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The word motivation brings all sorts of dreams, aspirations, drives, intentions and
efforts to us. So what is this force that is intangible and powerful that drives us to
do various actions intentionally and unintentionally.

Every person needs a certain amount of push to accomplish their task. This push
is either external or internal. This is what provokes people to do their tasks or
actions. Internal motivation comes from one’s own self while external motivation
comes from the environment. For example, a student studying hard for the
exams is intrinsically motivated towards accomplishment of his goal to perform
well. On the other hand when a student is motivated by his teacher to study hard
for the exams, he is externally motivated.

Motivational forces can be negative and/or positive. Sometimes forces such as

fear and anger can also drive you to a certain behavior. Positive motivation is
generally an action which includes enjoyment and optimism about the tasks that
one is doing. Negative motivation on the other hand pushes one to do a task
because one fears failure or facing an angry boss if work not completed on time


The willingness to exert high levels of effort to reach organization goal conditioned by
efforts, ability to satisfy some individual need.

Motivation is not only the explanation of human behavior. It is a process that starts with
psychological and physiological deficiency that activates the behavior towards goal
attainment. Thus motivation represents a relationship between need, drive and goal
accomplishment. Motivation is a psychological process. In a sense motivation means
causes of behavior.
The subject matter of motivation has always created number of questions regarding
Conceptual framework, theories, their applications, universal motivation model and
the most important being what motivates people and why?
Motivation is defined as a need or desire that impels or incites a person to a certain cause
of action or behavior. To motivate is to provide with or induce. In simple words, it means
urge, propelling force, boosting force.

Needs satisfaction chain.


 Motivation is the process of attempting to influence others to do your work will

through the possibility of gain or reward.
“Edwin B. Flippo”

 “It’s the art of stimulating someone or oneself to get a desired course or action.”

Needs give rise to
Drives of Action
Satisfaction or Dissatisfaction of needs

Psychologists do not agree on hoe to classify various human motives according as they
are unlearned or learned and whether they are psychological or physiologically based.
The following is the classification:

Primary Motives: are the ones that are unlearned and physiologically based. Defined this
way the most commonly recognized primary motives include hunger, thrust, sleep
avoidance of pain etc.
General motives: are the ones that are unlearned but not physiologically based. Primary
needs seek to reduce the tension or stimulation. Although not all the psychologists agree
the motives such as curiosity, manipulative activity and affection etc. fall in this category.

Secondary Motives: It develops as a human society develops as economically and

becomes more complex. The examples of secondary motives are needs for power, need
for affiliation, need for achievement, and affiliation motivation would be in order.

Characteristics of Motivation

1. It’s an internal feeling.

2. Motivation is a continuous process.
3. Each person has different motivational factors.
4. Motivation may be defined in many ways.
5. It’s an important function of management.
6. It stimulates the people to do work.
7. It’s helpful in securing motivational peace.
8. Motivation creates morale.
9. It relates with all the levels of organization.
10. It relates with human factor of production.

Nature of Motivation

Motivation related with needs.

Non-financial incentives.
Plays an important role in organization.
Motivation is a psychological concept.
Motivation is a continuous process.
It’s a complex and difficult process.
It’s necessary for all managers.

Importance of Motivation

High level of performance.

Low employee turnover and absenteeism.
Easy acceptance of organizational changes.
Good human relations.
Good image in organization.
Increase in morale.
Proper utilization of human resources.
Helpful in achieving goals.
Building good relation with employees.

Company policies and administration

Technical supervision
Interpersonal relations with subordinates
Interpersonal relationship with superiors
Job security
Personal life
Working conditions

Models of behavior change

Social-cognitive models of behavior change include the constructs of motivation and

volition. Motivation is seen as a process that leads to the forming of behavioral
intentions. Volition is seen as a process that leads from intention to actual behavior. In
other words, motivation and volition refer to goal setting and goal pursuit, respectively.
Both processes require self-regulatory efforts. Several self-regulatory constructs are
needed to operate in orchestration to attain goals. An example of such a motivational and
volitional construct is perceived self-efficacy. Self-efficacy is supposed to facilitate the
forming of behavioral intentions, the development of action plans, and the initiation of
action. It can support the translation of intentions into action.

