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CHANGES IN OFFSHORE ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION

PRACTICES:

REVISIONS TO API RP 14F

Copyright Material IEEE

Paper No. PCIC-99-27

Francis M. Stone, Jr., P.E. Member, IEEE

SDDSI

P.O. Box 60833 New Orleans, LA 70160

George J. Mahl, P.E. Sr. Member, IEEE G. J. Mahl and Associates, Inc.

5817 Citrus Blvd.

New Orleans, LA 70123

David N. Bishop, P.E. Member, IEEE Chevron Petroleum Tech. Co. (Retired) P.O. Box 1635 Houston, TX 77251

David R. Stewart, P.E. Member, IEEE W. S. Nelson and Co., Inc. 1200 St. Charles Avenue New Orleans, LA 70130

James D. Cospolich, P.E. Member, IEEE W. S. Nelson and Co., Inc. 1200 St. Charles Avenue New Orleans, LA 70130

H. R. Stewart, P.E. Member, IEEE HRS Consulting

1423 Anvil Dr.

Houston, TX 77090

Abstract - The American Petroleum Institute’s Recommended Pracfice for Design and Installation of Nectrkal Systems for Offshore Petroleum Facilities, API RP 14F, underwent extensive revision in 1998. Advances in offshore deepwater drilling and production technology have led to increased use of floating production facilities, requiring significant interface with the United States Coast Guard (USCG). Many of the revisions made to RP 14F address USCG requirements as they apply to floating production and drilling facilities. In addition, the RP was updated to reflect

advances in technology

in

the

electrical industry.

The

significant revisions and the

history of

RP

14F will

be

reviewed in this paper.

1.

HISTORY

 

A. The Beginning

The offshore industry had its beginning in 1947 when the first offshore platform was installed off the coast of Louisiana in 25 feet of water. There was very little need for electrical systems then and, when used, they consisted of a battery supply for the aids-to-navigation systems and small portable generating plants for localized lighting for nighttime drilling activities. As the search for oil and gas progressed, platforms were located further offshore in deeper waters. This necessitated the requirement for offshore living quarters located on the platforms because the loss of man-hours due to commuting grew to undesirable levels. Thus, the generation of electricity became a natural part of the scene on most platforms as the requirements for electricity grew to include cooking, heating and air conditioning, and lighting requirements for living quarters.

B. The 1950s And 1960s

In the decades of the 1950s and 1960s, very little electricity was actually used in the process and production facilities portions of the Gulf of Mexico platforms. This was due to the fact that most of the discoveries were geologically self- pressured and did not require vertical pumping. The other energy requirements for equipment such as oil pumps and gas compressors to raise pressures and flows to pipeline requirements were handled by internal combustion engines (and later gas turbines). During this stage of offshore development, there were no mandatory electrical codes or regulations to follow. Most of the platforms were located outside of state boundaries (in Federal waters) and were not governed by any regulatory body. The only exceptions were for the safety of life at sea requirements of the USCG (e.g., navigation aids and “abandon ship“ warning systems on manned platforms). Most electrical systems were thought of as portable in nature and utilized portable type “SO cord as the principal wiring method. The petrochemical and onshore processing plants’ practices of “classifying” locations and using hazardous (classified) area wiring methods were not adhered to in most cases. In the late 1960~~three major offshore platform fires and subsequent oil spills occurred (one in the Santa Barbara Channel in California and two in the Gulf of Mexico). There was considerable public and Federal Government displeasure, and the discontent was thrust on the oil industry. As a result, in 1971 the United States Department of the Interior, through the United States Geological Survey (USGS), Conservation Division, published a set of rules governing offshore operations; these rules were called the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Orders. For the first time, adherence to the National Electrical Code became law. Classification of hazardous (classified) locations in

0-7803-5601-2/99/$10.oD 0 1999 IEEE

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99CH37000

Institute’s

recommended practices RP 500A and RP 500B was required,

accordance

with

the

American

Petroleum

even though RP 500 A was only

applicable to refineries.

