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Sandra Tisdell–Clifford

DEVELOPMENTAL
MATHEMATICS
BOOK 4
Founding authors
Allan Thompson • Effie Wrightson
Series editor
Robert Yen

Australia • Brazil • Japan • Korea • Mexico • Singapore • Spain • United Kingdom • United States
CONTENTS

Preface/About the author vi


Features of this book vii
Curriculum grid viii
Series overview x

CHAPTER 1 CHAPTER 3
WORKING WITH NUMBERS EARNING AND SAVING MONEY
1–01 Mental addition and subtraction 2 3–01 Wages and salaries# 38
1–02 Mental multiplication and division 4 3–02 Overtime pay# 40
1–03 Integers 6 3–03 Commission, piecework and
1–04 Order of operations 8 leave loading# 42
1–05 Fractions 10 3–04 Income tax# 44
1–06 Ordering fractions 12 3–05 PAYG tax and net pay# 46
1–07 Adding and subtracting fractions 14 3–06 Simple interest 48
1–08 Multiplying and dividing 3–07 Term payments 50
#

fractions 16 3–08 Compound interest 52


Practice Test 1 19 3–09 Compound interest formula* 54
Practice Test 3 57
CHAPTER 2
PERCENTAGES CHAPTER 4
2–01 Percentages, fractions and ALGEBRA
decimals 22 4–01 From words to algebraic expressions 60
2–02 Percentage of a quantity 24 4–02 Substitution 62
2–03 Expressing quantities as fractions 4–03 Adding and subtracting terms 64
and percentages 26 4–04 Multiplying and dividing terms 66
2–04 Percentage increase and decrease 28 4–05 Expanding expressions 68
2–05 The unitary method 30 4–06 Factorising expressions 70
2–06 Profit, loss and discounts 32 4–07 Factorising with negative terms 72
Practice Test 2 35 Practice Test 4 75

* = NSW STAGE 5.2, # = NSW additional content

ISBN 9780170351058 Contents


iii
CHAPTER 5 CHAPTER 8
PYTHAGORAS’ THEOREM CONGRUENT AND SIMILAR
5–01 Pythagoras’ theorem 78 FIGURES
5–02 Finding the hypotenuse 80 8–01 Triangles 144
5–03 Finding a shorter side 82 8–02 Quadrilaterals 146
5–04 Mixed problems 84 8–03 Transformations 148
5–05 Testing for right-angled triangles 86 8–04 Congruent figures 151
5–06 Pythagorean triads 88 8–05 Tests for congruent triangles 153
5–07 Pythagoras’ theorem problems 90 8–06 Similar figures 155
Practice Test 5 94 8–07 Enlargements and reductions 158
8–08 Finding sides in similar figures 161
CHAPTER 6 Practice Test 8 164
TRIGONOMETRY
6–01 The sides of a right-angled triangle 98 CHAPTER 9
6–02 The trigonometric ratios 100 LENGTH AND TIME
6–03 Using tan to find an unknown side 102 9–01 Perimeter 168
6–04 Using tan to find an unknown angle 104 9–02 Parts of a circle 171
6–05 Finding an unknown side 106 9–03 Circumference of a circle 174
6–06 Finding more unknown sides 108 9–04 Time 176
6–07 Finding an unknown angle 110 9–05 Timetables 178
6–08 Angles of elevation and depression 112 9–06 International time zones# 180
6–09 Bearings* 114 Practice Test 9 183
6–10 Problems involving bearings* 116
Practice Test 6 119 CHAPTER 10
INDICES
CHAPTER 7 10–01 Multiplying and dividing terms
RATIOS AND RATES with the same base 186
7–01 Ratios 122 10–02 Power of a power 188
7–02 Ratio problems 124 10–03 Zero and negative indices 190
7–03 Scale maps and diagrams 126 10–04 Index laws review 192
7–04 Dividing a quantity in a given ratio 129 10–05 Significant figures 194
#

7–05 Rates 131 10–06 Scientific notation for large


7–06 Rate problems 133 numbers 196
7–07 Speed 135 10–07 Scientific notation for small numbers 198
7–08 Travel graphs 137 10–08 Scientific notation on a calculator 200
Practice Test 7 141 Practice Test 10 203

