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DHULIAN OILFIELD : A CASE HISTORY

Farooq A. Khan and S. Tariq Hasany


Pakistan Oilfields Limited

ABSTRACT Jurassic reservoirs appear to be in pressure


communication . However, many wells, including
The Dhulian oilfield is located in the central part of the Dhulian-46, produced oil from deeper Jurassic sand,
Potwar Plateau, about 90 km south-west of Islamabad. while shallower Paleocene limestone in the same w ell
A.W.Wynne first mapped the surface structure in 1877 produced only water, implying non-communication.
as a broad east-west trending, doubly plunging anticline. Dhulian has an active water drive in the Eocene reservoir,
In 1918, the Attock Oil Company Limited started whereas the principal drive mechanism in the Paleocene
exploration on the surface structure. First commercial and Jurassic reservoirs is solution gas and partial water
production was obtained in 1937 from the fractured shelf drive.
carbonates of Eocene Chorgali-Sakesar formations . First
oil discovery in Pakistan from Paleocene reservoir was The Dhulian field has produced a total of approximately
made during 1951 in Dhulian. In 1960 Pakistan's first 41 mmbbls of oil and 199 be£ of solution gas. The 500 feet
Jurassic oil-bearing reservoir was also discovered in the thick Eocene shelf carbonates has produced 7.7 mmbbls
Ohulian-39 w ell. A total of 49 wells were drilled till1966. of 28°-32° API oil with initial maximum reservoir
The average w ell depth in the field is about 8,500 feet, pressure of 5960 psi. The main oil production of 21
but Dhulian 43, the deepest well, was drilled to a depth mmbbls was obtained from the 450 feet thick Paleocene
of 12,428 feet into Infra-Cambrian; the Permian and shelf carbonate and 12 mmbbls of oil has been produced
Cambrian objectives were water bearing. from the 70 feet thick basal Jurassic Datta sandstone. The
Palaecene and Jurassic reservoirs gradually watered out
In 1993 POL acquired seismic data which revealed that and the flow ceased completely in 1983. Prior to the
in the subsurface the Dhulian structure is a broad initiation of an enhanced hydrocarbon recovery project
asy mmetri c compressional fold with faulted in late 1997, daily production from the Eocene was only
compartments. It is salt cored , with a wrench-induced about 18 b I d oil and 256 b I d water. After the recent
major thrust to the north separating it from the Khaur completion of the Dhulian-17 and -39 workovers, oil and
pop-up stru cture. The trapping mechanism for the gas production from the field has increased significantly
Tertiary reservoirs is a four-way dip closure, whereas the
Jurassic oil is trapped by a combination of structure and INTRODUCTION
reservoir p inch out. The Kuldana Formation (red clay)
forms the top seal for the Eocene reservoir, w hereas the Dhulian Oil Field is located ab out 90 km southwest of
Nammal and Datta variegated sh ales are the cap rocks Islamabad in Central Potwar Plateau of the Upper Indus
for the Paleocene and Jurassic respectively. The Eocene Basin. Tecton ically, th is region, form s part of an active
marine carbon ates and sh ales and the black marine sh ales fo reland fold and thrust belt in n orthern Pakistan (Fig . 1).
of the Paleocene Patala Formation are believed to be the The Dhulian structure was first mapped by A.B. Wynne
source rocks for the oil in Dhulian. The Paleocene and and shown on a geological map in the records of the

