i
N
'mind '
e
l u
N
'space
inside '
el
ha
Vt r
't o
keep
away
from
something '
el
he
N
'foetus '
elh a
N
'health '
ema
Vin t
'swel1 '
ema
N
'brother-inlaw '
ema
N
'ghost '
ema
N
'swel1ing '
erne
N
'cost price'
erne
N
en\6
Vtr
'fire'
'heal of wound'
emi
N
'person'
emi
N
'origin'
ema
N 'initial', 'goat'
em?
N
'a kind of fruit used as medicine'
emu
N
'land-slide'
emo
N
'femal e
organ '
emo
N
'dream '
emu
N
'1and-slide '
emha
N
emhe
N
emhi
N
'going to the field (bee)'
'thing', 'food'
'feather/hair of body'
290 enihi N 'spear' emhO N '-face' ena N 'vein' ena N 'dress' ene N
290
enihi
N
'spear'
emhO
N
'-face'
ena
N
'vein'
ena
N
'dress'
ene N 'establishment o-f village'
ene
Vtr
'to press'
ena
N
'leaf'
enO
N
'child'
eno
N
'days for ritual performance which last for seven days'
eno
N
'wife of elder brother'
enia N 'instrument'
enie N 'festival', 'unbred female animal', 'shame'
eni
N
'father's/husband's sister', 'mother-inlaw'
eni
adj
'happy'
enio
N
'soil'
eniu
N
'breast'
enhie
N
'near'
enhi
adj
'wringled'
enhi adj 'broken blade', 'solidified'
enhi
N
'powdery object'
enh?
N
'a kind
of woven leaves item to put on the back to protect
rain while working'
enhO
N
'puss'
epa
N
'flowering'
291 epa N 'mushroom' epa N "fungus-that grows on th e water ' epa N
291
epa
N
'mushroom'
epa
N
"fungus-that
grows
on
th e
water '
epa
N
'benc h
-For
grindin g
grains '
epa
N
'piece '
epi Vint 'to -fall hair/leaves'
epi Vint 'to -fall sand/soil (not actually land-slide)'
epu
N
'bridge'
epu
N '-father o-f husband or wife' , 'grand—father'
epu
Vint
'to expand while cooking ro soaking in the water'
epu
N
'debt'
epha
N
'fat'
epha
N
'habit'
ephe
N
'leg'
ephi
N
'meadow'
ephi
N
'husk'
ephu
N
'weight o-f body'
ep-f-z N '-father'
ep-fg adj
'thin'
ep-fg Vint
'to occur rash on the body'
ep-fha N 'site -for building'
ep-fho
N
'lung'
epra N 'meat -for distributing to dear ones -for remembrance o-f death
person'
epre
N
'spleen'
292 epri N 'needle epra N 'brother of sister' epr3 N 'grass' epra N 'growing
292
epri
N
'needle
epra
N
'brother of sister'
epr3
N
'grass'
epra
N
'growing
o-f young leaves'
eprgt' Vint/Vt r 'to mat e (animal s)'
epru
N
'elephant'
ephra
N
'piece o-f -flat bread or bee-hive
era'
N
'cl imax of one' s 1 if e '
era N 'independent behaviour'
era
N
'cloth'
ere
N 'outside the village'
ere Vint 'to migrate (animals/birds)'
ete
V H
'"to Wovtt'
eri
N
'a kind of jungle fowl'
eri
N 'feeling unfree'
eri
N
'war'
eri
N
'boundary'
eri
Vint TO recur pain, sickness, etc.'
erO
N
'sound of crying'
hrd
N
'a kind of twig'
eru
N
'bone',
'a kind of jungle rat'
ero
N
'catching of bird with gum'
erhe
N
'a kind of cloth
used as ornament'
erhi
N
'lice of hair'
erho
N
'rope',
293 erhO N 'soya-beans' esa adj 'dried completely' ese Vint 'to bend and hide' ese
293
erhO N 'soya-beans'
esa adj 'dried completely'
ese
Vint 'to bend and hide'
ese
N 'message', 'curse'
eso
Vint
eso
N
'to go and sleep in the community place'
'penis'
esO* N
'a kind of plant having
long stem'
ese N 'gossiping'
ese
N 'uncooked stale rice'
es3
N
'place'
esa
adj
'thick'
htd
N 'food for animal/fowl'
eta N 'cultivation'
ete
N 'usual route of someone or animals'
ete
N 'cooked seed, especially to eat along
with drinks'
etu
N 'lump or any objects amass together'
etha
N
'height'
ethe
N
ethe
N
ethi
N
'deer'
'hair of head'
'powder rice'
etho
N
'thorn'
ethO
N
'bangle'
etre
N 'used object', 'fruits hanging together on a branch'
etr^ N 'capital of money', 'mother aninmal/bird'
294 ethra N '-friend', 'rein-deer' ethrO N 'tax' ethr? N 'moon', 'month'
294
ethra N '-friend', 'rein-deer'
ethrO
N
'tax'
ethr? N 'moon', 'month'
ethra
N
'lice o-f body'
ethr? N 'shadow'
ece
N
'gum'
ece
N
'cattle'
eco
N
'stone'
ec?
N
'neck-lace'
eci
N
'sky'
echa
N
' a
kin d
of
snaked * koy ^ '
ech O
N
'fa t
o-f
th e
skin '
ech^
N
'dog '
echa
N
'timber' ,
-fire-wood '
echa'
N
'meat' ,
'complexion '
eche
N
'loop '
.
(
,
eva
N
'horn-bill' , 'to lean against'
evo
N
'pig'
ewe N 'bear (animal)', 'possession'
ewe
N
'sand'
ewO
N
' crab'
ewO
N
'-forest'