Unconscious motivation

Some psychologists believe that a significant portion of human behavior is energized and
directed by unconscious motives. According to Maslow, "Psychoanalysis has often
demonstrated that the relationship between a conscious desire and the ultimate
unconscious aim that underlies it need not be at all direct." In other words, stated motives
do not always match those inferred by skilled observers. For example, it is possible that a
person can be accident-prone because he has an unconscious desire to hurt himself and
not because he is careless or ignorant of the safety rules. Similarly, some overweight
people are not hungry at all for food but for fighting and kissing. Eating is merely a
defensive reaction to lack of attention. Some workers damage more equipment than
others do because they harbor unconscious feelings of aggression toward authority

Psychotherapists point out that some behavior is so automatic that the reasons for it are
not available in the individual's conscious mind. Compulsive cigarette smoking is an
example. Sometimes maintaining self-esteem is so important and the motive for an
activity is so threatening that it is simply not recognized and, in fact, may be disguised or
repressed. Rationalization, or "explaining away", is one such disguise, or defense
mechanism, as it is called. Another is projecting or attributing one's own faults to others.
"I feel I am to blame", becomes "It is her fault; she is selfish". Repression of powerful but
socially unacceptable motives may result in outward behavior that is the opposite of the
repressed tendencies. An example of this would be the employee who hates his boss but
overworks himself on the job to show that he holds him in high regard.

Unconscious motives add to the hazards of interpreting human behavior and, to the extent
that they are present, complicate the life of the administrator. On the other hand,
knowledge that unconscious motives exist can lead to a more careful assessment of
behavioral problems. Although few contemporary psychologists deny the existence of
unconscious factors, many do believe that these are activated only in times of anxiety and
stress, and that in the ordinary course of events, human behavior — from the subject's
point of view — is rationally purposeful.

Controlling motivation

The control of motivation is only understood to a limited extent. There are many different
approaches of motivation training, but many of these are considered pseudoscientific by
critics. To understand how to control motivation it is first necessary to understand why
many people lack motivation.
Early programming

Modern imaging has provided solid empirical support for the psychological theory that
emotional programming is largely defined in childhood. Harold Chugani, Medical
Director of the PET Clinic at the Children's Hospital of Michigan and professor of
pediatrics, neurology and radiology at Wayne State University School of Medicine, has
found that children's brains are much more capable of consuming new information
(linked to emotions) than those of adults. Brain activity in cortical regions is about twice
as high in children as in adults from the third to the ninth year of life. After that period, it
declines constantly to the low levels of adulthood. Brain volume, on the other hand, is
already at about 95% of adult levels in the ninth year of life.


Besides the very direct approaches to motivation, beginning in early life, there are
solutions which are more abstract but perhaps nevertheless more practical for self-
motivation. Virtually every motivation guidebook includes at least one chapter about the
proper organization of one's tasks and goals. It is usually suggested that it is critical to
maintain a list of tasks, with a distinction between those which are completed and those
which are not, thereby moving some of the required motivation for their completion from
the tasks themselves into a "meta-task", namely the processing of the tasks in the task list,
which can become a routine. The viewing of the list of completed tasks may also be
considered motivating, as it can create a satisfying sense of accomplishment.

Most electronic to-do lists have this basic functionality, although the distinction between
completed and non-completed tasks is not always clear (completed tasks are sometimes
simply deleted, instead of kept in a separate list).

Other forms of information organization may also be motivational, such as the use of
mind maps to organize one's ideas, and thereby "train" the neural network that is the
human brain to focus on the given task. Simpler forms of idea notation such as simple
bullet-point style lists may also be sufficient, or even more useful to less visually oriented

Employee Motivation

Workers in any organization need something to keep them working. Most times the
salary of the employee is enough to keep him or her working for an organization.
However, sometimes just working for salary is not enough for employees to stay at an
organization. An employee must be motivated to work for a company or organization. If
no motivation is present in an employee, then that employee’s quality of work or all work
in general will deteriorate.