C. The 7970sAnd 1980s

The use of electricity offshore increased dramatically in the decade of the 1970s. As the search for oil and gas became more difficult, platforms were being built further offshore in deeper waters. As the per square foot platform cost soared exponentially upward in these greater depths, the compactness and weight savings associated with large turbine-driven generators and electrically driven prime movers for pumps and compressors made larger generating plants a necessity. Additional contributory factors were increased pipeline pumping and compression requirements due to the greater distances offshore, the advances in secondary recovery techniques such as waterflooding being more widely utilized in the early stages of field development, and, finally, the widespread use of electrical control, automation, instrumentation, fire and gas detection, and other safety- related systems. As a result, electrical systems continued to grow more complex. No longer was electricity given low priority on the newer platforms of the 1980s. The vital process pumping and compression needs were steadity becoming totally electrical, and their continued safe, reliable, efficient, and maintainable operation was no longer a luxury, but an economic necessity.

D. Recognizing The Need

Due to the unique design and installation requirements of electrical systems for platform drilling rigs and production facilities and the corrosion problems associated with offshore installations, many designers and end users of offshore facilities had found that, in practice, it was difficult to meet the “letter of the law” of the offshore regulations. Additionally, most existing codes and industry standards did not specifically address problems associated with the offshore environment. The American Petroleum Institute (API) recognized these problems and took positive steps to overcome this dilemma. The API was organized in 1919 by members of the former National Petroleum War Service Committee, This Committee had been responsible for meeting the tremendous demand for petroleum during World War I. Its members were leaders in the oil industry, and they had learned that they could work together on many common problems affecting the industry and the nation, and still compete vigorously with one another. This tradition still holds true today. One objective of the API is to develop nationally- recognized procedures and practices for the safe handling of petroleum and its by-products. The API publishes a number of recommended practices that address electrical installations on onshore and offshore drilling and production facilities. For onshore installations, none of these electrical documents are recognized as law (except possibly for local laws) but are merely industrial self-

regulating documents. For offshore installations, however, the U. S. Department of the Interior, Mineral Management Service (MMS) has adopted certain recommended practices that were prepared by the APl’s Committee on Standardization of Offshore Safety and Anti-Pollution Equipment (OSAPE). The OSAPE Committee was created partially to prepare self-regulating recommended practices that could be adopted into law by the USGS (and later the MMS) prior to the Federal Government writing such documents. Federally prepared documents often are difficult to follow, and at times not applicable, because they frequently are based on existing codes and standards adopted from other areas of industry. The OSAPE Committee recognized the need for an electrical document governing offshore platform electrical installations and in October 1975 formed a task group of the following members:

Member Carl L. Wickizer, Chairman David N. Bishop

James D. Cospolich W. S. Nelson and Company, Inc., a New Orleans, LA George W. Olson Shell Oil Company, New Orleans, LA Clyde C. Thompson Phillips Petroleum, Bartlesville, OK

Representing Shell Oil Company,

New Orleans, LA

Chevron, U.S.A., New Orleans, LA

This group met numerous times during the next two and one-half years, and, in July 1978, RP14F, Recommended Practice for Design and Installation of Electrical Systems for Offshore Production Platforms, was published. This document is one of the “14 Series” documents that address safety and anti-pollution. The intent of this document is to identify important features of offshore electrical systems and to present industry-accepted practices for electrical design and installation that experience in the offshore petroleum industry has shown results in safe, reliable, efficient, and maintainableoperations. The Second Edition was published on July 1, 1985. The Second Edition brought the RP in alignment with the latest NEC (with specific deviations recommended) and added a few sections, but no significant changes were made. The MMS participated in this revision effort, establishing a trend continued to present day. The Third Edition was published September 1, 1991. The Third Edition, in addition to bringing the RP up-to-date with the latest standards (e.g., the NEC), was significant as it added clarification material concerning fire and gas detector systems. This material had been addressed, in a somewhat confusing manner, by revised OCS Orders. Interpretations previously agreed to by the MMS and operators were incorporated into RP14F and RP14C, Recommended Practice for Analysis, Design, Installation, and Testing of Basic Surface Safety Systems for Offshore Production Platforms, as applicable.