ewu \MW '^travel '
ewu , adj
ewu Vtr 'to steal' (ejwumi N 'traveller' ewhe N 'dependent' eye N 'star', 'soft
ewu
Vtr
'to steal'
(ejwumi N 'traveller'
ewhe
N
'dependent'
eye N 'star', 'soft portion inside pumpkin, cucumber, etc
eye
N
eyi
N
eza
N
'vegetables'
'shoot of banana tree'
'chopper'
eza
N 'earning of name by achieving something', 'day'
eze
N
'name', 'mark'
hz*
N
'bed'
ez9
N
'dew'
eza
adj
'astray'
ez3
ezO
Vint 'itisleep'
N v 'mat' t
ezO
N 'mother (human)'
ezO . N
'boys of having good physical body'
eza
N
'beauty'
ezo
ezo
adj 'fast dimishing'
adj 'already late'
eze
N
'blood relationship'
ezi' N
ezi
N
ezi
N
ezi
adj
'lake'
'iron' , 'pretention', 'skin'
'blood'
'loose'
296 eza N 'sambar', 'young unfully grown leaf' eio N 'common name of bee' ezo
296
eza
N
'sambar', 'young unfully grown leaf'
eio
N
'common name of bee'
ezo
N
eiu
n
'habit', 'rule'
'rat'
fa
Vtr
'to chase', 'to blow (wind)'
f 3
Vtr
'to
occur some event unexpectedly'
f»bo
N
'molar'
fe'c-9
N
'chick'
fadi e
N
'tracopine '
fS>J(a
N
'cock '
fakeni
N
'gum of teeth'
f©1 a
N
'a kind of stem with which menfolk play a game'
fala
N
'unbred hen'
f3ra
N
'hailstone'
f9tra N
'hen'
fac»
N
'duck'
f3cV*3N
'chicke n
(meat) '
fai ©
N
'cavit y
of
tooth '
ha
Vt r
't o
saw' ,
't o
cut
by
rubing '
fta
Vt
r
't
o
unloc k
trigger '
nadie
N
'main road'
ha
adj
'red'
hamera adv 'completely red'
hatha adv
'slightly red'
297 ha Vint 'to yawn' hata N 'smal1 cup' hatu Vint 'to sneeze' hapO N
297
ha
Vint
'to yawn'
hata N
'smal1 cup'
hatu
Vint 'to sneeze'
hapO
N 'hollow bamboo'
hapOha
N
'bamboo cup'
he
Vtr 'to slice so that the sliced portion becomes lower'
he
adj
'higher in value'
he
Vint 'to endure'
he
adv
'here'
heho
N
'a kind of monkey
hi
adj
'tasty'
hino
N
'this'
hinhi
N
'these(Dl)'
hxro
N
'these(Pl)'
hiba
adv
'this side'
ho "Vtr
'to make hole'
ho
Vtr
'to dig'
5£te
N '-fermented soya-b& an '
jaduni adv
'recent past'
jal»
N
'net'
3e
Vtr 'to feel unhappy v^jth someone'
ja
adj
Jaba
adv
j3bu
N
'short'
'front side'
'pool/wel 1 '
298 jabu N 'water container' jana N 'water channel' jakadie N 'sea/ocean' jdku N 'cold
298
jabu N 'water container'
jana
N 'water channel'
jakadie N 'sea/ocean'
jdku
N
'cold water'
jakhO N 'well/tank'
J3la
N 'water channel made of bamboo'
jal e
jal i N
N
'water that -flow out with full force from the ground'
'warm water
3al0
N
'little quantity of water that leak out from the ground'
JalOke' 'place where water leak out'
jama
N
•jantpi , N
'original source of water'
'spring water'
janhike N 'hole where water flow out from the ground'
janhio N
Hth u
Vtr
'swamp'
'to wash cloth'
jathrs> Vint 'to bath'
Jo
Vtr
'to touch'
3o
Vtr 'to taste with tongue'
jo adj 'committed error/sin'
jokho
N
jokhoru N
ka
adj
ka
Vtr
'jaw'
'bone of jaw'
'wide'
'to step'
ka Vtr 'to shoot with arrow/cataple'
299 kabu N 'shoulder' kabva N 'plank for constructing the roof of house' kabvache M
299
kabu
N
'shoulder'
kabva
N
'plank for constructing the roof of house'
kabvache M
'a kind of
fig like fruit'
kabv3ke N
kadOdtf N
kadi'e adj/N
'house which roof is covered by plank only'
'owl '
'big'
kadie adj 'different'
kadiedie N 'various'
kaja N 'world/earth'
kajaketO N 'mountain/hill'
kajakechi' N 'desert' (lit. death earth)'
kakepu N 'teacher/instructor'
kala N
'stick of palm kernel for burning'
kapu
Vtr
'to advise'
kapuche N
'apple
kapfh"» N
'spade'
kare Vint
'to sell the body (women)'
karemi N 'prostitute'
karha N
'a kind of soya-bean'
karhu
N
'dust'
kathi
N
kavs N
kaza N
ke
Vtr
'pit-axe'
'bamboo'
'salary'
'to take out food with spoon'
300 keba N 'bell/hour' kebe Vtr 'to place in lasers kebi N '-fight by throwing
300
keba
N
'bell/hour'
kebe
Vtr
'to place in lasers
kebi
N
'-fight by throwing at each other'
kebi' adj
kebo
N
'to become
'any type of
very thin (health)'
fighting'
kebb
Vtr 'to produce sound by beating'
kebo N 'imprisonment'
keboke
N
'jail'
kebO
Vtr
'to mix'
kebu
N
'gun'
kebu
N
'pit-hole'
kebu
Vtr
'to thrash in between'
kebu
adj
'unable to enter due to the size'
kebucha N 'bullet'
kece
Vtr
'to chase