* = NSW STAGE 5.2, # = NSW additional content

iv Developmental Mathematics Book 4 ISBN 9780170351058


CHAPTER 11 CHAPTER 14
AREA AND VOLUME PROBABILITY
11–01 Area 206 14–01 Probability 274
11–02 Area of a circle 210 14–02 Relative frequency 276
11–03 Areas of trapeziums, kites and 14–03 Venn diagrams 278
rhombuses 212 14–04 Two-way tables 281
11–04 Surface area of a rectangular prism 215 14–05 Probability problems 284
11–05 Surface area of a triangular prism 217 Practice Test 14 287
11–06 Surface area of a cylinder* 219
11–07 Volume 221 CHAPTER 15
11–08 Volumes of prisms and cylinders 224 COORDINATE GEOMETRY
Practice Test 11 228 15–01 Tables of values 290
15–02 Finding the rule 292
CHAPTER 12 15–03 The number plane 294
INVESTIGATING DATA 15–04 Graphing tables of values 296
12–01 Sample vs census 232 15–05 The length of an interval 298
12–02 The mean, mode, median and range 234 15–06 The midpoint of an interval 301
12–03 Dot plots and stem-and-leaf plots 236 15–07 The gradient of a line 303
12–04 Frequency tables 239 Practice Test 15 307
12–05 Frequency histograms and polygons 242
12–06 The shape of a distribution 244 CHAPTER 16
12–07 Back-to-back stem-and-leaf plots 246 GRAPHING LINES AND CURVES
12–08 Interquartile range* 248 16–01 Graphing linear equations 310
12–09 Box-and-whisker plots* 251 16–02 Testing if a point lies on a line 312
Practice Test 12 254 16–03 Horizontal and vertical lines 314
16–04 Finding the equation of a line* # 316
CHAPTER 13 16–05 Graphing parabolas y = ax2 + c 320
EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES 16–06 Graphing exponential equations 323
13–01 Two-step equations 258 16–07 Graphing circles 325
13–02 Equations with variables on Practice Test 16 329
both sides 260
13–03 Equations with brackets 262 Answers 331
13–04 Simple quadratic equations ax2 = c* 264 Index 368
13–05 Equation problems 266
13–06 Inequalities* 268
Practice Test 13 271

* = NSW STAGE 5.2, # = NSW additional content

ISBN 9780170351058 Contents


v
PREFACE
In schools for over four decades, Developmental Mathematics is a unique, well-known and trusted
Years 7–10 mathematics series with a strong focus on key numeracy and literacy skills. This
5th edition of the series has been revised for the new Australian curriculum as well as the
NSW syllabus Stages 4 and 5.1. The four books of the series contain short chapters with worked
examples, definitions of key words, graded exercises, a language activity and a practice test.
Each chapter covers a topic that should require about two weeks of teaching time.
Developmental Mathematics supports students with mathematics learning, encouraging
them to experience more confidence and success in the subject. This series presents examples
and exercises in clear and concise language to help students master the basics and improve
their understanding. We have endeavoured to equip students with the essential knowledge
required for success in junior high school mathematics, with a focus on basic skills and
numeracy.
Developmental Mathematics Book 4 is written for students in Year 10, covering the Australian
curriculum and NSW syllabus (see the curriculum grids on the following pages and the
teaching program on the NelsonNet teacher website). This book presents concise and highly-
structured examples and exercises, with each new concept or skill on a double-page spread
for convenient reading and referencing.
Students learning mathematics need to be taught by dynamic teachers who use a variety
of resources. Our intention is that teachers and students use this book as their primary source
or handbook, and supplement it with additional worksheets and resources, including those
found on the NelsonNet teacher website (access conditions apply). We hope that teachers can
use this book effectively to help students achieve success in secondary mathematics. Good
luck!

ABOUT THE AUTHOR


Sandra Tisdell-Clifford teaches at Newcastle Grammar School and was the Mathematics
coordinator at Our Lady of Mercy College (OLMC) in Parramatta for 10 years. Sandra is best
known for updating Developmental Mathematics for the 21st century (4th edition, 2003) and
writing its blackline masters books. She also co-wrote Nelson Senior Maths 11 General for the
Australian curriculum, teaching resources for the NSW senior series Maths in Focus and the
Years 7–8 homework sheets for New Century Maths / NelsonNet.
Sandra expresses her thanks and appreciation to the Headmaster and staff of Newcastle
Grammar School and dedicates this book to her husband, Ray Clifford, for his support and
encouragement. She also thanks series editor Robert Yen and editors Anna Pang and Alan
Stewart at Cengage Learning for their leadership on this project.
Original authors Allan Thompson and Effie Wrightson wrote the first three editions of
Developmental Mathematics (1974, 1981 and 1988) and taught at Smith’s Hill High School in
Wollongong. Sandra thanks them for their innovative pioneering work, which has paved the
way for this new edition for the Australian curriculum.