E. 1990sAnd Preparing For The Millennium

The late 1980s saw the entry into deepwater (generally agreed to as being water depths greater than 1500 feet) with its accompanying greater emphasis on floating production

systems.

The first floating petroleum facility in the Gulf of

Mexico was a TLWP (Tension Leg Well Platform) containing minimum processing facilities. Since then, at least four TLPs and two spars have been installed, all with full processing facilities. Other floating petroleum facilities, including FPSs (Floating Production Systems) using tanker hulls, are in the design or evaluation stage. Due to weight and space considerations and larger flow rates, electrical systems were greatly expanded in scope and size to accommodate, in many cases, large electrical prime movers. This resulted in larger power generation plants, large adjustable speed drives, and sophisticated computer and PLG-controlled automation systems and emergency shutdown systems. The Fourth Edition was published in mid 1999, with a new title, Recommended Practice for Design and Installation of Electrical Systems for Fixed and Floating Offshore Petroleum

classified in accordance with API RP500. Requirements for standby lighting, general alarm systems, and aids-to- navigation systems are excluded from 30 CFR, Part 250; since these systems are covered by the USCG regulations set forth in Title 33, Subchapter N, Parts 140 through 147, Outer Continental Shelf Activities, and Title 33, Subchapter C, Part 67, Aids to Navigation.

Floating producing and drilling facilities operating in OCS waters are subject to the requirements of both the MMS and the USCG, with the split of responsibilities defined by a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the two organizations. In general, this split occurs between systems vital to operability and survival of the facility and its inhabitants at sea (USCG-regulated), and those systems considered purely industrial in nature (MMS-regulated). Electrical systems typically are difficult to categorize in such a fashion, and thus fall under the jurisdiction of the USCG as defined in Title 46 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Subchapter J, Electrical Engineering. However, as these systems are integral to oil and gas production facilities installed on the facility, MMS design and submittal requirements must be followed as well. The size of the hull and facilities and the time and expense of drilling in this water depth has made the cost of such facilities approach, or even exceed, $1,000,000,000. With this pre-investment required, the speed of approval by the Authorities Having Jurisdiction (AHJs) became very

The areas of responsibility of the MMS and the

USCG overlapped in many parts of the facility. This caused delays in design approval and confusion on the part of oil companies and their representatives, resulting in longer design schedules and greater expense. One method to minimize this added expense and time was to incorporate all electrical requirements into a single document, API RP14F.

Facilities for Unclassified and Class I, Division I and Division 2 Locations. The primary impetus for revising the recommended practice for the Fourth Edition, in addition to the ANSI five year cycle and general update with referenced standards and recommended practices, was to add guidance for electrical installations on the “deepwater” drilling and producing facilities being installed at a rapid pace in the Gulf of Mexico. These facilities fall largely under the jurisdiction of the USCG, as opposed to the MMS, and were being constructed in accordance with USCG electrical engineering regulations -

including referenced documents such as IEEE 45, I€€€ important.

Recommended Practice for Electrical Installations on Shipboard, and American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) standards. These documents were written primarily for ocean-going vessels (ships) and were not entirely suitable for offshore producing and drilling facilities. Thus, many parts of the facilities were being “over-designed” while other parts could be designed more efficiently using latest technology and practices more consistent with oil and gas industry practice. Through the cooperation of USCG and MMS personnel, a new document, essentially consistent for all facilities, was developed. When the Fourth Edition of RP14F was created, the task group formed to revise it made a decision to include the alternate “Zone Classification” scheme, covered by the 1999 NEC in Article 505, in a second and separate Recommended Practice. This concept was consistent with the method by which “Division” and “Zone” area classification schemes were addressed separately by API RP500 and RP505, respectively. The work on the “Zone” version of RP14F is in progress, and it is anticipated that it, RP?4FZ, will be released in late 1999.