away by shouting'
kece
Vtr 'to remove minor objects which are stucked on '
kece
Vint 'to tease each other', 'to mix cold and hot objects'
keceke
N
'hole'
keci
Vtr
't o
insert'
kec i
ad j
'smal1 '
keci
N
'house-horn'
kecike
N
'typ e
of
house
having
house-horn'
kecina
adj
'tiny/little '
kefcird
N
'pouch
in
th e
house'
301 keche N 'knowing', 'object -for inserting' kethe N ' morning keche? N 'waist'
301
keche N 'knowing', 'object -for inserting'
kethe
N
' morning
keche?
N
'waist'
kethe Vtr
'to plait'
kecheba N/adv 'low-land ^rea'
kecheena adv 'early in the morning'
kechhkh*
N
'belt'
kechi' N
'death'
kechs Vtr 'to instigate'
kech9
Vtr
'to meet'
kecha
N 'su-f-f icient quantity'
kecho
Vtr
'to clear (weeds with spade)'
keda Vint/Vtr 'to waste'
keda
N
'wet object'
keda Vtr/Vint 'to debate (between boys and girls)'
kedadae adv 'sometimes'
kedake
N
'wet -field'
kede
Vint 'to -fight witl\ hand'
kede Vtr .'to select'
kede
Vtr 'to threaten'
kede
Vtr 'to change'
kedi' N
kedi
N
'king'
'court-yard o-f the house'
kedimi
N
'common name of king'
302 kedipi 'queen' kedithro N 'drainage of the house' kedija N 'water that -flow in
302
kedipi 'queen'
kedithro N 'drainage of the house'
kedija
N
'water that
-flow in the drainage of the house'
kedi
kehu
N
'environment of the house'
kedO
Vtr 'to disturb'
kedO
Vtr 'to entangle by rope'
kedO
Vtr 'to remain together in the same row'
kedtf Vtr
'to defile'
kedo
N
'unit of the village (colony)'
kedo
Vtr 'to tempt'
kedu
N
'to fight with sword'
kedu
N
'cutting'
kedu
N
't o
fold
the
rope '
kedie
adj
'big '
keje
Vi'
'io
cl V
kej£
Vint
't o
play '
kej-a
Vtr
't o
deceive '
kej a
vt r
«4.o hi4
fey
-(h^oujing*
kej-a' N
'th e
othe r
one '
keja
adj
'excess '
kej^j^emo
adv
'because '
kefa
Vint
't o celebrat e in somebody's village '
kef?
Vtr
't o clean paddy by blowing
with
mat'
keha*
ad j
'red '
kehamera adv 'completely red'
kehe
Vtr
'to increase'
303 kehe Vtr 'to raise' kehi Vtr kehi Vtr 'to swing object with hand' 'to
303
kehe
Vtr
'to raise'
kehi
Vtr
kehi
Vtr
'to swing object with hand'
'to wave hand/ object'
keho
N
'rivulet', 'a kind of monkey'
kehothe N
'a kind of small honey bee'
kehu N 'meeting', 'church service'
kehu
N
'inside the house'
keje adv 'short-while'
keje
N
'ill-feelin g on someone'
keja
adj
'short '
kejo
N
'sin/crime'
kejo
Vtr
'to crash with object'
kejo
N
'parrot'
keka
Vtr
'to fillip', 'to fight with arrows'
keka"
N
kekaba
N
'width'
'wider side'
keke
N
'lost in business'
keke
Vtr
'to take out
with stick'
kekekhwe N
'waiter of house'
kekd
N 'strength'
keko
Vint
'to call each
other'
keku
Vtr
'to look after someone's living or at the time of sickness'
kekha
Vint 'to engage for work'
kekha
N
'prayer'
304 kekhe Vtr 'to control' kekhe N 'knitting' kekhO kekhO kekhO Vint 'to push each
304
kekhe
Vtr 'to control'
kekhe
N
'knitting'
kekhO
kekhO
kekhO
Vint 'to push each other',
N 'bitter things'
Vtr 'to strike'
kekho
Vint 'to depart'
kekhu
N
'chest'
kekhu
adj 'crooked (not straight)'
kekhwe
Vtr
'to wait'
kekhwe
N
'waiter'
kekhwetrs* N
'queen of bees'
kela
N 'marriage'
kela
Vtr
'to make stand'
kele
N
'one'
kel e
Vtr 'to select care-fully', 'to move'
kele
Vtr 'to return after taking'
kele
Vint
'to wed',
kele Vtr 'to turn upside-down', 'to^pit out object'
kele
N
'hole'
kel e
N
'squirrel '
kel e
N
' a
kin d
of
game'
keler u
N
'millipede '
kel i
N
'heat '
keli
Vtr
'to pull up skin by pinching'
305 kel i N 'marrow' kel i Vtr 'to salute' kelo N 'acceptable one', kelo
305
kel i
N
'marrow'
kel i
Vtr
'to salute'
kelo N 'acceptable one',
kelo
Vtr
'to move up and down', 'to glister'
kelhe
Vtr
'to throw'
kelhe Vtr 'to spread/scatter'
kelhi
Vint
'to sweat'
kelhi N 'behaviour', 'burn while cooking/roasting'
kelhija
N
'sweat'
kelhO
N
'work
of
manufacturing'
kelh o
N
'tireness '
kelh u
Vt r
't o
cook
slightl y
to. minimise
th e
raw
smell '
kema
Vint
't o
make mistake
in
identifying
object '
kerne
adv
'some '
kerne Vtr
kerne
Vtr
'to clutch together'
'to join'
kemetha N 'teacher'
kemO
Vtr
'to weed out with hand'
kemo
N
'the one which
