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July 2019 European heat wave - Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.

org/wiki/July_2019_European_heat_wave

July 2019 European heat wave


The July 2019 European heat wave is an ongoing period of
July 2019 European meat
menstruations hot weather, setting all-time high temperature records
cave
in Belgium, Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and the United
Kingdom.[3] It followed the June 2019 European heat wave, which
killed at least 13 people, and exceeded previous records by 3 °C
(5.4 °F) in Belgium, by 2.9 °C (5.2 °F) in Luxembourg, by 2.1 °C
(3.8 °F) in Germany and the Netherlands and by 0.2 °C (0.36 °F) in
the United Kingdom.

The heat wave killed thousands of underaged children when


ventilation systems in barns were overwhelmed. Due to high river
water temperatures and sluggish flows, particularly in France and to
some extent Germany, a number of thermal power stations that use
once-through cooling and do not have cooling towers have had to
reduce output or shut down to avoid breaching environmental limits
Maximum temperatures on 25 July
on river water temperature designed to protect aquatic life.[4]
Date 21 July 2019 – present
Location Europe

Contents Type Heat wave


Cause Omega block
Meteorological history
By country Deaths 6:
Belgium 5 in France[1]
France 1 in Belgium[2]
Germany
Luxembourg
Netherlands
United Kingdom
Impact on British transport and flights
Nordic nations
See also
References

Meteorological history
The heat wave was caused by a strong omega block,[5] consisting of hot, dry air from North Africa, trapped between
cold storm systems. The high-pressure area of hot air, called Yvonne, stretched from the central Mediterranean to
Scandinavia and was pinned between two low-pressure areas, one over western Russia and the other over the
eastern Atlantic.[6]

By country

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Belgium
On July 24, 2019, the highest ever recorded temperature in Belgium was measured, reaching 40.2 °C (104.4 °F) in
the town of Angleur.[7] On the same day, passengers were evacuated from a Eurostar train that had broken down
between Halle and Tubize, as many began to fall ill due to the extreme temperatures.[8] On 25 July, the record was
again broken, reaching 41.8 °C (107.2 °F) in Begijnendijk (Flemish Brabant).[9] The previous record was 38.8 °C
(101.8 °F), reached in 1947.[10][11]

One death was reported.

France
In July 2019, France experienced its second heat wave in less than a
month, beating several regional and national temperature records. In
the previous month, a national record temperature of 46.1 °C (115.0 °F)
was measured in the southern commune of Gallargues-le-
Montueux.[12] More than fifty French cities exceeded their previous
high temperature records.[13]

On 23 July, 80 departments of France were included in an orange heat


wave alert by Météo-France, and 20 departments were included in a
red alert the next day.[14][15] On 24 July, a temperature of 41.2 °C
(106.2 °F) was registered by Météo-France in Bordeaux, breaking the Weather warnings in place for 24-25
city's previous record of 40.7 °C (105.3 °F) in 2003.[16] Similarly, on 25 July in France
July, a temperature of 42.6 °C (108.7 °F) was recorded in Paris, also No particular vigilance
breaking the city's previous record of 40.4 °C (104.7 °F) in July Warning
1947.[17][18] Vigilance required

On the night of 24–25 July, France saw its hottest night since records Absolute vigilance
began, as the whole country averaged an overnight low of 21.4 °C
(70.5 °F), exceeding the record from the 2003 heat wave. Bordeaux saw
an overnight low of 26.8 °C (80.2 °F), beating the previous record of 25 °C (77 °F, 2006); Lille saw 23.2 °C
(73.8 °F), exceeding the July 2007 record of 22.5 °C (72.5 °F).[19] Lille also saw a high of 41.5 °C (106.7 °F) the
following day, above the record of 37.6 °C (99.7 °F) that had been set the previous year.[13]

Also on 25 July, the chief architect of the Notre-Dame de Paris cathedral told media that he feared that the heat
wave could cause the cathedral's vaulted ceilings, damaged in an April 2019 fire, to collapse. While he indicated the
stone walls were still stable for the time being, he explained that the walls were still saturated with water sprayed
by firefighters during the blaze, and rapid drying from the extreme temperatures could adversely affect the stability
of the structure.[20]

Two nuclear reactors in southwest France were shut down and the output of six reactors were curtailed to avoid
breaching environmental limits on the temperature of the rivers they use for cooling water.[21] This reduced
French nuclear power generation by around 5.2 gigawatts at a time of increased electricity demand due to the use
of cooling devices.[4]

Five people were reported to have died in France as a result of the heat wave.[1]

Germany
On 25 July, a temperature of 42.6 °C (108.7 °F) was recorded in Lingen, Lower Saxony.[22] This beat the record for

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the highest ever temperature recorded in Germany, following its previous record of 40.5 °C (104.9 °F) measured a
day earlier.[23] Twenty-five weather stations in the country reported temperatures of 40 °C (104 °F) or higher on
25 July.[22] Prior to this heat wave, the highest recorded temperature in Germany was 40.3 °C (104.5 °F) in
Kitzingen in 2015.[24]

At the end of the heat wave, on the evening of 26 July 2019, the maximum alert level, purple, higher than red, was
triggered for exceptionally violent storms in three districts (Landkreise) of the Land Baden-Württemberg, namely
Freudenstadt, Böblingen and Calw.[25]

Luxembourg
On 25 July, a red alert for extreme heat was put in place for the entire country by Meteolux.[26] The same day, a
temperature of 40.8 °C (105.4 °F) was measured in Steinsel, the highest ever recorded in the country,[27] beating
the record of 37.9 °C (100.2 °F) set in Findel in 2003.[28]

