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FIRST AID RENAL TEST

1. Normal GFR??
2. Renal plasma flow best estimated with?
3. Clearance =? 
4. Hartnup disease deficiency due to ----- and result in -----? 
5. Maximum reabsorption. Is seen in which part of
nephron?? 
6. Name the channel on thick ascending loop of henle???
7. Transient action of angiotensin II? 
8. Aldosterone primarily regulate ?? Volume / osmolarity?? 
9. Macula densa is the part of which tubule? 
10. Potent stimulus for erythropoietin? 
11. Renin is secreted by??? B1 effect / b2 effect / a1 effect
a2 effect ?? 
12. Parathyroid hormone secreted in response to??? Tell 3
points... 
13. ANP is secreted in reposne to??? Inc ventricular
pressure/ inc atrial pressure? 
14. Insulin causes ? Hypokalemia / hyperkalemia? 
15. Digitalis block which enzyme?? 
16. U wave on ECG??? 
17. Low level of magnesium causes ??? 
18. For every 1 mEq/L Hco3 how much PCO2 increases??? 
19. Which type of Renal tubular acidosis associated with
calcium containing kidney stone ?? 1/2/3/4?? 
20. Muddy brown cast??? 
21. Most common glomerolunephritis globally?? 
22. Alport syndrome --- mutation in which collagen??? 
23. Wagener granulomatous associated with??? C anca / p
anca ?? 
24. Apple green birefringes seen in???
25. Most common glomerular disease in HIV ? 
26. Most common glummerular disease in children ?? 
27. Composition of staghorn calculus ??? 
28. Ethylene glycol(antifreeze) or vit c abuse causes which
crystal??? 
29. Kimmelstiel Wilson lesion feature of??? 
30. Radiolucent stone?? Cystine/ calcium/ uric acid??? 
31. RCC associated with which syndrome??? And tell defect
of chromosome number ?? 
32. Secondary polycythemia??? RCC / wilms tumor/
transitional cell carcinoma ?? 
33. Painless hematuria??? Urethral cancer/ bladder cancer /
Renal cancer ??? 
34. Most common renal malignancy in early childhood ??? 
35. Thyroidization of kidney involve which cast ??
Neutrophilic / esoniphilic / plasma cells ?? 
36. Diffuse cortical necrosis associated with ??? 
34. Most common cause of acute renal failure ??? 
35. ADPKD ? Autosomal recessive / autosomal dominant
??? 
36. Tram track appearance seen in??? 
37. Erythropoietin is formed by which part of kidney??? 
38. Name diuretic causes gout?? 
39. Diuretic drug of choice for hypercalciuria?? Loop /
hydrochlorthoazide??
40. Most common intracellular buffer? Haemoglobin/ protien/
bicarbonate /phosphate??? 
41. Which has highest protein content?? Plasma/HB/plasma
protien/PO4??? 
42. Which of the following has highest clearance?
Inulin/PAH/glucose/Na??
43. Angiotensin 1 is converted to angiotensin 2 in? Lung
capillary endothelium/ kidney / liver?? 
44. Which is absorbed passively from the renal tubules ?
NH3/Cl/glucose ?? 
45. 65% Na absorption is in ?? 
46. Thirst is dec by? ADH/alcohol/angII?? 
47. Aldosterone escape caused by??
Renin/aldosterone/ANP?? 
48. Normal filtration fraction? 20% / 50% / 30%?? 
49. Charge barrier is lost in? Nephrotic / nephritic?? 
50. Ureter passes -----the uterine artery? Above/ under ??? 
51. Extra cellular volume is measured by? 
52. Glomerular filtration barrier composed of ? 
53. Clearance>GFR shows?? 
54. Renal plasma flow best estimates with?
55. Important clinical clue to diabetes mellitus?
56. PTH increases ca reabsorption by which transporter? 
57. Which part of nephron completely impermeable to
water? 
58. 80 percent of Na is reabsorbed in ?? 
59. NSAIDS can cause acute renal failure by inhibiting the
renal production of ??? 
60. JG cells secretes renin in response to? 
61. Peaked T waves are seen in ?? 
62. Tetany is caused by? 
63. Name causes of normal anion gap? 
64. Which Renal tubular acidosis is hyperkalemic?? 
65. Waxy casts in urine is due to?? 
66. Good pasture syndrome is which type type of
hypersensitivity disease?
67. Spike and dome appearance with subepithelial
deposits? 
68. Hexagonal kidney stone is seen in ? 
69. Von HIPPLE LINDAU syndrome is due to deletion in
chromosome number? 
70. Acute pyelonephritis affects which part of the kidney? 
71. Why is the left kidney harvested for transplantation rather
than the right? 
72. What are the effects of prostaglandins on the glomerulus
? 