are not wanted'
kemo N 'una!ertness'
kemometha adv
'until 1'
kema
N
kemha
N
'doing against one's will'
'the going to the field'
kemhu
N
'cloud'
306 kemhO N 'dust' kemhO N 'front side of house roof' kemhO Vtr 'to try
306
kemhO
N
'dust'
kemhO
N
'front side of house roof'
kemhO
Vtr
'to try to pick up without looking'
kemho
adj 'grey'
kemho
N
'a kind of snake'
kena
Vtr 'to massage'
kene
Vint 'to clap together'
kena' N
'ear'
ken a adj/Vint) 'prihibited', 'to prohibit (in term of religious
bel ief) '
kenabO
N
'eai—wax'
kensnOne N 'ear-lope'
kenapo adj
'deaf'
kenstOra adj 'faded (hearing)'
kenu Vtr 'to collect/gather'
keni
N
'front teeth'
keni
N 'happiness'
keni
Vtr
'to shake'
keni
Vtr
'to cut word of someone'
kenia Vtr/Vint 'to protest'
kenie
adv
'some day'
kenieni N
'a day'
kenie Vtr
'insult'
kenie
N
'richness'
307 keniemi N 'rich people' k en 1 wO N ' -f rog ' kenirO
307
keniemi
N
'rich people'
k en 1 wO
N
' -f rog '
kenirO
N
'measles'
kenio
Vtr
'to smear', 'to mix mud'
keniu
Vtr
kenhi
N
kenha Vtr
'to cut off upper portion' (eg., tree) , 'to wash mouth'
'two'
'paint'
kenO
adv 'latter'
kenO
N 'brother and sister'
kenOkele
adj
'last'
kenOmi
N
'the one who is related by blood'
kenOmi
N
'late comer'
kenhi Vtr
kepa
Vint
kepa
hi
'to shrink'
'to feel sorry to lose'
'part of some quantity'
kepa
adj 'bright colour'
kepe
N
'a kind of instrument for weaving'
kepe
Vtr
kepO
N
'to do minor works'
'e>:pi osion'
kepd>
N
'forehead', 'at the edge of
anything'
kepo
N
kepu
N
kepu
Vtr
kepha"
N
'top most part at the front of house'
'speech'
'to reach someone on the way', 'to betroth'
'taste of sal tl essness'
308 kepha Vtr 'to spray water' kephe Vint 'to numb' kephe N 'tightening' kephe Vtr
308
kepha
Vtr
'to spray water'
kephe
Vint
'to numb'
kephe N 'tightening'
kephe
Vtr 'to prepare
kepho
N
'a variety of
a kind of food'
large bamboo'
kepho
N
kephu
N
kephu
N
'drying of grain in the sun-shine'
'number of house'
'rope used for carrying basket on back'
kephuma N
'sin'
kepfa Vint 'to penetrate'
kepfa
N
'things to carry' , ' c ^ f » °-l e '
kepfs adj
'thin'
kepfo Vint 'fight between two bulls'
kepfha Vtr
'to visit as guest'
kepfhs> N 'site for building'
kepra adj
'hurry'
kepre Vtr
'to spring'
kepre" adj 'ferocious (wife/mother) '
kepri
'to beat with small but tough stick'
kepro
N
'broken one'
kephra Vint »'to joke and laugh together'
kephra Vtr 'to discuss on something informally'
kephri
Vtr
'to share things with others '
kera
Vtr
'to arrest'
309 kera N 'thin cover' kere Vtr 'to mix' kere Vtr 'to rinse' kere Vtr
309
kera
N
'thin cover'
kere
Vtr
'to mix'
kere
Vtr
'to rinse'
kere
Vtr
'to clear hole'
kere N 'difficulty'
kerebe
k e n
N
'a variety of rice'
N 'river', 'intestine'
keri
adv
'prior'
ker i
Vin t
't o
draff
keri^kel e
adj
'first '
ker^'
Vt r
't o
ro l
1
'
ker a
Vt r
't o
sharpen '
ker a
N
'lid '
kero
Vt r
't o
plug
roughly '
kero
ad j
'sexy '
keru
N
keru
N
kerha Vtr
'injection'
'roof of the house'
'spread'
kerhe N .'drawing of picture)'
kerhe
Vtr
'to scrab'
kerhebi N
'thing to draw'
kerhi
N
'1iving'
kerhi
N
'dirt on the body'
kerlra
N
'leade r
of
gang'
310 kerha Vtr 'to pierce' kerh^ Vint/Vtr 'to mi:-: together' f N kerhabi N 'eraser'
310
kerha
Vtr 'to pierce'
kerh^
Vint/Vtr 'to mi:-: together'
f
N
kerhabi N
'eraser'
kerho
Vin t
't o
exchange
word'
kerho
Vt r
't o
boi l
'
kerhu
N
'poison '
kefia
Vt r
't o
compete'
keh a
N
'sawin g
(o-f
timber) '
kesa
N
kese
N
'a kind of axe -for thinning the wood'
'cover'
kese
Vtr -'to press down'
kese
Vin t
't o
clash '
kesa
N
'tug-of-war '
,
'badness' ,
kesa
Vin t
't o
hiccup' ,
kes» Vtr
'to make -fall by shaking'
kes^ N
'top most bar of the house'
kesO
adj
'quite'
kesO
N
'burning'
keso Vtr 'to arrange/prepare'
kes6
N
'truth'
kesokO adv 'honestly'
keso Vtr
'to pull at once'
kesoso 'to drink the same quality and quantity'
311 kese* ad j 'ol d (livin g thing) ' kese Vt r 't o
311
kese*
ad j
'ol d
(livin g
thing) '
kese
Vt r
't o
tes t
on
somebody'
kes i
Vt r
't o
touch
each
other '
kesa
Vt r
't o
scold '
kesa
N
'thickness '
