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Lesson Plan

Subject: Social Science-Geography


Class: X
Month: August Chapter: Minerals and Energy Resources No of Periods: 10

Chapter: 5 Minerals and Energy Resources

Learning Objectives At the end of the lesson students will be able to:
• Define minerals
• Write and explain about the different types of
mineral
• State the need for conservation of minerals
• Write in detail about the need and importance of
energy resources.

Resources NCERT (Contemporary India II)


Fullmarks- Mind Map, SLM

Activities 1. On a political map of India identify the following:


(I) Iron ore mines :
Mayurbhanj , Durg, Bailadila , Bellary, Kudremukh

(II) Mica mines:


Ajmer, Beawar, Nellore, Gaya, Hazaribagh.

2. On a political map of India identify the following:


(I) Coal mines :
Raniganj, Jharia, Bokaro, Talcher, Korba, Singrauli
Singareni, Neyvali

(II) Oil Fields :


Digboi, Naharkatia, Mumbai High, Bassien, Kalol
Ankaleshwar
3. On a political map of India identify the following:
(I) Bauxite Deposits:
Amarkantak plateau, Maikal Hills, Bilaspur-Katni plateau,
Orissa Panchpatmali deposit in Koraput District
(II) Mica Deposits:
Chota Nagpur Plateau, Koderma Gaya-Hazaribagh belt of
Jharkhand, Nellore mica belt

4. On a political map of India locate and label the following


Power Plants:-
(a) Thermal :
Namrup, Talcher, Singrauli, Harduaganj, Korba, Uran
Ramagundam, Vijaywada, Tuticorin

(b) Nuclear:
Narora, Rawat Bhata, Kakrapara,Tarapur,Kaiga,
Kalpakkam

Oral Explanation and


Class Work Notes
Minerals
Where are these minerals found?
Ferrous Minerals
Non Ferrous Minerals
Non Metallic Minerals
Rock Minerals
Hazards of Mining
Conservation of Minerals
Energy Resources
Non-conventional Sources of Energy
Conservation Of Energy Resources

Written
1. How are minerals formed in Sedimentary rocks?
2. List the main Iron Belts found in India.
3. What are non-ferrous minerals?
4. Write a short note on Limestone
5. Activity
6. How can Minerals be conserved?
7. Where is coal found in India?
8. How can energy resources be conserved?

Homework Worksheet

Assessment Class test

Period wise plan


Introduction- Mind Map
Interaction-Introduction- Minerals (Pg.50 and 51)

Geologists define mineral as a “homogenous, naturally occurring substance with


a definable internal structure.” Minerals are found in varied forms in nature,
ranging from the hardest diamond to the softest talc.
Types of Minerals

Metallic
a. Ferrous (containing iron): Iron
ore, manganese, nickel, cobalt, etc.
b. Non-ferrous: Copper, lead, tin, bauxite, etc.
c. Precious: Gold, silver, platinum, etc.
2. Non-metallic: Mica, salt, potash, sulphur, granite,
limestone, marble, sandstone, etc.

3. Energy Minerals: Coal, petroleum and natural gas

★ Lecture-Where are these minerals found?


(Pg.51) Minerals are usually found in “ores”.

Mode of occurrence of minerals:

● In igneous and metamorphic rocks

● In sedimentary rocks

● By decomposition of surface rocks

● As alluvial deposits

● In ocean water

Class Work
Notes and 1. How are minerals formed in Sedimentary rocks?

★ Interaction and Lecture- Ferrous Minerals Pg.52


2 and 53
5
3
5
3

A) Iron Ore
India is rich in good quality iron ores. Magnetite is the
finest iron ore with a very high content of iron upto 70%.
Major Iron Ore Belts in
India
Orissa Jharkhand Belt
Durg Bastar Chandrapur Belt
B) Manganese
Manganese is mainly used in the manufacturing of steel
and
ferro-manganese alloy. It is also used in making bleaching
powder, insecticides and paints

Class Work
Notes and 2. List the main Iron Belts found in India.

3
★ Interaction- Non Ferrous Minerals (Pg 53 and 55)

India’s reserves and production of non- ferrous minerals is


not very satisfactory.

A. Copper
Copper is mainly used in electrical cables, electronics and
chemical industries.

B. Bauxite
Though, several ores contain aluminum, its from bauxite,
clay-like substance that alumina and later aluminum is
obtained.

Class Work
Notes and 3. What are non-ferrous minerals?