2
DHULIAN FIELD

Geological Survey of India in 1877. It was recognized as above the main Eocene objective. The first well to reach
a likely oil-bearing prospect by E.S. Pinfold in 1914 (Gee, the Eocene objective was Dhulian-5, drilled in 1936 to a
1961). Although exploratory drilling activity started in total depth of 7863 feet in Sakesar Formation (Fig. 2). It
1918, the first commercial discovery of oil was made in was located on the eastern plunge of the fold, about 250
1937 from Eocene limestone. Oil was also discovered for feet down dip from the crest. This well, however, flowed
the first time in Indo-Pakistan from Paleocene and oil for a couple of days before it started producing water.
Jurassic reservoirs, during further appraisal of Dhulian This also indicated that the well was drilled near the
structure. Some oil production was also obtained from oil/ water contact.
the Miocene Murree Formation during initial stages. The
Dhulian field, as for as Eocene reservoir is concerned is The first commercial production was obtained in May,
almost depleted. However the Paleocene and Jurassic 1937 when Dhulian-7 produced several hundred barrels
reservoirs still have some potential for secondary of oil of 28° API gravity with initial reservoir pressure of
recovery. A total of 49 wells were drilled in Dhulian oil 5960 psi at a depth of 7715 feet. With the continued
field out of which 46 wells were drilled by Attock Oil development of the Eocene reservoir, a peak production
Company (A.O.C.) and three wells by Pakistan Oilfields of 2900 BOPD was reached in March, 1941. Thereafter,
Limited (P.O.L.) as shown in Figure-2. Seven wells did the field produced at declining rates with increasing
not reach objective reservoirs and three wells could not volumes of formation water.
be put on production due to various technical reasons.
At present the Dhulian Oilfield is covered by a Initially, the prospects for obtaining production below
Development & Production lease granted to P.O.L. in the Eocene were considered poor, because of absence of

August, 1993. After recent successful workovers on two oil shows in the Paleocene (Ranikot) Limestone. It was

wells, the production has increased to 50 BOPD, 4.0 not until1951 that Dhulian-24, an Eocene producer, was

MMCFD gas, with 270 BWPD alongwith natural gas deepened to Paleocene (Ranikot) and was completed as

liquids. an oil producer at a depth of 8245 feet. The lighter


Paleocene oil (43° API) had a much higher gas/ oil ratio
This paper mainly focuses on the exploration and (3000 SCF /STB) . The Eocene production by that time
development history, stratigraphy, structure, and had declined to less than 170 BOPD, which was also

petroleum geology of Dhulian field. Reservoir approximately the rate of production from the Paleocene
engineering and E.O.R aspects are also discussed briefly. (Ranikot) discovery well. Additional Eocene wells were
deepened to Paleocene (Ranikot) which gave satisfactory
EXPLORATION AND production. By December 1954, in excess of 1700 BOPD
DEVELOPMENT HISTORY were being produced from the Paleocene (Ranikot)
reservoir. During 1960, Paleocene (Ranikot) reservoir was
The Attock Oil Company Limited, which had established producing about 2800 barrels per day from eight wells.
commercial production of oil from the nearby Khaur
Field, was granted a Prospecting Licence over the In July 1960, Dhulian-39 was drilled to a depth of 9106
Dhulian structure. Exploratory drilling started in 1918 feet, below the Eocene and Paleocene, and good
solely based on surface geological mapping. Until1933, production was obtained from coarse to medium grained
four wells were drilled and abandoned due to severe porous quartzose sandstone of Datta Formation
drilling problems encountered during drilling of molasse ("Variegated Beds") of Jurassic age. From 1960-66, ten