vi Developmental Mathematics Book 4 ISBN 9780170351058


FEATURES OF THIS BOOK
• Each chapter begins with a table of contents and list of chapter outcomes
• Each teaching section of a chapter is presented clearly on a double-page spread

1
1–03 Integers exercise 1–03
WORKING WITH NUMBERS WORDBANK 1 Evaluate –9 + 5. Select the correct answer A, B, C or D.
A –14 B 4 C –4 D 9
integer A positive or negative whole number, or zero, such as 8, –1 and –10.
2 Which expression gives the same answer as –6 – (–2)? Select A, B, C or D.
A –6 + (–2) B 6+2 C –6 + 2 D 6 + (–2)
Adding a negative integer is the same as subtracting its opposite; for example, 3 + (–4) = 3 – 4 = –1
Subtracting a negative integer is the same as adding its opposite; for example, 3 – (–4) = 3 + 4 = 7 3 Evaluate each sum and check your answer on a calculator.
a –2 + 8 b 3 + (–5) c –3 + 7 d 9 + (–6)
EXAMPLE 6 e –4 + 4 f 7 + (–9) g –8 + 3 h –7 + 11
Evaluate each expression.
4 Copy and complete each statement.
a –3 + 5 b 1–4 c –2 – (–3)
a The difference 7 – (–3) is the same as the sum 7 + .
SOLUTION b The difference 7 – 3 is the same as the sum .
WHAT’S IN a Start at –3 and move 5 units to the right c The difference –7 – 3 is the same as the sum .
–3 + 5 = 2
CHAPTER 1? OR using the calculator: − 3 + 5
–4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4
5 Evaluate each difference and check your answer on a calculator.
1–01 Mental addition and subtraction a 12 – 5 b 2 – (–4) c –3 – 7 d 5–8
b Start at 1 and move 4 units to the left
1–02 Mental multiplication and division 1 – 4 = –3 e 4 – (–6) f –8 – 3 g 3 – 11 h 9 – (–5)
–4 –3 –2 –1 0 1
1–03 Integers 6 Is each equation true or false?
c Start at –2 and move 3 units to the right.
1–04 Order of operations a –8 × 3 = 24 b –24 ÷ 3 = –8 c 24 ÷ (–8) = 3 d –3 × 8 = 24
–2 – (–3) = –2 + 3 = 1
–3 –2 –1 0 1 2
1–05 Fractions
7 Copy and complete this table.
1–06 Ordering fractions
When multiplying and dividing integers: × –3 7 –5 9 –4
1–07 Adding and subtracting fractions two positive integers give a positive answer (+ + = +)
1–08 Multiplying and dividing fractions a positive and a negative integer give a negative answer (+ – = –) 2
two negative integers give a positive answer (– – = +) –8
–6
EXAMPLE 7
IN THIS CHAPTER Evaluate each expression. 11

YOU WILL: a –7 × 6 b (–9)2 c –72 ÷ (–6) d –48 ÷ (–8) 8 Evaluate each quotient and check your answer on a calculator.
SOLUTION a –27 ÷ 3 b 64 ÷ (–8) c –28 ÷ (–7) d 42 ÷ (–6)
add, subtract, multiply and divide mentally with whole numbers
a –7 × 6 = –42 b (–9) = –9 × (–9) c 72 ÷ (–6) = –12 d –48 ÷ (–8) = 6 e –81 ÷ (–9) f 40 ÷ (–8) g –48 ÷ 8 h –55 ÷ 5
add, subtract, multiply and divide integers
understand and use the order of operations Check that these answers are correct on your calculator. 9 Evaluate each expression and check your answer on a calculator.
understand and convert between improper fractions and mixed numerals a (–3)2 b (–3)3 c (–3)4 d –4 × (–5)2
calculate equivalent fractions and simplify fractions 10 When Jake went to bed it was 19°C in his room. He woke up at 3 a.m. and the temperature
compare and order fractions had dropped by 4°. When he woke in the morning, the temperature had risen 7°.
What was the temperature in the morning?
add, subtract, multiply and divide fractions
11 Tia opened a new business and was shocked to find she was losing $420 each week.
If this trend continued for the first 8 weeks, how much money had she lost?

