Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 30

Plagiarism Checker X Originality Report

Similarity Found: 10%

Date: Friday, May 31, 2019


Statistics: 1166 words Plagiarized / 11148 Total words
Remarks: Low Plagiarism Detected - Your Document needs Optional Improvement.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Introduction Historical Perspective. Cinema at very beginning due to lack of Industrial


laboratories meant the film makers had to work on every segment of film production,
including chemical development and printing.

The Lumiere brother’s camera which as we aware was also a projector, was utilized as a
printer also, and the operators of the company then knew how to film develop the
negative, and expose develop and then project a positive print. The instructions of
cinema very cinematographer is very clear. "The diverse operations of developing, fixing
and washing films can be carried out conveniently with the help of simple buckets with a
capacity of about ten liters.

The film is then unwound very quickly and plunged quickly into the second bucket,
taking caress to let it pass between your fingers to make sure that the entire surface is
well coated with a layer of developing fluid and to avoid any bubbles or incomplete
development which might arise it is therefore imperative that the immersion in the
bucket and the movement from the first to the second bucket be carried out as quickly
as possible. (Schulze & Webb,2005)."

In 1961 Roach & Morin argue that" It is difficult to obtain very regular and uniform
images along the whole length of the film when developing in buckets. In our work
space we have a special material for developing films which allows us to obtain with
certainty images of perfect regularity, and we offer to develop the footage which our
clients have filmed at a very modest price( Storyville,2003).Day by Day, arrived the time
of "professionals" and with it the industry's control over things, so the position of the
filmmaker/lab technician, who wanted to cover the stages of development and printing,
turned out to be more minimal .Nevertheless, it is still to be found.
All through the history of cinema and far beyond the Lumiere Brothers and Edison for
instance at early 1920s in amateur cinema it was a common exercise to develop the
9.5mm format yourself, much as it was to the wall. Quickly discovered while printing that
the light coming from my equipment was subject to too many fluctuations. Also, I
abandoned the electric light and used daylight instead, introducing a shaft of light of
the same dimensions across the framing window and I adapted this light by adding to
or removing pieces of Muslim in front of the opening of the printer.

It has encounters at the time like the newsreels in the USA, the groups of militant
filmmakers who joined forces with the laborers, collectives in the theatrical and artistic
fields, etc., however few were pushing the experience as far as putting the technical
tools of development and printing into the control of the filmmakers themselves.

It must also be noted that, materials for the cinema laboratory were very expensive to
acquire at the time (www. filmlabs.org, retrieval date: 1st November, 2015). In 1966 at
London, “The London film makers" Cooperatives was born, choosing to push past the
New York example and to not to be only a distribution and broadcasting temperamental
cinema, but also a tool of production. A cinema lab run by the filmmakers themselves, as
poorly equipped as they were in the beginning, was established.

Quickly, an agreement with the pattern facilitated the buying of more substantial
machines (Debris printer, black and white developing machine) and production
developed to a bigger scale (Rouch, 1973). France, in the 1970's numerous filmmakers
was frequently going to London to work time at the LFMC. In 1978, at a time when the
center National du Cinema (National Centre of Cinema) Chose to assign help for
"Independent, different, experimental" Cinema, they made a proposition to the
filmmakers gathered by the CNC in Lyon to develop a workshop/lab space for
production, funded by the State.

But the discussions between the filmmakers or whether grants ought to be collective or
based on individual projects became a tug of war, and the opportunity was missed: Guy
Fihman:" I propose that those who think that the collect lab isn't a solution to join
together to discuss the real problems of experimental independent cinema." Dominique
Noguez "ok, I propose that we do as we did yesterday- that we either pull together or
against, that way there won't be a problem (Rosenthal, 1978).

Atelier MTK had moved twice: in 1996 to a huge space given to them by the city of
Grenoble where an endeavor to grow and develop was impeded by the crisis, trailed by
another strategy and the creation by part of the people involved of the lab “Adlibitum”,
away from the city itself, with the objective of developing other activities like the
restoration of films and service for filmmakers who would not want to learn how to do
this kind of work themselves, Meanwhile, experimental cinema became somewhat
fashionable in France, which ended in 2000 with the review Jeune,Dureet Pure at the
Cinema the queue Francaise.

A new generation of filmmakers, especially those who discovered experimental cinema


through their education at university emerged. Association Le Cinema Visual, in 1977
was founded in Paris and the action of the aggregate workshop later became L’Etna and
a little lab for development. During this time in London, the filmmaker’s cooperative
regrouped with London Electronic Arts, an association of video-makers, suggested that
key share their equipment of video production and together they both persuaded the
subsidizers of the National lottery to house them in a brand-new building in the middle
of London: the lux Centre. There you could discover support for making work on film
and video, help in the distribution of films, an exhibition space and a cinema.

Tragically, the project fell into dire financial straits and in 2001 everything ceased, so
after just four years of life, lux was closed. The dispersion of films rose again soon
afterwards however we needed the anticipate the initiative of nowhere lab (which
succeeded in getting hold of the coop’s equipment in 2004) before London could once
again have cinematographic lab for artists (Bruzzi,2000).

Additionally, at this time, sebastjan Henrickson started the Niagara custom lab in
Toronto, Canada, lab specifically for the work of artists. At the same time Toronto is an
important center for the American cinematographic industry and one of the focal points
for Canadian experimental cinema, with the Canadian filmmakers Distribution center
and also LIFT, a vital association of filmmakers providing materials for filming and
editing.

Sebastian provided the missing piece of the puzzle: a cinema lab with real machines for
film developing which were obtained from the industry and put to work servicing artists
projects, requesting consideration for works outside the norms of the industry. The
collective utilization of developing machines initiated by the LMFC at late 1960s turned
into a discernable reality in London and Paris and gave new perspective to artist film
labs in the sense that, liberated from the constrains of only developing with a film spiral,
new opportunities became apparent: 35mm, more extensive footage, optical sound etc.
(www.curnblog.com,retrieval date: 1st November, 2015).

A new meeting, in 2005 of the labs was organized by the cinema nova team from
Brussels. They reached beyond the network already in place in western Europe to invite
filmmakers with comparative practices in the Czech Republic, Greece and Portugal.
Other experience was brought to blend in profoundly distinctive context: the bela balazs
studio, created in Budapest just after the insurrection of 1956, has since then been
regrouping Hungarian filmmakers into a collective.

Also, many filmmakers from South Korea were present while on the brink of creating an
organization of this sort baptized “Space Cell”. The meeting takes place at the very time
when the Brussels lab sets up. While in that city, several filmmakers had the practice of
hand-processing film, they didn’t have a common space to work in.

As often, the question of a permanent place is crucial for the setting up and survival of
such structures. In Berlin, after two attempts in two different places that were
successively lost, the project of a lab picked up speed again in 2008-2009 with new
energies and led to the opening of labor Berlin in 2018(www.curnblog.com,retrieval
date: 1st November,2015) Again, a lab meeting was organized by Klubvizija in Zagreb in
2011 and the European network of labs could meet the operators of Nan lab who came
from Australia to attend the event.

In a small village of Averno in Southern France, Florent Ruch installs the machines from
a full army film lab he bought as a block at an auction. Everywhere, initiatives of that
sort pop up. As the moving picture industry gradually abandons the film medium, the
equipment, the knowledge, the practices migrate into artists’ hands.

Film A film which is also called a movie, a motion picture or a photoplay, is series of still
images which, when shown on a screen, creates the illusion of moving images due to
the phi phenomenon. This optical illusion causes the audience to perceive continuous
motion between different objects showing rapidly in succession. A film is created by
photographing actual scenes with a motion picture camera; by the photographing
drawing or miniature models using traditional animation techniques; by the means of
CGI and computer animation; or by a combination of same or many of these techniques
and other visual effects.