3
DHULIAN FIELD

more wells were drilled, primarily to develop Paleocene transition into marine facies indicating a wide spread
and Jurassic reservoirs. Some of these wells were transgression. In Dhulian area, marine conditions
completed as dual producers from both the reservoirs. persisted until the end of Permian. In Dhulian Field,
During 1962-64, Dhulian-43 was drilled to 12,428 feet as Permian rocks are represented by Nilawahan Group
the deepest well. The well was drilled down to the Salt (Tobra, Dandot, Warcha and Sardhai formations) and
Range Formation of Infra-Cambrian age. Good shows Zaluch Group (Amb, Wargal and Chhidru formations).
of oil and gas were encOLm tered in Permian but on testing
it proved to be water bearing. Dhulian-43 also proved The Permian and Triassic strata are separated by an
the absence of Jurassic section in the eastern part of the unconformity, reflecting a regression of the sea and
structure and indicated the wedging out of the Jurassic emergent conditions persisted during Late Permian/
strata below the Paleocene unconformity. Early Triassic, followed by yet another marine
transgression in the Triassic. The rocks of Triassic,
STRATIGRAPHY Jurassic and Cretaceous age were deposited on a west-
northwest facing passive margin after the breakup of
Rocks from Pre-Cambrian to Quaternary age are present
Gondwanaland with maximum development of
in the Potwar Plateau. These rocks with a total thickness
Mesozoic rocks in the western Potwar and Salt Range,
of more than 26,000 feet represent a variety of
overlapped by Paleocene strata towards east (Yeats and
environments of depositions, ranging from marine to
Hussain, 1987). In Dhulian area, Mesozoic sediments
fluvial. Periods of uplift and erosion were quite extensive,
comprise a thin sequence of Triassic and Jurassic sands
as indicated by several major unconformities (Fig. 3).
and shales (Mianwali and Datta formations) overlain
unconformably by Paleocene strata. The Jurassic
The oldest rocks penetrated by Dhulian-43, are the Pre-
sequence, however, is also missing over the eastern part
cambrian evaporites of the Salt Range Formation. These
of Dhulian Field, as it wedge out in the NE-SW direction,
were deposited unconformably on a Pre-Cambrian
and as a consequence, Hangu Formation (Dhak Pass)
basement in a restricted hypersaline basin of
directly overlies the Mianwali Formation.
Gondwanaland interior Uaswal et al., 1997). Dhulian-43
drilled 511 feet of Salt Range Formation, which consists During Paleocene, shallow marine deposition ensued,
of massive salt deposits grading from gypsum through which was dominated by bioclastic and micrite
marl to dolomite. The overlying Cambrian rocks of the carbonates of Lockhart Limestone (Khairabad
Jhelum Group, which are present in the eastern Potwar, Limestone). The overlying Patala Formation represents
gradually thin out towards west and are missing in alternations of deeper outer and shallower inner shelf
Dhulian Field. The unconformity above Salt Range facies. This is followed by another period of Paleocene
Formation extends from Ordovician to Upper carbonate build-up represented by Upper Ranikot and
Carboniferous. Erosion during this time resulted in the Oyster Beds and this sedimentation was terminated with
removal of Cambrian rocks in the western Potwar sub- the onset of apparently more anoxic deep water
basin including Dhulian area. deposition of Nammal Formation.

Sedimentation was re-established in Early Permian with During Eocene, shallow marine sedimentation resumed
the accumulation of Tobra Formation in glacio-fluvial with deposition of a mainly calcareous/ argillaceous
environments. The Permian sequence shows a gradual sequence of Sakesar and Chorgali formations. The