* acknowledgement source line goes here

ISBN 9780170351058 Chapter 1 Working with numbers


1 6 Developmental Mathematics Book 4 ISBN 9780170351058 ISBN 9780170351058 Chapter 1 Working with numbers
7

• The left page contains explanations, worked examples, and if appropriate, a Wordbank
of mathematical terminology and a fact box
• The right page contains an exercise set, including multiple-choice questions, scaffolded
solutions and realistic applications of mathematics
• Each chapter concludes with a Language activity (puzzle) that reinforces mathematical
terminology in a fun way, and a Practice test containing non-calculator questions on
general topics and topic questions grouped by chapter subheading

LANGUAGE ACTIVITY PRACTICE TEST 1


WORD PUZZLE Part A General topics
List the letters in order for the clues below to spell out a phrase relating to this topic. Calculators are not allowed.
3 1 Evaluate 50 × 9 8 Find the value of d if the perimeter of
The first of FRANTIC
7 this rectangle is 84 m.
1 2 Copy and complete: 45 km = _____ m
The first of CAREER
6 3 List the factors of 12.
28 m
4
The last of CORRECTION 4 Simplify –2x + 3y – y + 5x
10
2 5 Find the range of the scores 14, 5, 7, 9, 11, dm
The first of DISTANT
7 7, 10.
9 Simplify 4 × x × 7 × y
1 6 Given that 18 × 6 = 108, evaluate 1.8 × 6.
The first of STRENUOUS 3
3 10 Copy and complete: = .
8 32
7 Find 5% of $360.
1
The second of REACTION
4
2 Part B Working with numbers
The first of TITANIC
7 Calculators are allowed.
1 1–01 Mental addition and subtraction
The last of CREATION
4
11 Which equation is correct? Select the correct answer A, B, C or D.
A 52 + 11 = 52 + 10 – 1 B 52 + 9 = 52 + 10 – 1
C 52 – 11 = 52 + 10 – 1 D 52 – 9 = 52 + 10 – 1

12 Evaluate each difference.


a 65 – 9 b 182 – 31 c 2189 – 16

1–02 Mental multiplication and division


13 Which expression gives the same answer as 50 × 12? Select A, B, C or D.
A 50 × 6 × 6 B 50 × 10 + 50 × 12
C 50 × 10 × 2 D 100 × 2 × 6

14 Evaluate each quotient.


a 240 ÷ 5 b 380 ÷ 20 c 7264 ÷ 8

1–03 Integers
15 Evaluate each expression.
a –6 + 3 b –7 + (–4) c –12 – (–7)
d –3 × (–9) e 72 ÷ (–8) f 8 × (–3) × (–2)2

1–04 Order of operations


16 Evaluate each expression.
a 32 + (–3) × 5 b 24 – (–8) ÷ 2 c 6 × (–3) + (–20) ÷ 4

18 Developmental Mathematics Book 4 ISBN 9780170351058 ISBN 9780170351058 Chapter 1 Working with numbers
19

• Answers and index are at the back of the book


• NelsonNet teacher website www.nelsonnet.com.au of additional worksheets, puzzle
sheets, skillsheets, video tutorials, technology worksheets, teaching program, curriculum
grids, chapter PDFs of this book
• Note: NelsonNet access is available to teachers who use Developmental Mathematics
as a core educational resource in their classroom. Contact your sales representative for
information about access codes and conditions.

ISBN 9780170351058 Features of this book


vii
CURRICULUM GRID
AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM
STRAND DEVELOPMENTAL DEVELOPMENTAL
AND MATHEMATICS BOOK 1 MATHEMATICS BOOK 2
SUBSTRAND CHAPTER CHAPTER
NUMBER AND ALGEBRA
Number and place value 1 Integers and the number plane 1 Working with numbers
3 Working with numbers 2 Primes and powers
4 Factors and primes 4 Integers
5 Powers and decimals
6 Multiplying and dividing decimals
9 Algebra and equations
Real numbers 5 Powers and decimals 5 Decimals
6 Multiplying and dividing decimals 11 Fractions
7 Fractions 12 Percentages
8 Multiplying and dividing fractions 16 Ratios and rates
17 Percentages and ratios