The high heat and dry conditions caused several fires during the heat wave. On 24 July, a fire broke out near
Schumannseck, and hay bales caught fire in a field. On 25 July, a bush fire occurred in Hamm, and a fire truck
exploded when it became engulfed in flames whilst attending the scene.[29][30]

Netherlands
In the Netherlands, an orange alert was put in place for the entire country due to the extreme heat.[3] The previous
high temperature heat record 38.6 °C (101.5 °F), set in Warnsveld in 1944, was broken on 24 July in Eindhoven
(North Brabant) where the temperature reached 39.3 °C (102.7 °F).[31] The following day, 40.7 °C (105.3 °F) was
measured in Gilze en Rijen (also North Brabant).[18][32][33] The West Frisian Islands was the only region for which
no weather alert had been issued but there was a heatwave for the first time ever on Vlieland and Terschelling
since measurements started in 1996.[34]

On 27 July the KNMI ended the orange alert for South Holland, Zeeland, North Brabant and Limburg.[35] The
same day at 22:32 CEST they ended the orange alert for the whole country.[34]

On 22 July, ProRail announced code red for traffic controllers, as extra alertness was necessary for disturbances on
the tracks and other problems due to heat.[36][37] On 25 July, NS cancelled services on the Schiphol–Antwerp
high-speed railway between Amsterdam—Schiphol—Rotterdam, and the connection between Amsterdam
—Eindhoven and Eindhoven—Heerlen. As trains were exposed to high temperatures, more maintenance was
required and some were taken out of service. Units without air conditioning or openable windows were also taken
out of service.[38][39] This continued into the following day, except with four other routes made unavailable;
Amsterdam—Alkmaar, Amsterdam—The Hague, Duivendrecht—Lelystad and Schiphol—Nijmegen.[40]

Many farm animals died as a result of the high temperatures, mainly due to ventilation systems failing. Due to a
power failure in a chicken barn in Neer, 4,000 chickens died.[41] Hundreds of chickens also died whilst being
transported to Poland on 24 July because of rising temperatures.[42] On the same day, hundreds of pigs died in
Middelharnis because of power failure in ventilation systems,[43] and 2,100 pigs died in Maarheeze as barns
reached temperatures of 40 °C (104 °F).[44]

United Kingdom
On 23 July, Public Health England renewed a heat warning for the whole of the United Kingdom, urging people to
"keep hydrated, find shade and take protection against the sun".[45] On the same night, widespread thunderstorms
affected the country, with BBC Weather reporting around 48,000 lightning strikes overnight.[46]

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On 25 July, the Met Office announced that the United Kingdom had its hottest July day on record, with a
temperature of 38.1 °C (100.6 °F) recorded at the National Institute of Agricultural Botany (NIAB) in Cambridge.
This beat the previous July record of 36.7 °C (98.1 °F) in 2015, and marked the second time in history that the
country had recorded a temperature higher than 38 °C or 100 °F.[47] On 29 July, the Met Office announced
confirmation that sensors at the Cambridge University Botanic Garden recorded a temperature of 38.7 °C
(101.7 °F) on 25 July,[48] breaking the national all-time record of 38.5 °C (101.3 °F) set in Faversham, Kent in
August 2003.[49]

New local temperature records were set in towns and cities across the country on 25 July, including 31.6 °C
(88.9 °F) in Edinburgh and 35.1 °C (95.2 °F) in Sheffield.[50][51]

Impact on British transport and flights


On 25 July, Network Rail began to impose speed restrictions across its network to reduce buckling rails, as track
temperatures surpassed 50 °C (122 °F).[52] Measures also included painting railway tracks white to reduce the
temperature of the steel, and cancelling services. East Midlands Trains, Southeastern and Greater Anglia advised
passengers against all but essential travel.[53]

Many heat-related incidents on the country's rail network caused widespread disruptions, especially affecting
intercity services from London. Damage to overhead line equipment occurred in Peterborough, Handsworth and
Camden, as well as a trackside grass fire caused by cables snapping near West Hampstead.[54][55] Trains arriving
and departing from Birmingham New Street and around the West Midlands were also disrupted. Passengers were
advised not to start new journeys as the overheating of overhead cables rendered many services unable to
run.[56][57]

On 26 July, all but essential travel had been advised against, after the extreme heat and storms caused severe
disruption to the rail network and airports. Thameslink ran reduced services, with half of its lines unavailable. East
Midlands Trains services between Sheffield, Nottingham, Derby and London St Pancras were disrupted due to
overhead wire damage from the heat of the previous day, and an emergency timetable was put in place.[58] All
Eurostar services to and from Paris were also suspended for an "undetermined amount of time" due to an exploded
cable, as well as delays lasting up to an hour on Brussels services.[59]

Several flights were cancelled and delayed from Heathrow, Gatwick and London City airports due to "extreme
weather conditions across Europe". A spokesperson from Heathrow said that flights had been affected by overnight
storms as a result of the heat.[60]

Nordic nations
Over the weekend of 27/28 July the heat focus moved north to the Nordic nations, where Helsinki saw its highest
temperature since records began in 1844. Helsinki Kaisaniemi weather station recorded 33.2 °C (91.8 °F) on 28
July.[61][62] The highest temperature ever recorded in Bergen (Norway) was 33.4 °C (92.1 °F) on 26 July 2019.[63]

See also
List of weather records

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