II. GOALS OF THE REWRITE TASK GROUP

At the initial planning meeting in late 1997, the goals of the task group for the revision of RP14F were defined as follows:

Add API RP-505 and ISA 12.xx (Revised IEC 60079- xx) standards as references. Cover offshore wiring for all production platforms. Write the recommended practice so that it would be acceptable by both the MMS and the USCG. Follow procedures to allow the recommended practice to be accepted as an ANSI consensus document. Address USCG requirements applicable to production facilities not already included in 14F. Include all information necessary to allow for elimination of reference to IEEE 45 (due to concern over its scope). Consider, for fixed facilities, previous departures from USCG requirements for floating petroleum facilities. Revise the title of 14F to indicate the new scope of the document. Exclude MODUSfrom the scope of the document. Include moveable platform drilling rigs.

F. Applicability to Regulatory Authorities

Electrical installations on fixed producing and drilling facilities operating in federal waters on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) fall under the jurisdiction of the MMS. Federal regulations for these facilities are contained in Title 30 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 250, Oil and Gas and Sulfur Operations in the Outer Continental Shelf. This document states that electrical installations on such facilities will be designed in accordance with API RP14F, with areas

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Include the distinction between “MODUs” and “Converted MODUs”, both of which are in use as petroleum facilities.Include floating petroleum facilities, both fixed and floating, but not include facilities within the scope

Include floating petroleum facilities, both fixed and floating, but not include facilities within the scope ofMODUs”, both of which are in use as petroleum facilities. IEEE 45. Add guidance for use

IEEE 45.

Add guidance for use with “Zone” area classifications.but not include facilities within the scope of IEEE 45. Include USCG representation on the Task

Include USCG representation on the Task Force and urge adoption of RP14F by USCG for floating petroleum facilities.Add guidance for use with “Zone” area classifications. Seek continued representation from the MMS and add

Seek continued representation from the MMS and add representation from the ABS.adoption of RP14F by USCG for floating petroleum facilities. Reduce the number of exceptions and use

Reduce the number of exceptions and use “positive language”as much 3 s possible. 3s possible.

111. REVISIONS TO RP 14F

To meet the goals of the task group, extensive revisions were made to the existing standard. Significant revisions are summarized and discussed below.

A. Section 5.0 - Electric Power Generating Stations

Recommendations for electrical power generators and their associated switchgear and control systems were upgraded to conform with industry standards and, where applicable, to meet existing USCG requirements. The increasing number of large deepwater producing facilities in OCS waters has resulted in increased use of large (up to 25 MW) power generation plants. Many of the new recommendations reflect this trend. In addition, new material was added to provide recommendations for generators installed on floating facilities, including recommendations for emergency generator systems, and a new section devoted to switchboard design was added. Details of these revisions are included below.

1) Generator Protection and Control: For generators larger than 500 kW, recommendations were added for overvoltage, undervoltage, overfrequency, and underfrequency shutdowns. For generators 950 kW and larger,

recommendations were added for protection against loss of excitation and for the installation of differential relaying

Other protective relaying schemes recommended

for large generators include voltage-restrained or voltage- controlled time-overcurrent relays, ground fault time- overcurrent relays, and, for generators operating above 600 VAC, negative phase sequence overcurrent relays, voltage balance relays, and stator winding over-temperature relays.

schemes.

2) Generator Sizing Criteria: As part of the effort to normalize the recommendations of RP 14F with the existing requirements of the USCG, recommendations for the preparation of motor starting and running load studies were included. It is recommended that these studies be formally documented and retainedfor review by the AHJ.

