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PROJECT

IN
MATH

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MA’AM ANGELA CATAINA MARIE CRIS M. MOJECA
Ogive
An ogive (oh-jive), sometimes called a cumulative frequency polygon, is a type of frequency
polygon that shows cumulative frequencies. In other words, the cumulative percents are added
on the graph from left to right.

An ogive graph plots cumulative frequency on the y-axis and class boundaries along the x-axis.
It’s very similar to a histogram, only instead of rectangles, an ogive has a single point marking
where the top right of the rectangle would be.
An Ogive (pronounced O-Jive) is a graph that represents the cumulative frequencies for the
classes in a frequency distribution and it is a continuous frequency curve. Ogive has the shape
of an elongated 'S' and is sometimes called a double curve with one portion being concave and
the other being convex. While constructing, it is necessary to first have the frequency table. To
plot an ogive, we need class boundaries and the cumulative frequencies. For grouped data,
ogive is formed by plotting the cumulative frequency against the upper boundary of the class.
For ungrouped data, cumulative frequency is plotted on the y-axis against the data which is on
the x-axis.. It is usually easier to create this kind of graph from a frequency table.
Pie graph (or pie chart)
A pie graph (or pie chart) is a specialized graph used in statistics. The independent variable is
plotted around a circle in either a clockwise direction or a counterclockwise direction.The
dependent variable (usually a percentage) is rendered as an arc whose measure is proportional
to the magnitude of the quantity.Each arc is depicted by constructing radial lines from its ends
to the center of the circle, creating a wedge-shaped "slice."The independent variable can attain
a finite number of discrete values (for example, five).The dependent variable can attain any
value from zero to 100 percent.
The illustration is a pie graph depicting the results of a final exam given to a hypothetical class
of students.Each grade is denoted by a "slice."The total of the percentages is equal to 100 (this
is important; if it were not, the accuracy of the graph would be suspect).The total of the arc
measures.
From this graph, one might gather that the professor for this course was not especially lenient
nor severe.It is evident that grading was not done on a "pure curve" (in which case all the arcs
would have equal measures of 72 degrees, corresponding to 20%).If this graph were compared
with those of classes from other years that received the same test from the same professor,
some conclusions might be drawn about intelligence changes among students over the years.If
this graph were compared with those of other classes in the same semester who had received
the same final exam but who had taken the course from different professors, one might draw
conclusions about the relative competence and/or grading whims of the professors.is equal to
360 degrees

Bar graph

A bar graph (also known as a bar chart or bar diagram) is a visual tool that uses bars to compare
data among categories. A bar graph may run horizontally or vertically. The important thing to
know is that the longer the bar, the greater its value.
Bar graphs consist of two axes. On a vertical bar graph, as shown above, the horizontal axis (or
x-axis) shows the data categories. In this example, they are years. The vertical axis (or y-axis) is
the scale. The colored bars are the data series.
When to Use a Bar Graph
Bar graphs are an effective way to compare items between different groups. This bar graph
shows a comparison of numbers on a quarterly basis over a four-year period of time. Users of
this chart can compare the data by quarter on a year-over-year trend, and also see how the
annual sales are distributed throughout each year.
Bar graphs are an extremely effective visual to use in presentations and reports. They are
popular because they allow the reader to recognize patterns or trends far more easily than
looking at a table of numerical data.
Types of a Bar Graph
When presenting data visually, there are several different styles of bar graphs to consider.
Vertical Bar Graph
The most common type of bar graph is the vertical bar graph. It is very useful when presenting
a series of data over time. The vertical bar chart below shows a series of quarterly data,
categorized by year. The reader can easily see not only the trends of sales over the four-year
period, but also how the sales compare during each quarter.

Histograms
A histogram is a plot that lets you discover, and show, the underlying frequency distribution
(shape) of a set of continuous data. This allows the inspection of the data for its underlying
distribution (e.g., normal distribution), outliers, skewness, etc. An example of a histogram, and
the raw data it was constructed from, is shown below:
Choosing the correct bin width
There is no right or wrong answer as to how wide a bin should be, but there are rules of thumb.
You need to make sure that the bins are not too small or too large. Consider the histogram we
produced earlier (see above): the following histograms use the same data, but have either
much smaller or larger bins, as shown below:

Line graph
A line graph, also known as a line chart, is a type of chart used to visualize the value of
something over time. For example, a finance department may plot the change in the amount of
cash the company has on hand over time.
The line graph consists of a horizontal x-axis and a vertical y-axis. Most line graphs only deal
with positive number values, so these axes typically intersect near the bottom of the y-axis and
the left end of the x-axis. The point at which the axes intersect is always (0, 0). Each axis is
labelled with a data type. For example, the x-axis could be days, weeks, quarters, or years,
while the y-axis shows revenue in dollars.
Data points are plotted and connected by a line in a "dot-to-dot" fashion.
The x-axis is also called the independent axis because its values do not depend on anything. For
example, time is always placed on the x-axis since it continues to move forward regardless of
anything else. The y-axis is also called the dependent axis because its values depend on those of
the x-axis: at this time, the company had this much money. The result is that the line of the
graph always progresses in a horizontal fashion and each x value only has one y value (the
company cannot have two amounts of money at the same time).
More than one line may be plotted in the same axis as a form of comparison. For example, you
could create a line graph comparing the amount of money held by each branch office with a
separate line for each office. In this case each line would have a different color, identified in a
legend.
The line graph is a powerful visual tool for marketing, finance, and other areas. It is also useful
in laboratory research, weather monitoring, or any other function involving a correlation
between two numerical values. If two or more lines are on the chart, it can be used as a
comparison between them.

Pictographs
A pictograph is the representation of data using images. Pictographs represent the frequency of
data while using symbols or images that are relevant to the data. This is one of the simplest
ways to represent statistical data. And reading a pictograph is made extremely easy as well. The
best way to explain a pictograph is through an example. So let us get started.
Advantages of a Pictograph
Express a large amount of information or data in a simple form
Since they make the use of symbols, pictographs attract attention i, e, it is an attractive way to
represent data
Pictographs are easy to read since all the information is available at one glance
And since pictographs are universally used they do not require a lot of explanation