4 ★ Interaction- Non Metallic Minerals (Pg.55)

A. Mica
Mica is a mineral which is made up of a series of plates or
leaves.

Lecture- Rock Minerals (Pg.55)

A. Limestone

Limestone is found in association with rocks composed of


calcium carbonates or calcium and magnesium carbonates.

Class Work
Notes and 4. Write a short note on Limestone
5
★ Interaction- Hazards of Mining (Pg.56)
Mining is a hazardous industry; both for the workers and for
the residents. The Miners have to work under tough
conditions where no natural light is available. There is
always a risk of collapse of mine roof, inundation with
water and fire.

★ Interaction and Lecture- Conservation of Minerals


(Pg.57)
It takes millions of years for the formation of minerals.
Compared to the present rate of consumption, the
replenishment rate of minerals is very slow.

Class Work
Notes and 6. How can Minerals be conserved?

6 ★ Interaction- Energy Resources (Pg.58 )

Energy can be generated from fuel minerals like coal,


petroleum, natural gas, uranium and from electricity.

A) Conventional Energy Resources (Pg. 58 and 60)

1. Coal

India is highly dependent on coal for meeting its


commercial energy requirements. Depending on the degree
of compression during its formation, there are varieties of
coal.

Lignite
Bituminous coal
Anthracite coal

2. Petroleum
After coal, the next major energy resource in India is
petroleum. Petroleum is a major source of fuel for various
uses.

3. Natural Gas
Natural gas is found along with or without petroleum.
It is used as fuel and also as industrial raw material.
4. Electricity
Electricity is generated mainly by two methods; by
running water which drives hydro turbines and by
burning other fuels like coal, petroleum and natural gas
to drive turbines.

Class Work
Notes and 7. Where is coal found in India?

7
★ Lecture- Non-conventional Sources of Energy
(Pg. 62 and 63)

B) Non-conventional Sources of Energy

The growing consumption of energy has resulted in the


country becoming increasingly dependent on fossil fuels
such as coal, oil and gas.

India is blessed with an abundance of sunlight, water,


wind and biomass. It has the largest programs for the
development of these renewable energy resources

1. Nuclear Energy

2. Solar Energy

3. Wind Power

4. Biogas

5. Tidal Energy

6. Geothermal Energy

★ Lecture- Conservation Of Energy Resources


(Pg.63) We have to adopt a cautious approach for the
judicious use of our limited energy resources.

Class Work
Notes and 8. How can energy resources be conserved?

9 ★ Activity - Power Plants


★ Exercise

★ Class Test
Lesson Plan
Subject: Social Science-Political Science
Class: X
Month: August-September No of Periods: 9
Chapter: Political Parties

Chapter :6 Political Science

Learning Objectives At the end of the chapter students will be able to:
Discuss the needs for political parties in India
List the national parties in our country
Name some important state parties
Identify the challenges faced by the political parties
Express the need for reforming the political parties

Resources NCERT Book (Democratic Politics-II)


Fullmarks- Mind Map, SLM

Class Work Oral Explanation and Notes:


Why do we need political parties?
• Meaning
• Functions
• Necessity
How many parties should we have?
National Political Parties
State Parties
Challenges to Political Parties
How can parties be reformed?

Written Work:
Q1. State the various functions political parties perform in a
democracy.
Q2. Explain multi-party system. What are its various drawbacks and
advantages?
Q3. On what basis does Election Commission recognises parties as
national or regional parties?
Q4. Explain the rising importance of regional parties.
Q5. What are the challenges faced by political parties?
Q6. What efforts have been made to reform the parties?
Q7. What role can people play to reform political parties?

Home Work Worksheet

Assessment Class Test

Period wise plan


1 • Introduction- Mind Map

• Interaction and Notes- Why do we need political parties?


(Pg. 72,73,74)

Political Parties
• Political parties are one of the most visible institutions
in a democracy.
• Is a group of people who come together to contest elections
and hold power in the government.
• They agree on some policies and programs for the society
with the view of promoting the collective good.
• They seek to implement these policies by winning popular
support through elections.
• A political party has three
components: Leaders
Active
members
Followers
Functions
Parties contest elections.
Parties have different policies and programmes and
the voters choose from them. A party reduces a vast
multitude of opinions into a few basic positions which it
supports.
Parties play a decisive role in making laws for a
country. Laws are debated and passed in the
legislature by the members of the various political
parties.
Parties form and run governments.
Parties recruit leaders, train them and then make
them ministers to run the government in the way
they want.
Parties shape public opinion.
Often, opinions in the society are formed on the lines of
the party.
Parties provide people access to government
machinery and welfare schemes implemented by
governments.