3) Switchboards: Recommendations for the design and construction of switchboards were added to the document. These recommendationsinclude:

Recommended industry standards that should be used when specifying switchboards.were added to the document. These recommendationsinclude: Minimum requirements for control and instrument wiring.

Minimum requirements for control and instrument wiring.standards that should be used when specifying switchboards. Certain minimum construction recommendations conforming with

Certain minimum construction recommendations conforming with existing USCG requirements.Minimum requirements for control and instrument wiring. The recommendation of non-conductive grating or

The recommendation of non-conductive grating or switchboard mats for working areas adjacent to switchboards. or switchboard mats for working areas adjacent to switchboards.

4) SpecialRequirements for Floating Facilities: In an effort to normalize the recommendations of RP14F with existing USCG requirements, a number of recommendations are made specific to systems installed on floating facilities. These recommendations include:

Minimum constructionrequirements for generators and their prime movers. These recommendations are based on the requirements of the ABS Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels. Excerpts from the ABS Rules are included ABS Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels. Excerpts from the ABS Rules are included in the document as Annex

B.

Recommendations for emergency generator systems. These recommendations closely follow thefrom the ABS Rules are included in the document as Annex B. requirements for such systems

requirements for such systems in 46 CFR, Subchapter

J. Basic requirements include a stand-alone

emergency power system, which provides power to all systems necessary for the safety and survivability of the facility and its inhabitants, capable of 18 hours of continuous operation. RP14F recommends a specific

list of loads that should be powered from the emergency generator. Recommendations for associated emergency switchboards and distribution systems are also included, as are recommendations for engine cranking systems.

Certain recommendations for switchboard construction specific to floating facilities are included. These recommendations include drip shields over switchboards subject to dripping liquids, grabrails mounted on switchboard fronts, and plug-in molded- case circuit breakers. to dripping liquids, grabrails mounted on switchboard fronts, and plug-in molded- case circuit breakers.

B. Section 6.0 - ElectricalDistributionSystems

A number of substantial revisions are included in the revised Section 6. Ampacity tables for shipboard cable were added; new wiring methods were addressed; and significant tutorial material on enclosure design was added. These and other revisions are discussed in more detail below:

1) Shipboard Wiring Methods: To fulfill the goal of consolidating the MMS and the USCG requirements into one common document that, when used in conjunction with the

the required regulations, new

ampacity tables had to be included. For NEC type wiring methods, the NEC can be used. However, for marine shipboard cables, including medium,voltage cables, one can now refer to new ampacity tables within RPl4F in lieu of

NEC, will

include the entirety of

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having to refer to other documents. These tables cover a wide range of conductor sizes, cable constructions, and conductor insulation temperature ratings.

In the case of medium voltage marine shipboard cables,

ampacities are given for conductor size, conductor insulation temperature ratings, insulating voltage class, and both

shielded and non-shielded conductors.

A number of notes accompany the tables, and these notes

are an integral part of the tables. The notes should be read carefully and understood. For these marine shipboard cables, information is included to clarify derating requirementsand installation spacing requirements.

2) New Wiring Methods: New cable types were included. These new types include MC-HL, ITC-HL, and ITC cables. Since the 1996 Edition, the NEC has allowed the use of permanently installed cables in Class I. Division 1 locations, and the 1999 Edition added a Nationally RecognizedTesting Laboratory (NRTL) listed ITC cable for Class I, Division 1 hazardous (classified) locations.

3) Standard Cable Constructions: For the first time, standard cable constructions are recommended. The emphasis is on helping everyone in the industry, both users and vendors. The standardization(for the offshore oil and gas industry) on common cable constructions (size and number of conductors and, where applicable, pairs and triads, in power, control and instrumentation cables) should result in faster deliveries and reduced costs.

4) IEC Enclosure Standards: Two new tables were added -- one covering the subject of the Degree of Protection of Enclosures in accordance with IEC 529, and one approximating the U.S. enclosure types equivalent to the IP (Ingress Protection) Codes.