The word “cinema” is often used to refer to the industry of films and filmmaking or to
the art of filmmaking itself. The usual definition of cinema is the art of simulating
experiences to communicate ideas, stories, perceptions, feelings, beauty or environment
by the means of recorded or programmed moving images along with other sensory
stimulations (Severny & Andrei 2013).

The focal point of film at University is on the theoretical, historical, and critical
approaches to films. There are additionally reasonable segments intended to cultivate
innovativeness and upgrade comprehension of filmmaking. The innovative and
specialized parts of film production cover scripting, narrative structure, genre,
cinematography, mise-en-scene, performance, sound recording and mixing, editing,
camera and lighting, and directing. The dialect of film is particular to business and
students figure out how to utilize it.

They likewise learn critical approaches to the analysis of production and critical theories
of film aesthetics. Studies may cover topics such as the introduction of silver screen, the
coming of sound, traditional Hollywood, film noir, Italian neo-authenticity, Bollywood,
Antipodean cinemas and indigenous filmmaking, digital cinema, CGI and special effects,
romantic comedy, crime films, interactive documentaries, critical approaches to film and
recent developments in film theory (www.victoria.ac.nz,retrieval date: 1st November,
2015).

History of Motion Pictures Feasibility of motion pictures and television were come to
existence due to two habits of human neural and perceptual system known as “phi
phenomenon and retention of vision”. “phi phenomenon means what going on when a
person sees one light source go out while another one close to original is illuminated.
What happen to our eyes, it looks like light moves from one place to another in
persistence of vision our eyes continue to see an image for a spilt second after image
has disappeared from view”.

Interest with motion pictures came from ancient and Arab civilization in eighteen
century that was unavailable to large audiences, without help and lack of technology.
Motion pictures evolved from sets of developing technologies experimentation on
photographic processes and moving picture devices invention”. Photographic processes
that developed in period of 1900s and prepared route for moving pictures.

In Late ninetieth century a French scientist developed a camera draw twelve still photos
on a plate. Development of light sensitive material gelatin emulsions and production of
celluloid in 1880’s that brought an improvement in photographic technology it was
result of tremendous experiments conducted by scientists looking at devices in USA.

Retention of vision possible when peter Roget demonstrated in 1824 the experiment
that human beings persisting an image of a thing 1/10 second after an object is taken
for view. “Praxinoscopea device made a series of hand drawn pictures looking as
moving. Due to motion picture technology invention that set plate from for peep show
and sort featured films that viewed by looking into a view finder on machine body.

Kinescope was very popular in hotels reception and at public places where they never
made a much profit. In 1880’s floorshow was thought as appropriate theatre that
appealed to all group of society. During post automating in late 1800’s audiences had a
great care about of class awareness and high-class theatre audience felt and had voice
over to stop lower class because of their shouting and hooting from galleries of
theatres.

However, such entertainment business content did not only had appeal to a specific
class and strived to build show in theater that dragged to working class and
middle-class viewers. Hollywood The advent of moving pictures was experimentation
with entertainment in America in periods of 1880’s and 1890’s that involved
performance saloons and peep shows as a variety acts. There were big businesses since
1920’s (Folkerts,2004). Hollywood had produced some five hundred war movies out of
1,700 films.

“The initial submitted the government of USA and set a criterion of nationalism and
patriotism beside fascism”. (1942 film, Remember Pearl Harbor, a war film with a clear
call to arms) (Susan, 1996). The Cinema of the united states, often for the most part
known as Hollywood, has profoundly affected the cinema across the world since the
early 20th century.

Its history is sometimes divided into four principle rime periods: the silent film era
(1894-1927), classical Hollywood cinema (1927-1963) alluded to as the golden age,
beginning with the talkies. New Hollywood (1964-1984) and the contemporary time
frame (1982 to present). While the French Lumiere Brothers are generally for the most
part credited with the birth of modern cinema.

It is American cinema that soon transformed into the most overwhelming force in a
rising industry. Since the1920s the American film industry has grossed money every year
than that of any other country. www.en.wikipedia.org,retrieval date: 1st November, 2015.
In 1878, Eadweard Muybridge exhibited the power of photography to capture motion.

In 1894, the world’s first commercial motion picture exhibition was given in New York
City, using Thomas Edison’s Kinetoscope. The United States was in the forefront of
sound film development in the following decades. Since the early 20th century, the U.S.
film industry has largely been based in and around Hollywood, Los Angeles, California.

Picture City, Florida was also a planned area for a movie picture production center in the
1920s, but due to the 1928 Okeechobee hurricane, the idea collapsed and picture city
returned to its original name of Hobe sound. Director D.W. Griffith was central to the
development of film grammar. Orson Welles’s Citizen Kane (1941) is frequently cited in
critic’s polls as the greatest film of all time.

American screen actors like: John Wayne, Clark Gable, James Dean, Marilyn Monroe and
Elvis Presley have become iconic figures and US pop culture legends, while
producer/entrepreneur Walt Disney was a leader in both animated film and movie
merchandising (village Voice:100 Best Films of the 20th century,2001). The Nickelodeons
People curiosity was quickly reenergized as filmmakers discovered and produced that
film as medium can be used for storytelling.

Alice Guy Blache “The Cabbage Fairy” in France that was a one-minute movie on a fairy
who produces children in a Cabbagee patch which was displayed in 1886 at Paris
International Exhibition. Blache came to America and laid the foundation of her own
studio. Melies made a science fiction film in 1902 that was founding grandfather of Star
Wars and Star Trek series film and also produced Trip of the Moon(Pavlik,2004).

The Audience and New Expectations D.W Griffith made a debatable and famous film
name is “The Birth of a Nation”. Launched on March 3,1915 in New York’s Liberty hall.
Film duration was three hours had a popular theme published in 1905 in a novel and
became an effective play drama. Story was based on the reverberation of Civil War
break out with giant dispute containing racialist contents.

Last half of movie was led by “ku Klux khan” activity that never be excused till today
(Larabee,2008) Sound and Money Companies had experiment for sound to add in
motion pictures that were early to appreciate profits from introducing this technology
but introduction altered industry business and economically efforts for big gain.

Film is a vital Showbiz and amusement medium for companies were western Electric,
Warner Brother and Fox had worked for establishment of sound technology and hopeful
that accelerate and enhance profits. The Studio System Film industry moved to
California in 1920 where Studios were built and used for revolution to show desert, hills
and ocean, weather scenes endorsing throughout year-round for filming.

Most of decisions touching industry were made in New York based offices by mangers
of film companies and its corporates, CEOs of Harry Warner, Nicholas Schenck of
Loews’s MGM, and Joseph M. Schenck of Fox did decision jobs were titles of films and
quantity of films production Estimation of production budgets and quantity of A and B
class films in New York executive offices had set a release timing and heading of studio
management (Susan,1996).

The Studio Years Twenty years were a studio year in epoch of 1930-1950 of following
studios Fox, RKO, Warner Brothers, MGM, Paramount, Universal and Columbia. Studios
constructed and built hundreds of acres of structure sets for films and trained to
number of talent, kneely prepared for fame of artists. The financial supports and
divergent characteristics holidays in studio set up had assisted to film industry live in
depression phase.

During 1938 period of World War II attendance of film theatres maintained and
increased earnings from films. There is no doubt for film remained at peak level all time
in depression times and a huge number of audience attended film weekly bases around
90 million per week people watched film in theatre halls in 1946 (Folkerts,2004).