4
DHULIAN FIELD

overlying Kuldana Formation, which consists of red The multifold seismic acquired by OXY and POL
claystones and shales, was deposited in open-marine to demonstrated that Dhulian subsurface structure is more
partially restricted environments. complicated than what was originally thought. Based on
this new seismic evidence, Dhulian structure was proved
The last period of uplift and erosion corresponds to major to be a thrust-bounded salt-cored anticline, which is cut
collision between the Indo-Pakistan and Eurasian plates across by a major wrench fault that splits Dhulian into
probably in Late Eocene. Oligocene rocks are not present two major fault blocks (Fig. 6). Besides exhibiting a dip-
ill the Potwar region. During the main orogenic phase slip motion with the western fault block which is
in Miocene and Pliocene, thick fluvial sediments upthrown relative to the eastern fault block, the wrench
represented by Rawalpindi Group (Murree and Kamlial fault also displays strike-slip separation. As a result, th e
formations) and Siwalik Group (Chinji, Nagri, and Dhok Dhulian structure may be compartmentalized. Another
Pathan formations) were deposited in the Potwar effect of the wrench faulting is the rotation of the Dhulian
Foredeep, i11 response to the continued uplift in the north. structure to the north (towards Khaur), relative to the
western fault block. The western fault block has a gentler
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY back limb which dips to the north (Fig. 7) while the
eastem fault block has a back limb which dips to the south
Dhulian Structure
(Fig. 8). Th e main thrusting in these two blocks is in
Th e Dhulian s urface structure is an almost symmetrical
opposite direction . The foreland thrust in the western
anticline with maximum dips of 30° to 35° (Fig. 4). The
fault block is located to the south while in case of the
fold axis trends ENE-WSW and plunges about 4°-5° at
eastem fault block, the thrust is on the northern side
both ends, running en-ech elon to the nearby Khaur fold.
(hinterland verging thrust). It is suspected that the
Dhulian fold is flanked by the Soan Syncline to the south
wrench is responsible for this counter thrust movement,
and by the tight Pindi Gheb syncline to the north. The
which has resulted in the disappearance of the Pindi Gheb
wes terly pitch appears to be continuous for about 18 km
syncline in between Dhulian and Khaur in the east.
beyond which it flattens or even reverses to form Injra
structure. The sandstones of Nagri Formation form the
RESERVOIRS
flanks of the Dhulian anticline whereas Chinji Formation
is exposed in the core of the fold. Eocene
The initial production at Dhulian was obtained from a
The Dhulian s tructure was originally thought to be a limes tone of Eocene age near the contact of Chorgali and
conve nti onal anticline with a fold axis trendin g Sakesar Limes ton e. This oil bearing h orizon was
n ortheast-so uthwest. Based on surface geology, Dhulian remarkably consis tent and it becam e known as the "Main
was recognized to have been genetically related to the Oil Horizon ". The Eocene strata from the top ofNammal
adjacen t Khaur structure, which was known to have Formation to the base of Kuldana Formation are 475 feet
origina ted by thrusting. Consequently the development thick in the central part of the Dhulian field. The top 150-
of the Dhulian field was carried out without Geophysical 200 feet of this sequence overlies the "Main Oil H orizon "
surveys and all subsurface geological maps and cross- which has been described as chemical limestone. Below
sections were co n s tru c ted based on borehole this horizon, the limestone is coarse grained and highl y
information, wireline logs and regional structural and fossiliferous, but in POL#1 the lowes t 150 feet of section
stra tigraphic trends. (Figs. 5 a & b) consists of fine grained globigerinal compact limestone

5
DHULIAN FIELD

with no apparent permeability. However, high-salinity Formation consists of an argillaceous foraminiferal


water flows have been encountered in this basal150 feet limestone bounded by shales. The limestone has been
of section in the central part of the field . termed as "Patala Main Limestone" and is 60-70 feet in
thickness, where it is developed. The formation show s
The Eocene reservoir, which was discovered in 1937 was marked facies changes within the limits of the field . The
developed over an approximately 20 acre spacing and entire Patala Formation consists of shale in well No. 37.
reached peak production of 2900 BOPD in 1941 (Fig. 9). On the other hand in some of the wells (Dhulian-38, 39,
The rate of production had declined to less than 70 BOPD 41 and POL-l) it shows a prominent development of
with 97% water cut b y 1952, w hen all Eocene producers limestone. The formation generally thickens (75-150 feet)
were shut in~ The reservoir was re-opened to flow in 1957 towards east with a decrease in limestone / shale ratio.
when surface pressure increased from 925 psi to 1310 The Main Patala Limestone has been productive in
p s i (Cotton, 1958). The Eocene reservoir has an Dhulian-11,16,24,28,41 and 43 wells. The lowermost unit
abnormally high pressure, the original pressure gradient of Paleocene section is the Lockhart Formation
being in excess of 0.75 psi/ foot. The areal extent of the (Khairabad Limestone), which is a massive, argillaceous
oil accumulation, however, is very small (approximately limestone. This zone has produced hydrocarbons from
400 acres) as compared to that of aquifer. As a six wells (Dhulian-37, 38,41,42,44 and 45) and appears
consequence, all of the oil production obtained todate to be productive in Dhulian-39.
has b ee n accompanied b y large volumes of very
corrosive salt water. Evidence from cores taken from the Cores from the Paleocene reservoirs revealed a slightly
"Main Oil Horizon" indicates that this zone is highly porous and impermeable limestone with considerable
fractured with very low matrix porosity. Very few vertical fracturing. Core analyses show a matrix porosity
samples showed porosities greater than 5% and most of less that 2.5% with no measurable permeability. The
samples av eraging less than 3% porosity. Pressure nature of the reservoir rock and the production behavior
b ehavior of the reservoir indicates excellent indicate that most of the oil in Paleocene reservoir was
communication both laterally and vertically (DeGolyer stored in a system of interconnected fractures (DeGolyer
and MacNaughton, 1960). The production history of the & MacNaughton, 1960).
Eocene reservoir indicates an active water-drive
mechanism for the reservoir. Todate, the Eocene reservoir From the available data, it is not possible to determine
h as p roduced 7.7 milli on ba rrels of oil and is s till w h e ther the three reservoir zon es ac t as sepa rate
producing at an average rate of 20 BOPD and 255 BWPD. reservoirs. The a vailable bottom-hole m eas urem ents
indicate that these zon es are in p ressure commun ication
Paleocene but these are probably not in equilibrium.
Th e Paleocen e reser v oir m ay b e divided into three
stratigraphic un its: Oys ter Bed s/ Upper Ranikot, Patala Based on p roduction history, b ottom-h ole p ressure da ta
Formation and Lockhart Formation. The Oyster Bed/ and natu re of the Paleocen e forma tions, it h as become
Upper Ranikot Limes tone consists of 120 feet of evident th a t the principal producing mechanism of this
argillaceous, highly fossiliferous limestone and forms the reservoir is gravity segregation (DeGolyer &
upper reservoir. This zone has produced oil from MacNau ghton, 1960). In the id eal case of gravity
Dhulian-5,7,16, 24, 28, 41, and 43 wells and was tested segregation producing mechanism, the solution gas
productive in Dhulian-39. The underlying Patala which is evolved in the reservoir due to decline in