73. How and where amino acids are reabsorbed in
nephron? 
74. What substance is secreted in early proximal tubule that
acts as a buffer?
75. Which three ions indirectly reabsorbed in thick ascending
loop of henle ? 
76. On which segment of nephron does aldosterone act? 
77. What is the site of action of angiotensin converting
enzyme ? 
78. Which cells produce renin in the kidney? 
79. What is the primary electrolyte disturbance in metabolic
acidosis. 
80. Diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis is the most
common cause of death of which systemic disease? 
81. Name four clinical finding associated with nephritic
syndrome? 
82. Kidney stones are most commonly composed of what
element? 
83. Name the four components of WAGR complex? 
84. What is the mechanism of action of acetazolamide? 
85. Which loop diuretic is used for diuresis for patient
allergens to sulfa drugs? 
86. What are the effects of hydrochlorthoazide toxicity? 
87. Mechanism of action of loop diuretic ? 
88. Mechanism of action of angiodema caused by ACE
inhibitors? 
89. Name four clinical finding associated with nephrotic
syndrome? 
90. Name 3 causes of acute tubular necrosis?
KEYS

1. Normal GFR??100 ml/min


2. Renal plasma flow best estimated with? PAH
3. Clearance =? UV/P
4. Hartnup disease deficiency due to ----- and result in -----
? Tryptophan and results in pallegra 
5. Maximum reabsorption. Is seen in which part of
nephron?? Proximal tubule 
6. Name the channel on thick ascending loop of henle???
NaKCl
7. Transient action of angiotensin II? Vasoconstriction 
8. Aldosterone primarily regulate ?? Volume /
osmolarity?? Ans= Volume 
9. Macula densa is the part of which tubule? Distal
convoluted tubule 
10. Potent stimulus for erythropoietin? Hypoxia 
11. Renin is secreted by??? B1 effect / b2 effect / a1
effect a2 effect ?? Ans= b1
12. Parathyroid hormone secreted in response to??? Tell
3 points... Dec plasma ca, inc plasma po4, dec 1,25(0H)
13. ANP is secreted in reposne to??? Inc ventricular
pressure/ inc atrial pressure? Ans= inc atrial pressure 
14. Insulin causes ? Hypokalemia / hyperkalemia? Ans=
hypokalemia 
15. Digitalis block which enzyme?? Na/K ATPase pump
16. U wave on ECG???hypokalemka 
17. Low level of magnesium causes ??? Neuromuscular
irritability and arrhythmias
18. For every 1 mEq/L Hco3 how much PCO2
increases??? 0.7mmHg
19. Which type of Renal tubular acidosis associated with
calcium containing kidney stone ?? 1/2/3/4?? Ans= 1
20. Muddy brown cast??? acute tubular necrosis
21. Most common glomerolunephritis globally?? Berger
disease (IgA nephropathy)
22. Alport syndrome --- mutation in which collagen???
Type 4 collagen
23. Wagener granulomatous associated with??? C anca /
p anca ?? Ans= C anca
24. Apple green birefringes seen in??? Amyloidosis
25. Most common glomerular disease in HIV ? Focal
segmental glomerulonephritis 
26. Most common glummerular disease in children ??
Minimal change nephropathy
27. Composition of staghorn calculus ??? Ammonium
magnesium phosphate 
28. Ethylene glycol(antifreeze) or vit c abuse causes
which crystal??? Oxalate
29. Kimmelstiel Wilson lesion feature of??? Diabetec
glomerolunephritis 
30. Radiolucent stone?? Cystine/ calcium/ uric acid???
Ans= uric acid
31. RCC associated with which syndrome??? And tell
defect of chromosome number ?? VON HIPPLE
LINDAU... Chromosome 3 
32. Secondary polycythemia??? RCC / wilms tumor/
transitional cell carcinoma ?? Ans= RCC
33. Painless hematuria??? Urethral cancer/ bladder
cancer / Renal cancer ??? Ans= bladder carcinoma 
34. Most common renal malignancy in early childhood ???
Wilms tumor
35. Thyroidization of kidney involve which cast ??
Neutrophilic / esoniphilic / plasma cells ??