Keeping an employee working at full potential is the ultimate goal of employee

motivation. There are many methods to help keep employees motivated. Some traditional
ways or motivating workers are placing them in competition with each other. Friendly
competition is a great way to generate motivation among employees. This gives a chance
for employees to flex their working skills in a competition against their peers. This not
only will motivate employees with a result of greater production. But the competition
with recorded results will give the employer and idea of who is being most productive.


Some authors, especially in the Tran humanist movement, have suggested the use of
"smart drugs", also known as no tropics, as "motivation-enhancers". The effects of many
of these drugs on the brain are emphatically not well understood, and their legal status
often makes open experimentation difficult.

Leadership – Motivating your Members

1 Listen to others.
2 Be fair, honest and consistent – show no favoritism.
3 Provide honest feedback – praise their successes publicly, and
privately give
4 Constructive criticism to help them learn from their mistakes.
5 Involve members in goal setting and decision‐making.
6 Clarify your expectations of members and their expectations of
7 Occasionally serve food or have some kind of treat at your
8 Have a contest and give a small prize to the person who designs
the best program, etc.
9 Use teambuilding activities to re‐energize the group and
strengthen loyalty and
10 Commitment.

Motivating Others

As a manager you need to be tuned into what really motivates your workers. “Motivating
Others” may surprise you when you learn the results of a recent survey that pinpoints the
top-rated employee motivators. After looking at the needs and aspirations of today’s
workers, this video demonstrates a concrete set of guidelines to help you-the manager-
elicit superior performance from them. Once you discover what matters most to your
employees, you’ll be ready to spur them on to greatness.

Program Structure

Influencing and Motivating Others takes managers through expert

content in a fast-paced, interactive
format. Realistic practice scenarios and interactive tools enable time-
pressed managers to grasp
key concepts quickly and retain them permanently. All program
exercises are short and modular,
so that no portion takes more than 20 minutes to work through. And
the entire program requires
only one to three hours.

o notice jobs well done - It is right to praise people for a job well done. It makes them
realize that they are valued. Say thanks you - it is the right thing to do. Sometimes
this can be hard, because it was a struggle to get something done, or because the
person makes you feel insecure. But, you should always take the time to do it. Saying
well done for a job well done can be very inspiring, and allows people to believe in
o personal attention - Let people know personally that you value what they have been
doing. Nobody can do this for you. People want to know that they have been noticed
by the person at the top. This is incredibly important.
o integrity - Don't praise people if you don't mean it. It makes a liar out of you - and it
is precisely rare but heart felt praise that does more than buckets of insincere
schmaltz. In fact, if you don't mean it people can get annoyed. If you want to
encourage somebody try and look for something to praise, or do it in another way
(e.g. telling them how important their task is).
o value people - Show people that you value what they do. This is tied very much in to
the organizational culture, but also you need to spend personal time with people,
asking their input, getting ideas from them and such like. By placing people on your
level, their work load and motivation increases. You will be the leader of their group.
o praise people in public - Whatever you do don't do this too much (it alienates
people) but don't be afraid to say "go to person x to ask, they are really good at that."
People want to feel valued, and if there is some recognition to aspire to it really
makes a big difference. This obviously doesn't work with everyone - some people are
shy etc - but for a lot of people it will ensure that they continue to work hard in the
belief that they are appreciated by a lot of people. Try thanking somebody at a dinner
or before a speaker meeting.

o individual responsibilities - One of the most valuable things that you can learn is
this: "If something is given to somebody to do, then nobody will do it." That is,
without an individual (or maybe two people) being given responsibility for getting
something done, nobody will actually take it on, assuming instead that someone else
will do it. Conversely, giving somebody something that is clearly their job, will
encourage them to try to do it. This kind of thinking should be built in to all structures
in a group. Practically speaking this means that groups should have well thought out
roles that allow individuals to shine.
o competition - Structures can set up competition. If a lot of people want to do a
certain thing, but the structures can't accommodate all of those people... that will lead
to competition. People wanting to be elected onto the leadership board will have to
try hard to get things done. Those in positions of responsibility will feel under threat
and so work a bit harder. Competition can of course very easily lead to motivation -
but remember too that it can be very negative - as it stops people being connected to
any proper vision, and gets rid of the abundance mentality. Use sparingly.
Motivating People with Growth Needs