keso
N
'drink '
kes6
Vtr 'to point at something'
kesu
Vtr
'to fight at something'
keta
N 'rotten thing'
keta
Vtr 'to discuss on something'
kete
N
'race'
kete
Vtr
'to hide
ketemeja adj 'all/entire'
keti
N
'mouth'
keti
Vtr
'to push'
keti
Vtr 'to push each other/to
try to be equal with
someone'
ketimhi N 'moustache'
ketis» adj 'talkative'
ketizimO N
'side of the mouth'
ketika
adj
'greedy' (lit. wide
mouth)
keto'
N
'high portion of any object'
ketO
adv
'any'
ketO
adj
'careless'
ketOba adv 'anywhere'
312 ketOboe adv 'any point o-f place' ketoke adv 'any point of time' ketOnhie adv
312
ketOboe adv
'any point o-f place'
ketoke adv
'any point of time'
ketOnhie
adv
'any time'
ketOnhie
N
'at anybody'
ketOyi N 'anything/anybody'
ketO
Vtr
'to rol 1 '
keto
adj 'eatable'
keto
Vtr
'to eat by taking out -from dish'
ketoto Vint
'to eat the same quality and quantity'
ketotokesoso Vint 'to eat and drink the same quantity and qual ity'
ketokeso N
'food' (thing to eat and drink)
ketoru
N
'rib'
ketha adj
'long'
kethe
Vt r
't o
select '
kethe
N 'criticism'
kethi
N
'shaving'
kethO
Vtr/Vint 'to shout at each other'
kethO
Vtr
'to cook dry'
ketho
N
'back side of house'
kethor^le N
'door at the
back of house'
kethu
N
'writing'
kethu
N
'fight by hitting7 (eg., bull)
ketrami N 'person in high position'
ketre
adj 'old (inanimate)'
313 ketre N 'way o-f crying' ketre Vtr 'to extend' ketri N 'mistake, ^in' ketri
313
ketre
N
'way o-f crying'
ketre
Vtr
'to extend'
ketri
N
'mistake, ^in'
ketri
Vtr 'to give secretly'
ketr s
Vtr
'drink (at once) '
ketra
Vtr
'to make drink'
ketra
N
ketrO adj
'dirty (water)'
'white'
kethre Vint 'to plan together'
kethri
Vtr
'to -fold'
kethri N 'purchasing', 'object for support'
kethra adj
'sweet'
kethra
adj ' tough/di-f f icul t'
kethrsthroe N 'under the house'
kethri adj 'sour',
kethri
N
'scolding/grumbling'
kethro
adj 'illegal (relationship with opposite sex)'
kethrup-fo Vtr 'to carry together'
keca
N .'gate o-f the village'
keca
N 'stick -for entangling something'
kece
adj
'-few'
kece
'old 'human)', 'to send someone'
kec a
adj
'blackness '
kec 2
N
'garden ' ,
314 kec a Vint 'to keep oneself excessively cold' kec9 N 'laziness' kec ? Vtr
314
kec a Vint 'to keep oneself excessively cold'
kec9
N
'laziness'
kec ? Vtr 'to enquire thouroughly'
l;ec?
N
'head'
kecakecha
N
'cuttin g
of
hair '
kecakecWarri'i
N
'barber '
kec-aru
N
'sku l
1
'
kecathe N
'hair of head'
keco
adv
'not more than'
kecha
Vtr
'to bind so that it cannot escape'
keche
adj
'new'
kech e
N
't o
pla y
( a
kin d
o-f
children' s
game) '
keche
Vtr
'to shake and drop (paddy while removing the chaff)
kecha
Vtr
'to
put hand into (for stealing}'
kecha
Vtr 'to push suddenly'
kecha
Vtr
'to roll the thread into ball'
kecha
N
'sickness'
kechake
N 'hospital'
kechakena N -'sufferings by sickness'
kech»ken?mi
N
'patient'
kecha'kho' N 'disease'
kech^nOpfa
N 'neighbour'
kechO
Vtr 'to wash roughly'
kechOke N 'place where people worship'
315 kewa kewa Vint 'to shout/to announce by shouting' N 'light' kewamiphe N 'entrance' kewe
315
kewa
kewa
Vint 'to shout/to announce by shouting'
N 'light'
kewamiphe
N 'entrance'
kewe
kewe
Vt r 'to spread paddy while drying in the sun'
N 'shooting of gun '
kewO' N
'neck'
kewO
ad j
'mad '
,
p« Yio n
KcvJOttl'i
N
{ W\oJ
kew6
N 'rake'
kewO
N 'object on which something to be hanged'
kewu
Vt r 'to spin'
kewu N 'stealing'
kewu
Vt r 'to roll ma t after drying crops from th e mat'
kewumi
N 'theft'
kewutrs* N 'the
one who always steal '
keye
Vt r 'to
fight (war)'
keza Vt r 'to throw'
keza
N 'lower bar of the house'
keze
Vt r 'divide'
keza
N
'friend'
kesa
N
'dark
place '
keze
Vt r 'to transmit'
keze adj 'excess'
keze
N 'sel1ing'
kez i
Vtr
't o
argue '
,
' io
Yub '
316 kef a Vt r 't o wrap' kezs> Vt r 't o clos e
316
kef a
Vt r
't o
wrap'
kezs>
Vt
r
't
o
clos e
by
rolling ,
eg. ,
mat ,
cloth ,
etc .
kO
adj
'strong '
kO
Vin t
't o
win '
kO
Vint
kObache N
'to go to sleep <fowls>'
'a kind of beans'
kOchi
N
'a kind o-f -fish'
kOchi Vint 'retreat'
kOj©
N
'male bird'
kOj ^
ad j