Money and financial mathematic 6 Multiplying and dividing decimals 12 Percentages

Patterns and algebra 9 Algebra and equations 6 Algebra


15 Further algebra
Linear and non-linear relationships 1 Integers and the number plane 15 Further algebra
9 Algebra and equations 17 Graphing lines

MEASUREMENT AND GEOMETRY


Using units of measurement 12 Length and time 9 Length and time
13 Area and volume 10 Area and volume

Shape 10 Shapes and symmetry

Location and transformation 10 Shapes and symmetry 7 Angles and symmetry

Geometric reasoning 2 Angles 7 Angles and symmetry


11 Geometry 8 Triangles and quadrilaterals

Pythagoras and trigonometry 3 Pythagoras’ theorem

STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY


Chance 16 Probability 14 Probability

Data representation 14 Statistical graphs 14 Investigating data


and interpretation 15 Analysing data

viii Developmental Mathematics Book 4 ISBN 9780170351058


CURRICULUM GRID
AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM
STRAND DEVELOPMENTAL DEVELOPMENTAL
AND MATHEMATICS BOOK 3 MATHEMATICS BOOK 4
SUBSTRAND CHAPTER CHAPTER
NUMBER AND ALGEBRA
Real numbers 2 Whole numbers and decimals 1 Working with numbers
3 Integers and fractions 2 Percentages
6 Percentages 7 Ratios and rates
7 Indices
16 Ratios and rates

Money and financial 6 Percentages 3 Earning and saving money


mathematics

Patterns and algebra 4 Algebra 4 Algebra


7 Indices 10 Indices

Linear and non-linear 9 Equations 13 Equations and inequalities


relationships 14 Graphing lines 15 Coordinate geometry
16 Graphing lines and curves

MEASUREMENT AND GEOMETRY


Using units of measurement 12 Length and time 9 Length and time
13 Area and volume 11 Area and volume

Geometric reasoning 8 Geometry 8 Congruent and


similar figures

Pythagoras and trigonometry 1 Pythagoras’ theorem 5 Pythagoras’ theorem


5 Trigonometry 6 Trigonometry

STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY


Chance 15 Probability 14 Probability

Data representation 11 Investigating data 12 Investigating data


and interpretation

Note: These more abstract concepts are not covered in the Developmental Mathematics series:
• Binomial products and factors • Two-step chance experiments and tree
• Algebraic fractions diagrams
• Simultaneous equations • Conditional probability
• Quadratic equations • Scatter plots
• Equations of parallel and perpendicular lines • Sample vs population means
• Direct proportion

ISBN 9780170351058 Curriculum grid


ix
SERIES OVERVIEW

BOOK 1 BOOK 2
1 Integers and the number plane 1 Working with numbers
2 Angles 2 Primes and powers
3 Working with numbers 3 Pythagoras’ theorem
4 Factors and primes 4 Integers
5 Powers and decimals 5 Decimals
6 Multiplying and dividing decimals 6 Algebra
7 Fractions 7 Angles and symmetry
8 Multiplying and dividing fractions 8 Triangles and quadrilaterals
9 Algebra and equations 9 Length and time
10 Shapes and symmetry 10 Area and volume
11 Geometry 11 Fractions
12 Length and time 12 Percentages
13 Area and volume 13 Investigating data
14 Statistical graphs 14 Probability
15 Analysing data 15 Further algebra
16 Probability 16 Ratios and rates
17 Percentages and ratios 17 Graphing lines

BOOK 3 BOOK 4
1 Pythagoras’ theorem 1 Working with numbers
2 Whole numbers and decimals 2 Percentages
3 Integers and fractions 3 Earning and saving money
4 Algebra 4 Algebra
5 Trigonometry 5 Pythagoras’ theorem
6 Percentages 6 Trigonometry
7 Indices 7 Ratios and rates
8 Geometry 8 Congruent and similar figures
9 Equations 9 Length and time
10 Earning money 10 Indices
11 Investigating data 11 Area and volume
12 Length and time 12 Investigating data
13 Area and volume 13 Equations and inequalities
14 Graphing lines 14 Probability
15 Probability 15 Coordinate geometry
16 Ratios and rates 16 Graphing lines and curves

x Developmental Mathematics Book 4 ISBN 9780170351058