Ans=eosinophilic
36. Diffuse cortical necrosis associated with ??? Obstetric
catastrophes and septic shock
34. Most common cause of acute renal failure ??? Acute
tubular necrosis 
35. ADPKD ? Autosomal recessive / autosomal dominant
??? Ans= Aut dominant
36. Tram track appearance seen in???
Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
37. Erythropoietin is formed by which part of kidney???
Peritubular capillaries
38. Name diuretic causes gout?? Loop diuretics
39. Diuretic drug of choice for hypercalciuria?? Loop /
hydrochlorthoazide?? Hydrochlorthoazide
40. Most common intracellular buffer? Haemoglobin/
protien/ bicarbonate /phosphate??? Ans= Protein
41. Which has highest protein content??
Plasma/HB/plasma protien/PO4??? Ans= Plasma
42. Which of the following has highest clearance?
Inulin/PAH/glucose/Na?? Ans= PAH
43. Angiotensin 1 is converted to angiotensin 2 in? Lung
capillary endothelium/ kidney / liver?? Ans= lung capillary 
44. Which is absorbed passively from the renal tubules ?
NH3/Cl/glucose ?? Ans= Cl 
45. 65% Na absorption is in ?? Proximal tubule 
46. Thirst is dec by? ADH/alcohol/agII?? Ans= ADH
47. Aldosterone escape caused by??
Renin/aldosterone/ANP?? Ans= ANP
48. Normal filtration fraction? 20% / 50% / 30%?? Ans=
20%
49. Charge barrier is lost in? Nephrotic / nephritic?? Ans=
nephrotic 
50. Ureter passes -----the uterine artery? Above/ under
??? Ans= under
51. Extra cellular volume is measured by? Inulin 
52. Glomerular filtration barrier composed of ? 1.
Fenestrated capillary endothelium 2. Fused basement
membrane with heparin sulphate 3. Epithelial layer
insisting of podocty 
53. Clearance>GFR shows?? Net tubular secretion
54. Renal plasma flow best estimates with? PAH
55. Important clinical clue to diabetes mellitus?
Glycousuria
56. PTH increases ca reabsorption by which transporter?
Ca/Na exchanger
57. Which part of nephron completely impermeable to
water? Thick ascending loop of henle 
58. 80 percent of Na is reabsorbed in ?? Early proximal
tubule
59. NSAIDS can cause acute renal failure by inhibiting the
renal production of ??? Prostaglandins 
60. JG cells secretes renin in response to? Dec renal
pressure, dec Na delivery and inc sympathetic tone(b1) 
61. Peaked T waves are seen in ?? Hyperkalemia 
62. Tetany is caused by? Hypocalcemia 
63. Name causes of normal anion gap? Diarrhea, glue
sniffing , RTA 
64. Which Renal tubular acidosis is hyperkalemic?? Type
4 RTA
65. Waxy casts in urine is due to?? Advanced renal
disease/ CRF
66. Good pasture syndrome is which type type of
hypersensitivity disease? Type II
67. Spike and dome appearance with subepithelial
deposits? Membranous glumerulonephritis 
68. Hexagonal kidney stone is seen in ? Cystiene 
69. Von HIPPLE LINDAU syndrome is due to deletion in
chromosome number? 3 
70. Acute pyelonephritis affects which part of the kidney?
Cortex sparing glomeruli
71. Why is the left kidney harvested for transplantation
rather than the right? Because left kidney hai longer renal
vein 
72. What are the effects of prostaglandins on the
glomerulus ? Dialates the afferent arterioles and inc GFR 
73. How and where amino acids are reabsorbed in
nephron? Amino acids are reabsorbed at level of proximal
convoluted tubule by sodium dependent transporters 
74. What substance is secreted in early proximal tubule
that acts as a buffer? Ammonia
75. Which three ions indirectly reabsorbed in thick
ascending loop of henle ? Na K and Cl
76. On which segment of nephron does aldosterone act?
Collecting tubule
77. What is the site of action of angiotensin converting
enzyme ? Lungs 
78. Which cells produce renin in the kidney?
Juxtaglomerular cells 
79. What is the primary electrolyte disturbance in
metabolic acidosis. Serum bicarbonate
80. Diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis is the most
common cause of death of which systemic disease? SLE 
81. Name four clinical finding associated with nephritic
syndrome? Azotemia, oliguria , hypertension and
proteinuria .5g/day
82. Kidney stones are most commonly composed of what
element? Calcium 
83. Name the four components of WAGR complex? Wilms
tumor, Aniridia, Genitourinary malformation and mental
motor Retardation 
84. What is the mechanism of action of acetazolamide?
Carbonic anhydride inhibitor 
85. Which loop diuretic is used for diuresis for patient
allergens to sulfa drugs? Ethacrinic acid
86. What are the effects of hydrochlorthoazide toxicity?
Hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hyperurecemia,
Dhypercalcemia 
87. Mechanism of action of loop diuretic ? NaKCl
transporter inhibitor 
88. Mechanism of action of angiodema caused by ACE
inhibitors? It prevents inactivation of bradykinin which is
potent vasodilator that's leads to angiodema 
89. Name four clinical finding associated with nephrotic
syndrome? Massive proteinuria >3.5g/day, edema , fatty
casts and hyperlipidemia 
90. Name 3 causes of acute tubular necrosis? Renal
ischemia , crush injuries and toxins

REGARDS
DR NOOR UL BASAR