Ownership in Film Industry “Walt Disney media out let company headquartered in
California, America and Disney has possessions in television, cable and publishing in
addition to its interests in theme parks, hotels, music, real estate, golf courses and
professional hockey. Disney also made and created marvelous amount of movie
licensing Disney characters for use other companies”.

“Warner Brothers is motion picture limb of huge company of Time Warner that has
interests in internet, book and magazine publishing, recorded music, motion picture
theatres, and cable TV”. “Paramount pictures and blockbuster firm that was an addition
in motion pictures and owns CBS, infinity Broadcasting Cable networks, Video games,
Themes parks, motion pictures theatres and publishing companies”.

“Sony Pictures Entertainment is limb of Japan based Company and has worldwide
conglomerate that manufacturing video and audio devices. Sony has interest in music,
video games, movie theatres and television production”. “Vivendi- Universal based in
Paris that declared ideas about to attain universal studios in 2000.

The new business would have interests in motion pictures, pay TV, music, theme parks,
cable tv and real estate”. “News Corporation is an Australian based company owns 20th
century by Fox. The Company is working in satellite broadcasting operating a TV
network and a cable news channel”.

“MGM company was attained by a French bank in 1992 and was afterward purchased in
1996 by a group that comprised current management and an Australian TV network that
has an addition in motion picture studio. MGM Company has interests in home video
and leisure time products” (Hayward,1996). Promotion of film A very Popular saying by
film manger that a film is similar to a parachute if someone does not pull out and
exposed to air he might be dead.
First week of a film exhibition is very important and serious matter for all films display
on Saturday and Sunday first three days after exhibition very important to every film
release. If films exhibition is not managed well and handle poorly rarely do business
much every film need a decent well managed promotion, marketing and an
advertisement is directed to audience to theatres hall at opening time.

Film promotion requires a suitable campaigns strategy and cinema industry spent 40
million on promotion of films. (p 250). Growth in Domestic Market As World War II
break out and cinema industry was shaken that hit to international business of
developed in late 1930s. Domestic market controlled and managed by big five studios in
America. “Cinema theatre attendance was a cheap able and accessible to everyone who
want to watch film.

Domestic studio film hires for big studios increased from 193 million to 332 million
during period of 1939 to 1946. Average of 75% of American people of its population
were to cinema hall per week. A large number of college student were audience of
movies contents. Did you feel that your viewing behaviors and your colleagues influced
to cinema. Critics were very interested in investigation of effects of film and its contents.

Film were lost its traditional trends and moral values. Parents were really worried about
acts of filtration and screening censorship of movies. Religious discipline had main
concerned and interest they finally thought that film had influence on young
generation”. Researchers and critics are having issue and worried about cultural impact
of movies and its contents(Barabee).

Cultural and Political Developments Supreme court had given down a verdict and
approved first revision guarding to movies that considered a film as enjoyment same as
a circus provide entertainment. Courts earlier administered that movies were not a
“significant medium for communication of ideas”. Early days of movies to nowadays the
civic and the religious class sought to legislation for censorship on movies because of
fear and capacity of its influence.

Previous researches had indicated that film has energy of emotional effects on audience
and Hollywood has a position in America levies as dream factory and other film
production studios. The age groups of children, adolescents and adults got
entertainment from their busy and boredoms life works they tried for inhibition and
catharsis through watching of movies (p 195).

Film an International Film is an international medium in France short films watched by


public similarly in United States, Germany, and Belgium in 1895. Nowadays the leading
country of world is America is occupying most of market of film. Movie is becoming an
essential entity of entertainment of media of global world. Film production industry in
rest world is attained a Strong local foreign demanding position of many countries
therefor a trend of mixed collaborated production of movies is going on across the
borders.

International Boundaries are shrinking and competitiveness has been ignited in


international film making market with diverse and modern styles, trends are introducing
in field of cinema and filmmaking techniques (p 214). Bollywood Indian movie industry,
prominently Bollywood, has come a long way in the last two centuries. All in all, it has
been a long story of nearly nine decades, with the early shaky screen images having
been turned into a multi-pronged and vast economic empire.

Today it is the biggest movie industry in the world in terms of total number of films it
made. The industry has produced approximately 27,000 feature films and thousands of
documented short films. Having established itself as an industry and being duly
recognized as one, the Indian renowned cinema has over its course made a lot of
progress in many areas, such as retail infrastructure, financing, marketing and
distribution.

With a huge spread of Indian Diaspora and the growth of Brand India, it has made
inroads in the international market. In fact, in the recent past, the export sales of many
Indian movies were higher than the domestic sales. The industry has made progress in
all four aspects of globalization, (i.e., goods/services, capital, technology and people).

In the future in order to get a big market share and give Hollywood a run for its money,
however, the industry needs to put in a lot of money and effort, particularly in the
international marketing and distribution(Pillania,2008). Historical Background of
Bollywood Word Bollywood is a play on Hollywood derived from Bombay that is
considered the center of film World.

The world was derived in 1970s. There were many new production companies in 1920.
The films made during this period were legendary or historical in nature. Such films were
popular among Indian audiences and some of the movies following Hollywood action
films. Bollywood means films produced by Mumbai film industry in Hindi language that
ate distributed across India, consisting of songs, dance and music an essential
component of the film. Bollywood history is as old as other film industry in the world. Its
history is varied and complex that has gained great attention of audiences.

The 1947 brought significant changes in film industry. It was the period when modern
India was born. Old films were changing into social reformist films that were socially
critical overviewed. In films of 1950’s filmmakers focused lower class that was being
ignored. Indian new cinema movement development in U.S and Europe during the
period of 1960’s brought social and political changes (Grant, 2007). In 1905 J.F

Madan established a company which showed some western movies. He was the great
businessman who started great opportunities for Hindi filmmaking. First Indian feature
film was shown in 1912 with the increasing demand of audiences. It was only from
Englishman and was not considered the independent feature film. For the first Indian
feature film, the honor goes to the Dhundiraj goving phalke for Rja Harishchandra that
was released in 1913.

Many of the Indian silent movies were made from 1917 to 1913. These movies were in
Hindi and reginal Languages. In 1931 the first Indian talkie “Alam Era” was made. It was
basically a costume drama. This was full of fantasy a melodious song that gained
success during that period (Gokulsing & Dissanayake, 1998). The first film with sound
system was produced in 1931 that attracted the large number of audiences for long
period of time.

If we look back to fifties, the satyajit Ray’s Patther Panchali got the global awards and
got the popular imagination throughout the Asia. The production trend increased from
1947 to 1985. With the passage of time Bollywood moves to success that captured the
world market and has become contemporary with Hollywood.

(Dhundiraj Govind Phalke was one of the earlier film maker also known as “Dadasahed
Phalke and was the father of Indian cinema”. (Ganti, 2004). He produced and directed
Raja Harishchandra (1913) that was a silent movie in Marathi in which female role was
played by male actor (Burra & Rao, 253) Only 10 films produced annually in the early
period of time. In the early twentieth century the cinema was very popular among the
people of India (p.252).

After releasing the Alam Ara in 1931. H.M. Reddy produced and released a film Bhakta
prahlada (Telugu in 15 September 1931 and Kalidas in 1931. These two movies were the
first talkie films of South Indian (http://en.wikipedia.org//wiki/cinema-of -India). The
sound technology emerged during 1930’s which is started the music in Indian cinema.
As different films studios emerged in Kolkata, Chennai and in Mumbai.

During this period many of the film attracted the worldwide audience like Devdas.
Marius Sestier Introduced the motion picture in subcontinent and the first cinematic
show was shown in Bombay. This show was advertised under the name of “The marvel
of the century the wonder of the world”.