'no mor e smart du e t o ill healt h or old age '
kOjo
N
'cheek'
kOlO
Vint 'to walk unsteadily'
kOlOche N 'goose-berry'
k6lu
N
'water channel'
kOlha adj
'mid-day'
kOma.
N
'root'
kOme
N
'a kind of
sticky grass'
kOme
N
'tail'
kOmi
li 'stick for grinding grain'
kOmo
N
'body'
kOmora IM 'blanket'
kOphra N 'bundle of stick for felling grains while harvesting'
kOrO
N
kOsa
N
'throat'
'a kind of bamboo trap'
317 kOsa N 'dry -fish' kOs3 N 'wing' kOs~> N 'a kind of toy' kOtu
317
kOsa
N
'dry -fish'
kOs3
N
'wing'
kOs~>
N
'a kind of toy'
kOtu
N
'a kind of bird'
kOthi
adj
'weak'
kOthO
N
'cat'
kOtruba N
'a kind of wild bagonia'
kOthr^ba N
'sugar cane'
kOthrs N
'a kind
of thread made out of wild plant
kOthro
N
'jute'
kOthror a
N
'clot h
made
o f
jute '
kOcha
N
'stick '
kOwa
N
'basin '
kOwache
N
'cherry '
kbzithr a
N
'shade '
kOiro
N
'grasshoper '
kOsobu
N
'aeroplane '
kOsuthrubu
N
'arm-pit '
ko
Vt r
't o
cal l
'
ko
Vtr
'to cook rice dry
kuduche N 'brinjal'
kha
Vtr
'to ask', 'to cook'
kha
Vtr 'to embrace'
kha
Vtr
'to claim'
318 khe Vtr 'to knit' khe Vtr 'to discard', 'prohibit' khi Vtr 'to hang on
318
khe
Vtr
'to knit'
khe Vtr 'to discard', 'prohibit'
khi
Vtr
'to hang on the rope'
khi
Vint 'to turn upside-down (baby)'
khO
adj
'bitter'
khO
Vtr
'to push'
khObo
N
'a kind of trumpet made of long stem'
khOci' N 'trumpet'
khOkecami N '-fisherman'
khOlenhi N
'a kind of -fresh water -fish'
khOmecatho
N
'hook -for -fishing'
khOna adj 'structure of terraced field which is small'
khOnakhOra adj 'terraced fields which are small structure and have
less value'
khOne
N 'several varieties of small fishes'
khOne
N
'cooked rice'
khOphra N
'colony of village'
khOti
N
'a kind of rake for levelling soil'
kho
Vint
'to seperate'
kho
Vtr 'to response somebody's calling'
khubu N 'basket for keeping fish while fishing'
khuniu
N
'animal'
khuwe*
N
'curry'
khuwd?J« N
'soup'
319 khwe Vtr 'to wait' khwe Vtr la Vint 'to scratch earth with hand', 'to
319
khwe
Vtr
'to wait'
khwe
Vtr
la
Vint
'to scratch earth with hand', 'to arrange in la
'to stand (baby)'
la
adj 'equal (competition)'
1
abu
N
'box -for storing dress'
lace
N
'spoon'
lacha
Vtr
'to knot'
laka
adj
'a part'
lakhb
N
'bag'
lakhu
N
'the object of rice beer'
1 al a adj 'dul1/unsmart'
lama
N
'a kind of
bird'
lari N 'stick for chasing away fowls/animals'
1 N
aso
'bamboo used for closing the door'
1 'ladder'
ase
N
1acho
N
'broom'
1e
Vtr
'to pour'
le
Vtr 'to open, eg.,card when playing'
1e
Vint
'to move'
le
adj
'correct'
le
Vint 'to return'
1eba
N
midle part of road'
lebO
N
'mole'
320 ebo N 'edible snail' ece N 'mark (due to committing some illegal act, eg.,
320
ebo
N 'edible snail'
ece
N
'mark (due to committing some illegal act, eg., the-ft,
adultery , etc .)'
eci
N
'a kind i-f bird'
eche
N
'-fruit'
echethOna N
'miscellaneous items of crops'
echi Vtr 'to discuss/gossip'
echi
adj
'flat (voice)'
echu adj 'matching voice'
eda
N 'ridge of terraced field'
eda
N
'voice (when greeting others)'
edO
adj 'not speaking fluently'
edie
N
'road'
edie
Vtr 'to seperate'
ejoye
N
'a kind of wild
vegetable'
ekese/1 ekenhe N
'lid'
ekha
N
'preparation of food'
ekhe
Vtr
'to discard'
elo
N
'a kind of blue
bird'
emekhO
N
'pitcher'
emO
N
'a kind of brown bird'
ena Vtr 'disturb when working'
ene
N
'a kind of
worm in the water'
eni
N
'leech in the water'
321 leniche N 'a kind o-f -fruit' 1 en? N 'snake' lena N 'ritual/religion' lena
321
leniche N
'a kind o-f -fruit'
1 en? N
'snake'
lena N 'ritual/religion'
lena Vtr
'to serve'
1enu
adj
'near distance'
lepra
N
'frying pan'
lepra
adj 'shaky voice'
1 ephre
N
'voice of human'
1 'a kind o-f big jar -for storing water'
epu
N
1epuche N
'a kind of fruit'
lepukevi N 'whirlwind'
1 ere
Vtr 'to help/assist'
leri adv 'above, overhead'
lerabo
N
'a variety of tree'
1 era n? N
'a kind of wild vegetable'
1 er'u
N
'chest'
1erubu
N 'chest-box'
les i
N
'book
o r
paper / U4l<-~*
lesi'da
N
,
'book'
lesina N
'paper
1esa
adj
'ill'
1eso
N
'a kind of basket for catching fish'
Tetany N
'a kind of tree leaf
used as vegetable'