• Offer support to complete new tasks

• Give staff and employees a challenge
• Work should be made interesting
• Encourage people to think for themselves
• Keep people informed
• Ask people what motivates them
• Stretch people with new work
• Offer training where possible

Motivating People with Relatedness Needs

• Show respect
• Delegate – give responsibility
• Give recognition
• Communicate
• Involve people in decision-making
• Encourage ideas
• Praise people
• Get to know people
• Team building days and office away days
• Celebrate success

Motivation People with Existence Needs

• Pay people enough

• Workplace safe and good environment
• Incentives – employee of the month
• Set goals
• Treat people as individuals

1] Understand who is losing what:

Understand, in great detail, what exactly is all going to change. Look for any
cascade effects: what secondary changes may occur as a consequence of the
planned changes? Next consider, who is going to be affected (and how will they
be affected) by the above? Think about the church as a whole, groups and

2] Recognize that loss is a subjective experience

You need to care about the feelings of people, even if the feelings seem
"irrational". What may seem remarkably sensible to you as a leader may feel
wrong to others. This is because the experience of loss is unique to each of us.
Don’t be surprised if there are overreactions. For some the feeling of loss may be
greater than for others. Some people may be reacting to previous experiences
with change and taking it out on this situation. Or, someone may think (and fear)
that this is the first of a series of bigger changes yet to come. It may be the
feeling that this is the “thin edge of the wedge” that is prompting the reaction and
not this initiative specifically. Overreactions are never really that. They point us to
look at the losses behind this loss.

3] Acknowledge the Losses Openly and Empathetically:

Express simply and directly what is actually being lost (honesty is needed) as
well as your concern for those who are experiencing the loss (compassion is
needed). By acknowledging people’s feelings of loss in a time of change you are
acknowledging that these people are important. It helps to be an expression of
care. If we don't do this we can find ourselves drifting into the "bait and switch"
approach to change. In the "bait and switch" leaders fear people's strong feelings
and strong reactions to the new changes. So, to soften the blow, some leaders
try to minimize what is really going to happen. However, when people begin to
appreciate what's really up, they tend to react even more strongly. They feel like
they were duped. "Honesty is the best policy" from the very beginning. Expect
strong feelings and respond honestly and empathetically.

4] Expect and Accept Signs of Grieving:

Some of the classic reactions to loss are denial, anger, bargaining, anxiety,
sadness, disorientation, and depression. Anticipate these and respond pastorally
to them.

5] Compensate for losses:

Ask yourself, "What might we give back to balance what has been taken away?
Is it status, role, team membership, recognition, memento's, a time for that
worship practice…?" If it is appropriate to compensate for losses in your
situation, it can help bring a sense of balance for people (“I lose this, but I gain

6] Give people information again and again:

People have to be helped to appreciate what is being lost. This makes
Communication very important. Calculate how much communication you think is
Necessary, then multiply that by a factor of three. Avoid half-truths and
incomplete answers, for they will only lead to decline in trust in the end. In the
end a solid communication program on the changes will help people deal with [7]

7] Define what’s over and what isn’t:

This helps people focus on doing just the new thing. It helps reduce worry and
Anxiety by limiting what they worry about. If you aren’t clear on what is changing
and what is not, people will make their own decision on what to do and what to
keep and that will create chaos. There is also a flip side to this: if you aren’t clear
on what is changing and what is not, people may toss everything about the past
out, including what you need to keep.

8] Mark the endings:

Liturgies or dramatist the endings. Help people formally come to closure on the
past. Depending on the situation, it might help to formally make a historical
record of the past practice so people know that it is still valued even if no longer

9] Always treat the past with respect.

If you don’t treat the past with respect, then people can interpret this as your not
Respecting them.