• Written- Notes, Q1. State the various functions political


parties perform in a democracy.
2 • Discussion and Notes- Why do we need political
parties?[contd.] (Pg. 74,75)

Necessity
Political parties are directly linked to the
emergence of representative democracies.
Political parties help large scale societies in
developing a representative democracy.
They also help in gathering different views on
various issues and present these to the
government.
They bring various representatives together so
that a responsible government could be formed.
They support or restrain the government in the formulation
of policies.

• Written- Notes

Interaction and Notes- How many parties should we


3 • have?

One-party
system
Only one party is allowed to control and run the
government. E.g., The Communist Party of China.
We cannot consider one-party system as a good option
because this is not a democratic option.
Two-party system
Power usually changes between two main parties. E.g., The
United States of America and the United Kingdom.
Only the two main parties have a serious chance of winning
majority of seats for forming the government.
Several other parties may exist, contest elections and win a
few seats in the national legislatures.
Multi-party system
Several parties compete for power, and more than two
parties have a reasonable chance of coming to power
either
on their own strength or in alliance with others. E.g., India
(The National Democratic Alliance, the United
Progressive
Alliance and the Left Front).
The government is formed by various parties coming
together in a coalition.
This system allows a variety of interests and opinions to
enjoy political representation.
A multi-party system may often lead to political instability.
Party system evolves over a long time, depending on the nature
of
society, its social and regional divisions, its history of politics and
its system of elections.

• Written- Notes, Q2. Explain multi-party system. What are


its various drawbacks and advantages?

4 • Lecture and Notes – National Political Parties

National Political Parties


• Countrywide parties are called ‘national parties’ and these have
their units in various states.
• A party that secures at least six per cent of total votes in the Lok
Sabha elections or the Assembly elections in four States and
wins at
least four seats in the Lok Sabha is recognized as a national
party.
• There are six national recognised parties in India.

Indian National Congress (INC)


Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)
Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP)
Communist Party of India- Marxist (CPI-M)
Communist Party of India (CPI)
National Congress Party (NCP)

• Written- Notes, Q3. On what basis does Election


Commission recognises parties as national or regional
parties?

5 • Interaction and Notes – State Parties

State Parties • A party that secures at least 6 per cent of the total
votes in an election to the Legislative Assembly of a State and
wins
at least two seats is recognised as a State party. • These parties
are
all India parties that happen to have succeeded only in some
states
and regions. • National parties are compelled to form alliances
with
state parties.

• Written- Notes, Q4. Explain the rising importance of


regional parties.

Lecture and Notes – Challenges to Political Parties


6
Challenges to Political
Parties
• Lack of internal democracy
• Dynastic succession
• Growing role of money and muscle power
• Not offering a meaningful choice to the voters.

• Written- Notes, Q5. What are the challenges faced by


political parties?

7 • Discussion and Notes- How can parties be reformed?

Reformation of Political Parties


• The Constitution was amended to prevent elected MLAs and MPs
from changing parties. Now, if any MLA or MP changes parties, he
or she will lose the seat in the legislature.
• MPs and MLAs have to accept the party leader’s decision.
• The Supreme Court has ordered to reduce the influence of money
and criminals.
• Every candidate who contests elections must file an affidavit
giving details of his/her property and criminal cases pending against
him.
• The Election Commission has ordered the political parties to hold
their organisational elections and file their income tax returns.
• Suggestions to Reform Political Parties
Laws should be made for regulating the internal affairs of
parties
Political.
Political parties must give one-third of the total number of
tickets to women members.
The decision making bodies of the party should provide
for
a quota for women.
The government should fund the parties in order to
support
their election expenses.
Written- Notes, Q6. What efforts have been made to
• reform
the parties?
Q7. What role can people play to reform political parties?

8 • Extra marks

• Back Exercise

• Discussion of Homework Worksheet

9 • Class Test
Lesson plan
Subject History

Class X Chapter-8 Month: August


Novels, Society and History No of Periods: 9

1. The Rise of the Novel


2. The Novel Comes to India
3. Novels in the Colonial World
4. Women and the Novel
5. The nation and its history

Learning Objectives Show that forms of writing have a specific history and that they
reflect historical change within society and shape the forces of
change.
Familiarize the students with some of the ideas of writers who had
a powerful impact on society.