6
DHULIAN FIELD

pressure migrates to the crest of the structure to form a and southern flanks of the Dhulian fold.
secondary gas cap. This expanding gas cap displaces the
oil and helps maintain a high oil saturation and therefore Datta Formation can be divided into two parts. The upper
a high relative permeability to oil, in an oil- bearing zone. part consists of mudstone, claystone and shale with minor
The oil which enters the well bore then contains only sandstone and has been termed as "Variegated Beds" in
that gas which remains in solution at the current reservoir the Potwar region. The lower unit called "Main Oil Sand"
pressure. Only Dhulian-37, which is structurally the is more or less a massive, coarse to medium grained, and
lowest well in the field, behaved in this manner. All of sometimes gritty, quartzose sandstone. Most of the oil
the crestal wells produced a large volume of gas from from Jurassic was produced from "Main Oil Sand". This
the secondary gas cap. unit also attains a maximum thickness of 107 feet in
Dhulian POL-3 well, the western most well, and is absent
The regular production from Paleocene started in March in Dhulian-41 well.
1952 and continued till1983 (Fig. 10). Various wells have
flowed at different rates. The peak production level was The primary porosity of Jurassic is quite variable and
achieved during September 1965, when maximum ranges from 2.9% to 11.6%. The average porosity is about
production level of 5094 BPD of oil and 5.74 MMSCFD 8.5%. Permeability ranges from 1.2 to 869 Milli darcys.
of gas was achieved. Water production from Paleocene The Jurassic discovery well (Dhulian-39) was completed
wells started during February 1958 with maximum in Main Oil Sand and flowed at a rate of 720 BOPD with
salinity of 20%, (Sodium Chloride). The Paleocene wells WHFP of 2000 psi. Later on a total of seven wells were
with decreasing reservoir pressure gradually watered completed as Jurassic producers. The maximum
out and the flow ceased completely in 1983. The original production of 2744 BOPD was achieved during
oil in place of the Paleocene reservoirs is estimated to be September 1965 (Fig. 11). Water breakthrough occurred
about 80 MMSTB out of which 21.3 million barrels of oil duringApril1970 with salinity of 13% (Sodium Chloride).
has been recovered so far alongwith 113.75 Bcf of gas The field was abandoned in 1983, when water cut
and 5.2 millon barrels of water. substantially increased and due to decline in reservoir
pressure to 1600 psi, the Jurassic wells were unable to
Jurassic produce due to water loading.
Dhulian-39 was Pakistan's first oil discovery from a
Jurassic reservoir (Datta Formation). Subsequently, nine The pressure surveys in Jurassic wells indicated that the
more deep wells were drilled below Jurassic. Dhulian- Paleocene and Jurassic reservoirs were in pressure
41 bottomed in Permian and Dhulian-43 was drilled communication. However, many wells, including
down to Salt Range Formation. Dhulian-41 drilled a very Dhulian-46 produced oil from the deeper Jurassic sand,
thin section of Jurassic while Dhulian-43 did not while shallower Paleocene in the same wells produced
encounter this formation, which indicated that the only water, implying non communication between these
regional truncation edge of Jurassic is located between reservoirs.
Dhulian-41 and 43, near the crest of the fold. POL-3 well
drilled through 170 feet section of Jurassic strata, which Original oil in place of Jurassic reservoir has been
is the maximum thickness of Jurassic section encountered estimated to be about 40 MMSTB. The cumulative
in Dhulian Field. Although the general thinning is production from Jurassic is 12.20 million barrels of oil,
towards east, but the formation is thicker at the northern 85.6 BCF of gas and 1.3 million barrels of water.