5) Miscellaneous Revisions: A section was added to address ambient temperature considerations for cable selection for floating facility applications. The section covering conduit and cable seals remains basically the same, with the exception that the figures accompanying the text were updated.

C. Section 7.0 - Electric Motors

Changes to this section of the document were minimal in scope. However, some relevant changes were made and are discussed below:

1)

IEEE

841

and

API

RP541

were

included

as

recommended standards to be used when specifying motors.

considerations are

recommended for motors in boiler rooms, engine rooms, and

machinery spaces.

2)

Special

ambient

temperature

3)

Note was made of the high inrush currents typically

associatedwith high efficiency motors.

4) To normalize RP14F with USCG requirements, recommendations are made for markings on motor controllers and motor control centers (MCCs). These recommendations follow the requirements for equipment markings in the 1999 NEC, paragraphs 430-8 and 430-98. It also is recommended that elementary drawings necessary for facility operation and maintenance be made readily available and stored in close proximity to motor control equipment.

D. Section 9.0 - Lighting

In an effort to normalize RP14F with USCG requirements, several fundamental changes were made .in the area of standby lighting. To understand these changes and the reasons they were made, some background information is required.

I) USCG Requirements for Standby Lighting: All floating

facilities are required by the USCG to have a standby lighting system. Requirements for this system are specified in 46 CFR, Subchapter J, and now also are included in API RP14F, Emergency Power Systems. As previously indicated in this paper, the USCG also has jurisdiction over standby lighting systems on fixed platforms in OCS waters. Historically, these requirements have been limited to minimal access/egress lighting in accommodation spaces, with no minimum requirements for duration or power supplies. However, the USCG has recently undertaken efforts to enhance these regulations to include requirements for an emergency power source capable of 8 hours of continuous operation on all manned facilities in OCS waters. Clearly, given the huge number of facilities currently operating in OCS waters that do not have standby systems that meet this criteria, such regulations would have a great economic impact on the offshore oil and gas industry, and the necessity of such systems for reasons of safety of personnel are debatable. The 14F task group worked closely with the USCG to develop recommendations for standby lighting systems that are safe, effective, and reasonably easy to implement on existing platforms. The new recommendations are summarized below:

2) Recommendations for Standby Lighting: When

installed, standby lighting systems should be designed for a minimum of 1.5 hours of continuous operation. This recommendation is in alignment with NEC requirements for emergency lighting. Where emergency generators are not installed to augment the duration of standby lighting systems, it is recommended that consideration be given to supplementing these systems with other lighting systems that will provide additional lighting duration for up to eight hours. Suggestions for such supplemental lighting systems include additional permanently installed battery banks, hand-held lanterns, or chemical light sources. It is interesting to note that the idea of including

of possible supplemental

lighting techniques came from the USCG’s representative to

the 14F working group; it is an intriguing and innovative concept.

chemical light sources in I the list

To further normalize the recommendations of RP14F with USCG requirements, certain critical areas of the facility must be supplied with at least two separate lighting circuits, one of which may be an emergency circuit.

E. Section 10.0 - Baffery Powered DC Supply Systems

Recommendations for battery-powered DC supply systems were revised to include requirements that battery rooms and enclosures conform with existing USCG requirements. A new section on recommendationsfor uninterruptible power supply

(UPS) systems was also added.

title of the section was revised from DC Power Supply Systems to the new title, Battery Powered DC Supply Systems. This section does not cover AC-DC power conversion equipment. Details of the revisions are included below.

It should be noted that the

I) Battery Rooms and Enclosures: In order to normalize

RP14F recommendationswith the requirementsof the USCG, it is recommended that large battery banks be installed in dedicated rooms or enclosures, with ventilation systems that conform with the recommendationsfor adequate ventilation of API RP500. All electrical equipment and wiring in such spaces, except for the batteries and battery supply cables, should be suitable for Class 1, Division 1, Group B hazardous (classified) locations. Additional recommendationsare made for battery enclosure construction and battery room

ventilation systems.