Only Europeans were allowed to attended this show while Indian was not allowed to
enter in the show. This show proved a global moment for the viewers of Africa, Asia,
Australia, Europe and America during the period of 1985 and was screened in Bombay
theatre. Indian photographer got this invention and stated filming shots. As Bombay
was the Centre of Indian film making.

The development of Bombay city in film production was related with the history as
colonial city that was the main Centre of trade and business (Dwivedi & Mehrotra 1995).
Approximately 750 films are made each year in almost 71 studios and shown in about
12,000 cinemas noises weekly to viewers that are estimated about 70 million. After 1971
India emerged as dominant force throughout the south Asia. Indian new class emerged
that dominated the social life (p.297).

Indian film industry is hundred and fourteen-year-old. Indian industry is making the
India largest producing industry in the world and getting popularity among film lovers.
From silent era of cinema to talkies Bollywood is setting its own standards.

Industry is providing employment to millions of people and is the third largest revenue
creating industry for India. More than 14 million Indian movies tickets are sold every day
having about 6 million annual viewers (http://www.hciottawa.ca/index). At that time
music and fantasy were considered the most vital aspect of filmic experience. Since then
music is considered the most efficient element of Indian movies.

The new media helped filmmakers to explore the new ideas and contents for filmmaking
(Gokulsing & Dussanayake, 1998) There has been a great western Influence on songs
and dance of Indian cinema. During this period India brought economic and political
changes and was moving to the modernism. By the 1950’s Hindi cinema had established
itself with the art, entertainment and industry.

During this era many of the popular movies were made like Awara (1951), Pyaasa (1957),
Kaagze ke Phool (1959) and mother India (1957). Film made during this period was
popular on international level and famous film star Raj Kapoor made his country to get
large revenue from film Industry. Movies have earned a lot of revenue for its industry
(Dwyer & Patel,2002) Movies made during the period of 70’s were strongly influenced
through political trends.

While the period of 80’s saw the intervention of violence in Hindi movies. With the
emergence of color television in 1982 the audience was also changing their pattern and
with the accessibility of VCR’s and the soap operas lot of opportunities have been
provided for the middle class to get films while sitting in their homes.

In order to attract the large number of audience the rate of violence also increased in
films contents that gaining popularity in Indian cinema (Rajadhyaksha & Willemen).
India having rich traditions created a cinema that having modern trends with its cultural
practices. Indian movies have large access to foreign border that developing large
number of audience.

These movies have large reception in Middle East, Asia and western viewers (Loesch,
2007). There has been increasing interest and awareness about Hindi movies, as many of
the students and scholars are taking more interest in research studies and focusing on
the different aspects of cinema.

Hindi cinema and culture have gained significant importance in South Asian programs
and lot of research studies have been conducted on Bollywood and Hindi cinema
among south Asia Diaspora. Movies have gained global importance with the
cooperation of Bollywood and Hollywood film producers and directors. Most of the
Indian movies have English subtitle so people like to watch Indian cinema and get
information about Indian history, culture and its social system through their films
(Chilana, 2009). Indian cinema has been the more influential and dominate feature for
the culture of subcontinent for the past sixty years.

Bollywood movies have great influence in maintain the cultural identity among second
generation Indian Americans. Some of the social factors like family and peer groups
have played its significant role in constructing and maintain the Indian identity. Indian
movies acts as a bridge in transmitting the culture and traditions between Diaspora that
helps out in minting the “Indianness” (Triumala, 2009).

Bollywood is the Indian based industry that is considered the 2nd largest film industry in
the world. Art and life style different in South Asia and it is very complicated to
differentiate between their life style, art and culture, social value system, political
philosophy, speech, costumes, which are depicted in the cinema that mirrors the society.

The cinema is considered to legitimate the metaphor of social system that helps us to
shape and understand the society (Ahmed, 1992). Indian Film History As history of the
reveals that sub-continent reveals that there are cinemas of the Indian Country which
evolved after partition No body do not very clear know that about the history tells of
Indian film industry as cinemas of the third world and do not proposed to enter into this
debate here.
It is something of a paradox to speak of Indian cinema as a third world cinema. Today it
produces more film than any other nation, between 950 and 1075 is film rate per years
and in twenty-two languages. Cinema is big business in India and as a culture force it
outstrips the USA cinema market in terms of consumption within its own cinema
theatres and venues along (more Indian watches their indigenous products than
American do theirs) Indian Cinema is big business also in relation to its stars.

Stars have a and standing and often play an active role in politics. Indian cinema is still a
very popular form of entertainment since television is not yet a household commodity
for many(Thssu,2012). Studio Era Songs dance and music are integrated into Bollywood
movies.

Many of the components analyzed in Bollywood industry, legendary devotional dacoit,


angry young man, action, violence, drama, comedy, romance and many other
genres(Ganti,2004). Films produces during the period of 1920 and 1930 were similar to
the Hollywood where studio afforded the total production expenses and provided full
time employment to the actors and technicians. Studios were familiar regarding their
genres of films.

In competing with Hollywood Indian studios did not have their successful film business
and could not control its production, distribution, and exhibition. There exist lot of
incorporation between its production, distribution and exhibition, having high rates of
studios. Studio era is having its short history in Indian cinema (P .138). Indian Studio
system Bombay Talkies refer studio established in 1934 that made mostly rural
melodramas.

And Bombay musical is a loose term to use to refer to the song dance action movies.
This heritage has won the Bombay studio the label of Bollywood. The three largest
studios were Kohinoor Film company. Imperial produced India’s first sound film Alam
Ara, 1931. These studios produced Hindu Mythological, melodramas, song, dance,
action movies.

They also produced some realist films transposed orientalist narratives into period
movies so that they appeared to be allegories or mythological. The proahat studios is in
Poona. New Theatre studios were in Calcutta and the United Artists, corporation in
Madras Nor should we forget the small Punjabi based studios in Lahore (Rajadhyaksha,
1994).

Golden Age of Indian Cinema 1950 and 1960 was the golden period in the Indian
cinema with the changing themes of social issues that entertaining the large number of
people with the popular actors and films. Many of the comedy, action and romantic
movies were released during the technology period of 1990’ that changed the face of
Bollywood.

During this era famous film stars like Sharukh khan, Salman khan, Amir khan, Hrithik
Roshan, Madhuri dixit and Johi chawala used new technologies to strengthen the
Bollywood cinema showing their wonderful performances with the concept of the global
village the industry attracted the large number of audience in foreign countries (www.
Bollywood tourism.com/Bollywood-history).

During this phase most critically, films produced and the new cinema movement started
that was supported by Bengal cinema Neecha Nagar (1946), Nagarik (1952) And two
Acres of Land (1953) laid the foundation of Indian new realism. Many of the Indian films
during that time were the greatest film of all the times. Telgue and Tamil cinema having
their golden period with element of fantasy and mythology films(Srinivas,2009).

The film industry was the dominate media to entertain and educate the large number
people about different kind of issues influenced the large number of people. After
getting the independence from Britain and Pakistan, India started to produced patriotic
films in which poverty of rural Indian was portrayed in film like “Mother India”.

During the period of 1990’s Indian film started to show violence with the film of
Amitabh Bachan “angry Youngman”0 fighting against corrupt politicians and leaders.
During this period 800 films were produced. With the passage of time social and family
issues were addressed in Hindi movies. Film showed the lives of Indian residing in other
countries and western trends were brought in Bollywood.

Such films gained popularity in US and Britain with popular film stars. Bollywood film
industry gained large popularity during the International film festival of India in 2007
which was watched by 500 million people in almost 110 countries around the world
(Darr, 2008).