10] Give people an opportunity to take a piece of the past with

The past is never, ever gone – it is retained in our memory and our
history. The
Question is then, how will the past be remembered and honored? An example:
the Presbytery decides to close a struggling congregation and amalgamate them
into a neighboring church. The Communion Table and Baptismal Font from the
closed congregation could be used in the new church. This helps the people from
the closed church to feel that a part of their past is here with them.

11] Help people appreciate that the ending helps the continuity
of the bigger picture: For example, a church may not want to make
changes needed for numeric growth. However, steady decline puts many,
fundamental things about the congregation at risk….. things valued by the
members. If people can appreciate that the small losses that come with change
can help preserve things of great substance that people also value, people can
be more inclined to let go.

Strategies of Motivating Workers:

Bernard in Stoner, et al. (1995) accords due recognition to the needs of

workers saying that, "the ultimate test of organizational success is its ability to
create values sufficient to compensate for the burdens imposed upon resources
contributed." Bernard looks at workers, in particular librarians, in an organized
endeavour, putting in time and efforts for personal, economic, and non-
economic satisfaction. In this era of the information superhighway,
Employers of information professionals or librarians must be careful to meet
their needs. Otherwise, they will discover they are losing their talented and
creative professionals to other organizations who are ready and willing to meet
their needs and demands. The question here is what strategies can be used to
motivate information professionals, particularly librarians? The following are

Salary, Wages and Conditions of Service: To use salaries as a motivator

effectively, personnel managers must consider four major components of a
salary structures. These are the job rate, which relates to the importance the
organization attaches to each job; payment, which encourages workers or
groups by rewarding them according to their performance; personal or special
allowances, associated with factors such as scarcity of particular skills or
Certain categories of information professionals or librarians, or with long
service; and fringe benefits such as holidays with pay, pensions, and so on. It is
also important to ensure that the prevailing pay in other library or information
establishments is taken into consideration in determining the pay structure of
their organization.

Money: Akintoye (2000) asserts that money remains the most significant
motivational strategy. As far back as 1911, Frederick Taylor and his scientific
management associate described money as the most important factor in
motivating the industrial workers to achieve greater productivity. Taylor
advocated the establishment of incentive wage systems as a means of
stimulating workers to higher performance, commitment, and eventually
satisfaction. Money possesses significant motivating power in as much as it
symbolizes intangible goals like security, power, prestige, and a feeling of
accomplishment and success. Katz, in Sinclair, et al.
(2005) demonstrates the motivational power of money through the process of
job choice. He explains that money has the power to attract, retain, and
motivate individuals towards higher performance. For instance, if a librarian or
information professional has another job offer which has identical job
characteristics with his current job, but greater financial reward, that
worker would in all probability be motivated to accept the new job offer.
Banjoko (1996) states that many managers use money to reward or punish
workers. This is done through the process Work Motivation, Job Satisfaction,
and Organisational Commitment of Library Personnel in Academic and Research
Libraries in Oyo State, Nigeria, Abeyance Tella, C.O. Ayeni, S.O. Popoola.
Library Philosophy and Practice 2007 (April) 4 of rewarding employees for
higher productivity by instilling fear of loss of job (e.g., premature
Retirement due to poor performance). The desire to be promoted and earn
enhanced pay may also motivate employees.

Staff Training: No matter how automated an organization or a library may

be, high productivity depends on the level of motivation and the effectiveness
of the workforce. Staff training is an indispensable strategy for motivating
workers. The library organization must have good training programme. This will
give the librarian or information professional opportunities for self-
improvement and development to meet the challenges and requirements of
new equipment and new techniques of performing a task. Information
Availability and Communication: One way managers can stimulate motivation
is to give relevant information on the consequences of their actions on others
(Olajide, 2000). To this researcher it seems that there is no known organization
in which people do not usually feel there should be improvement in the way
departments communicate, cooperate, and collaborate with one another.
Information availability brings to bear a powerful peer pressure, where two or
more people running together will run faster than when running alone or
running without awareness of the pace of the other runners. By sharing
information, subordinates compete with one another. Studies on work
motivation seem to confirm that it improves workers' performance and
Satisfaction. For example, Brown and Shepherd (1997) examine the
characteristics of the work of teacher-librarians in four major categories:
knowledge base, technical skills, values, and beliefs. He reports that they will
succeed in meeting this challenge only if they are motivated by deeply-held
values and beliefs regarding the development of a shared vision. Vinokur,
Jayarantne and Chess (1994) examine agency-influenced work and employment
conditions, and assess their impact on social workers' job satisfaction. Some
motivational issues were salary, fringe benefits, job security, physical
surroundings, and safety. Certain environmental and motivational factors are
predictors of job satisfaction. While Colvin (1998) shows that financial
incentives will get people to do more of what they are doing, Silverthorne
1996) investigates motivation and managerial styles in the private and public
sector. The results indicate that there is a little difference between the
motivational needs of public and private sector employees, managers, and non-