7
DHULIAN FIELD

SOURCE ENHANCED OIL I GAS RECOVERY (EOR)


PROJECT
The data regarding source rocks of Dhulian crude is not
directly available to quantify the potential of each Oil reservoirs after primary recovery leave a large
Paleocene and deeper rocks units, and to locate the volume of oil in the reservoir. The fraction of oil left in
precise source rock. However, Chorgali - Sakesar the reservoir varies from 85% to 55% depending upon
carbonates and shales along with Patala black marine the primary recovery mechanism. This remaining
shales are now considered potential source rocks. fraction of oil left in the reservoir has been the target for
Derived data from nearby fields, where source rock various EOR techniques, which range in cost and
studies were carried out, support this view. complexity from water injection to a miscible
displacement by solvent slug or carbon dioxide injection.

SEAL At Dhulian field the Jurassic and Paleocene reservoirs


Kuldana Formation had an initial oil-in-place of 89-118 million barrels. These
reservoirs produced about 33 million barrels of oil during
The Kuldana Formation consists of red and purple
primary production by solution gas drive and partial
coloured claystone and shale with occasional silty I sandy water influx. Thus, the remaining oil volume in these
streaks. This formation is present all over the Dhulian
two reservoirs is quite significant. However, the wells
field and ranges in thickness from 90 to 120 feet. The drilled in Dhulian Field are in poor condition for having
basal part of Kuldana is composed of green compact been shut-in for a long time and therefore there is
shales. which is about 10-20 feet thick. Due to its
potential risk of encountering casing leaks, parted tubing,
impermeable character Kuldana Formation forms an and abandoned fish. POL took the challenge of reviving
effective seal over the Eocene reservoir of the Dhulian this old and depleted field. The company strategy in the
Field. first phase was to assess the success rate of being able to
workover the old wells and put them on production and
Nammal Formation
after successful workover of 4 to 6 wells, to initiate a
Nammal Formation consists of shales with thin bands of pilot water injection to prove whether oil in the reservoir
argillaceous limestone bands . Shales of Nammal can be mobilized and displaced towards the producing
Formation (155 to 200 feet thick) are developed all over wells.
the Dhulian Field and provides top seal for the Paleocene
(Ranikot) reservoir. After thorough evaluation and study of the field in 1996,
some wells were selected for workover operation by
Datta Formation considering the initial productivity of the Paleocene/
Jurassic reservoirs, degree of fracturing, structural
The top part of the Datta Formation in Dhulian consists
position and volume of total fluid production (Hasany,
of varicoloured shale, siltstone, mudstones and claystone
1997). Mechanical integrity of the wells and existing
with thin sand beds ("Variegated Beds"). These beds
production/ completion strings of the wells were also
overlie the "Main Oil Sand" horizon of the Datta
taken into consideration. The drilling problems
Formation and are believed to be the top seal of the
associated with depleted reservoir pressure of about
Jurassic reservoir.
1600 psi were also kept in view.