Elements of popular Indian Cinema Indian cinema catches lot of attention of the
audience through various factors that strengthen the structure of Indian popular
cinema. Some original ingredients also play its role in making cinema popular
(Panadakur, 2003). During the 1920’s and 1930’s Cinema developed short studio period
and their attention carried out independently Indian cinema film industry brought
economic development in 1940’s and cinema increases its production about war movies.
Introduction of satellite television brought significant cooperation with TV and film
industry.

Indian film industry has strongly relationship with satellite network. This network
provides the new opportunities for producer and directors to promote and enhance
their market of Indian films. So, they started to get large revenue from industry because
lot of satellite channels depend on Indian movies Bollywood news, Celebrity interviews
film award shows with many of film stars (Ganti ,2004) Today Hindi film makers are
dubbing their movies into English, Spanish, German, French and Arabic.

They are also dubbing English movies into Hindi language for their ordinances. Many of
the films integrate different Diaspora and set their stories in foreign countries and
international languages. Indian movies consist of several dances and songs. In Hindi
movies costumers, set design, actors and actress are mostly consider the eye candy.

Bollywood movies consist of 2-3 hours immersing themselves in the world of violence
and fantasy. Indian movies are a poster child in dubbing English movies. At present
some of channels like” Sony pictures” are in great battle with the Bollywood movies.
Many of the Bollywood and Hollywood film producer and directors portray deep story
lines, acting and professionalism.

It’s highly assumable that Ollywood have strong connection with large masses with
realistic characters, instead of only music, dance, songs, set design, costumes, film stars
and being original rather them following the Hollywood. Indian filmmakers are very
talented and producing new ideas and will bring significant changes in Bollywood
industry (Mathew, 2007) There are four major components that represent the Bollywood
viewers Nationalism, censorship, music and three phases of Bollywood.

Sort of Indian Cinema Indian cinema provides us with the following surveys of pre-
independence cinema of the 1930’s. Globally Speaking it was made up of the following
categories. Sixty %were romance and love affair films. This broad type includes many of
the musical, romance melodramas, mythological and allegories associated with Indian
cinema.

Thirty % of film production was about problems facing Indian families. This group
consist on the film that are known as reform socials, film that reflected the state reform
programmed that called for the widows to remarry and other programmers dealing with
the condition of women. These films are the precursor to Indian melodramas of the past
independence cinema.

The third sort make up 10% of orthodoxy with modernity. Much of Indians cinema,
pre-and post- independence, make allusions to the struggle between traditions
authenticity and capitalist modernity. The art cinema so associated with Ray’s work is
one that looks to a way of representing history within the framework of
post-independence discourses of the nationalist enterprise Ray’s cinema is a cinema of
realism but whose content is often located in the past it is also a regionalist cinema
rather than a nationalist cinema which in a sense reinforces the very point that third
cinema makes that a national cinema is made up of many national cinemas (Susan,
1996).

Popular Genres of Indian Cinema The dominate popular genre is mythological,


melodrama, musical romance, adventure films often these are all rolled into one labelled
as song, dance and action films. Art cinema was a state subsidized cinema and advent
grade cinema which is made by independents and is not necessarily state subsidized.
Film began in India on July 7, 1896 Maurice Sister an envoy of the Lumiere brother’s
cinematography exhibitions in Bombay.

By the 1900’s itinerant showmen took film beyond the cities of Bombay, Calcutta and
Madras and set up tent shows which at times would house as many as 10,000
spectators. The making of the first Indian feature film is credited to Dhundiraj Govind
Palk with his mythological Harishchandra (1914). Palke is credited with introducing the
mythological who were extremely popular with “ordinary” people what postcolonial
theory would term the subaltern classes these mythological then develop in the mind
1920s into devotional or religious and allegorical films.

However if we are to be true to history then Hiralal Sen is really Indian’s first film maker.
He established the royal Bioscope company in Calcutta and filmed plays from the major
theater in that city. A first film of his (dating from 1903 Alibaba and the forty Thieves)
not only maker Sen out as the first film maker in India but interestingly also pre- dates
by four years France’s version of the same story (Pate’s Alibaba, 1907).

The 1920 can be taken as a period when India truly established film industry and
remained as such until state intervention in early 1960’s changed the nature of industrial
practice. The mid 1920’s saw the founding of the major studios first in Bombay and
Culcutta then in Poona and later still in Madras. The financing of films was extremely
difficult and dependent on the country’s trader’s industrialists and if that failed, then,
recourse had to be made to compete with foreign products. It creates its own
indigenous sound films that songs and dance.

These routines were often extra diegetic but they were a great success and so
guaranteed the popularity of any film in which they featured. It would be in term of a
cinema run by families and friend and financed by the lower rungs of capitalist
entrepreneurship and speculators. This made the industry a risky affair to say the least
so it is not surprising if after the Second World War, the studio system collapsed.

The Bombay Talkies and musical of the 1930’s is considered the true pre-cursor today’s
mainstream Indian cinema. (Gokulsing and Dissanayake, 2013) Film Production Contrary
to Eurocentric cinemas, India’s boom in the industry occurred in 1979 and continues
today. Pre- impedance, India made 200. This number afterward grew to 400 films per
year in the 1970’s by the 1979 creation climbed to 700 up to 984 depending on the year.

Films finance co-operation’s Roll in Indian Cinema The first was introduction of a series
of state measures to aid industry starting in 1960 with the Film Finance Corporation
(EFC). An independent but state established body. By the mid 1950’s most of the studios
were in a parlous state and had either closed down or attempted to break into the
mainstream Bombay Bollywood type of production.

The EFC’s objective was twofold. First to promote and assist main stream cinema and
second to develop film as an instrument of national culture in this latter respect the EFC
made it possible for whole new generation of film makers to get into production. This in
effect was launching pad of the new Indian cinema.

In 1980 the EFC subsequently became the UFDC (the National Film Development
Corporation) a qusai state monopoly for financing distributing and exhibiting films. The
second reason for the unexpected increase in film production was the with drawl in
19474 of Motion Picture Export Association of America (MPEAA) from the Indian market
which allowed India in the form of the FFC, to import films for local distribution and
make a tidy profit in the process and further finance its own production(pp.421-432)
Present Role of Open Market An independent film is a film production bringing in
feature film that is produced mostly or completely outside of the major film studio
system, additionally to being produced and distributed by independent entertainment
agencies.

Independent films are sometimes different by their content and style and the way in
which the filmmakers personal artistic vision is realized. Sometimes independent films
are made with considerably lower budgets than major studio movies. Generally, the
marketing of independent films in characterized by constrained release; likewise, it can
also have major marketing campaigns and wide release.

Independent films are often screened at local, national, or international film festivals
before distribution (theatrical and/or retail release). An independent film production can
rival a mainstream film production if it has the necessary funding and
distribution(Callahan,2001). Hero Hero shows his nobleness, simplicity, innocence and
kindness. He shows his aggressive behavior on tyranny and created his own image.

Hero in the reflects the Indian thought. They believe that the love and brotherhood
associated with Gandhi’s philosophy, romance optimism from Nehru (Ahmed, 19920.The
old generation changing their values, behavior, tradition and dressing with new ideas
that are not truly Indian. They stared to practice the new ideas, wear new fashionable
and beautiful dresses, wearing sun glasses with fast driving motorbikes or cars.

The new cosmopolitan Indian changing their social system, as hero is considered a
model for himself and for the new generation in Indian, Pakistan and other Asian
countries (P. 305). Heroine The early Indian film heroine was portyed as virtue that
symbolized the purity of village. With the entrance of great heroine like Siri Devi, Johi
Chawala, Madhuri dixit the traditional values change at large extent with their
aggressive and dominating role in the film. The role and perception also changed in
Indian movies but the previous generation treated their women like ladies.