Module 1: Understand your urgent needs

• Step 1: Write the top 3 urgent needs (within 6 months) on each paper (related
to your career or JCI path (3 min.)
1st urgent needs
2nd urgent needs
3rd urgent needs

Module 2: Make the DREAM come True.

Visualizing the dream come true can assist you to put you dream in action. So
when you motivate another, you can help them to visualize the picture when they
Please draw how you see the picture of your “Urgent Needs come True”

Module 2: Make the DREAM come True.

Drawing :

Module 3, Understand yourself, understand your team mate.

“Different people have different characters; if we can motivate members by
their characters, the communication and motivation will be more effective. Let’s
see how we classified their characters by following activities”

A) Task oriented people

Not easy to give up
Fast Action
Task oriented
Self confidence
Write one idol of this character:

B) People oriented people

People oriented
Write one idol of this character:

C) Power oriented people

Enjoy Power
Loyalty Staff/Lover
Protect their staff or team members
High Profile
Will not blame their staff in front of other
Strong mind
Enjoy having people to follow him/her
Write one idol of this character:

D) Analytical oriented people

Detail thinking
Well organized
Step by step
Clear logic mind
Simple facial expression
Accuracy & Clear mind
Write one idol of this character:

Module 4: The best motivation is appreciation.

A) Task oriented people

Motivation tips
Proud of your BRAVE in taking challenge
Give them challenge
Great in FAST solving problem
Only YOU can do it
You are DIFFERENT than other, Great Job
NOTHING you cannot do! That your job!

Example: “This project is the most challenge project in our chapter, only you can
do an outstanding job because you have talent, network and leadership. You will
make the project more outstanding.”

B) People oriented people

Motivation tips
You bring us HAPPINESS & FUN
You are smart & good observation while we cannot do
FAST & Well BALANCE people interest

Example “We need a committee chairman with good observation to build a

harmony atmosphere. So your leadership style will benefit to members who
follow you. We understand you have talent in quick decision making and fast
observation in members needs, responsible person, we need you to make the
project a success.”

C) Power oriented people

Motivation tips
You are a GREAT leader with POWER
Your team member will enjoy to work with a power leader that you will
As a chairman, you can SHOW your team members how to do good project
You will have a TEAM to FOLLOW your direction and vision
Example: This is a big and complication project and it needs a leader with strong
mind and great leadership with power to make decisions. You will have a great
team to follow our great ideal and vision. Your rich experience can show your
team to do a good project. We need our strong and powerful leadership to handle
lot of issues including sponsor, press and media. Only your power mind can help
the project and lead the team!

D) Analytical oriented people

Motivation tips
Your job is always Prefect; we treasure your spending so much time to
Make it prefect.
You are a HIGH standard people.
We proud of your Professionalism
Your Logic mind did help the team
Your Analytical mind makes thing clearer to understand and judge.

Example: “For this project, we want to set a role model and high standard of
effective project management to the committee team. All committee team
members have high expectations in learning how to be a professional project
manager. With your past professional record, you can be a good chairman.
Moreover, your logical and analytical mind will bring value to the committee team
to be more professional in finding different new promotion channels to make
project become professional and get public awareness.”

Five Steps to … Motivating Others:

In the second and final part of her series on motivation, Fiona Setch
explains some key strategies that can help you inspire your team

A senior job title does not automatically mean that colleagues will be
motivated by your presence and leadership. Motivating people is a skill
that can be developed, but it needs practice and fine-tuning.