322

etna'

adj

'-far'

ethomi

N

'steward'

etroye

N

'a kind of

wild vegetable'

ethre

adj

'alone'

ethri

N

'picnic'

ethro adv

'below'

eca

adj

'steep'

ecabOke

 

N

'cave'

ecache

N

'a kind

of black fruit'

ewe

N

'meal'

eze

Vint

 

'to company in work'

e£etro N 'working company'

ei-i' N

'thatch'

ezike

N

'house made of thatch roof'

i

adj 'hot/warm'

ibOye

N

'a kind of wild

vegetable'

ido

N

'idea'

lka

adj 'broad minded'

 

ikes» N. 'sadness'

i

k i

N

'ill-feelin g

on

someone'

ikO

adv

'back

side '

ikhO

Vt r

't o

fee l

bad

wit h

someone'

ime£e

adj

'sad '

 

imi

N

'girl '

 
323 1inhi adj 'undecided' 1irO N 'small worm in the intestines' 1irh? adj 'same mind'
323
1inhi
adj
'undecided'
1irO
N
'small worm in the intestines'
1irh? adj 'same mind' (having mutual understanding)
1isa adj
'stingy'
1 is 3
N
'dearth'
1 isa Vtr 'to remember sentimentally'
1 isabu
N
'dearest' (in the vacum of love) '
1ise N 'sensetiveness'
lisese* adj
' €>enii
me.rtt*\
1 itOra adj
'tension o-f mind'
1itro
N
'anger'
1itro adj
'angry'
1ic^
N
'power oi thinking'
lica
adj 'matured mind'
1
ichs N
'1iver'
1
ize
N
'grief'
lo
Vtr
'to take', 'to get' ,'to accept'
1 ochu N 'young untransplanted paddy plant'
lo3 e
N .'a kind of tool -for waeving '
lolo
adj 'dull', 'clumsy.'
lora^
Vt r
't o
refus e
t o
accept '
lon i
Vt r
't o
want'
1opO
N
1 opf-gf N
'a kind of tool for weaving'
'worm'
324 1 6phre Vint 'to receive -free labour' lophremi N 'the one who works in
324
1 6phre Vint 'to receive -free labour'
lophremi N 'the one who works in somebody's field without wage'
1osa
N
'1 ion'
lDca
N
'hay'
1 oche
N
'thread'
lbchechaka N
'stick on which the thread is rolled'
1 och©
N
'rolled thread into ball'
lozu
N
'toad'
lu
Vint
'to enter'
lu
Vtr 'to struggle in order to arrest/catch'
1
ha
Vtr
'to open the cover'
1 he
Vtr
'to open the treasure'
1hepre
N
'profit'
lher i
Vt r
't o
liv e
lik e
girl '
Iherim i
N
'gir l
who
had
reache d
th e
stag e
of
growin g
hair '
1h i
Vin t
't o
1ive '
lhi
adj 'burnt (while cooking or roasting)'
1hO Vtr 'to manufacture'
1hO
Vtr 'to remove from hanging'
ma
adj
'mistake'
maa adv 'to be unconcious instataneously'
x
t
madO
Vin t
't o
grumble '
madO
ad j
'magica l
'
tnak.hu
N
'smoke '
325 mapO N 'owner', 'God' mathrava N 'tobacco' maye adj '-fruit that became hard and
325
mapO
N
'owner', 'God'
mathrava N
'tobacco'
maye
adj
'-fruit that
became hard and no more edible' , 'person who
can endure pain'
me
Vtr 'to catch with gum/loop'
me
Vtr
'to put soil on the -foot of the plant'
mee adv 'sudden appearance',
meba
Vtr
'to join (thread/
mebo
N
'root of the tail'
mebO
Vtr 'to support from falling'
meca
adj
'rice cooked soft due to excess water'
mete adj 'intelligent'
meci
adj 'lazy'
meci
N
'saliva'
meci
N
'seed'
meci Vtr 'to leave field uncultivated'
meci
N
'kidney', also mecich
(lit. seed of kidney)
meca
adj/Vtr ' Y-ef u&ed'j' '^"^fu&e '
mec a
Vtr
'to support so that it may not fall'
meca
Vm l
'to
give birth
^animal)
meco
adj
'obiique'
mecoz^ Vint 'to nap'
meche
Vtr
'to inform'
meche
Vtr
'to pay special care in looking after a person or thing'
326 meche Vtr 'to bear fruit' mechi Vtr 'to peel little by little', 'to provoke
326
meche Vtr
'to bear fruit'
mechi Vtr
'to peel little by little', 'to provoke someone by acting
irritatingly'
mechi
N
'hair of caterpillar'
mechi
adj 'reverse'
mechi Vtr
'to displease'
mechimeni adj 'the bahaviour that irritates others'
meda
Vint
'to tell a lie'
meda
Vtr
'to wet'
meda
N
'dishonest^'
mede
adj
'shockdd
mede
Vtr
'to blame'
mede
Vtr
'to soak in the mouth'
mede adj 'imperfect'
medi
Vtr 'to decorate'
medo
Vtr
'to
like, to wish'
medo
adj
'to do without
care'
medo
N
'male animal with horn'
medo
Vtr 'to keep reserve something for somebody' •
medO adj 'all/entire'
medu
Vtr
'to bite with beak'
medu
N
'to fight with beak (eg., cock)'
medu Vtr 'to sting by poisonous grass/insect'
mej"3 adj/N
'equal '
327 mejs adj 'untrue' me j-3 Vtr 'to burn with -fire', 'to measure' meha adj
327
mejs
adj
'untrue'
me j-3
Vtr
'to burn
with -fire', 'to measure'
meha
adj
'pain of burning sensation'
mehaye
N
'a kind
of vegetable'
mehapu
N
'a kind
of vegetable'
meha
Vtr
'to choke'
mehi adj
'airy'
mehi
N 'one's habit of feeling hungry'
mehi
adj 'good appetite'
mehu
adj
'greedy'
mej^
N
'egg'
mej? Vtr
'to lay egg'
me^fo adj
'green'
meka
adj
'to become hard'
meka
Vint 'to spread apart'
meke
Vint
'to escape by opening the way under the ground (rat)'
meke
Vtr 'to bite', 'to dry vegetables, meat, etc.'
meke
N
'to fight by biting(eg., dog) '
meke
ad j
'expert (in clinmbing) '
meki
N
'twenty'
meki
adj
'cold'
mekO
Vtr
'to open
the mouth', 'to make to win'
mekO
N
'blade for shaving'
mekO
Vint 'to vomit slightly'
328 meku adj 'dishonest', 'cool' mekha Vtr 'to claim' mekhe Vint 'to block the hole
328
meku adj 'dishonest', 'cool'
mekha
Vtr
'to claim'
mekhe
Vint
'to block the hole as by jungle rat'
mekhi
adj
'to lie upside-down'