Dance on public places, kisses with hero, short haircut, short dresses and body language
considered the essential elements for the success of film. Concept of Heroism Heroism
is significant topic, both philosophically and artistically in objectivism. From a
sense-of-life point of view, heroism is to be sure the pith of objectivism.

Yet this theme is not only underemphasized, but immature in objectivism, with just a
couple scattered remarks here and there in the radian corpus. The term hero and
heroism have not been defined explicitly, and there are no entries about them in the
Ayn Rand Lexicon. “Heroism is moral concept. By its nature it is reserved for the man set
apart-for the select few who tower about the rest. It is sparsely populated classification.

To attain this status, one must reach the zenith of human morality an undeviating
commitment to rational values, in action, in the teeth of opposition that would dismay a
lesser man. It is from Observation of these men that the concept “hero” is a moral
approbation reserved for the elite(Bernstein,1999)”. Heroism involves a moral character
and a moral character is coordinated with its expression in action.

A” theoretically good character”, Which is not expressed in action is not gallant or hero
and would not even be considered to be a good character. While the intellect, or
“intellectual heroism” certainly is important and certainly is underemphasized in the
culture, it does not lend itself so easily to symbolical expression by itself. Firstly, it is not
possible to have great intellect without moral characters.
Secondly, because it is difficult to portray a thought process itself a heroic and exciting
someone sitting and concentrating on a chair someone sitting and looking into the air
in an office these are not powerful images. But thought process- the action that it leads
to lends itself easily to symbolic expression of heroism. Just as creation is an integration
of intellect and action so must heroism be. Bernstein knows this he makes it one of this
key point.

But the actual degrees of intellect and action mind and body in the mix and their style
of expression can vary greatly. While the culture underemphasizes the intellectual
aspects of heroism, Bernstein errs in the opposite direction. He demotes the physical
aspects of symbolic expression of heroism too much. Such a demotion will also cause an
attenuation of the esthetical aspects of heroism (www.folk.uio.no,retrival date: 1st
November,2015) Concept of Demonism Demonism can be described as the study or
beliefs about demons and part of the theology that are relate to paranormal who are
not gods. The creative wisdom of “Demon” from Homer on was generous being; now in
English name hold connotations of wickedness.”

In order to keep distinctions, when referring the word in its original Greek meaning
English uses the spelling “Daemon” or “Damion”. Concept Demon deal with munificent
that have no worshippers as to be below rank of gods, with all kinds of malicious. When
Demon regarded as spirit it may be belongs to classes (Human or Non-Human) discrete
souls or discarnate morale which have no body.

A spiky difference often had drawn between these classes by the Melanesians a African
groups and other the Arab jinn’s. At the same time these classes convinced a producing
identical result (Van Den Toor, 1999). Nationalism Quality of Nationalism represents the
whole India and not speaking to just one religious sector, language, cast system or
geographical boundaries.

Hindi Language is considered the languages of Bollywood but Hindi was not common
language in Bombay during its historical development. The scene of nationalism
develops with the Hindi as national language. In early development traditional music
was created for audiences but with the global importance of Bollywood the international
music also influenced.

Trends Among with National Identity For destination development film industry has
become the required vehicle. Authorities of national and regional tourism are investing
much money energy and also time into court film studios for their country and cities to
shoot. High levels of information and incentive forward to persuade studios to setup
campsite.

The featuring of destination in a film can be through a number of formats including


inter alia. Generic environment as occurred such as “The Lord of the Rings”. The city
identifiable locations for film look a sole site with the prestige of imagery. “Angels and
Demons”. “Vatican City” into the surroundings for a story generates much
understanding and interest in the global religion.

This approach has started employ spinning iconic international cities like cape Town.
This backdrop is globally appreciated Bollywood movies. Incorporate destinations the
part of story as occurred like heroic production of Australia effectively 21/2hour product
position for its superb outback. Likewise, “Vicky Cristina Barcelona” supplies viewers with
amazing depiction of “Spain’s attraction rich city on the Mediterranean coastline”
(www.commercial.cnn.comretrieved date; 1st November,2015). Censorship Indian film
industry has element of censorship of films. Certain ingredients were being censored.

Censorship strong armed the Indian film industry after the independence from Britain.
Sex and kissing scenes were forbidden in Bollywood (Skillman,1986). Body language
replaced bumping shoulders, songs took over the expression of love, dialogue
represents mussing sexually. Genres Genres is the term of category of literature or other
forms of art or entertainment e.g.

Musi whether written or spoken, audio or visual based on some set of stylistic criteria.
The censorship of India has great influenced the concept of genres unique to Bollywood
so film censorship came from government of India having simplistic ideas regarding
movie effects. They thought that if it found in movie, the people would purchase it.

The government point of view was that the style of Bollywood was not classy that might
be called Indian (P.139). Music Development music in Indian movies in the origins of the
music in drama with different style of family songs. Hollywood and other film industries
also have great influence on audience. Bollywood certainly used the Hollywood music
style, soundtrack and theme songs.

As music is the spinal cord of Bollywood film, songs and dance (Morcom, 2007). Music
directions of Bollywood industry have various backgrounds, some of them were trained
some were folk tradition and some were self-taught. They also added classical music in
their music composition. Bollywood industry has numerous film and music directors and
world-famous singers.

Music directors and singers considered the superstars of Bollywood. Music is


considering a very essential factor of Bollywood movies. director believed that music
and songs are considered necessary parts for the completion of films as costumes.
Indian classical music was not considered the famous music at that time.

It was popular among upper classes and widely circulated music brought change in
Bollywood to record the image and sound of the films separately and playback became
dominate force in movie and in music. Playback quality realized viewers that actors are
not singing but the same singer will sing for various characters. So, it became a duel
delight for the viewers that they can not only watch the favorite actress but also hear the
desired singer.

Playback provided great opportunity for the directors to select the suitable and great
singer. Playback made the music director a diet of film industry. The musical scenes
turned into song pasteurization. So, the playback music became very popular music of
the culture. So, 80 % of popular music in India is still considering the filmy songs.

It is very hard to make comparison between Hollywood and Bollywood as both have
different types. It seemed that Hollywood music died after the fifties. But Bollywood pop
and rock music developed with a powerful entity (Dwyer & Patel,2002). Composition
Music is composed during the early period of film production. With the help of director,
music directors and lyricist mentioned the placement of music and songs in film.

Music director create the songs according to the situation of film using his own talent
and potential (Marcom,2007). Songs The songs which are sung by actor and actress
have changed in context and meaning. They have deep meaning of love, life and death.
Songs were sung and heard endlessly. A world class singer sings more than 2,000 songs
in his life time, as Lata has sung about 3,000 songs (P.309).

Some of the people believe that rock songs encourage the young generation to use
drugs, involvement in sex, action and other perilous activities. Indian films manipulating
negative propaganda against Pakistan and they also know that Pakistani youngsters are
fonder of Indian movies. They try to create love, affection and respect among audience
towards their actor and actress and disseminate hatred, anger about Pakistani among
their viewers and also create negative image about Pakistan at global level. Indian films
are not limited to Asia but also captured the world market.

Exposure of Native Youth of Bollywood Movies Bollywood movies are catching the
attention of large audience and today our young generation know everything about the
life pattern of Indian film stars. The emergence of new technology of CD’s and DVD’s
catch the attention of the teenagers that are easily accessible to them. CD culture is
considered the multi-dimensional entertainment content in which sex and violence have
become the first priority of youngsters.