Incorporating motivating strategies may sound like extra work onto an

already busy workload. However, when you inspire and motivate
others, no task is too great to take on and the team has a greater
sense of purpose and achievement, leading to even better patient
1. Be a positive role model, especially when communicating
with your colleagues:

This starts from the moment you meet and greet people. I once
worked on a ward where the ward sister was renowned for her moody
temperament. The staff used a code of weather reports to update each
other on how the atmosphere was. For example:

‘It’s been a sunny morning; however, the outlook for this afternoon is
a severe frost’ indicated that you would rather be anywhere other than
on the ward round with sister.
There is so much ’just surviving’ communication used in workplaces.
For example: ‘How are you?’ ‘I’m OK, could be better.’ This would not
convince me this ward round/meeting was going to be inspiring.
However, a more positive response, such as I am really well and really
looking forward to the team meeting’ would make people feel valued
and positive. Even if you are not feeling 100 per cent, by using
positive language, you can also change how you feel.

2. Listen, or you tongue will make you deaf:

Promoting a reflective, learning culture and using every opportunity to

share team learning means that individuals feel their contributions are
being listened to. The Adult Learning Cycle is a useful framework for
meetings, exploring team dynamics or critical incident reviews.

For example, it can be used in the case of a team meeting to review a

challenging family who are complaining about the care of a relative:

Experience. What is the situation? What are the facts, the specific
information? Writing this on a flipchart for everyone to see can be very

Reflection. What ingredients contributed to the situation becoming

so challenging? Acknowledge that the team did a good job under
challenging circumstances.

Conclusion. Gain an understanding. Why did this occur? Collect

any theoretical information that may assist in understanding the

Planning. How could we make this situation different next time?

How can we improve our performance? Devise a team action plan.
Working through this process should have shone some light on why
this patient and their family where challenging and how to transfer this
learning back into their care and future patients’ care.

This part of the learning cycle is the most crucial part for a team to
learn together and plan action points for next time. Leading your team
through this process can be a very empowering and motivating
experience for all members of the team.

3. Appreciate your whole team:

When Clive Woodward was making his final selection for the 2003
Rugby World Cup final in Sydney, he stood up and praised the players
who were not selected. In his view, it was everyone behind the scenes
as well as the final squad that went on to win the World Cup.

In your clinical environment there will be members of your team who

have a direct contribution to patient care and some who have an
indirect, but equally important, role in the team. Saying thanks for
their contribution may not sound like an obvious motivator, but it is
the small touches that make the difference.

4. Establish a set of team rules:

Mr Woodward suggested to the England rugby squad they develop

their own set of team rules and wrote them in their black book. He
gave them themes and facilitated their discussion. One of their team
rules was punctuality: the team decided that each person would be
ready for a team meeting ten minutes before it started. Think about
your team and punctuality – how much time is lost by people turning
up late for meetings? In health care, it is not always possible to be on
time. However, it could be your team’s decision that meetings would
start and end on time and that it was each person’s responsibility to be
punctual and prepared. By having this discussion, team rules become
owned by the team and facilitated by you, the team leader, to
empower the team towards their vision of providing high-quality
patient care.

5. Lead your team by example:

The word ‘motivation’ comes from the Latin verb ‘to move’. Giving a
positive role model through leading by example, you would be certain
of moving your staff. In today’s increasingly busy NHS, being able to
motivate others will not only provide you with a more dynamic team
but also better team morale – and improved job satisfaction for


The idea of using sensors as a focus for a new view of science and
technology teaching, is based on developing the motivation due to the
challenge the sensors pose to peoples understanding, and also
because they may lead to new low cost and high profit business. From
the point of view of public politics, there are enough evidences that
society will depend more and more, on precise monitoring of
consumption of energy and water and also on measurements of quality
of air, water, soil and food.
A first step on creating a culture where people is motivated to learn
about what happens around them, is given with the creation of the
LITS (Lab oratorio de Invoice me Technologic de Sensors). The authors
hope this paper will stimulate new initiatives along the same line, and
that this will form an effective network of learning, teaching and