mekhi
N
'seat'
mekhO
N
'gourd'
mekhO
N
'chin'
mekhO adj 'skin infected by disease'
mekhOca adv 'skin that has been infected seriously'
mekhOmhi
N
'beard'
mekhOrO N 'sickness of coughing'
mekhwe Vtr 'to mend/patch'
mekhu adj
'deep'
mel a
adj 'easy/simple/cheap'
mel a
Vtr 'insult, humiliate , not showing respect'
mel a
adj 'free from obscurity'
mel e
Vtr 'to wear ear-ting', 'plank'
mele
Vtr
'to climb', 'to pour into the hole'
mele
adj
'sudden'
mel e
adj 'shallow'
melekOdo N
'plank for blocking the gate or door'
melemelhe adv
'as soon as or suddenly'
meli
N
mel i
Vtr
'faith' •
'to split slat/twig'
329 me i Vtr 'to insult' me i 'heart' me i Vtr 'to reject' .'-
329
me
i
Vtr
'to insult'
me i
'heart'
me
i
Vtr
'to reject'
.'-
>
me
ici
adj
'coward (lit. small heart)'
me
idle
adj
'brave (lit. beg heart)'
me
iss adj
me
iwe
adj
'coward' (lit. bad heart)
'brave' (lit. good heart)'
me
ikes9 N 'cowardice'
me
ikechV N 'chest'pain'
me
?
Vtr
'to roll the thread'
me
o
Vtr 'to entrust'
me
o
Vint
'to moan'
me
0
N 'shifting cultivation'
me
0
Vint 'to boil while cooking'
me
0
N
'-foam'
me ha
Vint
'to reach with hand'
me he
N 'basket for storing grains'
me hi
Vtr
'to grow'
me hi
N 'behaviour which is disliked by people'
me
ha
adj
'hungry'
me
ho' Vint
'to festiv e together '
meme Vtr 'to kiss/embrace'
memhi
N
'paddy ready for grinding'
memhO adj
'face to face'
330 mena adj/N 'minor', 'change of money' mena Vtr 'to -fine mena adj 'sticky' mene
330
mena
adj/N 'minor', 'change of money'
mena
Vtr
'to -fine
mena
adj
'sticky'
mene
adj
'soft'
mene
adj
'smelly'
meno
N
'wrestling'
menb
Vint.
't o
wrestle '
meno
Vtr
'to come close'
mend
Vtr
'to give birth'
menO
adj
'care-ful '
menO
adj
'late'
menO
Vtr
'to delay'
menO
N
'delivery/birth'
menOpi
N
creator'
meni a
N
'noise'
menie
Vin t
't o
-feel
shy'
menie
N
'shame'
menie
N/Vtr
'pant',
'to put on pant'
menie adj, 'sober'
meniekhubu N 'pant pocket'
menienOnha
N 'petticoat -for women'
meniethro N 'underwear'
meni Vtr 'to -forget'
meni
N
'boar'
331 meni meni mena meniu merju N/Vint 'day of observing ritual' , 'to observe ritual'
331
meni
meni
mena
meniu
merju
N/Vint 'day of observing ritual' , 'to observe ritual'
Vtr 'to wash cloths by twisting'
Vtr 'to de-feat',
Vtr 'to swallow'
Vtr 'to want something/someone'
menu
N
'wish'
menhi
N
'object of powder'
menhi
adj
'powdery'
menha Vtr
'to let marry (daughter)'
menf ^ Vtr
N
'to suspect'
mepa
'ash that goes out with the flame'
mepa
Vtr 'to compare'
mepe Vtr 'to join thread carefully (for weaving)'
mepO
N
'meeting'
mepO
Vtr 'to exploide'
mepu
Vtr 'to have meeting'
mepha adj 'fruit affected by disease'
mephe
Vtr
'to weave (cloth) on the frame'
mephe adj 'horizontal'
mephu
N
'fire place'
trier a
adj 'proud'
mera
adj
'scattered'
mera adj 'not intelligent'
mere
adj
mer e
ad j
'busy'
'lucky (in hunting) '
332 mere Vtr 'to make thing more difficult' mere Vtr meri N meri Vtr mera
332
mere
Vtr 'to make thing more difficult'
mere
Vtr
meri
N
meri
Vtr
mera
Vint
'to break stick with hand'
'axe'
'to allow to go ahead'
'to vomit'
mers
N
mer^
N
mere
adj
'object of vomit'
'sieve'
'narrow'
merai^t^
N
'mat for blowing'
meranO
N
'orphan'
mero
adj ' smart'/ju*npiv\<^}
mero
Vtr
'to cook dry'
mero
adj 'easy to break'
merO
N
'toy'
merO
N 'colour produced by burning of fire'
meru
Vtr
'to
rsar'
meru
Vtr 'to scatter small objects'
merhe Vtr
'to tumble'
merhi
N 'picture'
merhi
Vtr
'to
let) alive'
merhi
Vtr 'to struggle to be equal with someone'
merha
adj
'enthusiast ic' , ' °,yr\a.rl'
merhs Vtr 'to remove object with finger and thumb from the stick'
mesa Vtr
'to roast from pan'
333 mesa adj 'glister' mesa N/Vtr 'balance' mese Vtr 'to taste' mese N 'one's
333
mesa
adj
'glister'
mesa N/Vtr 'balance'
mese
Vtr
'to taste'
mese
N
'one's turn'
mes e
N
'of one's equal '
mes a
Vtr
'to remember'
mesa
adj
'pointed'
meso
Vtr
'to host'
mese
Vtr 'to extract by sucking'
me<*e
adj
'rough'
mese
Vtr
'to act against someone'
mesi
Vtr
'to be careful handling',
mesi Vint
'a kind of traditional shout by malefolk'
mesibu N 'match-box'
mes"a adj
'heavy'
mes»
N
'weight'
mes-a Vtr
'to spit'
mesu
meta
adj 'to be careful in spending/using'
Vtr 'to ferment'
mete
Vtr
'to feed
cattle in particular arsa of location'
mete
Vtr
meti
adj
'to send off'
'to be able to foretell'
meti Vint 'to fulfil one's prediction'
meti Vtr 'to equalise with someone/thing'
334 meti 'to insist someone to do' met! mi" N '-foreteller' meto Vtr 'to stretch'
334
meti
'to insist someone to do'
met! mi" N '-foreteller'
meto
Vtr
'to stretch'
metu
Vtr
'to 1 it'
metu
Vint
'to gather into one form'
metha Vtr
'to teach'
metha N/Vtr
'fear'
metha
Vtr
'equal (length)'
methe
Vtr 'to cut obliquely with one struck'
methe
N
'pimple'
methi Vtr
'to si ice'
methiche N 'orange'
v
^
methimeli adj 'rough (in appearance)'
metho adj
'raw'
methb
adj
'free
" (costV '-*/>v^?lV
methOmere . adj 'useless'
methu
Vtr
'to make fire burn from remaining ash'
metra adj -'poor/famine'
metri adj
'edgy'
metriche N