Kisses and romantic scenes provide them sexual satisfaction and excitement. The female
nudity, sexual coupling, violence and slang words are also the contents of movies. The
use of computer CD’s has become popular among youngsters. As they use 72%CD for
Indian movies. It is very amazing and interesting that youngsters spend more money on
purchasing CD’s of films to gratify their needs of entertainment.

This reveals that new communication technology is creating new CD’s culture among
youngsters. The finding revealed that they watch movies ( %) for entertainment needs,
% for education and % for sake of information. This reveals that new technologies
advancement make the entertainment need of the audience more considerable and
influential about film.

The cheap and easy accessibility of the CD’s made their entertainment requirement
easier. Our youngsters are under the direct influence of Bollywood movies through
cultural dissemination, familiarities and understanding of Hindi language. It is said that
those who control the media control the world. Indian entertainment channels have
become more popular among native adolescent and children.

Indian media is practicing their image through their Channels in Asia, Africa, Australia
and UK. Indian films are being smuggled into Pakistani market after their release in
India. Pakistan government should encourage private global channels and should
improve its own TV channels to compete with them.

Hollywood has much advanced industry having different value system from the East. As
is the channel of influence that flows from Hollywood to Bollywood and then comes to
the Pakistani media. It has strong influence on the culture of Pakistani society.

As culture is the way of life, the shared values, goals and practices, customs, art,
literature, language and share different behavior among the members of the society.
Media has direct influence on the culture of the viewers which is providing cultural and
entertainment products such as music, fast food like McDonald, Pizza hut and KFC etc.
Cable channels and satellite channels are telecasting homogenous cultural products and
contents to the inferential viewers (Arif ,2009).

Unlike Hollywood industry Bollywood does not have physical existence. Bollywood film
industry looks like a poor cousin of Hollywood. Poetic Urdu words are commonly used
in Indian films and also increasing the pattern of “Indian English” in songs and in
dialogues. They not only use the English dialogues and phrase but also making films in
totally English.

New trends in Bollywood Indian movies are becoming very important part of the
popular culture with new growing trends. Indian films are also popular among western
audience who are more aware about the new trends in Bollywood movies and gossips
related with Bollywood. The new Bollywood movies released in recent years indicate
several new trends in movies that seem to imitate from Hollywood movies trends.

The comedy, romance, action and thriller are the most dominate Indian film genre with
popular trends. In the last few years Indian films have made great development from
commercial Masala movies to make serious films that have been improved with new
trends in methods, themes and subject matter. This can be easily examined in currently
running and upcoming Indian movies.

The current Indian films have lot of potential to portray the real issues that are
impressively edited, directed and cinematographed. The Indian movies that are directed
by the recent directors have lot of capabilities to affect the tastes and perception of the
people and presenting them with more thoughtful cinema. The recent several upcoming
movies depict the real-life characters and real social problems faced by our society.

Another recent trend in Bollywood is that some of the production houses in Bollywood
have been producing many movies in the duration of one year. Latest technology has
made the Bollywood enable to develop rapidly with the quality of sound that allowed
the audience to enjoy musical songs and dance of Indian films. Music and dance were
and are the dominant features of the Hindi films.

When someone talks about the Bollywood musical songs, dancing scenes, massive
wardrobe comes to mind. During the period of 1930 Bollywood captured the market
with other Hindi language films. In the period of 1950 the ratio of songs in movie
decreases less than 10 per film (Chopra, 2007).

Pakistan cinema is heavily showing the Indian movies in their cinemas because they are
largely depending on these movies for their survival. Well nowadays, most youngsters
prefer to watch and enjoy Indian movies and an entertainment shows. Pakistani media
channels also organize to show the frequently held Indian film festivals & show and
present their actors and actresses as icons & idols for our media industry. Different
viewers have different reasons why they do so, watching these shows have effects on
the viewers and the society in general.
It may positive to some audiences, but it also affects negatively too many, depending on
how one perceives and takes the spirit of the show. Indian Cinema after Post
Independent In purely political terms India’s Post 1947 history grouped into two stages
1947-69 the period of irreligious self-government promoted by Nehru and that was
foundation of a polity of combination and 1970to present day which has viewed the
significance of Hindu patriotism as shown by the rise in fame of the BJP and its doctoral
success in 1998. Partition distributed the film industry India was the country that got
much in form of studios and staffs.

Few film producer comebacks to their innate Pakistan. Indian films about the sufferings
of the division were very thin in ground. Actually, films that talked the present history of
India tended to continue the earlier style of before partition films about fight freedom
and they were few in numbers. The first film effect massively on viewers name was
Garam Hava (hot winds. M.S. Sathyu 1973).

That was a film which attentive about trouble of a Muslim family in north region of India
(Kaul, 1998). Propaganda in Indian Films It is portraying Pakistan as a big problem for
the world. Indian cinema becomes a mouth piece of India political elites and foreign
policies. It directs every sin toward Pakistan and China.

Dominate picture of modern Indian cinema regarding Pakistan that an unstable and
irrational country safe heaven and rest house of underworld and terrorists. India cinema
is trying to show that Pakistani government and army had become maid in enmity of
India. Further it tries to direct and pressurize Indian government regarding policies and
relations with neighbor countries.

Indian cinema is promoting stereotype image of Muslims and Pakistan. Indian cinema
endorsed a negative mind set to its audience that Pakistani nuclear weapons in unsafe
hands might be stolen by terrorists and go in hands of militants. It might be a risk of
mass destruction and killing.

D-Day The D-Day film has same story like ZDT but main difference is that the operation
of a manhunt done by Indian RAW against Dawood Ibrahim (Rishi Kapoor). Hiding and
living in Karachi city of Pakistan the most wanted man in India. D-Day film about to
explain inter- department RAW politics its infiltrations in Pakistan and depicting the
contradictions existed among Pakistan’s ISI power structure.

The film was successful in telling ISI and Pak army has good relationship with terrorist
and Jihadi, band organizations. Dawood Ibrahim has shown in movies as terrorist who
carried out bomb attacks and gun attack within Pakistan and India (Seth, 2013). The
Phantom Phantom is officially banned movie in Pakistan because it comprising of
anti-Pak sentiments.

Phantom film portrayed “Hafiz Saeed” as terrorist and leader of banned organization
Lashkar-e-e Tayyaba. Phantom movie has mostly affecting soft image of life in eyes of
public Pakistan about Hafiz Saeed. Phantom poisoned youth minds in Pakistan
regarding Hafiz Saeed as a terrorist.

Phantom is showing infiltration of Indian agents in Pakistan against its sovereignty and
agentshave mission to capture or kill Hafiz Saeed. The film has core theme and message
of Indian departments doing secret operations and missions with help of local people in
Pakistan. Indian operatives have ability to break the security layers in Pakistan.

In phantom Indian departments openly claiming that Pakistan has terrorist incubators
and sanctuaries Pakistan is not serious to fight out these elements from its land (Lyer,
2015). Agent Vinod Saif Ali Khan a secret intelligence officer as action hero and detailed
on a spying target which he traced out terrorist who are engaged in terror in Indian and
want to explode the nuke in capital of India Dehli. The nuke was bought by Pakistani
underworld group from black market.

The message was floated to world through the movie that Pakistan has attention of
nuclear war on threat of explosion nuclear bomb in India with help of non- state actors.
A Pakistan secret agent name in Parveen (Kareena Kapoor) on her secret mission for
terrorist groups and she was involved in bomb blasting in London. All above mentioned
movie stories are about cross border spying action by Indian agents.

These look like as part of surgical operation as Indian foreign policy for Pakistan
(Jhunjhunwala, 2012). Border Border is a real event based movie that was happened on
1971 war between Pakistan and India at Longewala post in desert. A small platoon of
124 soldiers of Indian army that fought with 2400 Pakistani army soldiers equipped with
tanks and heavy machine guns.