2) Battery Disconnects: It is recommended that disconnect switches be provided on battery outputs for large battery banks and for any batteries located in, or serving loads in, hazardous (classified) locations.

3) UPS Systems: Increased use of personal computers and computer-based control systems offshore has led to a commensurate increase in the use of sophisticated UPS systems to ensure reliable, continuous power. A new section was added to RP14F outlining basic recommendations for the design and application of such equipment.

f. Section 11.0 Special Systems

Significant material, primarily tutorial, was added to Section 11, Special Systems, as discussed below:

1) Aids-to-Navigation: The section addressing aids-to- navigation equipment was expanded, providing guidance on the various types of equipment required by the USCG for specific locations, primarily dependent on water depth.

2) Variable Frequency Drives: A section was added for Adjustable Frequency Controllers (Variable Frequency Drives). Adjustable frequency controllers (AFCs) are becoming quite common on the newer facilities, particularly the deepwater facilities, and it was deemed appropriate to offer guidance on the selection and installation of the various AFC types available. The three major AFC technologies (variable voltage inverters, current source inverters, and

pulse width modulated inverters) are discussed, as well as load considerations for each.

3) Miscellaneous USCG Regulations: To address issues contained in USCG regulations that tentatively would be removed from reference in later USCG regulations for oil and gas facilities, sections were added to address electric oil immersion heaters, electric power-operated boat winches for survival craft, electric power-operated watertight doors, hull mechanical systems controls, cargo tanks on floating facilities, and cargo handling rooms on floating facilities. Additional USCG and ABS requirements, related to but not totally within the scope of RP14F, were ,appended to the document for the convenience of the reader.

4) General Alarm Systems: The section on General Alarm Systems, systems required to provide audible tones for emergency situations, was expanded to cover systems for both fixed platforms and floating facilities. Systems for floating facilities were not included in previous editions. In the past, the two systems were often quite different. The systems for floating systems were specified by USCG regulations and were based on the "old" technology of bells, flashing lights, and contact makers, while the fixed platform systems, for the most part, utilized "solid state" systems that incorporated voice paging provisions and used electronic tones for signaling various conditions. The new RP14F brings the two systems closer together. It also recommends consideration of specific tones for various situations; hopefully, this will eventually lead to consistent tones for all facilities, which will enhance safety.

G. Section 12.0 - Special Considerations

Minor changes were made to Section 12, and Section 12.9, Portable Electronic Devices (PEDS). was added to enhance safety during the use of portable electronic devices (e.g., pagers, cellular telephones, cameras, video equipment, and laptop computers) in hazardous (classified) locations. This section recommends that when portable electronic devices are used in hazardous (classified) locations, they should either be suitable for the location or be used in conjunction with a hot work permit.

H. Annexes

Five informative annexes were added to RP 14 F. These annexes are not part of the document and are not intended to be requirements, but are provided for the convenience of the reader.

1) Annex A contains suggested inspection intervals for typical electrical equipment. These intervals are offered to users of the document to assist them in developing an effective electrical maintenance program.

2)

Annex B is a reprint of referenced sections of the ABS

Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels.

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3) Annexes C, D and E contain excerpts from USCG Requirements (46 CFR, Subchapter J) that are referenced within the document.

IV. CONCLUSIONS

Through the dedicated efforts of a large and diverse working group, API RP14F has been significantly updated and improved and should now satisfy the needs of the rapidly changing offshore oil and gas industry. Membership in the group included representatives from many major offshore user companies, equipment manufacturers, engineering consultants, NRTLs, and AHJs. Acceptance of this RP by the MMS and USCG as the applicable regulatory document for offshore electricalinstallationswill simplify and streamline the AHJ approval process, and ultimately will result in safer and more cost effective installations.

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