8
DHULIAN FIELD

The workover operations in Dhulian field commenced Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East
in October, 1997, using Petrolog workover rig. Two wells Mineral Resources Development Series No. 20.
(Dhulian-39 and 17) have been successfully workedover United Nations, New York.
and placed on production . The additional production
from these well has averaged about 25 BOPD and 4 3. DeGolyer and MacNaughton Incorporated, 1960;
MMSCFD of gas. The gas is being processed at Meyal Production Engineering Study of the Dhulian Field
LPG Plant and is yielding 13-14 metric tons per day of in West Pakistan. An internal Pakistan Oilfield
LPG, 10-11 barrels of solvent oil and 25-30 barrels of Company Limited report.
gasoline.
4. Gee, E.R.1961. Geology and Petroleum Prospects
ACKNOWLEDGMENT of the northern part of West Pakistan. An internal
Pakistan Petroleum Limited I Pakistan Oilfield
The authors wish to express their sincere thanks to P.O.L. Limited report.
Management for their permission to present and publish
this paper. We are also indebted to all our colleagues in 5. Hasany S.T.l997. Dhulian field Reevaluation Study,
P.O.L. who provided technical support and data in the Pakistan Oilfield Limited, an internal report.
preparation of this manuscript. Our special appreciation
is due to members of the Technical Committee of the 6. Jaswal T.M, Lilie R.J. and Rebert D. Lawrence 1997,
PPEPCA - PAPG Convention for critically reviewing Structure and evaluation of the North Potwar
the paper and making valuable suggestions for Deformed Zone, Pakistan: A.A.P.G. Bulletin,V81,
improvement. P.308-328.

REFERENCES CITED 7. Martin, N.R. 1954 : Report on the revision of the


geology of Dhulian Khaur, and Mayal-Kharp a
1. Cotton, G, 1958. A treatise entitled "Dhulian region. An internal Attock Oil Company Limited
Oilfield".An internal Attock Oil Company Limited report.
report.
8. Yeats R.S. and A. Hussain 1987, Timing of structural
2. Da y, A.E. 1963. Case Histories of Dhulian and events in the Himalayan foothills of Northwes tern
Balkassar Oil Fields, West Pakistan. In Case History Pakistan : Geological Society of American Bulletin
of Oil and Gas Fields in Asia and Far East; V99, P-161-176.

9
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showing geological features and tectonic trends

KHAN & HASANY, 1998


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G Jurassi~ Producer
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zw ;i §) 1 - - - - - - - - l
z u f- 0 U.RANIKOT
100-
120
R/S
dark

0 <(0:::
UJ w a.. l9 PATALA R/S Dark. grey greenish sh and Lsl
_J
<(
u a.. LOCKHART R/S
Massive li g h l -
,,·ilh minor sh,
rk grey Lsl.
'le

U CRETACEOUS
.....
0
N
0 JURASSIC
(/}
w
~ TRIASSIC
I CHIDDRU marl and calcareous Ssl
u
::J WAR GAL
_J R Massive grey Lsl.lhin carbanaceous sh.
<(
N AMB Calca r eous Sst., carb Sh.

z<( SARDHAI s Dark pu r ple & Lavendor clays


S lr eaks of Sst.
u z I
~~ <( WARCHA Red & Lighl co lored Sst. and gril
0:::~ ~
0 <(0:::
ww ::i DAN DOT Olive - green and gray Sst. & Sh.

N a..
or-----~~~~~·~~~~~~~~~=m"-=~m=m=~~~m=m=~~m=~rl
UJ CARBONIF.