Resources NCERT Text Book


Extra marks smart class, Mind Map, SLM.
Topic wise question and Answer
Internet research.
Activities -
Class Work written 1. Explain the two types of novels. Name one author and book for
each.(Prd1)
2. What are the reasons for popularity of novels?(Prd1)
3. Discuss some of the social changes in the 19th Century Britain
which Thomas Hardy and Charles Dickens wrote about.(Prd 2)
4. What were the themes of the novels for young people in the 19 th
century?(Prd3)
5. What actions of Robinson Crusoe make us see him as a typical
colonizer ?(Prd4)
6. Write the main contributions of Vaikkam Muhaammad Bashir as a
Novelist of Malayalam Literature.(Prd7)
7. Explain the contribution of Premchand in Hindi novels.(Prd8)

Homework Text Book Q


Write in Brief: Q3
Discuss: Q3&4
Assessment Class Test
Period wise plan
Period 1 1. The Rise of the Novel
• The novel is a modern form of literature. It is born from print, a
mechanical invention
• Henry Fielding, a novelist of the early eighteenth century, claimed
he was ‘the founder of a new province of writing’ where he could
make his own laws.
• Walter Scott remembered and collected popular Scottish ballads
which he used in his historical novels about the wars between
Scottish clans.
• The epistolary novel, on the other hand, used the private and
personal form of letters to tell its story.
• Samuel Richardson’s Pamela, written in the eighteenth century,
told much of its story through an exchange of letters between two
lovers.
1.1 The Publishing Market
• Initially, novels did not come cheap. Henry Fielding’s Tom Jones
(1749) was issued in six volumes priced at three shillings each –
which was more than what a labourer earned in a week.
• But soon, people had easier access to books with the introduction
of circulating libraries in 1740.
• Technological improvements in printing brought down the price
of books and innovations in
marketing led to expanded sales.
• The novel was one of the first mass-produced items to be sold.
Besides, novels allowed individuals the pleasure of reading in
private, as well as the joy of publicly reading or discussing stories.
• 1836 a notable event took place when Charles Dickens’s Pickwick
Papers was serialized in a magazine.
• Serialization allowed readers to relish the suspense, discuss the
characters of a novel.
Period 2 1.2 The world of the novel
• In the nineteenth century Europe entered the industrial age.
Though business grew workers faced problems of homelessness,
poverty and unemployment.
• Deeply critical of these developments novelists like Charles
Dickens wrote about the terrible effects of industrialization on
people’s life and characters in his novel ‘Hard Times’.
• His Oliver twist is a tale of a poor orphan who lived in a world of
petty criminals and beggars.
• Emile Zola’s Germinal is based on the life of a young miner’s life
in France.

1.3 Community and Society


• The nineteenth –century British novelist Thomas Hardy wrote
about traditional rural communities of England that were fast
vanishing.
• The old rural culture with its independent farmers dying out is
depicted by hardy in his novel Mayor of Casterbridge.
• Novels use the vernacular and produces the sense of a shared
world between diverse people in a nation. Pg.180-182
Period 3-4 1.4 The New woman
• The most exciting element of the novel was the involvement of
women.
• Many novels were about domestic life. They drew upon their
experiences, wrote about family life and earned public recognition.
• Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice talks about a society which
encouraged women to look for good marriages and find wealthy
and propertied husbands.
• Charlotte Bronte’s Jane Eyre, talks about women who broke
established norms of society before adjusting to them.
1.5 Novels for the young
• Books like R.L. Stevenson’s Treasure Island and Rudyard
Kipling’s Jungle Book became great hits among youngsters.
• G.A. Henty’s historical adventure novels for boys aroused the
excitement and adventure of conquering strange lands.
• Love stories written for adolescent girls notably Ramona by Helen
Hunt Jackson and a series entitled What Katy Did by Sarah
Chauncey Woolsey
1.6 Colonialism and After
• Daniel Defoe’s Novel Robinson Crusoe reflects the colonization
of the time.
• Robinson Crusoe was depicted as a slave trader.
• He treats colored people not as equals or as human beings but as
inferiors creatures.
• He rescues a native and salves him calls him Friday arrogantly and
does not ask his name