The movie tried to tell story of brave heart persons of Indian army who were committed
to die for their land. But film is totally anti- Pakistan Which contains the sentences and
dialogues, hitting moral values of Pakistan army as well as Pakistan. They conceived the
picture of Pak-army as incomplete, incapable have not skill of fighting and training.
Have not any motivation and determination in combat.

Border portrayed Pakistan army not like to fight inactive and at the end of movie
soldiers of Pakistan with fear of war run away from battle field. The film winds up by a
song has sentences of strong anti- Pakistan message “Mere Dushman, Mere Humsaye”
(Wizkidrx, 2009). Significance of Study Basic principle of research is to explore the
Impact of Heroism and Demonism of Indian movies and National Identity Crisis among
Youth.

Bollywood industry is playing with the brains a Pakistani Youth through their culture
promotion. Bollywood movies get very fame because our youth is very affectionate the
Bollywood. As we all know that reason behind the popularity of the Bollywood industry
in Pakistan is the collapse of Lollywood industry.

Cinemas of Pakistan are now dependent on the Bollywood movies for their endurance.
Through this reason Bollywood have chance to create the big crisis for our national
Identities by Promoting their values, culture and identities in their movies. Pakistan have
their own identities which are totally different from the Indian identities but India
corrupting the Pakistani identities through promoting their contents of songs, romance,
violence, culture values, Rituals and dance.

It is moral duty of our media to promote their own culture or identities through the
movies rather than promotion of Indian identities. In this study researcher identifying
the aspects that affected our national identities and also give some solution for this
situation. Research Question RQ1: What are the impacts of Heroism and Demonism of
Indian movies on Pakistan Youth.

RQ2: Does Heroism and Demonism of Indian movies demographically influence the
National Identities of Pakistani Youth? Objectives Main objective of the study is to
determine the impact of Heroism and Demonism of Indian movies. This study will focus
on the Indian movies viewers and effects on their National Identity. Major objects of the
study are given below To determine the watching habits of male and female viewers of
Bollywood movies.

To determine the information concerning the level of viewers. To explore the impact of
Hindi language and aspects of Hindu culture on viewers. To explore the effects of Indian
super heroes on our youth. To explore the adoption level of viewers about the life style,
festivals and living style of Bollywood. To determine that how Bollywood cinema
attempts to influence its audience through the images and propaganda used against
Pakistan nationalism in the movies.

INTERNET SOURCES:
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
<1% - https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11666-016-0473-x
<1% - http://progressive-car-insurance.us.com/
<1% - https://studymoose.com/unique-characteristics-of-soviet-montage-essay
<1% -
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1080/00207594.2008.10108486/full?isLogout=true
<1% -
https://eige.europa.eu/women-and-men-inspiring-europe-resource-pool/csv/about-eig
e/about-eige/contact-us?attach=page
<1% -
https://photogallery.indiatimes.com/events/delhi/straight-from-italy/articleshow/173219
40.cms
<1% -
https://necsus-ejms.org/handmade-films-and-artist-run-labs-the-chemical-sites-of-films
-counterculture/
<1% - https://guerreroforum.wordpress.com/2017/04/02/history-of-film/
<1% - https://everipedia.org/wiki/lang_en/film/
<1% - https://www.ozbargain.com.au/tag/movie
<1% - https://howlingpixel.com/i-en/The_More
<1% - https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/0309877960200301
<1% - https://ell.yasar.edu.tr/en/graduate/about/
<1% - https://www.avsabonline.org/papers/cgi-in-hollywood-cinema
<1% -
https://quizlet.com/131250263/looking-at-movies-complete-glossary-flash-cards/
<1% -
http://www.ablongman.com/html/productinfo/folkerts4e/contents/9780205523658_ch0
5.pdf
<1% -
https://www.revolvy.com/main/index.php?s=Cinema%20of%20the%20United%20States
<1% - https://meetinthemiddlecinema.blogspot.com/#!
<1% -
https://historycooperative.org/journal/prestige-professionalism-and-the-paradox-of-ea
dweard-muybridges-animal-locomotion-nudes/
1% - https://blog.jmleclercq.com/10-beautiful-bw-hollywood-actress-photography/
<1% - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WbgXaNLxJ2A
<1% - http://www.currentaffairs24x7.com/hollywood-brief-history/
<1% - https://thependragonsociety.com/tag/citizen-kane/
<1% - https://www.calameo.com/books/0043850217b41d1f8a9ff
<1% - https://en.metapedia.org/wiki/Hollywood_film_industry
<1% - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lithuania
<1% -
https://aspe.hhs.gov/basic-report/influence-new-media-adolescent-sexual-health-evide
nce-and-opportunities
<1% - http://phantasma.lett.ubbcluj.ro/?p=i588&paged=6&lang=en
<1% - https://globalisemeplease.blogspot.com/
<1% - http://www.fm-kp.si/zalozba/ISSN/1854-4231/3_115-123.pdf
<1% -
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/328580196_Portrayal_of_Muslims_in_the_Bolly
wood_Movies
<1% - http://www.ijmdrr.com/admin/downloads/1302201646.pdf
<1% - http://core.ac.uk/display/19410904
<1% - https://www.filmsite.org/90sintro.html
2% - https://journals.pen2print.org/index.php/ijr/article/download/1158/1096
<1% - https://en.gowikipedia.org/wiki/Cinema_of_India
<1% - https://prakrutibhatt192013.blogspot.com/2014/
<1% - https://catalog.upenn.edu/courses/cims/
<1% - http://global.asc.upenn.edu/fileLibrary/PDFs/LakshmiT.pdf
<1% -
https://entertainment.blurtit.com/126052/whats-the-most-famous-scandals-in-bollywoo
d
<1% - http://www.hsse.nie.edu.sg/staff/blackburn/Singapore.htm
<1% -
https://www.revolvy.com/main/index.php?s=Gujarati%20cinema&item_type=topic
<1% - https://everipedia.org/wiki/lang_en/Cinema_of_India/
<1% - https://issuu.com/skjhingan/docs/thebollywoodicons
<1% - http://www.loc.gov/rr/mopic/findaid/indian2.html
<1% - https://epdf.tips/irish-national-cinema-national-cinemas-series.html
<1% - https://wikivisually.com/wiki/List_of_Haryanvi-language_films
<1% - https://www.scribd.com/doc/103590907/Journal-of-Bengali-Studies-Vol-1-No-2
<1% -
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/310493842_Cold_War_and_Cinema_3_articles
<1% - https://quizlet.com/208693737/american-film-history-final-flash-cards/
<1% - https://rankly.com/list/best-film-genre-off-all-time
<1% - https://enacademic.com/dic.nsf/enwiki/217494
<1% - https://www.revolvy.com/topic/Indy%20film&item_type=topic
1% - http://folk.uio.no/thomas/po/heroism.html
<1% - https://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyPURL.cgi?Dockey=100043E6.TXT
<1% - http://www.memidex.com/genres+fine-art
<1% -
https://www.revolvy.com/main/index.php?s=List%20of%20rock%20genres&item_type=t
opic
<1% - http://musicofindia321.tumblr.com/
<1% -
https://www.academia.edu/29551535/impacts_of_bollywood_movies_on_pakistani_cultur
e.docx
<1% -
http://www.issr-journals.org/links/papers.php?journal=ijias&application=pdf&article=IJI
AS-14-257-03
<1% -
http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/culture/culture-the-meaning-characteristics-and-func
tions/9577
<1% - https://www.imdb.com/name/nm6298276/news

Оценить