_j DEVONIAN

~ SILURIAN
ORDOVI CIAN

CAMBRIAN
HESTHICTEU
SALT RANGE HY1\Nlm~~F. + 511 Red gypsum marl, rock sail, Evaponles
PRECAMBRIAN
BASEMENT Biolile sch1sl. quarlZilic, rhyolile
INDIAN SHIELD
~: RESERVOIR ROCK ~: SOURCE ROCK (9: CAP ROCK Author: TARIQ HASANY CAD by: M.F.QAZI MAY,l998

Figure : 3 Generalized stratigraphic column and depositional setting,Dhulian field


12
KHAUR FOLD
+ +
s--<~c0~~
"33°-l!l' +

N ~ PINDIGHEB
• \~~"
?'~\)\ G'''
/

I
I
\
', =-

-
~
-- ~--~l., ~

~ ~~ so~'~'~ siNcuNE.

0 I 2 Kms
72° Ill ' 72". 20 1 2•. 2!l'

V)
Figure : 4 Surface Geological Formline Map of Dhulian Structure
(Modified After Martin 1954)
,. ........
I
?l'"IO' Tl"-ta'

+ +

=
====----~-~P=a=taulca Form~t·1on.epth Contour M ap
Figure·. 5 .a ~~ulian oil field . D

SEA LEVEL

SAKESAR&CHORGAU FM

rlZZZl NAMMAL .

nmm PATALA

~ FM.

FM.

c:::J MIANWALI FM.

!5:2iJ ZALUCH GP.

SCALE
HOR.& VER.

~==~1~,o:;oo==~
- • 0_
Meters 2 00
_ _ _ ___::._ ___ 'WITH CAMB:IACORED
STRUCTUR N SALT
-
----
Figure : S.b Structural C
across cent~~s~f ~ehctil?n along A - A'
ulan Field.
14
N
6

1
31!.10
+

[CONTOUR INTERVAL 50 Milli Seconds I


SCALE
0 I 2Kms
72~ Ul' 72 •. 201 Baqai S . 1993

Figure : 6 Time Structure Map of Dhulian field at Eocene Limestone


(Chorgali Formation)
Vl
s N
DHULIAN # 39

130 120 110

NAGAI

NAGAI

1· 0

KAMLIAL

MUAAEE FM
2 ·0

Mohammad S.T. 1997

Figure · 7 Geoseismic Section along seismic line PDK-102


16 across Western fault block.(For Location see Flgure-6)
s hnN
DHULIAN # 43

140 130 120 110


170 160 150

NAGAI
CHINJI

LIAL

MURREE FM

MURREE
THICKENED

+
+ + + + + + + + + + +
T++++++++ +
+ + + + + + + + + •. + + +
+++++++++++++
+++++,++++++
+ + + + + + + + + + + +
+ ++++++ + + + +
+ + + + +
+ + ++ +
+
+ + ,~·~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~----~ + +
+ + + + + + +-,r--._,;____ + + +
+ + - t. + ++++
+++ +++ + + +++++++++ +++++++++
+ +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
+ ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +++++++++++

Mohammad S.T. 1997

Figure · 8 Geoseismic Section along seismic line PDK- 104


across Eastern fault block. (For Location see Ftgure-6) 17
8I

bbls/d

-" N w ~ CJ1
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0

1940
"'T1 1941
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1942
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1946
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1948
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1964
1965
1966
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1969
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1970
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1974
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1980
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1984
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CD 1986
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1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
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bbls/d

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0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0

, 1952
1953
1954
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1960
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1962
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1966
1967
1968 ·-
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1974
1975
1976
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1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
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0 ~
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1984
1985
1986
CD 0'"
0'"
1987
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CD 1991
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CD 1993
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CD 1995
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.,0 1997
1992 ·-
_. 1993
tO 1994
(1'1
N 1995 ~
_. I
1996
tO 1997
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0 c.n 0 c.n 0 c.n 0

pfpsww
oz

bbls/d

_... tv w ~
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0

1960
"T1 1961

(C 1962
1963
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CD 1965
~
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1966
1967
1968
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1969
1970
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(J)
1973
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1975
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1976
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0
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c..
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1-978
1979
1980
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1981
1982
1983
1984
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(J)
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1987
1988
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1989
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1991
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.........
C"'
1994
1995

-
(J) C"'
(J) en 1996
c..
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n 1990
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CD 1992
(J)
CD 1993
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1994
1995
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~
1997
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I
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CD 1996
CD
........ 1997
0 01
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0 01 0

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