Period 5-6 2. The Novels Comes to India


• Some of the earliest Indian novels were written in Bengali and
Marathi.
• The earliest novel in Marathi was Baba Padmanji’s Yamuna
Paryatan, which used a simple style of storytelling to speak about
the plight of widows.
• This was followed by Lakshman Moreshwar Halbe’s Muktamala .
2.1 The novels in south India
• Novels began appearing in South Indian languages during the
period of colonial rule.
• O. Chandu Menon, a subjugate from Malabar, tried to translate an
English novel called Henrietta Temple by Benjamin Disraeli into
Malayalam.
• He gave up the idea soon and instead wrote a novel in Malayalam
in the ‘manner of English novel books’.
• This novel was called Indulekha, 1889, and was the first modern
novel in Malayalam.
2.2 The Novels in Hindi
• Bharatendu Harshchandra , the pioneer of modern Hindi literature
,encouraged poets and writers to recreate and translate novels from
other languages
• Srinivas Das’s novel was titled Pariksha –Guru. It cautioned
young men from wealthy families against the dangerous influence
of bad company and consequent loose moral
• Devaki Nandan Khatri’s, best seller Chandrakanta contributed
immensely in popularizing the Hindi language and the Nagari
script amongst the educated classes.
• Premchand’s wrote both in Hindi and
• Urdu. He drew on the traditional art of Kissa- goi.
• His novel Sewasadan published in 1916 deals mainly with the
poor condition of women in society.
2.3 Novels in Bengali
• The old merchant elite of Calcutta patronised public forms of
entertainment such as kabirlarai (poetry contests), musical soirees
and dance performances.
• In contrast, the new bhadralok found himself at home in the more
private world of reading novels
• Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay would host a jatra in the
courtyard where members of the family would be gathered.
Bankim read out Durgeshnandini (1865), his first novel.
• By the twentieth century, the power of telling stories in simple
language made Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay the most popular
novelist in Bengal and probably in the rest of India.
Pg.187-190
Period 7 3. Novels in the Colonial World
3.1 Uses of novel
• Indians used the novel as a powerful medium to criticise what they
considered defects in their society and to suggest remedies.
• Novels also helped in establishing a relationship with the past.
• At the same time, people from all walks of life could read novels
so long as they shared a common language
3.2 The Problem of Being Modern
• The heroes and heroines in most of the novels were people who
lived in the modern world.
• Under colonial rule, many of the English-educated class found
new Western ways of living and thinking attractive.
• But they also feared that a wholesale adoption of Western values
would destroy their traditional ways of living.
• Characters like Indulekha and Madhavan showed readers how
Indian and foreign lifestyles could be brought together in an ideal
combination.
3.3 Pleasures of Reading
• In Tamil, for example, there was a flood of popular novels in the
early decades of the twentieth century.
• Detective and mystery novels often had to be printed again and
again to meet the demand of readers.
•The novel also assisted in the spread of silent reading.
4. Women and the Novel
• Rokeya Hossein was a reformer who, after she was widowed,
started a girl’s school in Calcutta.
• She wrote a satiric fantasy in English called Sultana’s Dream
• Her novel Padmarag also showed the need for women to reform
their condition by their own actions.
4.1 Caste Practices, ‘Lower-Castes’ and Minorities
• Indulekha was about the marriage practices of upper-caste Hindus
in Kerala, especially the Nambuthiri Brahmins and the Nayars.
• Potheri Kunjambu, a ‘lower-caste’ writer from north Kerala, wrote
a novel called Saraswativijayam in 1892, mounting a strong attack
on caste oppression.
• Advaita Malla Burman’s (1914-51) Titash Ekti Nadir Naam
(1956) is an epic about the Mallas, a community of fisherfolk who
live off fishing in the river Titash.
• Vaikkom Muhammad Basheer (1908-94), for example, was one of
the early Muslim writers to gain wide renown as a novelist in
Malayalam Pg.194-196
Period 8 5. The Nation and its History
• Bhudeb Mukhopadhyay’s (1827-94) Anguriya Binimoy (1857)
was the first historical novel written in Bengal.
• Bankim’s Anandamath (1882) is a novel about a secret Hindu
militia that fights Muslims to establish a Hindu kingdom.
5.1 The Novel and Nation Making
• Premchand’s novels, are filled with all kinds of powerful
characters drawn from all levels of society.
• The central character of his novel Rangbhoomi (The Arena),
Surdas, is a visually impaired beggar from a so-called
‘untouchable’ caste. Pg.197-198
• Godan (The Gift of Cow), published in 1936, remains
Premchand’s best-known work. It is an epic of the Indian
peasantry

Period 9 Class Test

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